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CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Guidance is derived from the word “guide” which
means to direct, to lead and to facilitate a course of action.
It is a programme of services designed to assist individuals
understand their problems and also to find a lasting solution
to them. It is a professional field which has a broad range of
activities, programmes and services geared towards
assisting individuals to understand themselves, their school
environment and their world and also to develop adequate
capacity for making wise choices and decisions (Eyo and
Esuong, 2010).
Guidance is a programme on which a guild is to be
provided by someone who is professionally trained to do so.
These provisions would be made in relation to the
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individual‟s educational, social, moral, emotional and health.
According to the UNESCO module on guidance and
counselling (2000a), guidance is a programme of services to
individuals based on their needs and the influence of
environmental factors. To Okobiah and Okorodudu (2004),
the term „guidance‟ has been coined from the word „guild‟
which means to direct one on an issue or programme,
„enlighten‟ or assist and to lead someone to know
alternatives of what to do in relation to a given situation that
demands decision making. They state further that one can
only be guided by someone who is knowledgeable or
someone who is mature and quite familiar with what to do in
such given circumstances which require assistance.
According to Egbule (2002), the conceptual
development of guidance and counselling as a professional
services started in the 20
th
century as a result of the cultural
and ideological movement which provides enough impetus
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for the broadening and secularization of guidance functions.
However, prior to this time, there was a practice of guidance
and counselling in the traditional level by a group of quasi-
counsellors. These quasi-counsellors according to Egbule
(2002) are: philosophers, priests, prophets, elders in the
society and parents. The techniques these quasi-counsellors
used in rendering guidance services to individuals is mainly
advice giving. Although, this technique yielded its expected
result (as most of the problems put before the quasi-
counsellors were resolved), it will be partial not to mention
its associated problems.
For example, Egbule in Okobiah and Okorodudu (2004)
enumerated the following as limitations of traditional (quasi
counselling) counselling practice:
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I. Traditional counselling is dominated by large number
of untrained counsellors who based their practice on
biased personal experience and subjectivity.
II. The activities of traditional counsellors are often
limited to advice giving leaving behind other
significant guidance functions. This approach of
advice giving by traditional counsellors is usually
directive and authoritative in nature. This is very
unethical to professional counselling.
III. Traditional counselling lacks objectivity in its
assessment and treatment procedures in traditional
counselling and it does not utilize any assessment
material. This makes it difficult to evaluate the
effectiveness of resolving individual‟s problem.
IV. It is always difficult for the client to apply the
principles of traditional counselling in resolving his
problem. This is because solutions are often sought
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to the client‟s problem by the traditional counsellor
through mysterious method. This makes it
impossible for the client to apply any principles to
solve similar problems in the future without
counsellors.
V. The practice of traditional counselling in a modern
world is out of touch with reality. It has become
impossible to use traditional counselling approaches
to resolve educational, vocational and personal
social problems resulting from the complexities of
the modern society, economic, political, educational,
and technological changes.
In assessing the future of guidance and counselling in
Nigeria, Aluede (2011) has this to say:
Aluede, Egbule and Okorodudu (1988, as
cited in Aluede, 2000) had observed that
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guidance and counselling services are
relatively new educational delivery services in
Nigeria’s educational system, one may today
be tempted to think differently because, any
child born in 1959, the year guidance and
counselling is known to have begun in Nigeria
(Ipaye, 1983, as cited in Aluede, McEachem
and Kenny, in press), would no longer be
regarded as an adolescent or a youth. He/she
could even be a grandparent, who would be
full of all maturity and experience to be
expected to play a very vital role in the
society.
Several events led to the institutionalization of
guidance and counselling in Nigerian school system. Most
prominent was the effort of a group of catholic nuns at the
St. Theresa‟s college, Oke-Ado, Ibadan. These catholic nuns
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according to Aluede, (2000) and Iwuama, (1991) developed
a career workshop for all the School‟s graduating students
during the 1959 academic session, especially in the area of
subject selection and job search. According to Ipaye (1983),
a major outcome of the workshop was the distribution of the
much needed career information that enabled 54 out of 60
graduating students to gain full employment upon heir
graduation.
Another event that was instrumental to the
development of modern guidance in Nigeria is the workshop
on guidance and counselling held at the comprehensive high
school, Aiyetoro in 1963 where Mr. R. O. Rees delivered a
paper titled “the role of the guidance counsellor in a
comprehensive high school”. So was the book written by Mr.
C. I. Berepiki titled “an approach to guidance in school”. This
book inspired the federal government of Nigeria to develop a
workshop on guidance and counselling in schools. Through
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these efforts, the federal government was able to appreciate
the role guidance and counselling needed to play in the
nation‟s overall development that later motivated the federal
ministry of education to appoint Mr. C. I. Berepiki to take full
charge of the coordination of school guidance and
counselling services in Nigeria‟s school system (Odebunmi,
1985).
There is agreement among experts that there are three
major components of guidance and counselling, these
component according to UNESCO module (2000a) are:
educational, vocational, and personal social guidance.
Educational Guidance: educational guidance can be
referred to as that part of the guidance programme given to
students to enable them do well in school. It is a service
offered to the students by the school guidance counsellor in
the school system. Through educational guidance, students
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are individually or as a group provided with information and
assistance to help them function more effectively in the
school system (Egbule, 2002).
Vocational Guidance: vocational guidance is simply an
aspect of the entire guidance programme given to the
students or individuals in the school system to enable them
make appropriate choices in their vocation. Egbule (2002)
quoting Supper (1957) states that vocational guidance is the
process of helping a person develop and accept an
integrated and adequate picture of himself and of his role in
the world of work, to test this concept against reality and to
convert it into reality, with satisfaction to himself, and to
benefits to the society.
Personal Social Guidance: This aspect of the guidance
programme that focuses on the individual‟s socio-personal
problems. According to Egbule (2002), counselling
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psychologists are not only interested in the individual‟s
educational and vocational adjustment, also in their
personal-social and psychological adjustment.
Under these three major area of guidance as Denga
(2001) posited, there are several guidance and counselling
services such as appraisal, information, placement,
orientation, evaluation, referral, and follow-up.
Appraisal Service: according to Egbule, in Okobiah and
Okorodudu (2004), appraisal service is a testing programme
which involves the collection, analysis and application of a
series of objectives and subjective personal psychological
data for the purpose of understanding individuals and
assisting them to understand their abilities, interest and
disabilities. Students need to know how to appraise
themselves whether or not they are fulfilled in their chosen
course or else see a counsellor for appraisal.
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Information Services: information is not stable, there are
changes from time to time, and the students need to be
updated too. According to Bamisaye (2003), information is
very vital because it can be used to create new realities as
the situation may warrant. Information about jobs,
qualifications, requirement, remuneration, hazard, working
time, training opportunities, age factors, condition of
services and the general working environment should have
been made available to salvage the students from moving
from one job to the other without fulfilment.
Placement Services: according to Gashinde (1991), this is
a crucial function. The guidance counsellor should be
involved in the selection and placement of students in the
different subjects/classes. According to Egbule (2002),
placement means the assistance given to students in making
appropriate choices of school subjects and in making
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transition from one school level to the other, and from
school to employment.
Orientation Service: orientation service according to
Egbule (1993) is techniques of educational service designed
and organized to help new students in the school system to
adjust to their new environment through group procedures.
New students need to be helped in adjusting to the school
environment so as to make the best use of the opportunities
before them.
Referral Service: at time, students‟ problems may prove
difficult that it will require the guidance counsellor to send
him/her to the appropriate quarters, so as not influence
others with the problem. Referral service simply implies
directing clients to other professionals who are in a position
and are more competent in resolving the client‟s problem
(Egbule, 2002).
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Follow-Up Service: according to Aluede (2011), follow-up
service is very important; it can mean monitoring the “drop
out of school” so that they do not constitute social menace.
Some students that are advised to drop out of school system
because of one reason or the other should be adequately
monitored by the counsellor in order to still be useful to
themselves, their community and the nation at large. They
can still be creative and innovative if they are properly
guided.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The three aspects of guidance; educational, vocational
and personal-social guidance is being carried out in the
school system using a number of techniques. These
techniques include study habit induction, orientation,
excursion, career day, etc. during such programmes, it is
expected that the students will participate to the fullest and
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benefit from such opportunities. However, while some
attends, a good number of the students fail to attend. Even
among the attendants, a good number of them fail to
participate actively. This passiveness could be understood to
mean that the students may not be interested in such
programme. These phenomenon induce the researcher into
choosing this topic as it is believed that the success of any
programme in school lies on the students‟ attitude towards
such a programme. If this may be the true, what then is the
attitude of secondary school students towards vocational
and educational guidance in Ethiope East Local government
area of Delta State?
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions shall guide the study:
1. Are students interested in orientation exercise in
secondary schools?
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2. To what extent do students participate in study habit
induction in secondary schools?
3. Do students take part in career day programme in
secondary schools?
4. Do students participate in excursion in secondary
schools?
5. Do students participate in Old Students Association
Day in secondary schools?
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to determine the nature of
the attitude of secondary school students towards vocational
and educational guidance in Ethiope East local government
area of delta state.
The study will seek to investigate the following:
1. Students‟ interest in orientation exercise in
secondary schools
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2. The extent of students‟ participation in study habit
induction in secondary schools
3. Students‟ participation in career day in secondary
schools
4. The students‟ participation in excursion in secondary
schools
5. The students participation in Old Students
Association Day
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will be of a great benefit to parents,
teachers, policy makers, school counsellors, educational
administrators, local communities and school principals.
The study will provide parents with useful information
about their children in order to know how best to guild them
through their life course.
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The study will also provide teachers with information
about vocational and educational guidance.
The study will equally provide vital information to policy
makers on how best to formulate guidance and counselling
policies.
This study will provide school counsellors with useful
information about the guidance programmes and on how
best to provide educational and vocational guidance in order
to sustain the interest of the students thereby enhancing
their attitude towards vocational and educational guidance.
The study will provide useful information to school
administrators about the usefulness of vocational and
educational guidance in order to make adequate fund
available for the funding of the guidance and counselling
programme.
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Additionally, the study will help the local community to
appreciate the contribution of guidance and counselling
towards the development of the nation‟s economy.
Lastly, the study will enable school principals to be
aware of their roles in the school guidance programmes so
that they can assist the school counsellor in realizing the
goals and objectives of the school guidance programme.
1.6 Scope/Delimitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers the attitude of secondary
school students towards vocational and educational
guidance. The study is limited to 5 out of 24 secondary
schools in Ethiope east local government area of Delta state.



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1.7 Definition of Terms
Attitude: this is the thought or feeling that makes
individuals to act or behave as if they like or dislike
something.
Secondary School Students: These are individuals
studying in a school meant for young people between the
ages of 11 to 16 years.
Vocational Guidance: This is the process of giving
students some information about their abilities and the
needs of the labour markets so as to enable them make
appropriate decisions and occupational choices.
Educational Guidance: This is the helping of persons to do
better in their studies and to select courses and schools that
will be fitted to their tastes and abilities.
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Local Government Area: This is an administrative division
of a country that the third tier of government is responsible
for.











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CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter deals with review of existing related
literature. The chapter will focus on the following sub-
headings:
2.1. Definition of Attitude
2.2. Meaning of vocational guidance
2.3. Meaning of educational guidance
2.4. Students‟ interest in orientation
2.5. Students‟ participation in study habit induction
2.6. Students‟ participation in career day
2.7. Students‟ participation in excursion
2.8. Students Participation in Old Students‟ Association
Day
2.9. Summary of literature review

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2.1 Definition of Attitude
According to Ubom (2001), attitude is an individual‟s
perception and reaction to a task which is expected to be
carried out or executed in a group, institutions, school
setting or an organization. To Zana and Raphael (1988),
attitude is a disposition to respond favourably or
unfavourably toward some person, thing, event, place, idea,
or situation. In other words, attitudes are the thoughts and
feelings that encourage someone to act as if eh/she likes or
dislikes something. Anastasi (1990) gave a similar definition
when he defined attitude as a tendency to react favourably
or unfavourably toward a designated class of stimuli. Croon
(1996) defined attitude as a learned disposition to respond
to people, objects or institution in a positive or negative
way. According to him, most attitudes have a belief
component, an emotional component and an action
component. He went further to explain that the belief
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component consists of when a person think or believe about
the object of the attitude, the emotional component also
consists of one‟s feelings towards the object of the attitude
while the action component is how one tend to act towards
the object of the attitude. Coon (1996) also opined that
attitudes are learned through reaction with others holding
the same attitude.
Vaidya (1989) explained attitude as condition of
readiness for a certain type of activity. Attitudes held by the
individuals may be simple or complex, stable or unstable,
temporary or permanent and superficial or fundamental.
Judgments based upon insufficient facts are likely to yield
wrong results thereby develop biased attitudes. To Crow &
Crow (1979), a child‟s attitude towards his work affects his
worthwhilenes in his activity. To him, a child should not be
permitted to do completely as he wishes. He should be
stimulated toward desirable activity through the arousal of
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interest in worthwhile projects. Constructive, objective
attitudes encouraged during childhood serve well during
adolescence.
2.2 Meaning of Vocational Guidance
Vocational guidance as an aspect of the guidance
programme is concerned with the giving of information to
individuals concerning their vocations. This information could
include available job opportunities, method of application;
they should also be assisted to acquire the skills they need
in order to cope with the different circumstances they may
encounter later on in life.
According to Egbule (2002) vocational guidance is the
process of assisting the individuals to choose or select an
occupation, prepare for it, enter into it and progress in it.
The UNESCO Module on guidance and counselling (2000)
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defined vocational guidance as a process for helping
individuals to choose an occupation,
Prepare for it, enter it and develop in it. Vocational
happiness requires that a person‟s interests, aptitudes and
personality, be suitable for his/her work. It plays its part by
providing individuals with an understanding of the world of
work and essential human needs, and familiarizing
individuals with such terms as „the dignity of labour‟ and
„work value‟.
Super (1957) in Egbule (2002) sees vocational
guidance as the process of helping a person to develop and
accept an integrated and adequate picture of himself and his
role in the world of work; to test this concept against reality
and to convert it into reality, with satisfaction to himself,
and benefits to the society. The provision of vocational
guidance in our educational institutions has been
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necessitated by great changes in our society and the world
at large, and has become more complex than ever before.
According to the UNESCO Module (2000), Automation and
recession, for example, have forced many people into early
retirement and retrenchment, resulting in unemployment.
The rate of technological changes and the isolation of young
people from possibilities for employment, according to them
have created problems in occupational choices.
According to Adebowale (2011), information about
jobs, qualifications, requirement, remuneration, hazards,
working tie, training, opportunities, age factors, condition of
service and the general working environment should have
been made available to salvage the students from moving
from one job to the other without fulfilment. He also said
that the students‟ problem in the area of educational,
vocational, personal/social can be easily solved if only the
individual students can open up, ready to be helped and
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participate fully in solving the problem at hand. According to
Crites (1969), vocational guidance is a process or
programme of assistance of assistance designed to aid the
individual in choosing and adjusting to a vocation.
According to Wikipedia (2008), vocational guidance is
the process of helping a person to develop and accept an
integrated and adequate picture of himself and of his role in
the world of work.
It has a specific goal; it assists individuals to find
satisfying, interesting and realistic roles in the environment.
Vocational guidance is the process of helping individuals to
know themselves; their interest values; and abilities and the
world of work and its needs to be able to reach a mature
career decision. Vocational guidance refers to the services
that assist individuals of any age and at any point
throughout their lives, to manage educational, training and
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occupational choices and to manage their careers. It
includes services provided to those who have not entered
the labour forces services to job seekers and services to
those who are employed. It includes a wide range of
activities like:
 Activities within schools to help students clarify,
career goals, understand the world of work and
develop career management skills.
 Individual and group guidance to assist with
decisions about initial course of vocational training,
further education and training, initial job choices, job
change or work force re-entry. The organised and
systematic use of community members such as
employers to provide occupational and educational
advice and information.
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Vocational guidance refers to expert (science based)
assistance ad support with the aim to help individuals:
 Explore, analyse and develop the factors constituting
their self-concept (interests, personal qualities and
characteristics, values, skills, etc).
 Explore, evaluate, process and classify information
and alternative education and vocation pathways
with respect both to their needs and choice and to
labour market requirements.
 Integrate information about education and
vocation/career with information derived from self-
observation so that they develop to decision-making
capabilities both with respect to their orientation in
education and choices in occupation(s) befitting their
particular psychosocial make up.
 Create and implement their own educational and
vocational plans.
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Ultimately, the individuals will be able to make the
correct choices with respect to their future
occupation/vocation and thus be (re)included into active life.
Vocational guidance activities target individuals who are:
 About to make a choice with respect to their
education and vocation.
 In search of new fields of study/training
 Already employed but dissatisfied with their current
occupation, hence in search of new areas of training
and professional development.
 Unemployed or have lost their jobs for whatever
reason and wish to resume employment and
threatened with social exclusion owing to personal
circumstances or misfortune.
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In conclusion vocational guidance helps individuals to
acquire knowledge in the following areas: self awareness,
exploration of the world of work and mature decision making
Self awareness: this is the process of gathering information
about the interests, abilities and values. The counsellor
under this situation helps the student or client to answer
such questions as: what kind of person am I? What type of
work do/would I enjoy doing? What are my interests and
abilities? What kind of skills do I poses? How can I take a
decision regarding my future career? How can you know
yourself? Identifying skills that are highly motivated.
World of Work Exploration: this involves gathering
information about the different careers that might fit your
interests, values and abilities. It helps you find answers to
the following questions;
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 What kind of education or training is required in
each?
 What are the pros and cons of each job you think of?
 What are the working conditions in the different
types of careers?
 How does a certain career look like?
 What are the job requirements?
 What is the financial output?
Mature Decision Making: this is the process of exploring
the different alternatives, narrowing down the possibilities
and then choosing the right alternatives to ensure a mature
career decision.
Since the emergence of Frank Parson‟s Vocational
Bureau at Boston, USA in 1908, several techniques have
been devised to provide vocational services to individuals
both within and outside the school setting. In the Nigerian
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secondary school system the following techniques are used
by school counsellors in providing vocational services to
students.
Career Conference: according to Ipaye (1993), during
career conferences or career week as the case may be,
representatives of various occupations give presentation of
their impressions about their occupations. Makinde (1988)
said at such meetings, professionals deliberate on what they
do, the advantages of their occupation, requirements and
qualification for entry, method of entry, remunerations and
the likes. Continuing, Makinde said that students use the
opportunity of career conferences to acquire first hand
information about various occupations and ask questions
which helps them to facilitate their decision making about
jobs.
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Old Students Association: According to Ipaye (1986) old
students of the school are invited to present to current
students information about their career education. Ipaye
(1986) is of the opinion that old students‟ association day
provides opportunities for the present students to gain
inspiration from the past students. This consequently serves
as motivation as well as guidelines to the present students
to prepare themselves for worthwhile occupational and
educational plans.
Parents Conference: according to Akinboye (1987) these
are conferences convened between teachers, counsellors
and parents. Such meetings provide opportunitie4s for
parents and teachers or counsellors to work together in
planning suitable educational and occupational future for the
students.

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The highlights of the National Policy on Education
(2004) states
In view of the apparent ignorance of many
young people about career prospects and in
view of personality adjustments among
school children, career officers and
counsellors will be appointed in post-primary
institutions and tertiary levels.
Vocational guidance is a life long process for many
individuals at various stages of their life. At such states,
individuals reconsider and re-diagnose their capabilities and
match them against the opportunities available. In this ways
according to UNESCO Module (2000), vocational guidance is
aimed at helping students to make not only specific choices
but also good decisions.

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The need for vocational guidance
According to Egbule (2002), vocational guidance within
the school setting is necessary for the following reasons:
I. To help students understand themselves in terms of
their abilities, aptitudes and interest
II. To provide students with a broader views about the
world of work
III. To enhance student awareness of the various
options opened to them and give them confidence
that they can make a reasonable choice between the
various options
IV. To develop in the students the concept of variety of
roles in the society
V. To develop the spirit of job satisfaction and
motivation as well as self-actualization in the
students after a choice of career ahs been made.
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2.3 The Meaning of Educational Guidance
Educational guidance is an aspect of guidance services
which focuses on helping students resolves problems
relating to their education. Quoting Isaken and Mink (1963),
Olayinka (1978) claims that educational guidance involved
these experiences, which assist each individual to
understand himself, accept others and live effectively in his
society. According to him, educational guidance is designed
to help each student adjust to his environment, develop the
ability to set realistic educational goals for him and improve
his total educational opportunities. According to Egbule
(2002), educational guidance is assistance given to pupils
which enable them to function well in the school.
According to Egbochukwu (2008), educational guidance
is essential in the counselling service, guiding young people
to pursue the right type of education is necessary, while
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ensuring that the right balance is kept in order to meet the
human resource needs of a nation. She further opined that
secondary school, college and university students need valid
and usable information that relate to their developmental
and experience levels concerning all types of present and
future educational opportunities and requirements for
entrance and problems of student‟s life. According to Peters
and Farewell (1967) in Egbule (2002), educational guidance
is the assistance given to pupils, individually and through
group techniques to help them function more effectively in
their school programmes.
The Need for Educational Guidance
Citing Shertzer and Stone (1976), Ipaye (1986),
Iwuama (1991), Egbule in Okobiah and Okorodudu (2004)
stated that the major purpose of educational guidance
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within the school system is to provide students with
relevant education information about:
I. The school physical plant (i.e. the nature of the
school system).
II. Values of pursuing education
III. Educational opportunities opened to the students at
their level of development
IV. Requirement for furthering the education.
2.4 Students Interest in Orientation Exercise
According to Taiwo (1999), students are ready to
engage in orientation programme. Uban (2008) conducted a
research on the attitude of secondary school students
towards guidance and counselling services in Yakurr local
government area of Cross River State and came out with the
findings that students are not interested in orientation as a
guidance service. According to him, sex of the students and
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the geographical location of the school had no significant
influence on the students‟ interest in orientation programme.
According to Egbule (1993) students take part in
orientation programme which familiarise them with the goals
and objectives of the school and also to learn the process of
work performance. Moris et al (1976) stated that orientation
programme is a technique of educational service designed
and organised to help students in the school system to
adjust to their new environment through group procedure.
2.5 Students’ Participation in Study Habit Induction
The UNESCO Module on guidance and counselling
(2000) stated that a number of students fail their
examinations, or fail to deal with educational activities,
because they lack effective study skills and habits. They
spend a considerable amount of time playing, and only a
small fraction of their time on productive or school activities.
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According to Eyo, Joshua and Esuong (2010), students
in secondary schools irrespective of sex and geographical
location participate in study habit induction organize by the
guidance counsellor. Their research shows 85% participation
in study habit induction among the students. Also Okeke
(2001) noted that students rarely ever participate in study
habit induction nor visit the counsellor concerning their
academic problems.
Taiwo (1999) who noted that students engage more in
educational guidance counselling than other counselling
services provided in schools. According to him, students are
ready to be engaged in counselling activities such as
orientation programme and excursion/field trips more than
other educational counselling activities such as study habit
induction and academic counselling.
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Ipaye 91992) opined that students are interested in
educational services as it help to facilitate their adjustment
to the school environment. Egbule (2001) is of the view that
students are interested in educational guidance activities
especially the fresh entrants. According to him, educational
guidance services can be provided to students through
variety of activities such as academic counselling, organising
orientation or induction, college assembly, college day
conferences and undertaking excursion to educational
institution.
2.6 Students Participation in Career Day Programme
Studies carried out by Galassi, Grace, Martin, James
and Walace (1992) Swanson (1995) have shown at different
times the extent of students‟ participation in vocational
guidance activities. Swanson (1995) Swanson and Pacover
(1998) in their studies revealed that American high school
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students are highly involved in vocational guidance activities
to the extent that some students now turn to private
guidance counsellors specialized in career/vocational
activities at a cost. In their individual studies, they revealed
that students have positive attitude towards vocational
guidance activities since they are now aware of the great
importance attached to their future vocations. Walter (1992)
opined that students participate keenly in vocational
guidance activities owing to its usefulness to their
disciplines.
According to Makinde (1992), students are interested in
vocational guidance activities as it helps to facilitate their
understanding in career development, help them become
aware of many occupations available for exploitation.


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2.7 Student’s Participation in Excursion
Howard (1997) argued that the predisposition to take
part in excursion depend on the level of school. According to
him, most senior high school students participate in
excursion as it relates to vocational concerns, however, for
junior high school students; there was a significant decline
in the frequency with which they participate in excursion.
These could be as a result of the fact that those in the junior
high school have no vocational aspiration at this stage of
schooling.
In a study carried out by Taiwo (1999), only few
schools in Ondo state engage their students in vocational
guidance activities. And in those schools where there are
guidance counselling activities few students are actively
involved or engage the services of the guidance counsellor.
In a similar study carried out by Okeke (2001), students in
45

Anambra State as the findings of the study reveals have a
positive attitude towards vocational guidance activities.
According to Okeke (2001), students in some of the sampled
schools are actively involved in vocational activities such as
excursion or field trips to factories/companies, tertiary
institution, career conference and so on. Ibrahim (1998) in
his study found out that students in government schools do
not actively participate in vocational guidance activities
unlike their fellow students in private schools who most of
the times go on excursions.
Odeck (1990) is of the view that students are
interested in vocational guidance activities because it helps
them to identify their strengths and weaknesses in relation
to specific vocations, occupations, or jobs and make
appropriate choice.
46

Having been exposed to vocational guidance activities,
students will be able to evaluate themselves and choose
vocations that match their interests, abilities and aptitude.
2.8 Students Participation in Old Students
Association Day
According to Ipaye (1986) old students of the school are
invited to present to current students information about
their career education. Ipaye (1986) is of the opinion that
Old Students‟ Association Day provides opportunities for the
present students to gain inspiration from the past students.
This consequently serves as motivation as well as guidelines
to the present students to prepare themselves for
worthwhile occupational and educational plans.
According to Germeijs and Verchueren (2001), students
in secondary school express willingness to participate in old
students‟ association day. Stookey (2004) pointed out that
47

majority of the students express interest in Old Students‟
Association Day. According to Gare (2007), students in
secondary grammar school are reluctant when it comes to
old students‟ association day.
2.9 Summary of Literature Review
Many authors gave different definition of educational
and vocational guidance and all of them agreed that both
are aspects of the entire guidance programme. While
educational guidance is concerned with the process of
helping students resolve their educational problems,
vocational guidance is concerned with the process of giving
information to the students on issues relating to their career
prospects.
The meaning of attitude was discussed in this chapter.
Also the students‟ interest in orientation exercise and the
students‟ participation in study habit induction was
48

discussed. Thereafter, the students‟ participation in career
day programme, students‟ participation in excursion as well
as students‟ participation in Old Students Association Day
was discussed.










49

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE
This chapter deals with the following sub-topics:
3.1. Research design
3.2. Population
3.3. Sample and sampling techniques
3.4. Research instrument
3.5. Validity of the instrument
3.6. Method of Data collection
3.7. Method of Data analysis
3.1. RESEARCH DESIGN
This study is designed to investigate the attitude of
secondary school students toward vocational and
educational guidance in Ethiope East Local Government Area
50

of Delta State. For the purpose of the study, a survey
method was adopted.
3.2. Population
The population of this study comprise all the senior
secondary school students in Ethiope East Local Area of
Delta State.
3.3. Sample/Sampling Techniques
For the purpose of the study, the researcher randomly
selected five (5) out of the 24 Government secondary
schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta
State. The schools used comprised the following:
1. Baptist High School II, Eku
2. Erho Secondary School II, Erho
3. Ovu Grammar School Ovu
4. Uruoka Secondary School II, Uruoka
51

5. Abraka Grammar School II, Abraka
Of the five schools, 20 SS II students from each school
were selected to make up 100 students for the study. The
sampling technique adopted for the study is the simple
random sampling.
3.4. Research Instrument
A self-structured questionnaire of 10 items was used
for data collection. The instrument consist of two sections;
section A dealt with respondent‟s Bio-data, while section B
dealt with respondent‟s view on the items in question.
In section B, items were structured using the four-point
response rating scale, ranging from four (4) for strongly
agree, to one (1) for strongly disagree.


52

3.5. Validity of the Instrument
To ensure the validity of the instrument, the draft of
the instrument was submitted to the research supervisor
who criticized and made amendments for modification. The
modification was effected before the final draft was
prepared.
3.6. Method of Data Collection
The instrument was administered personally by the
researcher after approval by the research supervisor. The
completed copies were retrieved from the respondents
immediately. One hundred (100) copies of questionnaire
were administered and one hundred (100) copies were
returned showing one hundred percent (100%) retrieval
rate.

53


3.7. Method of Data Analysis
To analyze the data collected, the simple percentage
was used to analyze the questionnaire that has been
administered. Formula for the simple percentage is
F
N X 100%

Where % = percentage

F = frequency of response

N = total number of respondents






54

CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF
FINDINGS
This chapter focus on the analysis, presentation and
discussion of results.
4.1 Research Question One:
Are students interested in orientation exercise in secondary
schools?
Table 4.1:
Percentage analysis of the interest of students in orientation
S/N ITEMS SA A D SD
1 In my school, new students take
part in orientation programme
organized by the guidance
counsellor
24% 45% 16% 15%
2 Students who are transferred from
other schools actively participate
in orientation programme
organized by the guidance
programme
18% 31% 18% 33%
55

The table 4.1 above shows that in item 1, 69% of the
respondents agreed that in their school, new students take
part in orientation programme organized by the guidance
counsellor while 31% disagreed. On item 2, 49% agreed
that Students who are transferred from other schools
actively participate in orientation programme organized by
the guidance programme while 51% disagreed with the
statement.
From the above analysis, many students are
interested in orientation exercise.
4.2 Research Question Two:
To what extent do students participate in study habit
induction in secondary schools?


56

Table 4.2:
Percentage analysis of the extent of students participation in
study habit induction
S/N ITEMS SA A D SD
1 Many students participate in
study habit induction
programme organized in my
school by the guidance
counsellor
27% 44% 16% 13%
2 Many students attend the
lecture on “methods of
studying and taking notes”
given by the guidance
counsellor
26% 41% 16% 17%
3 I visit the counsellor for
academic problems
25% 34% 14% 27%

The above table 4.2 shows that in item 1, 71% of the
respondents agreed to the statement that many students
participate in study habit induction programme organized in
their school by the guidance counsellor while 29%
disagreed. On item 2, 67% agreed that many students
57

attend the lecture on “methods of studying and taking
notes” given by the guidance counsellor while 33%
disagreed. On item 3, 59% of the students agreed that they
visit the counsellor for academic problems while 41%
disagreed.
One can therefore conclude that students participate
in study habit induction to a large extent.
4.3 Research Question Three:
Do students take part in career day programme in secondary
schools?
Table 4.3:
Analysis of students‟ participation in career day programme
S/N ITEMS SA A D SD
1 A good number of students are
interested in college day activities
organized by the school counsellor
19% 47% 20% 14%
3 I take part in career day
programme organized in my school
by the guidance counsellor
26% 36% 24% 14%
58

The table 4.3 above revealed that in item 1, 66% of
the respondents agreed to the assertion that a good number
of students are interested in college day activities organized
by the school counsellor while 34% disagreed with the
assertion. In item2, 66% agreed to the statement that when
the school counsellor organized old students‟ association
day, many students attend while 34% disagreed. In item 3,
62% of the respondents agreed that they take part in career
day programme organized in their school by the guidance
counsellor while 38% disagreed.
The analysis above shows that a good number of
students take part in career day.
4.4 Research Question Four:
Do students participate in excursion in secondary schools?

59

Table 4.4:
Percentage analysis of students‟ visit to the counsellor and
participation in excursion
S/N ITEMS SA A D SD
1 I visit my school counsellor
for vocational counselling
16% 34% 34% 16%
2 I participate in excursion
organized in my school by the
guidance counsellor
19% 30% 24% 27%

The above table 4.4 revealed that in item 1, 50% of the
respondents agreed that they visit the counsellor for
vocational counselling while 50% disagreed. In item 2, 49%
agreed with the statement that they participate in excursion
organized in their school by the guidance counsellor while
51% disagreed.
From the analysis above, some students visit the school
counsellor and some also participate in excursion exercise.
60

4.5 Research Question Five:
Do students participate in old Students Association Day in
secondary schools?
Table 4.5:
Percentage analysis of students participation in old students
association day.
S/N ITEM SA A D SD
1 When the school counsellor
organized old students‟
association day, many
students attend
22% 44% 17% 17%

Table 4.5 shows that 66% of the respondents agreed to the
statement that when the school counsellor organized old
students‟ association day, many students attend while 34%
disagreed.
Many students participate in Old Students Association Day
from the above analysis.
61

4.6 Research Findings
From the data analysed above, the following findings
were obtained:
1. That many students are interested in orientation
exercise in secondary schools.
2. That students participate in study habit induction to
a large extent in secondary schools.
3. That many students take part in career day
4. That some students visit the school counsellor and
some also participate in excursion
5. That many students participate in Old Students
Association Day in secondary schools.
4.7 Discussion of Findings
The first finding revealed that many students are
interested in orientation exercise. This finding is in
agreement with Taiwo (1999) who stated that students are
62

ready to engage in orientation programme. However, the
study is in contrast to Uban (2008) who conducted a
research on the attitude of secondary school students
towards guidance and counselling services in Yakurr local
government area of Cross River State and came out with the
findings that students are not interested in orientation as a
guidance service.
The second finding revealed that students participate in
study habit induction to a large extent. This finding is in
agreement with Eyo, Joshua and Esuong (2010) assertion
that students in secondary schools irrespective of sex and
geographical location participate in study habit induction
organize by the guidance counsellor. Their research shows
85% participation in study habit induction among the
students. This finding however disagrees with Okeke (2001)
who noted that students rarely ever participate in study
63

habit induction nor visit the counsellor concerning their
academic problems.
The third finding shows that a good number of students
take part in career day. This finding is in agreement with
studies carried out by Swanson (1995) Swanson and
Pacover (1998) which revealed that American high school
students are highly involved in vocational guidance activities
to the extent that some students now turn to private
guidance counsellors specialized in career/vocational
activities at a cost. In their individual studies, they revealed
that students have positive attitude towards vocational
guidance activities since they are now aware of the great
importance attached to their future vocations. The study
also confirms Walter‟s (1992) opinion that students
participate keenly in vocational guidance activities owing to
its usefulness to their disciplines. It also support Makinde‟s
(1992) statement that students are interested in vocational
64

guidance activities as it helps to facilitate their
understanding in career development, help them become
aware of many occupations available for exploitation.
The fourth finding revealed that some students visit the
school counsellor and some also participate in excursion.
This finding support Ibrahim‟s (1998) findings which
revealed that students in government schools do not actively
participate in vocational guidance activities unlike their
fellow students in private schools who most of the times go
on excursions. However, the finding is in contrast with the
study by Okeke (2001) which revealed students in Anambra
State have a positive attitude towards vocational guidance
activities. According to Okeke (2001), students in some of
the sampled schools are actively involved in vocational
activities such as excursion or field trips to
factories/companies, tertiary institution, career conference
and so on. The finding also counters Odeck‟s (1990) view
65

that students are interested in vocational guidance activities
because it helps them to identify their strengths and
weaknesses in relation to specific vocations, occupations, or
jobs and make appropriate choice.
The fifth finding revealed that many students
participate in Old Students Association Day.








66

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary
This study investigated the Attitude of secondary school
students towards vocational and educational guidance in
Ethiope East Local Government area of Delta State. The
study sought to find answers to the following research
questions:
1. Are students interested in orientation exercise in
secondary schools?
2. To what extent do students participate in study habit
induction in secondary schools?
3. Do students take part in career day programme in
secondary schools?
4. Do students participate in excursion in secondary
schools?
67

5. Do students participate in old students association
day in secondary schools?
Chapter two of the study attempted a review of the
related literatures. A self-structured questionnaire was used
for data collection while the simple percentage method of
data analysis was used to analyse the administered
questionnaire.
The instrument used for the study was questionnaire
made up of one hundred (100) copies administered to one
hundred respondents from five selected schools used as
sample for the study. The simple percentage method was
used to analyse the data retrieved.
The findings of the study revealed the following:
1. That many students are interested in orientation
exercise in secondary schools.
68

2. That students participate in study habit induction to
a large extent in secondary schools.
3. That many students take part in career day
4. That some students visit the school counsellor and
some also participate in excursion
5. That many students participate in Old Students
Association Day in secondary schools.
5.2 Conclusion
From the data analysed, it can be concluded that:
1. That many students are interested in orientation
exercise in secondary schools.
2. That students participate in study habit induction to
a large extent in secondary schools.
3. That many students take part in career day
4. That some students visit the school counsellor and
some also participate in excursion
69

5. That many students participate in Old Students
Association Day in secondary schools.
5.3 Limitations of the study
During the course of this research work, I was
confronted with some problems which militated against a
thorough investigation. Finance was a major constraint as
the research mandated my travelling from my location to the
location of the school, also, the procurement of materials for
the study was another constraint put forward by lack of
finance.
Again as an undergraduate student, the work load do
not leave much time for a wider research. Finally, there was
difficulty in locating materials for the research.
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge
In as much as a lot of research has been done on the
attitude of secondary school students towards vocational
70

and educational guidance, no research has actually been
carried out on the attitude of secondary school students
towards Old Students Association Day.
5.5 Recommendations
From the foregoing, the following recommendations can
be made:
1. Guidance counsellors should organise orientation to
the students on regular bases
2. Professionals from all works of life should be invited
by the counsellor to cater for the career needs of
many more students.
3. Seminar and enlightenment campaign should be
organised by the guidance counsellor to enlighten
the students on the importance of excursion and the
need to visit the counsellor.
71

4. That many students should be engaged in old
students‟ association day
5.6 Suggestion for Further Studies
During the process of administration of instrument, the
researcher was confronted with certain issues that is worthy
of investigation. Hence, the researcher suggests the
following:
1. A study should be carried out on the attitude of
school principals towards guidance and counselling
services
2. A study should be carried out on the counselling
needs of the secondary school students as perceived
by the students
3. Also, since this study was carried out in a section of
the country, the researcher strongly suggests that
similar studies should be carried out to find the
72

attitude of secondary school students towards
educational and vocational guidance in other Local
Government areas in the state and in the country
generally.










73

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sustainable development: the value challenge life:
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Akpochafo, G. O. (2011). Interdisciplinary Research as a
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http://www.interesjournals.org/ese.
Andrew, E. F. (2004). Promoting Positive Attitude Change.
International Journal of Scholarly Academic
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Asaf, N., Athar, H., Muhammad, A. & Airr, Z. (2010). An
Analysis of Guidance services for secondary school
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Egbochukwu, E. O. (2008). Assessment of the Quality of
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Egbochukwu, E. O., Alika, I. H. (2010). Remedy to the
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Egbule, J. F. (2002). Principles and Practice of Guidance and
Counselling. Owerri: Whyte and Whyte Publishers.
Eyo, M. B,m Joshua, A. M. & Essuong, A. E. (2010). Attitude
of Secondary School Students towards Guidance and
Counselling Services in Cross Rivers State. Edo
Journal of Counselling. Vol. 3. No 1. Pp. 87-99.
75

Galassi, J. P., Crace, R. K., Martins, G. A., James, R. M. &
Wallace, R. L. (1992). Client Preferences and
Anticipated in Career Counselling: A preliminary
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Iwuama, B. C. (1991). Foundations of Guidance and
Counsellin. Benin City: Supreme Ideas Publishers
Int. Ltd.
Johnson, H. N. (1977). A Survey of Students attitude
towards Counselling at a Predominantly Black
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Ogbodo, R. O. (2010). Effective Study Habit in Educational
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Okeke, M. C. (2001). Perception of Students towards
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Schools in Anambra State. Unpublished Masters
Degree dissertation, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Okobiah, O. C. & Okorodudu, R. I. (2002). Issues, Concepts,
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Okocha, M. (2009). Parental Attitude towards Vocational
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78

APPENDIX
DEPARTMENT OF GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING,
DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY,
P.M.B. 1,
ABRAKA,
DELTA STATE.
26
TH
October, 2011

Dear Respondent,
QUESTIONNAIRE
INTRODUCTION
The research work investigates the attitude of
secondary school students towards vocational and
educational guidance in Ethiope East Local Government Area
of Delta State. In this regard, your responses to this
questionnaire will go a long way towards ensuring the
success of this research work. I assure you that your
response will be kept confidential and used for this study
only.
Thanks for your anticipated co-operation.

Yours Faithfully,

JESSA OMOKINIOVO MORRISON
79

SECTION A
RESPONDENT’S BIO-DATA
School:_________________________________________
Class: SSS1 SSS 2 SSS3
Sex: Male Female
INSTRUCTION
Please read the item carefully and tick the item that is
more appropriate to your opinion.
KEYS:
SA- Strongly Agree (4)
A- Agree (3)
D- Disagree (2)
SD- Strongly Disagree (1)

80

SECTION B
ITEMS
S/N ITEMS SA A D SD
1 In my school, new students take part in
orientation programme organized by the
guidance counsellor

2 Students who are transferred from other
schools actively participate in orientation
programme organized by the guidance
programme

3 Many students participate in study habit
induction programme organized in my
school by the guidance counsellor

4 A good number of students are
interested in college day activities
organized by the school counsellor

5 Many students attend the lecture on
“methods of studying and taking notes”
given by the guidance counsellor

6 I visit the counsellor for academic
problems

7 When the school counsellor organized
old students‟ association day, many
students attend

8 I visit my school counsellor for
vocational counselling

9 I take part in career day programme
organized in my school by the guidance
counsellor

10 I participate in excursion organized in
my school by the guidance counsellor