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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
In the era of globalization, rapid changing happens in economic, technology and
development. Capability is the highest priority of management even in government
sector. In fact, the management capability can be seen in business and administration
through employees and organizational performance. Besides, the management leadership
and competence is the key of management practices that lead to sustainable performance,
efficient service delivery, and excellent growth in business.
Most organizations rely upon their leaders to facilitate the changes and
innovations reuired to maintain the competitive advantage. !eaders are recognized as
persons who can single handedly create order out of chaos, and direct the organizations
through unthinkable environmental instability. !eadership always changing due to the
circulation of time so does the change in employee reuirements resulting in a demand
for change in the relationship between a leader and their subordinates.
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"ccording Brindusa Maria #$#" in his research stated that some analysts say that
leaders are born, others say that leaders can be made and yet, both sides are right and
there are inborn ualities that make a leader but they alone are not enough. %hese
ualities need to be acuired and most of all, experience needs to be accumulated. &o,
effective leadership means the success of the organization. Besides, effective leadership
is the extent to which a leader continually and progressively leading and directing his or
her followers to the agreed destination which is defined by the whole group. %hrough the
research by 'adeem Bhati and (hulam Murtza Maitlo et.al said that the bass theory of
leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders.
%he first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. %hese
theories are)
*+ &ome personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership. %his is the %rait
theory.
,+ "n important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion which brings out
extra ordinary leadership ualities in an ordinary person. %his is the (reat event
%heory.
-+ #eople can choose to become leaders. #eople can learn leadership skills. %his is
the %ransformational leadership %heory. It is the most widely accepted theory.
It is argued that effective leadership has a positive way on the performance of
organization .Maritz, *//01 Bass, *//21 Charlton, ,333+. Behling and Mc4illen .*//5+
confirmed the link between high performance and leadership in the 6nited &tates by
developing a model of charismatic or transformational leadership where the leaders7
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behavior is said to give rise to inspiration, awe and empowerment in his subordinates,
resulting in exceptionally high effort, exceptionally high commitment and willingness to
take risks. "s a result, many leadership theories have been proposed in the last fifty years
which are claimed to have influenced effectiveness of organizations where they have
been employed through employee performance.
!eadership style will impact the employees7 readiness, ability and willingness of
subordinates if it is good matched. 8ith these conseuences, a synchronized pattern of
works will be obtained for better performance towards the organizational goals. It also
found that employees who obtained a higher willingness scores were more satisfied with
their 9ob and had higher 9ob performance and lower turnover intention. !eadership
behaviors affect outcomes such as group performance and goal attainment by influencing
the behaviors of subordinates in order to increase the perception of work values.
$n the other hand, employee performance is an important building block of an
organization and the factors which lay the foundation for high performance must be
analyzed by the organizations. &ince every organization cannot progress by depending on
one or two individual:s effort, it is collective effort of all the members of the organization.
#erformance is a ma9or multidimensional construct aimed to achieve results and has a
strong link to strategic goals of an organization .Mwita, ,333+. ;owever, the organization
need to effective and efficient managers and employees to be able to achieve their goals
in order to achieve better performance toward organization goals and ob9ective. &o, the
manager:s leadership styles are very effective in right driving of the employees for
organizational purposes. %hat means, practice the best style of leadership will lead to
increased employee performance as well as organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
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In fact, the government agencies must act as a catalyst in helping the private
sector to increase national economic parameter to compete in this era and achieve the
<ision ,3,3. %hus, the leadership styles play a prominent role in order to ensure
employee to give their best performance to the government institution. &o, to achieve
excellent service, leadership is the most important factor in order to produce a good
result. %herefore, this research investigated the relationship between leadership styles and
employee performance.
1. Background of co!"any
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=%M or =adio %elevision Malaysia is a government owned television network
and it broadcasts from its headuarters in "ngkasapuri, >uala !umpur. =%M maintains
and controls a number of radio and television stations. "t present, it runs 5 national, ,
international, *2 states, ** district radio stations and , television channels %< * and %< ,
.=%M, ,3*3+.
8hen it started transmission on *st "pril */?5, =%M was established as =adio
Malaya operating out of &ingapore. $n -*st "ugust */02 when Malaya received its
independence, =adio Malaya was split into two with the original studios in &ingapore
managed by a new station called =adio &ingapura while =adio Malaya moved to >uala
!umpur going on air from the new location on *st @anuary */0/ .=%M, ,3*3+.
=adio Malaya was later named =adio Malaysia on *5th &eptember */5- with its
signature transmission trademark words Inilah =adio Malaysia .%his is =adio Malaysia+.
&ervices rendered under Malaysia %elevision .Malaysia %<+ started on ,Ath Becember
*/5- in the >lang <alley and &elangor. %he *3 month old %elevision &ingapura which
was launched on *5th 4ebruary */5- became part of Malaysia %elevisyen till */50 when
&ingapore broke away from Malaysia .#enyiaran, */A2+.
=adio Malaysia later became =angkaian 'ational .'ational Channel+ on *st
@anuary */2* and became the nation7s first ,? hour radio station. In */2A =angkaian &atu
.'etwork $ne+ was renamed Malaysia %elevision &atu. " year later =angkaian Bua was
renamed Malaysia %elevision Bua. 'ew separate logos for both networks were launched
the same year. %he following year, Malaysian %elevisyen and =adio Malaysia merged to
become =adio %elevision Malaysia, =%M .#enyiaran, */A2+.
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"s of ,332, =%M controlled *2 per cent of television viewing market in the
country behind Media #rima with 0? per cent and "stro with ,/ per cent. But of late
neither =%M or "stro has made the top ,3 television programmes .>"& Bemocracy
=eport, ,33A+. ;owever, =%M has become television broadcasting in Malaysia was a
government monopoly for almost twenty years.
In addition, =%M have several of department which are management, strategic
development, radio program, television program, broadcast operations, public relations,
Berita ;al Chwal &emasa, marketing and promotion, music services and Media @akim.
=%M have divided into four building which are 8isma %<, 8isma Berita and 8isma
=adio as well as IBC. %he total numbers of employee in =%M about ?3,333 people that
work at different department and fields. Cach department has consists around *33 people
and mostly women employees conuered of each department especially in management
and administration department.
%he department of Berita ;al Chwal &emasa has consists two division which are
4inance and "dministration section and Chwal &emasa section. %he researcher found that
in department Chwal &emasa section has divided into several units which are admin,
&elamat #agi *Malaysia and ;ello on %wo .&iaran pagi+, &iaran !angsung, Bicarawara,
Ma9alah and Biz Malaysia. In this department, admin will conducted everything about the
management and administration of employees such as salary, overtime, leave, task and
responsibilities and others.
%herefore, =%M have been established to address social need and group activities.
%hroughout human history, the developments and changes happen and it done by
individuals and groups associated with the presence of a person as a leader. In this
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department, most of task and activities that have they done as a team. &o, in the team, we
need a good leader and group members for ensure the task and activities complete
successfully. %hus, =%M considered the leadership as a function is an important
component of management. %he presence of leaders in the group with a competent skill is
a must and that skills can be seen as a style of leadership. " leader will lead the group to
achieve a certain goals in the organization. ;owever, the relationship between manager
and employees is strongly bonding together be important to ensure the performance of
organization and employees.
1.# State!ent of the Pro$%e!
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Many researchers consider leadership style as an important variable in influencing
an organization7s functions. =obbins .,33-+ indicates the management function of
leadership is mainly aimed to manage employee behavior and by explaining and
predicting employee productivity, resign rate and 9ob satisfaction in an effort to reach the
ultimate goals for employees7 aggressive 9ob involvement and the commitment to
companies.
"ccording Chen and &ilverthorne .,330+ stated the influence of leadership style
on 9ob performance, satisfaction, stress, and turnover intention has been well established.
Bespite leadership style has an impact on organizations, departments, and teams as well
as work climate and atmosphere, leaders who want the best results should not rely on a
single leadership style .(oleman, ,333+.
%he interest in the influence of leadership on workers performance represents an
alternative to the traditional focus on the leader as the center of attention and power, or as
sun in the organization. "lthough the ualities of leaders are obviously important, leaders
need the skills to engage followers in productive and satisfying mutual pursuits.
;owever, this is a different from the usual way of seeing leader ualities as possessions,
rather than interpersonal links to others involved in shared activities.
Because not all leaders wish to be participative, understanding and overcoming
reluctance to involve with followers and think it is important. It will be a source of
resistance in the problem of shared responsibility that needs to be accountable. 4or
employees to accomplish their work, the managers must encourage them such as
employees, coDworkers, supervisors and customers. Because this is effective and efficient
leadership styles, the human factor must be critically looked out from the employee
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performance. %herefore, within this research will make an effort to investigate the
relationship among leadership style and performance of employee.
"dditionally, every government institutions and employees has his or her own
>ey #erformance Indicators .>#Is+ to achieve as determined by the stakeholder. $ther
than that, the employee performance includes performing the duties1 meeting the task
deadline and gain the departmental goal is very crucial and it always link to the
leadership in the organization. %hat means, when it comes to explain how and why
certain organization has impressed out competitive advantages, it needs to increase
attention towards the leadership style, which is the key factor to determine the level of
organization and employee performance.
In short, this study aims at addressing key uestions by examining autocratic,
democratic, and laissezDfaire leadership styles in managing =adio and %elevision
Malaysia .=%M+ employees with good governance. It is important to investigate the
relationship of the three leadership styles which are autocratic, democratic, and laissezD
faire with the employee:s performance.
1.& Re'earch O$(ect)*e'
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%he main ob9ective of this study was to investigate the relationship of leadership styles
and employee performance. &pecifically, the study sought)
i. %o identify the implementation of leadership style in the selected department at
=%M.
ii. %o determine the work performance among employees at selected department
towards their manager leadership style.
iii. %o examine there is a relationship between leadership style and employee
performance in the =%M.
1.+ Re'earch ,ue't)on'
%he research uestions used in this study are)
i. 8hat type of leadership style practice in =adio and %elevision Malaysia .=%M+E
ii. Is there any relationship between leadership style and employees performance at
=adio and %elevision Malaysia .=%M+E
iii. "re =adio and %elevision Malaysia .=%M+ employees satisfied with their
leadership styleE
1.- Theoret)ca% .ra!e/ork
%he figure *.3 shows the theoretical framework for the level the relationship
between !eadership &tyle and Cmployee #erformance. %here are two variables which are
Independent <ariable .I<+ and Bependent <ariable .B<+. %he Independent <ariables for
this study are factors that influence the Cmployee #erformance. In the words, the
leadership styles that the managers use in their leadership towards their employees. %he
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dimensions for Independent <ariables .IB+ are "utocratic approach, Bemocratic approach
and !aissezDfaire approaches that theory by the !ewin, !ippit and white .*/-/+.
%hen, the Bependent <ariable for this study is their effectiveness for employee
performance. In the Independent <ariables, it show the three types of leadership style
which is "utocratic approach, Bemocratic approach and !aissezDfaire approach is the
most factor that will influence the Cmployee #erformance among the employees.
Independent <ariable Bependent <ariable


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4igure *.3 %he %heoretical 4ramework of the relationship between !eadership &tyles
and Cmployee #erformance
%here is several hypothesis for this study which are )
;* ) %here is a significant relationship between autocratic style and employee
performance.
;, ) %here is a significant relationship between democratic style and employee
performance.
;- ) %here is a significant relationship between laissezDfaire style and employee
performance.
;? ) %here is a significant relationship between leadership styles and employee
performance.
1.0 Sco"e of the Study
%he scope of this study was focused on whether there is a relationship between
leadership styles on the performance among the employees in public sector in =adio
%elevision Malaysia .=%M+. %he public sector has been chosen because many of the
government agencies use the different leadership styles where maybe have possibility that
the delivery system be weak and inefficient.
1.1 S)gn)f)cance of the Study
%his study is significant as a reference to all staff in the organization, in order to
understand how important the leadership styles on the employees: performance as well as
organization performance. It is expected that the findings of the study would benefit
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organizations to gain high performance in their organization. %he following discussion
outlines the contribution this study can make in the area of employee, organizations, and
future researcher.
Contributions to the Cmployee
" staff that feels motivated and has confidence in the organization7s vision can be
productive. " leadership style has a direct influence on employee morale. "utocratic
leaders that do not seek input from employees tend to alienate their staff and diminish the
employee feeling of involvement. Bemocratic leaders are open to employee involvement
and allow employees to feel part of the company7s success. 8hen the staff feels
alienated, morale and productivity suffer. " manager that involves employees in the
organization builds morale and improves productivity ."nderson, ,3*3+.
Contributions to the $rganizations
>nowledge of management practices provides a set of tools and practices integral
to change management initiatives among employees in the organization. Meanwhile,
competencies afford government department to be more structured through directed
goals, clear and consistency in planning and capable to become competent workforce.
%his study found organizations that indulge in knowledge management practices possibly
will have a direct effect on a positive organizational performance. In a similar way,
competencies served as an indicator of success through variety of skills. ;ence,
government departments may have a balance workDlife as well as improve their
productivities. It is also hoped that the management of the government can have an early
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exposure as intellectual capital represents significant value to their bottom line. %hus, this
study contributed to the public agency as the main platform of country7s competitiveness.
%he government agencies may also not only improve their 9ob performance but also
productivity of the organization. %his study also brings in the nature of ideas that
organizations own where knowledge management had emerged and existed in Malaysia.
;ence, this would take the result as an onDgoing real world application of the ideas that
the organizations did practice knowledge management.
Contributions to the 4uture =esearcher
%he research that be conducted can be used as a references source for future
researchers in order to investigate the relationship between leadership styles and
employee performance.
1.2 3)!)tat)on' of the Study
In this study, there is some limitation that the researcher faced are)
%here are few limitations when doing this research. 4irst, the total number of
respondents is too small where the study will be only at selected department. %he
population of this study is limited to staffs employed in the Chwal &emasa section at
=adio %elevision Malaysia .=%M+. 4rom this section, the researcher takes half
respondents at that section for represents for whole department. 4rom here, the researcher
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can get much information about the relationship between leadership style and employees
performance.
&econd, the researcher conducted this study within employees from selected
department only in =adio %elevision Malaysia .=%M+. %his condition limits the
generalized of the results. %he study is not able to cover the whole Malaysia. %herefore,
future researchers need to examine employees from various organizations in Malaysia as
to generalize result of the study.
%hird, the uestionnaire was distributed during lunch break where employees are
rushing to take their meal before the lunch break ended. %o some extent, might affect the
result where the respondent might 9ust simply answer without reading the uestion
carefully.
!ast but not least, a ma9or limitation of many studies as well as this study is that
most researchers rely on crossDsectional results that are seldom replicated. Moreover, this
study is limited by selfDreliance upon attitudinal information provided by the respondents.
1.14 Def)n)t)on of Ter!'
%he definition of terms was provided to ensure uniformity and understanding of
these terms throughout the study. %he meaning of these terms obtained from several
references that have found by the researcher. %he following terms are defined in
accordance to this study)
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!eadership
In this context, leadership can be defined as an activity of a leading group or an
organization. "ccording @ong and ;artog .,332+ described leadership as a process to
influence people in order to get desired result. !ok and Crawford .,33?+ proclaimed that
leadership plays a vital role in determining the success and failure of an organization.
%hus, the leaders help to stimulate, motivate, encourage and recognize their followers in
order to get key performance results.
!eadership styles
!eadership style is defined as the pattern of behaviors that leaders display during
their work with and through others or followers .;ersey F Blanchard, *//-+. Miller et al.
.,33,+ view leadership style as the pattern of interactions between leaders and
subordinates. It includes controlling, directing, indeed all techniues and methods used
by leaders to motivate subordinates to follow their instructions.
"utocratic "pproach
"utocratic leadership styles is also referred to as authoritarian, bossDcentered, or
dictatorial leadership, autocratic leadership styles is characterized by close supervision
.!iebler and McConnel, ,33?+. %he manager who practices these types of leadership
gives direct, clear, and precise directions to employees. "utocratic leaders, provide clear
expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done and how it should be
done.
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Bemocratic "pproach
!ewin:s study found that democratic leadership is leaders offer guidance to group
members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group
members. %he democratic leaders encourage group members to participate but retain the
final say over the decisionDmaking process. Bemocratic supervisors make extensive use
of the ideas, seggestions, and recommendations of their subordinates .Gane >. Huible,
,33*+.
!aissezDfaire
"ccording to !iebler and McConnel .,33?+, !aissezDfaire leadership is based on,
the assumption that individual are selfDmotivated. "nother definition !aissezDfaire is
described as hand off, fenceDstraddling and absentee management. %he !aissezDfaire
leaders offer little or no guidance to group members and leave decisionDmaking up to
group members. %he manager who performed these types of leadership will avoid giving
orders, solving problems, or making decisions.
Cmployee performance
Cmployee performance can be defines as the activities that related to 9ob related
of a worker and how well the work are been done. Many business personnel directories
help their employee in order to achieve suggested areas of improvement. "ccording
Charity %inofirei .,3**+ stated that employee performance is the successful completion of
tasks by a selected individual or individuals, as set and measured by a supervisor or
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organization to preDdefined acceptable standards while a efficiently and effectively
utilizing available resources within a changing environment.
1.11 Su!!ary
In nutshell, the leadership styles as the important element in order to achieve
better performance of employees in organization. %he researcher found that there is
relationship between the leadership styles and employees performance. %he leadership
styles will be investigated in these researches which are autocratic, democratic, and
laissezDfaire.
It is showed that three types of leadership style should be practice in organization
to ensure that employee on the right side in implement to effectiveness of work
performance. Based on employee performance, the organization:s goal can be achieve
successfully and give a good performance in the organization.
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CHAPTER
3ITERATURE RE5IE6
%his study proposed to determine the relationship between the leadership styles
and employee performance among government sector at =adio and %elevision Malaysia
.=%M+, "ngkasapuri, >uala !umpur. %he dependent variable of this study is employee
performance. %he dimensions that consist in independent variable for this study are
autocratic approach, democratic approach, and laissezDfaire.
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.1 Def)n)t)on of 3eader'h)"
Bifferent management authorities have defined the term leadership in various
terms. "ccording M.!. <oon, M.C !o et. al cited leadership definition from 'orthouse
.,3*3+ as a process of interaction between leaders and followers where the leader
attempts to influence followers to achieve a common goal. %here is a common thread,
however, among the different definitions of leadership. ;owever, as stated in <ecchio,
;earn and &outhey .*///+ claimed that leadership is a process through which a person
tries to get organizational members to do something, which that person desires. !uthans
.,330+ stated through a study conducted by "yaz >han .,3*3+ leadership is when you
boil it down1 contemporary leadership seems to be a matter of aligning people toward
common goals and empowering them to take actions needed to reach them. Iukl .*/A/+
points out that numerous definitions of leadership have circulated around the involving
and influence process. %hrough a study conducted by !oganatan aJl Iagambaram .,3*,+
stated the some of the definition and perspectives of the contemporary researches1 Bass
.*//3+ defined leadership as follows)
i. !eadership as a focus of group process
ii. !eadership as personality and effects
iii. !eadership as the art of inducing compliance
iv. !eadership as the exercise of influence
v. !eadership as an act of behavior
vi. !eadership as a form of persuasion
vii. !eadership as a power relation
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viii. !eadership as an instrument of goal achievement
ix. !eadership as emerging effect of interaction
x. !eadership as a differentiated role
xi. !eadership as an initiation of structure
%hrough this study also stated that leadership as a combination Iukl .*/A/+ defined
leadership as influencing task ob9ectives and strategies, influencing commitment and
compliance in task behavior to achieve these ob9ectives, influencing group maintenance
and identification as well as influencing the culture of an organization.
In addition, based on a study conducted by !oganatan aJl Iagambaram .,3*,+
also cited leadership definition from =oming .,33*+ as K" two way street, interaction
field, visionary goals, focused creativity, structured participation, proven knowledge, and
transferred authority.K It is also found that leadership as an interpersonal interaction
process under certain situations that guides a group to move together towards a specified
goal.
"part from that, a different view on leadership is found based on the definition
given by Bass .*//3+ defined leadership as a process of interaction among individuals
and groups that includes a structured or restructured situation, members7 expectations and
perceptions. !eadership can be explained as the ability of an individual to have power
that focuses on how to establish directions by adapting forces .(o et al., *//5+. 4rom an
organizational perspective, &chermerhorn .*///+ believed that leading is a process used
to motivate and to influence others to work hard in order to realize and support
organizational goals, while ;ersey et al. .,33*+ believed that leadership influences
individuals7 behavior based on both individuals7 and organizational goals. =obbins .,33*+
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defined leadership as the ability of an individual to influence the behavior of a group to
achieve organizational goals. It is possible to conclude from these discussions that
leadership is a group of phenomena, whereby leaders are distinctive from their followers,
and can influence individuals7 activities to achieve set goals in their organizations.
. Def)n)t)on of 3eader'h)" Sty%e'
Br. Mukhles "lD "babneh cited leadership styles definition from 8ood as a ma9or
sub9ect for researchers because it is still an attractive attribute about leadership among
academics and managers. "s well, the attention to leadership styles has come for
subordinates since they like to work more effectively and productively when their
managers adopted a specific leadership style. " study conducted by "ndreia I&#"&
.,3*,+ through ;ughes, et al .*///+ and Mintzberg .*/2-+ as written again by Clark ;. et
al. .,33/+, many authors agreed that a leaders: style varies according to his or her
personality, environment, education, training, and personal philosophy. ;ersey and
Blanchard .*//-+ stated through a study conducted by ;aslina Che 'gah, et al .,3*-+
leadership style is defined as the pattern of behaviors that leaders display during their
work with and through others. ;ence, Miller et al. .,33,+ view leadership style as the
pattern of interactions between leaders and subordinates. It includes controlling,
directing, indeed all techniues, and methods used by leaders to motivate subordinates to
follow their instructions.
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"ccording to >avanaugh and 'inemeier .,33*+ stated through a study conducted
by ;aslina, et al .,3*-+ there are three factors that determine the type of leadership style)
leaders7 characteristics, subordinates7 characteristics and the organization environment.
More specifically, the personal background of leaders such as personality, knowledge,
values, and experiences shapes their feelings about appropriate leadership that determine
their specific leadership style1 employees also have different personalities, backgrounds,
expectations and experiences, for example, employees who are more knowledgeable and
experienced may work well under a democratic leadership style, while employees with
different experiences and expectations reuire an autocratic leadership style. &ome
factors in the organization environment such as organizational climate, organization
values, composition of work group and type of work can also influence leadership style.
;owever, leaders can adapt their leadership style to the perceived preferences of their
subordinates .8ood, *//?+. More specifically, power has been considered as the potential
of a process to influence people that stated by ;ersey et al. .,33*+ and a part of the
influence process at the core of leadership .'orthouse, ,33?+ as well as the rights that
allow individuals to take decisions about specific matters .=ollinson, ,330+. ;ence, the
leaders will be more effective when they know and understand the appropriate usage of
power .;ersey et al., ,33*+.
Based on a study conducted by Mukhles "lD"babneh .,3*3+ stated that leadership
styles can be classified according to the leaders: power and behaviour as autocratic,
democratic and laissezDfaire, where styles are distinguished by the influence leaders have
on subordinates .Mullins, *//A1 =ollinson, ,330+. "ccording to "ksyah 'asrah .,3*,+
stated that (adot .,332+ added these three categories create a hierarchical seuence of
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leadership styles based on the degree of the movement that leader expresses in his actions
and according to the extent of its effectiveness. In sum, leadership style were monitored
in organization, differentiated by their ownership structure, activities and business
functions, where there are different hierarchical structures and where leadership roles are
defined differently .Mitrovic et. al, ,3**+.
.# Def)n)t)on of Autocrat)c Sty%e
"ccording %andoh <. C. .,3**+ as stated in the research, the autocratic leadership
style that the manager retains most authority for himself and makes decision with the
mind that subordinates will implement it. %he manager is not bothered about attitudes of
the subordinates toward a decision but they are rather concerned about getting the task
done. %he manager tells the staff what to do and how to do it asserts themselves and
serves as an example for the subordinates. 8ith the authoritarian style, the focus of power
is more with the manager and all interactions within group also move towards the
managers. 4urthermore, the manager solely exercise decision making and authority for
determining policy, procedures for achieving goals, work tasks and relationships as well
as control of rewards or punishments .Mullins, ,33,+. ;owever, this style would be most
appropriate in emergency situations and would normally be considered 9ustified by the
group, that is, where the general climate of the group is supportive and mature.
"part from that, a different view on autocratic leaders is insist on doing it all
themselves. %hey have all the power, make all the decisions, and do not often tell anyone
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else about what they are doing. If you work for an autocratic leader, your 9ob is usually to
do what you are told. "n autocratic leader often maintains his authority by force,
intimidation, threats, reward and punishment, or position. "lthough he may or may not
have a clear vision, and may or may not be steering the organization in the right direction,
he is not concerned with whether anyone else agrees with what he is doing or not.
Besides, through a study conducted by Ma9 Carl =ussell .,3**+ indicated that autocratic
leadership is the most extreme form of transactional leadership. !eaders have absolute
control and do not allow subordinates to provide input. In some cases this type of
leadership can take the form of a dictatorship. %oxic leaders are prevalent with this style
leading to high staff turnover and limited organizational accomplishment. ;owever, this
type of leadership can be effective when unskilled labor is used or in high stress
situations reuiring immediate actions as long as the advantages outweigh the
disadvantages.
"ccording to research that conducts by ;oward, autocratic leadership allows
uick decisionDmaking, and eliminates arguments over how and why things get done. "t
the same time, however, it may reduce the likelihood of getting a range of different ideas
from different people, and can treat people badly, or as if they do not matter. If, as is often
true, the leader is concerned with his own power and status, he will be looking over his
shoulder, and moving to suelch any opposition to him or his ideas and decisions.
Innovation or the use of others: ideas is only permissible if it is part of the leader:s plan.
"utocratic leaders often leave fear and mistrust in their wake. $thers in the
organization tend to copy their protection of their position, and their distrust of others:
ideas and motives. $ften, autocratically led organizations are not particularly supportive
25
of personal relationships, but much more keyed to chain of command. Cveryone has
hisJher own sphere, and protects it at all costs. Communication tends to go in only one
direction up as a result of which rumor can become the standard way of spreading news
in the organization. "ll too often, however, it can sacrifice initiative, new ideas and the
individual and group development of staff members for the predictability of a highly
structured, hierarchical environment where everyone knows exactly what he is supposed
to do, and follows orders without uestion.
In addition, based on the study of leadership styles was undertaken by >urt !ewin
and his colleagues stated that the autocratic leadership is usually seen as having four
characteristics which are *+ the leader makes all important decisions, ,+ the leader is
primarily concerned with task accomplishment, not the happiness or satisfaction of
followers, -+ the leader maintains considerable social distance from followers, and ?+ the
leader motivates followers by punishment rather than by rewards. 8hereas, through a
study conducted by %.@.=. %hisera .,3*-+ was found the autocratic leadership is
multifaceted and encompasses a diverse range of behaviors including assingning
followers to particular 9obs, emphasizing deadlines, checking that followers observe rules
and regulations, setting deadlines, and pressuring followers to work hard that inspired by
Misumi .*/A0+. %hus, an important aspect of autocratic leadership is pressure that is
pressuring followers to work hard and to maintain uality standards by sampling their
work, monitoring their performance as well as setting and emphasizing deadlines.
In organization perspectives, some organizations are characterized by autocratic
leadership such as military, organization those involve religious hierarchies, businesses
and others. "utocratic leadership seems to be most appropriate in cases in which
26
employees are new and untrained in their 9obs. It works best with larger groups. It also
seems to be called for when detailed instructions or highDvolume production are
necessary. It can be appropriate in situations where time is limited, employees challenge
has been mismanaged by a prior leader. ;ence, the autocratic leadership is also useful
when work freuently must be coordinated with other divisions of the organization.
.& Def)n)t)on of De!ocrat)c 3eader'h)"
" study conducted by Ma9 Carl =ussell .,3**+ claimed that democratic leadership
is exemplified by the leader encouraging subordinate participation to contribute to the
decision making process. %his motivates subordinates to work harder as it gives them a
sense of belonging and ownership. But the leader for this type of leadership styles still
makes the final decisions and everyone gets involved in brainstorming and discussion.
%hese types of leadership more focuses on uality and not uantity or speed toward the
works or task those need to accomplish by the employees and organization. %he key for
this type of leadership to work is communication between manager and employees. %he
employees must be able to communicate their idea or opinions effectively so that the
leader fully understands their position if the leader is going to use the employee input to
help complete the task in organization. 4or instance, if the organization needs to make
democratic leadership effective the employees must have a working knowledge
concerning the intricacies of the organization. %hus, without this knowledge the
employees cannot to provide informative input or make relevant suggestions.
27
$n the other hand, a democratic leader understands that there is no organization
without its people. ;e looks at his and others: positions in terms of responsibilities rather
than status, and often consults in decisionDmaking. 8hile he solicits, values, and takes
into account others: opinions, however, he sees the ultimate responsibility for decisionD
making as his own. ;e accepts that authority also means the buck stops with him.
"lthough he sees the organization as a cooperative venture, he knows that he ultimately
has to face the conseuences of his decisions alone. Bemocratic leadership invites the
participation of staff members and others, not only in decisionDmaking, but in shaping the
organization:s vision. It allows everyone to express opinions about how things should be
done, and where the organization should go. By bringing in everyone:s ideas, it enriches
the organization:s possibilities. But it still leaves the final decisions about what to do with
those ideas in the hands of a single person.
"part from that, a different view on democratic leadership is found based on the
definition given by Mullins .,33,+ defined democratic leadership style as exhibited
where the focus of power is more towards the group as a whole and where there is greater
interaction within the group. %he manager shares the leadership functions with members
of the group where he or she takes part as a team member. %he manager would
characteristically lay the problem before the employees and invite discussion. %hrough a
study conducted by %andoh <. C. .,3**+ stated that the manager:s role is to be a
conference leader rather than that of decision taker. %he manager allows the decision to
emerge out of the process of the group discussion instead of imposing it on the group as a
boss. %he democratic leadership is appropriate only in instances where the nature of the
responsibility associated with the decision is such that group members are willing to
28
share with their manager or the manager is willing to accept responsibility for decision
which he or she has not made personally.
%he democratic leadership is viewed as an important aspect of empowerment,
teamwork, and collaboration. It has been observed that an organization is more effective
when those who will be affected by the organization:s decisions are fully involved in the
decision making process. #rerez, Milstein, 8ood and @acuez .*///+ claimed that it is
believed that employee7s share a sense of responsibility for the organization when they
are allows participating actively in decision making. It is proven in (oleman et al. .,33,+
are of the view of democratic leader is keeps staff morale high and therefore positive
climate prevails in the organization.
'evertheless in the studies reviewed, it have different view on democratic
leadership is found based on a study conducted by 'adeen Bhatti and (hulam Murtza
Maitlo et al. .,3**+ stated although the democratic leader will make the final decision, he
or she invites other members of the team to contribute the decision making process. %his
not only increases 9ob satisfaction by involving employees or tem members in what:s
going on, but it also help to develop people:s skills. Cmployees and team members feel in
control of their own destiny, such as the promotion they deserve and so are motivated to
work hard by more than 9ust a financial reward. "s participation takes time, this approach
can lead to things happening more slowly but often the end result is better. %he approach
29
can be most suitable where teamwork is essential and uality is more important than
speed to market productivity.
.+ Def)n)t)on of 3a)''e78fa)re 3eader'h)"
" leader can take a number of different approaches to leading and managing an
organization. " leader:s style of providing direction, implementing plans and motivating
people is the result of his or her philosophy, personality, training, and experience. 4or
example, if a leader has a laidDback personality, they may also lead with a laidDback style,
giving employees plenty of freedom. !aissezDfaire leadership also known as delegate
leadership is a type of leadership style in which leaders are handsDoff and allow group
members to make the decisions. =esearchers have found that this is generally the
leadership style that leads to the lowest productivity among group members.
" study conducted by 'adeen Bhatti and (hulam Murtza Maitlo et al. .,3**+
claimed that the laissezDfaire leadership style involves non interference policy, allows
complete freedom to all employees and has no particular way of attaining goals. %his
leadership style also means that the leader provides the employees with guidance and
materials then lets the employees develop courses of action and eventually make the
decisions. %he leader monitors work and answers uestion of employees. %hose
experienced employees often aspire to be leaders therefore accept the responsibility.
"dditionally, the laissezDfaire leader is one who believes in freedom of choice for the
30
employees, leaving them alone so they can do as they want. %hrough the encyclopedia of
leadership stated by =onald .,33?+ pointed that the basis for this style of leadership is
twofold. 4irst, there is a strong belief that the employees know their 9obs best so leave
them alone to do their 9obs. &econd, the leader may be in a political, electionDbased
position and may not want to exert power and control for fear of not being reelected.
"ccording study conducted by "ksyah .,3*,+ cited laissezDfaire leadership
definition from ;amidifar .,33/+ as a free style sot of leadership style. %here are several
characteristics such as no exchange relationship between leaders and followers, decision
made by the employees but the leaders not accountable for the decision, no information
shared, late action and authority useless. 8hereas, laissezDfaire leadership is 9ust ordinary
style and it cannot come across the speed of uality standard and the stress of
improvement and effectiveness .4rischer, ,335+. ;owever, as stated in 4rischer .,335+
also claimed that the leaders who hold this style are tending to hand over the task and
power, this action is not because to empower the followers, otherwise it is because to
escape from the responsibility. 4urthermore, 4rischer .,335+ also has give more clear
about the characteristics of this leadership style which are, the leader tend to give the
team members a widely freedom in execution task, provide the team with resources,
avoiding from participating as well as no evaluative comments. ;ence, this leadership
style is obviously are negative to the performance in terms of productivity, attitude of
change and encouragement of participation in organizing the organization.
=obbins .,332+ defined the laissezDfaire leadership is obviously shows the leader
tends to relinuish the responsibilities and escape from making decision to the
organization. Moreover, this leadership style set up the work standards and utters them in
31
oneDway and topDdown direction with minimal information, thus, there is also minimal
participation, communication, and resources provide to perform the 9ob given .=onald
,33?+. More explanation from =onald .,33?+ about the laissezDfaire where it is the
exchange of information about 9ob, the policies, and procedures is occurring among the
employees. &o, it will affect the organizational processes whereby the processes will be
out of direction that because of there is no clear direction and the leader 9ust comes back
if there are crisis happen. In short, the laissezDfaire is a free leadership style where no
teamwork among the team member and the leaders give a freedom to the team member to
decide whatever they want for the sake of the organization.
Bifferent situations call for different leadership styles. In an emergency when
there is little time to converge on an agreement and where a designated authority has
significantly more experience or expertise than the rest of the team, an autocratic
leadership style may be most effective. 4or highly motivated and aligned team with a
homogeneous level of expertise, a more democratic or laissezDfaire style may be more
effective. %he style adopted should be the one that most effectively achieves the
ob9ectives of the group while balancing the interests of its individual members.
.- Def)n)t)on of E!"%oyee Perfor!ance
In the literature employees: individual performance was studied through
dimension such as Kuality of performanceK and Kproductivity.K It is argued that effective
leadership has a positive influence on the performance of organizations .Maritz, *//01
Bass, *//21 Charlton, ,333+. 6ltimately it is the performance of many individuals that
32
culminates in the performance of the organization, or in the achievement of
organizational goals. Cffective leadership is instrumental in ensuring organizational
performance .Cummings and &chwab, */2-1 ;ellriegel, @ackson, &locum, &taude, "mos,
>lopper, !ouw and $osthuizen, ,33?+.
"s a result, many leadership theories have been proposed in the last fifty years
which are claimed to have influenced the overall effectiveness of the organizations where
they have been employed. In the competitive world business environment it is vital that
organizations employ leadership styles that enable organizations to survive in a dynamic
environment .Maritz, *//01 Bass, *//2+. It is also proven by >aratepe et al. .,335+ that
recommended the managers to find out which are the variables that can lead frontline
employees to a high performance. &ome results of the studies showed that trait,
competitiveness, selfDefficacy and effort are significant predictors of frontline employee
performance.
4rom the initiation of globalization, the foremost confront for manager is to
expertise different strategies to boost organization:s performance that claimed by ;abib,
>hurram F Idress .,3*3+ in a study conducted by M. 6mer #aracha, "dnan Hamar F
"nam Mirza et al. .,3*,+. 4or the strength of an organization 9ob satisfaction plays a vital
role which has significant effect on employee performance. "nd the word performance
used to pass on the individual aptitude to be inspired, stirring, pioneering and to
determinant to achieving the goals on the organization .8alumbwa F ;artnell, ,3**+. "s
well, based on a study conducted by "ndreia I&#"& .,3*,+ cited employee performance
from Motowidlo F <an &cotter .*//?+ stated that the construct employee performance
has two dimensions. 4irst one refers to task performance or technical 9ob performance
33
and second dimension is about contextual performance or interpersonal 9ob performance
.Iiing F "hmeed, ,33/+.
In the study conducted by M. 6mer #aracha, "dnan Hamar F "nam Mirza et al.
.,3*,+ also found that the employee performance with extraverted leadership and gave
very interested results, employee performance are increased under the extraverted
leadership when employees are passive. "nd if employees are proactive, result will be
opposite .(rant, (ino F ;ofmann, ,3**+. 4urthermore, these researchers also have
studied employee:s performance with variety of variables. "s a result, these researchers
found that satisfied employees not only are the cause of increasing employee
performance but also they don:t think to leave organization .$pren, */A5+. ;ence, the
organization also need arranging training secession for their employees in order to
enhance 9ob satisfaction because organization know satisfied employees will give more
performance .@ones, !atreille F &loane, ,33?+. ;owever, Baird and Blair .,33/+ claimed
that the ma9or involvement to give up any organization by satisfied employees, how
much they are satisfied the level of productivity will be high as much. %hus, Biswas
.,33/+ claimed that the organizational communication act in way to fastening workforce
by transmitting cultural norms from an organizational framework to an individual7s way
of life in the organization and by supporting style of manager also plays incredible role
for increasing employee:s performance.
34
In many ways, the style of its leader defines an organization. If the organization is
to be faithful to its philosophy and mission, its leader:s style must be consistent with
them. "n autocratic leader in a democratic organization can create chaos. " leader
concerned only with the bottom line in an organization built on the importance of human
values may undermine the purpose of its work. 4or that reason, being conscious of both
your own style as a leader and those of others you hire as leaders can be crucial in
keeping your organization on the right track.
.0 Re%at)on'h)" %eader'h)" and e!"%oyee "erfor!ance
!eadership style is an important determinant of employee 9ob satisfaction. %he
reactions of employees to their leaders will usually depend on the characteristics of the
employees as well as on the characteristics of the leaders .8exley F Iukl */A?+.
Cmployee performances influenced by the internal organization environment, which
includes organizational climate, leadership types and personnel relationships .&eashore
and %aber */20+.
%he uality of the leaderDemployee relationship or the lack thereof has a great
influence on the employee7s selfDesteem and 9ob satisfaction .Chen F &pector *//*
Brockner */AA1 Be Cremer ,33-+. Cmployees are more satisfied with leaders who are
considerate or supportive than with those who are either indifferent or critical towards
35
subordinates .Iukl */2*+. "s 8ilkinson F8agner .*//-+ argued, it is stressful for
employees to work with a leader who has a hostile behavior and is unsupportive. If
subordinates are not capable of figuring out how to perform the work by themselves they
will prefer a leader who will provide adeuate guidance and instructions .8exley F Iukl
*/A?+. 'egative leaderDemployee relations reduce productivity and increase absenteeism
and the turnover to the organization can be uite high .>eashly, %rott, F Mac!ean *//?1
=ibelin,33-+.It is argued that effective leadership has a positive influence on the
performance of employees in the organization .Maritz, *//01 Bass, *//21 Charlton,
,333+. 6ltimately it is the performance of many individuals that culminates in the
performance of the organization, or in the achievement of organizational goals. Cffective
leadership is instrumental in ensuring organizational performance .Cummings and
&chwab, */2- ;ellriegel, @ackson, &locum, &taude, "mos, >lopper, !ouw and
$osthuizen, ,33?+.
"s a result, many leadership theories have been proposed in the last fifty years
which are claimed to have influenced the overall effectiveness of the organizations where
they have been employed. In the competitive world business environment it is vital that
organizations employ leadership styles that enable organizations to survive in a dynamic
environment .Maritz, *//01 Bass, *//2+.
4urthermore, it is generally accepted that the performance of any group of people
is largely dependent on the uality of its leadership. Cffective leadership behavior ?
facilitates the attainment of the subordinate7s desires, which then results in effective
performance .Maritz, *//01 =istow, et al., *///+. ;ellriegel and &locum .*//5)??0+
define leadership as Linfluencing others to act toward the attainment of a goalM. =utter
36
.*//0),2+ adds that leadership Linvolves moving people in a direction that is in their long
term interests.M
" definition by Bass .*//2+ that encompasses the ma9ority of different definitions
surrounding the construct of leadership states that Lleadership has been conceived as the
focus of group processes, as a matter of personality, as a matter of inducing compliance,
as the exercise of influence, as particular behaviors, as a form of persuasion, as a power
relation, as an instrument to achieve goals, as an effect of interaction, as a differentiated
role, as an initiation of structure, and as many combinations of this definitionM.
!eadership has been altered over time, with the change in employee reuirements
resulting in a demand for change in the relationship between a leader and his
subordinates.
37
CHAPTER #
9ETHODO3O:;
%his chapter gives detail descriptions of the steps to be taken in carrying out the
research pro9ect. In this section, the researcher will determine =esearch Besign, &ampling
4rame, #opulation, &ampling %echniue, &ample &ize, 6nit of "nalysis, Bata collection
Methods, Bata Collection #rocedures, Instrument, <alidity of Instrument and #lan for
Bata "nalysis.
#.1 Re'earch De')gn
" research design is to design the study in such a way that the reuisite data can
be gathered and analyzed to arrive at a solution. %he research design chooses for this
study is descriptive study. "ccording to .&alkind, ,33/+ descriptive research focuses on
events that occur in the present. %he descriptive study also is undertaken in order to
ascertain and able to describe the characteristics of the variables of interest in a situation
.&ekaran ,3*3+. %his study focuses to the relationship between leadership styles and
employees7 performance in the organization.
%his study is conducted in natural environment of the organization with the
minimal interference. 4or the reasons, the researcher has not interfered with the normal
38
activities in the office .&ekaran, ,3*3+. %he study setting for this research is field study
that means the research can be done on the natural environment where the work proceeds
normally. %hrough &ekaran .,3*3+ stated that research is done in a non contrived setting
with no inference with the normal work routine. "dditionally, &ekaran .,3*3+ state that
time horizon aspects can be divided into two which are crossDsectional and longitudinal
studies. CrossDsectional refers to the study which can be done in which data are gathered
9ust once, perhaps over period of days and weeks or months in order to answer the
research uestion. 8hile longitudinal studies refer to the study that is done more than one
point of time. 4or this research, the researcher use crossDsectional studies because the
uestionnaire will distribute only once in whole period of the research.
#. Sa!"%)ng .ra!e
"ccording to &ekaran .,3*3+, sampling frame refer to the listing of elements in
the population from which the sample is drawn. %he sampling frame for this research was
taken from employees who work =adio and %elevision Malaysia, "ngkasapuri at Chwal
&emasa &ection from grade B??, B?,, B?*, B-,, B,A, B,2, B,,, B*2, and '**. %he total
of population information will be provided by "dministration clerk in Chwal &emasa
&ection.
#.# Po"u%at)on
#opulation refers to the entire group of people, events or things of interest
researcher wishes to investigate .&ekaran, ,3*3+. %he population for this study referred to
the total number of the staff employed in =adio and %elevision Malaysia .=%M+ at Chwal
39
&emasa &ection. Based on the information obtained, it was found that total numbers of
employees who are currently working at Chwal &emasa &ection are **- people.
" total of **- of them are divided into - categories which are permanent staff, contract
staff, and piecemeal staff. %he table below shows that the category and uantity of staff in
Chwal &emasa &ection)
BI3 CATE:OR; STA.. ,UANTIT;
1. #ermanent &taff 00
. Contract &taff ?,
#. #iecemeal &taff *5
%able -.3) %he category and the uantity of staff in Chwal &emasa &ection
#.& Sa!"%)ng Techn)<ue
%he sampling techniue used in this study was probability sampling that is
stratified random sampling. %his sampling techniue was selected because the respondent
of this research were consists of A5 =%M employees that were chosen from Current
"ffair Bepartment in =adio %elevision Malaysia .=%M+. %he researcher distributes the
instruments .uestionnaire+ among staff at =adio and %elevision Malaysia .=%M+
conveniently without biases.
#.+ Sa!"%e ')7e
"ccording to .&alkind, ,33/+ a sample size should be big enough to help answers
the research uestion accurately, but not so big that the process of sampling becomes
uneconomical and inefficiently. Moreover, according .&alkind, ,33/+ keep in mind that
-3 is the general magic number how many participants should be in each group.
40
%herefore, in this study the researcher will select about A5 out of **- respondents to
participate in this study from the population of employee. %he respondent selected
randomly and without biases. It includes employees from staff that is in different
position, age, and gender.
#.- Un)t of Ana%y')'
%he study is based on the individual as unit of analysis where by the data will be
collected from each individual staff member employed in selected departments that is
Chwal &emasa &ection in =adio and %elevision Malaysia .=%M+, "ngkasapuri, >uala
!umpur.
#.0 Data Co%%ect)on 9ethod
4or this research, the researcher will be collected and will be used both primary
and secondary data in order to ensure the purpose of this study will be achieved.
i. #rimary data
%he primary data refer to information obtained firstDhand by the researcher
on the variables of interest for the specific purpose of the study .&ekaran,
,3*3+. 4or this research, the researcher had used one of the primary data
methods to collect data which is uestionnaire. %he uestionnaire will be
distributed to A5 respondents in Chwal &emasa &ection, =adio and
%elevision Malaysia .=%M+. %he uestionnaire were distributed and
collected by hand from the respondent. %he feedback gains from the
41
respondents were used to determine the relationship between the
independent variables and the dependent variable.
ii. &econdary data
"ccording &ekaran .,3*3+ state that the secondary data refer to
information gathered from sources that already exist. %he secondary data
can be internal and external to the organization and accessed through the
Internet or perusal of recorded or published information. %he secondary
data in obtaining data sources can be collected with uickly and it
inexpensive. %his study used the secondary data in obtaining the
information through 9ournals and articles to identify the findings done by
many researchers regarding the leadership styles and employee
performance. 4or instance, the researcher will be accessed via online
database in 6itm library such as Cmerald and Cbscohost as well as using
(oogle &cholar.
"s well, the organization website .www.rtm.gov.my+ also will be
used as the secondary data in obtaining the overall information about
background of the organization. %he demographic background of the
employees provided by "dministration Clerk in this department also
included as secondary data. !ast but not least, the pro9ect research done by
the senior in faculty as the references to the researcher also indicated as
secondary data that it can be guide the researcher in making the good
written thesis.
42
#.1 Data Co%%ect)on Procedure'
In this study, the data was collected by distributing a set of uestionnaire. %he
uestionnaires were personally sent to the respondents by the researcher. Besigned in two
ma9or sections, the uestionnaires nominate respondents .employees+ to give their
personal details, 9ob information and they are also reuired to response to all the
uestions derived from the uestionnaires. " cover letter was attached to explain the
ob9ective of the research. 4ollow up was made in order to ensure that the respondent7s
answer the uestionnaires correctly. %he uestionnaires then were collected within one
week.
#.2 In'tru!ent
In this study, the instruments used for data collection purpose is by using a
uestionnaires. %hese uestionnaires consist of three ma9or sections or categories. &ection
" was about the #ersonal #articular of =espondent or demographic background. 4or
instance were gender, age, raceJethnic, highest education and position and working
experience. Meanwhile in section B, it focuses on type of leadership that practice in their
department. But in this section will be divided into three elements which are autocratic
leadership, democratic leadership and laissezDfaire leadership. In section C, the uestions
were concentrated on employee7s performance and employees feel about the
organization.
43
#.14 5a%)d)ty of In'tru!ent
%he face and content validity of the uestionnaire was established by referring to
panel of expert from 4aculty of Business Management, 6i%M #uncak "lam which is
Cncik "bu ;assan Ibrahim, who has knowledge in the related field of study. 4eedback
from these experts was used to make necessary changes to the uestions before sending it
out to the respondents. Meanwhile, the face validity was used to check errors and
ambiguity.
#.11 Data Ana%y')'
"fter the uestionnaires were collected from respondents, all data were analyzed
using the descriptive statistic which includes percentages, freuencies, mean, mode, and
median.
%he data collection will be measure by correlation. It will indicate the direction,
strength, and significance of the relationship among all the variables. %he data will be
collect based on demographical aspect .age, gender, etc.+ and geographical aspect.
Besides that, an interval scale allows to perform certain arithmetical operations on
the data collected from the respondents by using !ikert scale. " fiveDpoint !ikert scale
was used, anchored by research * .strongly disagree+1 , .disagree+1 - .neutral+1 ? .agree+1
and 0 .strongly disagree+. %he data collection will be recorded in &#&& system. %he
results were supported with graphs and illustration.
44
#.1 Su!!ary
"s a conclusion, methodology consists of method that using by the researcher in
order to collect and obtain the information that needed to complete the research. %his
chapter has explained the methodology that the researcher used which are research
designs, sampling frame, population, sampling techniue, sample size, unit of analysis,
data collection methods, data collection procedures, instrument, and data analysis. %his
study using uestionnaire in order to obtain the information and then the data will analyze
by using &#&& system.
45
CHAPTER &
RESU3T AND .INDIN:S
&.4 Introduct)on
%he chapter highlights the analysis of findings obtained through data collected
from respondents. %hus, the elements that will be discussed in the chapter are obtained
from data of the survey return on analysis of uestion related to the study. %he elements
are covering the analysis of demographic background, leadership styles and employees
performance. %he distribution of uestionnaire sent out by hand. %he total uestionnaires
sent were *33 and A5 uestionnaires were return.
&.1 Rate of Sur*ey Returned
%he percentage of survey rate is A5N. %he uestionnaires were personally
distributed to *33 of employees and get return A5 from the respondent at Bepartment of
Current "ffair .&eksyen Chwal &emasa+. %he percentage of respondents was taken from
the administration employees, finance employees, producers, and assistant producers
from this department.
46
&. Re%)a$)%)ty Te't
Coefficient alpha is also known Croncbach:s "lpha which is also often being used
to measure reliability. =eliability is the degree to measure any error that leads to
consistency of the result of the research.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha
Based on
Standardized Items
N of Items
.967 .967 28
%able ?.3 =eliability &tatistics for !eadership &tyles and Cmployee #erformance
Based on table ?.3, the reliability statistic for !eadership &tyles and Cmployee
#erformance shows a rate of 3./52 which is more than 3533. %his indicates the ranking is
considered as excellent.
Ite!' Cron$ach=' A%"ha N of Ite!'
"utocratic .A/3 0
Bemocratic ./,A 0
!aissezD4aire .A2/ 0
Cmployee #erformance ./-A *-
%able ?.* =eliability &tatistics for "ll <ariables
47
Based on table ?.*, it shows all the reliability of statistics of !eadership &tyles and
Cmployee #erformance as follows)
%he reliability statistic for "utocratic leadership styles is 3.A/3. ;ence, it can be
concluded that reliability statistic for "utocratic leadership styles is very good.
%he reliability statistic for Bemocratic leadership styles is 3./,A. ;ence, it can be
concluded that reliability statistic for "utocratic leadership styles is excellent.
%he reliability statistic for !aissezD4aire leadership styles is 3.A23. ;ence, it can
be concluded that reliability statistic for "utocratic leadership styles is very good.
%he reliability statistic for Cmployee #erformance is 3./-A. ;ence, it can be
concluded that reliability statistic for "utocratic leadership styles is excellent.
48
&. Sect)on A> De!ogra"h)c Background
&..1 :ender
%his section used to determine the respondent7s background information such as
gender, age, education background, and length of working experience. %he finding as
table ?.- shows that the breakdown of respondents according to gender where a ma9ority
with 0?.2N .nO?2+ of the respondents were female while ?0.-N .nO-/+ were male.
Gender
re!"enc# $ercent %alid $ercent C"m"lati&e
$ercent
%alid
'ale (9 )*.( )*.( )*.(
emale )7 *).7 *).7 +,,.,
-otal 86 +,,., +,,.,
%able ?.- (ender of respondent
4igure ?.3 (ender of respondent
49
&.. Age of Re'"ondent'
%he finding as %able ?.? shows that, age group from ,0D-0 years old is recorded
the higher percentage that is 0*.,N .nO??+. 4ollowed by the age group from -5D?0 years
old with *5.-N .nO*?+. "fter that, it is followed by the age of group from below ,0 years
old with the percentage of *0.*N .nO*-+. %hen, it is followed by the age group from
more than 00 years old with the percentage *3.0N .nO/+. %he last and also the lowest
percentage is group from ?5D03 years old with percentage of 2.3N .nO5+.
Age
re!"enc# $ercent %alid $ercent C"m"lati&e
$ercent
%alid
belo. 2* #ears +( +*.+ +*.+ +*.+
2*/(* #ears )) *+.2 *+.2 66.(
(6/)* #ears +) +6.( +6.( 82.6
)6/*, #ears 6 7., 7., 89.*
more than ** #ears 9 +,.* +,.* +,,.,
-otal 86 +,,., +,,.,
%able ?.? "ge of respondent
4igure ?.* "ge of respondent
50
&..# Occu"at)ona% Statu'
%he findings as %able ?.0 shows that occupation status with the highest
percentages is from group permanent, 2A.2N .nO?A+. %he second one is contract with
percentage of *?.AN .nO/+ and the lowest percentage is from group temporary with 5.5N
.nO?+.
OccupationalStatus
re!"enc# $ercent %alid $ercent C"m"lati&e
$ercent
%alid
$ermanent )7 *).7 *).7 *).7
Contract 29 ((.7 ((.7 88.)
-emporar# +, ++.6 ++.6 +,,.,
-otal 86 +,,., +,,.,
%able ?.0 $ccupational &tatus
4igure ?., $ccupational &tatus
51
&..& Educat)on 3e*e%
%he findings shows the education level among respondents at =adio %elevision
Malaysia .=%M+ with the highest group from bachelor group with percentage of 0*.,N
.nO??+. 4ollowed by diploma group with percentages ,-.-N .nO,3+. "fter that followed
by others group with percentages /.-N .nOA+. 'ext is group &%#M and Masters with
percentage 2.3N .nO5+ and the lowest group is #hB with percentages ,.-N .nO,+.
EducationLevel
re!"enc# $ercent %alid $ercent C"m"lati&e
$ercent
%alid
$h0 2 2.( 2.( 2.(
'asters 6 7., 7., 9.(
Bachelor )) *+.2 *+.2 6,.*
0iploma 2, 2(.( 2(.( 8(.7
S-$' 6 7., 7., 9,.7
1thers 8 9.( 9.( +,,.,
-otal 86 +,,., +,,.,
%able ?.5 Cducational !evel
4igure ?.- Cducational !evel
52
&..+ Profe'')ona% 3e*e%
%he percentages as %able ?.2 shows which category describe respondent7s
professional level. %he highest group is middle management with percentages of 2,.*N
.nO5,+. 4ollowed by lower management with percentages *A.5N .nO*5+. %he lowest
group is top management with percentages /.-N .nOA+.
ProfessionalLevel
re!"enc# $ercent %alid $ercent C"m"lati&e
$ercent
%alid
-op mana2ement le&el 8 9.( 9.( 9.(
'iddle mana2ement le&el 62 72.+ 72.+ 8+.)
3o.er mana2ement le&el +6 +8.6 +8.6 +,,.,
-otal 86 +,,., +,,.,
%able ?.2 #rofessional !evel
4igure ?.? #rofessional !evel
53
&..- ;ear' 6orked In ;our Current Organ)7at)on
%he findings as %able ?.A shows the percentages of years worked in the
organization with the highest percentages is from group more than 0 years, 0/.-N .nO0*+.
"fter that followed by ,D0 years with percentage of ,0.5N .nO,,+. %hen, the lowest
group is less than , year with percentage *0.*N .nO*-+.
YearsWorked
re!"enc# $ercent %alid $ercent C"m"lati&e
$ercent
%alid
3ess than 2 #ears +( +*.+ +*.+ +*.+
2/* #ears 22 2*.6 2*.6 ),.7
'ore than * #ears *+ *9.( *9.( +,,.,
-otal 86 +,,., +,,.,
%able ?.A Iears 8orked
4igure ?.0 Iears 8orked
54
&.# Sect)on B> 3eader'h)" Sty%e'
%his section in the uestionnaire is to identify the implementation of leadership
styles at =adio %elevision Malaysia .=%M+. %hree types of leadership styles were study in
this research which is "utocratic leadership style, Bemocratic leadership style and
!aissezD4aire leadership style. %he respondents were reuired to rate their level of
agreement or disagreement toward leadership styles according to !ikert &cale where)D
*O &trongly disagree
,O Bisagree
-O 6ncertainty
?O "gree
0O &trongly "gree
55
Re'earch ,ue't)on 1 >
6hat ty"e of %eader'h)" 'ty%e "ract)ce )n Rad)o and Te%e*)')on 9a%ay')a ?RT9@A
%here were three leadership styles that have been tested to the respondent in the
uestionnaires given to them by researcher. %he independent variables of leadership
styles which "utocratic !eadership &tyle, Bemocratic !eadership &tyle and !aissezDfaire
!eadership &tyle. In this study, the researcher used mean and standard deviation to
identify which leadership styles that practice among employees at =adio %elevision
Malaysia .=%M+. "ccording to &alkind .,33/+, mean is the sum of set score divided by
the number of scores. By using mean, the researcher can identify which of leadership
styles is highest score among the respondents degree for the leadership styles. %hrough
the study also states that standard deviation is the average amount that each of the
individual7s scores varies from the mean of the set of score.
Descriptive Statistics
N 'inim"m 'a4im"m 'ean Std. 0e&iation
A5-1C6A-IC 86 +.,, *.,, (.7()9 .82287
07'1C6A-IC 86 +.,, *.,, (.7698 .9)(8)
3AISS789AI67 86 +.,, *.,, (.6))2 .7)98)
%alid N :list.ise; 86
%able ?./ Bescriptive &tatistic of !eadership &tyles
4rom the table showed that the respondents agree that organization practiced a
Bemocratic leadership style which leads their employees where the mean for this tested
uestion is -.25/A and the standard deviation is ./?-A?. 8hereby, mean of "utocratic
leadership styles placed of mean -.2-?/ and the standard deviation .A,,A2. %he mean for
!aissezDfaire leadership styles was -.5??, and the standard deviation is .2?/A?.
Bescriptive &tatistic for Bemocratic !eadership &tyles
56
Descriptive Statistics
N 'inim"m 'a4im"m 'ean Std. 0e&iation
'# s"per&isor belie&es that commitment
from emplo#ees is essential
86 +.,, *.,, ).+86, .8(((,
'# s"per&isor al.a#s is a role model to
the emplo#ees
86 +.,, *.,, (.7,9( +.+)6*2
'# s"per&isor allo.s participation in
decision ma<in2 and problem sol&in2
86 +.,, *.,, (.779+ .98699
'# s"per&isor pla#s his or her roles
effecti&el#
86 +.,, *.,, (.686, +.,87)9
'# s"per&isor al.a#s informed me abo"t
e&er#thin2
86 +.,, *.,, (.)88) +.+()9)
%alid N :list.ise; 86
%able ?.*3
Based on the %able ?.*3, it was found that the highest rate Bemocratic !eadership &tyles
is on the uestion of Lmy supervisor believes that commitment from employees is
essentialM where the mean is ?.*A5 while the standard deviation is .A---3. 8hereby, the
respondent7s rate the lowest degree Bemocratic !eadership &tyles on the uestion Lmy
supervisor always informed me about everythingM with the mean -.?AA? and the
standard deviation *.*-?/?. It can be concluded that most of the respondents agree that
Bemocratic !eadership &tyles is the types of leadership that implement among
employees and affect the employee performance.
Re'earch ,ue't)on >
57
6hat )' re%at)on'h)" $et/een %eader'h)" 'ty%e and e!"%oyee' "erfor!ance at Rad)o
and Te%e*)')on 9a%ay')a ?RT9@A
%his section discussed regarding the relationship between leadership styles and
employee performance among employees at =adio %elevision .=%M+. %he research used
the #earson correlation to test the relationship between leadership styles and employees
performance. %herefore, the result is as at %able ?.** showed below.
Interpretation for Correlation Coefficient .Cohen, */AA+
Corre%at)on Range De'cr)"t)on
.A D*.3 <ery &trong
.5 D .A &trong
.? D .5 Moderate
., D .?3 8eak
.3 D .,3 <ery 8eak
%able ?.** Correlation Coefficient
Correlation of leadership styles and employee performance .nOA5+
orrelations
-otal9I% -otal90%
-otal9I% $earson Correlation + .82(
==
Si2. :2/tailed; .,,,
58
N 86 86
-otal90%
$earson Correlation .82(
==
+
Si2. :2/tailed; .,,,
N 86 86
==. Correlation is si2nificant at the ,.,+ le&el :2/tailed;.
%able ?.*, Correlation between !eadership &tyles and Cmployee #erformance
Based on the finding, it shows there is relationship leadership styles and employee
performance. %able ?.*, shows the total score for correlation between leadership styles
and employee performance with r O3.A,-, p P 3.30 and n O A5. "ccording to .Cohen,
*/AA+ there is a very strong relationship between leadership styles and employee
performance.
Re'earch ,ue't)on # >
Are Rad)o Te%e*)')on 9a%ay')a ?RT9@ e!"%oyee' 'at)'f)ed /)th the)r %eader'h)"
'ty%eA
59
Descriptive Statistics
N 'ean Std. 0e&iation
I feel li<e I am a part of the compan#> 86 ).,2(( .8(98)
I ha&e the tools and reso"rces to do m# ?ob .ell 86 (.872+ .8*+2*
1n m# ?ob@ I ha&e clearl# defined !"alit# 2oals 86 ).,,,, .7(*6*
I am s"re m# s"perior A s"per&isor .ill treat me fair# if
I hear all his A her directions
86 (.8)88 .988(7
'# s"per&isorBs mana2er &isibl# demonstrates a
commitment to !"alit#
86 (.8(72 .82),6
Co. satisfied are #o" .ith #o"r in&ol&ement in
decisions that affect #o"r .or<>
86 (.79,7 .8827(
Co. satisfied are #o" .ith the information #o" recei&e
from mana2ement on .hatBs 2oin2 on in the
or2anization>
86 (.6,)7 .97(*2
Co. satisfied are #o" .ith #o"r opport"nit# to 2et a
better ?ob in this or2anization
86 (.*,,, +.,7+,+
Considerin2 e&er#thin2@ ho. satisfied are #o" .ith
#o"r ?ob>
86 ).,()9 .7*8)*
-here is 2ood comm"nication from mana2ers to
emplo#ees in the or2anization
86 (.6279 +.,),89
I feel enco"ra2e to come "p .ith ne. and better .a#s
of doin2 thin2s
86 (.86,* .8)2))
I am thin<in2 abo"t chan2in2 to another or2anization A
department
86 (.7))2 .8*662
I .ant to sta# .ith m# or2anization A department 86 (.79,7 +.,+88)
%alid N :list.ise; 86
%able ?.*- Bescriptive &tatistics of Cmployee #erformance
Con')der)ng e*eryth)ngB ho/ 'at)'f)ed are you /)th your (o$A
re!"enc# $ercent %alid $ercent C"m"lati&e
$ercent
60
%alid
Stron2l# 0isa2ree 2 2.( 2.( 2.(
0isa2ree + +.2 +.2 (.*
5ncertaint# 8 9.( 9.( +2.8
A2ree *6 6*.+ 6*.+ 77.9
Stron2l# A2ree +9 22.+ 22.+ +,,.,
-otal 86 +,,., +,,.,
%able ?.*? 4reuency for Cmployee #erformance
%able ?.*? shows that employees satisfied with leadership style practice at =adio
%elevision Malaysia with MO?.3-, &BO.20A respondents answered KConsidering
everything, how satisfied are you with your 9obEK. 4rom table ?.**, 50.*N respondent
answered agree, ,,.*N strongly agree, /.-N uncertainty, ,.-N strongly disagree and
*.,N disagree. %his is a positive that employees at =adio %elevision Malaysia can accept
their leadership style. It can be conclude that most of the respondents agree and satisfied
with leadership styles.
CHAPTER +
CONC3USION AND RECO99ENDATIONS
61
+.4 Introduct)on
%his chapter describes the conclusion and recommendations of the study
conducted by the researchers that focuses on findings gathered along this study. %he
conclusion includes the analysis of demographic background of the respondents in which
employees from =adio %elevision Malaysia .=%M+, leadership styles used by leaders
among them and it effect on their employees performance. $ther than that, this chapter
also highlights on recommendation that can be considered in order to help employees
increase their motivation that may result in good work performance that align with
organization7s goal and ob9ectives.
+.1 Conc%u')on
62
Based on the findings of the research, it can be concluded that the reliability of the
uestionnaires has been tested by using the Cronbach:s "lpha Coefficient &ize. %he
uestions are divided into ? different sections which are "utocratic !eadership &tyles,
Bemocratic !eadership &tyles, !aissezDfaire !eadership &tyles and Cmployee
#erformance. %he three sections are the independent variable and another one section is
dependent variable. Cach section scores between a range of very good and excellent. %he
overall reliability of uestionnaires is excellent.
%he researcher found that the ma9ority of respondents of the study are female
respondent .?2N+. Most of the respondents were ages between ,0 years old to -0 years
old .0*.,N+ and highest groups in occupations status is permanent .2A.2N+. Cducation
completed process by respondent was bachelor .0*.,N+. %he category describe of
professional level is highest from respondents in middle management group .2,.*N+ and
the longest respondents years working experiences hold were more than 0 years .0/.-N+.
4rom the findings in Chapter ?, researcher found that Bemocratic !eadership &tyle
influence employees 9ob performance among employees at =adio %elevision Malaysia.
%his result shows that Bemocratic leadership style is becoming a favor among employees
due to it characteristics such as leaders show their participation approach to subordinates,
they focus on subordinates needs, listen to subordinates when they have a opinion or
problem, and tend to treat their subordinates as an individual rather than 9ust
subordinates. %hese characteristic were seen very close to employees and make them feel
very warm when they deal with their leader and how it may increase their 9ob
performance. .Iukl, $7Bonnell and %aber, ,33A+
63
In addition, for the second research uestion the result found that there is a
significant relationship between different leadership style and employees performance
among employees at =adio %elevision Malaysia .=%M+. It also shows that different
leadership style used had gave different level of performance and this also depend on a
person perception towards their environment including their demographic background as
well as their working environment. &ometime people perceive autocratic leadership is
good in order to help them build their internal strength but some people think it too strict
and nor a good leadership style. %his is because different people have different perception
and expectation towards certain situation. "ccording to ;artman .*///+, different
behavior pattern or traits will be effective in different situations and that the same pattern
is not optimal in all situations.
Based on the result, the third research uestion shows that employee satisfied with
democratic leadership styles that apply at =adio %elevision Malaysia .=%M+. "ccording
the result, with MO?.3-, &BO.20A respondents answered KConsidering everything, how
satisfied are you with your 9obEK. It is important organization have a good environment
such as leadership style to make employees feels needed and this will help on their
performance in the organization.
$verall, from the result in the finding, the research uestion is answered and the
ob9ectives for this study are achieved. ;owever, the results for the independent variable
which are "utocratic, Bemocratic and !aissezDfaire style have small differences.
+. Reco!!endat)on
64
%his study has been conducted on the relationship between leadership style and
employees performance at =adio %elevision Malaysia. Based on the findings, most of the
respondents agreed that there are significant relationships between leadership style and
employees performance.
Based on the results of the study, several recommendations and suggestion were
made to ensure that organization can improve their leadership skill effectively and
efficiently. &ome of the recommendations are)D
1. De*e%o")ng %eader'h)" 'k)%%'
%o develop the leadership capabilities, the organization7s leader can gain the
knowledge from various ways. Cxample of organization can develop leadership
skills such as, attending training or seminar on developing of leadership skills,
communication skills and team work skills. "ccording to Martin .,332+, the
leader need to achieve bottomDline results, but must do collaboration, teamwork
and innovation. %o create an environment that facilitate the new skill set for
leaders, an organization must change its system and the way it operates to allow
people collaborate and work interdependently.
4rom the researcher opinion, the researcher would like to recommend the
organization to train their staff for leadership7s skills which they can lead their
subordinate effectively. In order to increase their knowledge about leadership the
researcher would like to recommend the organization a training or workshop
about the leadership.
65
. Treat e!"%oyee' a' )!"ortant a''et'
8oodruffe .,335+ stated that most of the organizations rarely miss an
opportunity to remind the audiences .and themselves+ that their people are the
most precious assets. %hrough the study, he also mentioned that organization
should treat every member of their staff as an individual. ;e further added,
employees like to feel that there is someone available to whom they can turn for
advice if they need it.
4rom the researcher review, the employees must be treated with manner
and mostly being respected, paying them fairly and affording them opportunity
for career advancement, gives them the motivation by encouraging their hidden
best potential skill for development. $ther than that, the organization should treat
their employees fairly and without biases, it can create dissatisfaction toward
other employees.
#. E!"o/er!ent
%he organization should introduce a participative management in their
organization in which the employees are given change or opportunity to share
management responsibilities, including the decision making. 4eeling trusted is a
gratifying feeling because it makes one feel useful as part of the team .8oodruffe,
,335+. 4rom the researcher opinion, when employees are given chance and
opportunity to make their own decision, it could establish and implement their
work goals. %hus, it will help employees to implement their tasks without any
boundaries that could limit their creativity, common sense and motivation.
66
Moreover, a leader should believe that the more employees knows about what is
right in their part of the organization, the more it will give the employees
confidence to make the right decision and increase their level of satisfaction.
Reco!!endat)on' for .uture Re'earcher
%he findings of the study are needed for the future researches. %here are
few recommendations for future research. &ome of the recommendations are)D
*. "s for future research, more research should be conducted in the study of
leadership styles in other organization in this area of study, regardless of its sector
either public sector or private sector. %his is to ensure the research is not only
67
focused on particular industry or sector, but it can be implemented and carried out
to various industries.
,. It is recommended that further studies be conducted with larger sample size to
determine the accuracy of findings. %he research should be conducted to a large
population, so that the result will be more accurate. %his will help unit know their
leadership styles that lead to the employees7 performance. %hus, there can
implement the most appropriate leadership style toward their organization.
-. Besides that, the method of collecting data should not be limited by using
uestionnaire itself. But it is recommended that an interview session should be
conducted with the employers and employees.
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