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Omar Khayat Faisal Al-Amoudi Abdulaziz Abuldouh Abdullah Sejeni

Introduction to water

Water is the most common liquid on our planet, vital to all life forms. It is the dispersion medium for all biochemical reactions of the living process and takes part in many of these reactions. In spite of the chemical simplicity of the water molecule, its physical properties are quite remarkable -- one might say weird! -- and have been a major research topic for many years. Many experiments give great insight into the structure and dynamics of water, but these often require the resources of a major research laboratory. In addition, some must take place under extreme conditions, such as those leading to superheated or supercooled water. Water has been studied since antiquity. What is new is that computers now allow us to start with elementary interactions between molecules and from them predict the large--scale properties of water, such as pressure, temperature, volume, solubility of salts, and so forth. In other words, computers can be used to calculate the physical quantities of water related to every day life. The computer simulation Wasser (the German word for ``water'') has made a major contribution to research on the behaviour of water. The addition of a graphical interface that pictures the atoms helped to make the Wasser program usable for students and increased its usefulness for research workers. The computer simulation not only correctly predicts macroscopic properties in agreement with experiment, but also allows us to investigate water under severe experimental conditions that are accessible only with great difficulty or not at all.


Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In excess levels, nutrients over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae. Excessive growth of these types of organisms consequently clogs our waterways, use up dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and block light to deeper waters. This, in turn, proves very harmful to aquatic organisms as it affects the respiration ability or fish and other invertebrates that reside in water. Pollution is also caused when silt and other suspended solids, such as soil, washoff plowed fields, construction and logging sites, urban areas, and eroded river banks when it rains. Under natural conditions, lakes, rivers, and other water bodies undergo Eutrophication, an aging process that slowly fills in the water body with sediment and organic matter. When these sediments enter various bodies of water, fish respirationbecomes impaired, plant productivity and water depth become reduced, and aquatic organisms and their environments become suffocated. Pollution in the form of organic material enters waterways in many different forms as sewage, as leaves and grass clippings, or as runoff from livestock feedlots and pastures. When natural bacteria and protozoan in the water break down this organic material, they begin to use up the oxygen dissolved in the water. Many types of fish and bottom-dwelling animals cannot survive when levels of dissolved oxygen drop below two to five parts per million. When this occurs, it kills aquatic organisms in large numbers which leads to disruptions in the food chain.

7 Interesting and Useful Water Facts

1. Roughly 70 percent of an adult’s body is made up of water. 2. At birth, water accounts for approximately 80 percent of an infant’s body weight. 3. A healthy person can drink about three gallons (48 cups) of water per day. 4. Drinking too much water too quickly can lead to water intoxication. Water intoxication occurs when water dilutes the sodium level in the bloodstream and causes an imbalance of water in the brain. 5. Water intoxication is most likely to occur during periods of intense athletic performance. 6. While the daily recommended amount of water is eight cups per day, not all of this water must be consumed in the liquid form. Nearly every food or drink item provides some water to the body.

7. Soft drinks, coffee, and tea, while made up almost entirely of water, also contain caffeine. Caffeine can act as a mild diuretic, preventing water from traveling to necessary locations in the body.

The Water Cycle

The earth has a limited amount of water. That water keeps going around and around and around and around and in what we call the "Water Cycle". This cycle is made up of a few main parts: • evaporation (and transpiration) • condensation • precipitation • collection

Evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes or the ocean and turns it into vapor or steam. The water vapor or steam leaves the river, lake or ocean and goes into the air.

Water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, forming clouds. This is called condensation. You can see the same sort of thing at home... pour a glass of cold water on a hot day and watch what happens. Water forms on the outside of the glass. That water didn't somehow leak through the glass! It actually came from the air. Water vapor in the warm air, turns back into liquid when it touches the cold glass.


Precipitation occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot hold it anymore. The clouds get heavy and water falls back to the earth in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow.

When water falls back to earth as precipitation, it may fall back in the oceans, lakes or rivers or it may end up on land. When it ends up on land, it will either soak into the earth and become part of the “ground water” that plants and animals use to drink or it may run over the soil and collect in the oceans, lakes or rivers where the cycle starts

all over again.