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: o o o o Earn Value Management (EVM) technique used to track the Progress and Status of a Project & Forcast the likely future performance of the Project. EVM technique integrates the scope , schedule and cost of a project. EVM technique answers a lot of questions to the stakeholders in a project related to the performance of the project. EVM technique can be used to show past performance of the project, current performance of the project and predict the future performance of the project by use of statistical techniques.

Good planning coupled with effective use of the EVM technique will reduce a large amount of issues arising out of schedule and cost overruns. EVM emerged as a financial analysis specialty in United States Government programs in the 1960s, but it has since become a significant branch of project management. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, EVM emerged as a project management methodology to be understood and used by managers and executives, not just EVM specialists. Today EVM has become an essential part of every project tracking. There are following three bacis elements of EVM

• • •

Planned Value (PV) Actual Cost (AC) Earned Value (EV)

All the three elements are captured on a regular basis as of a reporting date. Planned Value (PV) This is also referred to as Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled ( BCWS ). Planned Value (PV) or BCWS is the total cost of the work scheduled /Planned as of a reporting date. This is calculated as: PV or BCWS = Hourly Rate * Total Hours Planned or Scheduled NOTE: Hourly Rate is the rate at which effort will be valued. Actual Cost (AC) This is also referred to as Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP). Actual Cost (AC) or ACWP is the total cost taken to complete the work as of a reproting date. This is calculated as:

AC or ACWP = Hourly Rate * Total Hours Spent Earned Value (EV) This is also referred to as Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP). Earned Value (EV) or BCWP is the total cost of the work completed/performed as of a reporting date. This is calculated as: EV or BCWP = Baselined Cost * % Complete Actual All these three elements can be derived from Work Breakdown Structure by associating the costs to each of the tasks. For a big project it will be a tedious task to calculate these elements manually. Scheduling Softwares like Microsoft Project is used to calculate these three elements.

NOTE: % Completed Planned and % Compelted Actual are defined below % Completed Planned The percentage of work which was planned to be completed by the Reporting Date. This is calculated using the following formula % Completed Planned = PV / BAC % Completed Actual The percentage of work which was actually completed by the Reporting Date. This is calculated using the following formula % Completed Actual = AC / EAC Cost Variance (CV) is very important factor to measure project performance. Cost Variance (CV) indicates how much over or under budget the project is. Cost Variance can be calculated as using the following formula Cost Variance (CV) = Earned Value (EV) - Actual Cost (AC) OR Cost Variance (CV) = BCWP - ACWP

• • •

The formula mentioned above gives the variance in terms of cost which will indicate how less or more cost has been to complete the work as of date. Positive Cost Variance Indicates the project is under budget Negative Cost Variance Indicates the project is over budget

Cost Variance % Cost Variance % indicates how much over or under budget the project is in terms of percentage. Cost Variance % can be calculated as using the following formula CV % = Cost Variance (CV) / Earned Value (EV) OR CV % = CV / BCWP

• • •

The formula mentioned above gives the variance in terms of percentage which will indicate how much less or more money has been used to complete the work as planned in terms of percentage. Positive Variance % indicates % under Budget. Negative Variance % indicates % over Budget.

Cost Performance Indicator (CPI) Cost Performance Indicator is an index showing the efficiency of the utilization of the resources on the project. Cost Performance Indicator can be calculated using the following formula: CPI = Earned Value (EV) /Actual Cost (AC)

**OR CPI = BCWP / ACWP
**

• • •

The formula mentioned above gives the efficiency of the utilization of the resources allocated to the project. CPI value above 1 indicates efficiency in utilizing the resources allocated to the project is good. CPI value below 1 indicates efficiency in utilizing the resources allocated to the project is not good.

To Complete Cost Performance Indicator (TCPI) To complete Cost Performance Indicator is an index showing the efficiency at which the resources on the project should be utilized for the remainder of the project. This can be claulated using the following formula: TCPI = ( Total Budget - EV ) / ( Total Budget - AC )

OR TCPI = ( Total Budget - BCWP ) / ( Total Budget - ACWP )

• • •

The formula mentioned above gives the efficiency at which the project team should be utilized for the remainder of the project. TCPI value above 1 indicates utilization of the project team for the remainder of the project can be stringent. TCPI value below 1 indicates utilization of the project team for the remainder of the project should be lenient.

Schedule Variance Schedule Variance indicates how much ahead or behind schedule the project is. Schedule Variance can be calculated as using the following formula Schedule Variance (SV) = Earned Value (EV) - Planned Value (PV) OR Schedule Variance (SV) = BCWP - BCWS

•

• •

The formula mentioned above gives the variance in terms of cost which will indicate how much cost of the work is yet to be completed as per schedule or how much cost of work has been completed over and above the scheduled cost. Positive Schedule Variance Indicates we are ahead of schedule Negative Schedule Variance Indicates we are behind of schedule

Schedule Variance % Schedule Variance % indicates how much ahead or behind schedule the project is in terms of percentage. Schedule Variance % can be calculated as using the following formula SV % = Schedule Variance (SV) / Planned Value (PV) OR SV % = SV / BCWS

•

• •

The formula mentioned above gives the variance in terms of percentage which will indicate how much percentage of work is yet to be completed as per schedule or how much percentage of work has been completed over and above the scheduled cost Positive Variance % indicates % ahead of schedule. Negative Variance % indicates % behind of schedule.

Schedule Performance Indicator (SPI) Schedule Performance Indicator is an index showing the efficiency of the time utilized on the project. Schedule Performance Indicator can be calculated using the following formula:

**SPI = Earned Value (EV) /Planned Value (PV) OR SPI = BCWP / BCWS
**

• • •

The formula mentioned above gives the efficiency of the project team in utilizing the time allocated for the project. SPI value above 1 indicates project team is very efficient in utilizing the time allocated to the project. SPI value below 1 indicates project team is less efficient in utilizing the time allocated to the project.

To Complete Schedule Performance Indicator (TSPI) To Complete Schedule Performance Indicator is an index showing the efficiency at which the remaining time on the project should be utilized. This can be claulated using the following formula: TSPI = ( Total Budget - EV ) / ( Total Budget - PV ) OR TSPI = ( Total Budget - BCWP ) / ( Total Budget - BCWS )

• • •

The formula mentioned above gives the efficiency at which the project team should utilize the remaining time allocated for the project. TSPI value above 1 indicates project team can be lenient in utilizing the remaining time allocated to the project. TSPI value below 1 indicates project team needs to work harder in utilizing the remaining time allocated to the project.

**EVM Miscellaneous Formula Budget At Completion (BAC)
**

• • • •

Budget At Completion (BAC) is the total budget allocated to the project. Budget At Completion (BAC) is generally plotted over time. Say like periods of reporting ( Monthly, Weekly etc. ) BAC is used to compute the Estimate At Completion ( EAC ), explained in next section. BAC is also used to compute the TCPI and TSPI

BAC is calculated using the following formula BAC = Baselined Effort-hours * Hourly Rate

Estimate To Complete (ETC) o o o Estimate To Complete (ETC) is the estimated cost required to complete the remainder of the project. Estimate To Complete (ETC) is calculated and applied when the past estimating assumptions become invalid and a need for fresh estimates arises. ETC is used to compute the Estimation at Completion (EAC).

**Estimate At Completion (EAC)
**

• •

•

Estimate At Completion (EAC) is the estimated cost of the project at the end of the project. There are three methods to calcualte EAC o Variances are Typical - This method is used when the variances at the current stage are typical and are not expected to occure in the future. o Past Estimating Assumptions are not valid - This method is used when the past estimating assumptions are not valid and fresh estimates are applied to the project. o Variances will be present in the future - This method is used when the assumption is that the current variances will be continue to be present in the future. The formula for calculation of the three methods are as given below: o AC + ( BAC -EV ) o AC + ETC ( Estimate to complete ) o AC + ( BAC- EV ) / CPI

Variance At Completion (VAC) Variance At completion (VAC) is the variance on the total budget at the end of the project. This is the difference between what the project was originally expected (baselined) to cost, versus what the it is now expected to cost. VAC is calculated using the following formula VAC = BAC - EAC % Completed Planned The percentage of work which was planned to be completed by the Reporting Date. This is calculated using the following formula % Completed Planned = PV / BAC % Completed Actual The percentage of work which was actually completed by the Reporting Date. This is calculated using the following formula % Completed Actual = AC / EAC

To illustrate the concept of EVM and all the formulas, assume a project that has exactly one task. The task was baselined at 8 hours, but 11 hours have been spent and the estimate to complete is 1 additional hour. The task was to have been completed already. Assume an Hourly Rate of $100 per hour. Using this information: Hourly Rate = $100 PV or BCWS = Hourly Rate * Total Hours Planned or Scheduled PV = $800 ($100 * 8 hours) AC or ACWP = Hourly Rate * Total Hours Spent AC = $1100 ($100 * 11 hours) EV or BCWP = Baselined Cost * % Complete Actual EV = $734 (baseline of $800 * 91.7% complete) (NOTE % Complete Actual (below) to get the 91.7% ) BAC = Baselined Effort-hours * Hourly Rate BAC = $800 (8 hours * $100) EAC = AC + ETC EAC = $1200 (1100 + 100) VAC = BAC - EAC VAC = -$400 ($800 - $1200 ) % Completed Planned = PV / BAC % Complete Planned = 100% ($800 PV / $800 BAC) % Completed Actual = AC / EAC % Complete Actual = 91.7% ($1100 AC / $1200 EAC) SV = Earned Value (EV) - Planned Value (PV) SV = -$100 ($700 EV - $800 PV) SPI = Earned Value (EV) /Planned Value (PV) SPI = 0.88 ($700 EV / $800 PV) CV = Earned Value (EV) - Actual Cost (AC) CV = -$400 ($700 EV - $1100 AC) indicating a cost overrun CPI = Earned Value (EV) /Actual Cost (AC) CPI = 0.64 ($700 EV / $1100 AC) indicating over budget

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