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for PI controller tuning

Chriss Grimholt

Sigurd Skogestad

NTNU, Trondheim, Norway

Reference: C. Grimholt and S. Skogestad, The improved SIMC method for PI controller tuning,

IFAC-conference PID12, Brescia, Italy, March 2012

2

SIMC PI tuning rule

Look at initial part of step response, Initial slope: k = k/

1

One tuning rule! Easily memorized

Reference: S. Skogestad, Simple analytic rules for model reduction and PID controller design, J.Proc.Control, Vol. 13, 291-309, 2003 (Also reprinted in MIC)

(*) Probably the best simple PID tuning rule in the world

c

- : Desired closed-loop response time (tuning parameter)

For robustness select:

c

Questions:

1. How good is really this rule?

2. Can it be improved?

Step response

*

3

1. How good is really the SIMC rule?

Need to compare with:

Optimal PI-controller

for class of first-order with delay processes

4

Optimal controller

Tradeoff between

Output performance

Robustness

Input usage

Noise sensitivity

High controller gain (tight control)

Low controller gain (smooth control)

Quantification

Output performance:

Frequency domain: weighted sensitivity ||W

p

S||

Time domain: IAE or ISE for setpoint/disturbance

Robustness: M

s

, GM, PM, Delay margin

Input usage: ||KSG

d

||, ISE or TV for step response

Noise sensitivity: ||KS||, etc.

M

s

= peak sensitivity

J = avg. IAE for

setpoint/disturbance

Our choice:

5

IAE = Integrated absolute error = |y-y

s

|dt, for step change in y

s

or d

Cost J is independent of:

1. process gain k

2. disturbance magnitude

3. unit for time

Output performance (J)

6

Optimal PI-controller:

Minimize J for given M

s

7

M

s

=2

M

s

=1.2

M

s

=1.59

|S|

frequency

8

M

s

=2

Optimal PI-controller

Setpoint change at t=0, Input disturbance at t=20,

g(s)=k e

-s

/(

1

s+1), Time delay =1

9

M

s

=1.59

Optimal PI-controller

Setpoint change at t=0, Input disturbance at t=20,

g(s)=k e

-s

/(

1

s+1), Time delay =1

10

M

s

=1.2

Optimal PI-controller

Setpoint change at t=0, Input disturbance at t=20,

g(s)=k e

-s

/(

1

s+1), Time delay =1

11

Optimal performance (J) vs. M

s

Optimal PI-controller

12

Input usage (TV) increases with M

s

TV

ys

TV

d

Optimal PI-controller

13

Setpoint / disturbance tradeoff

Pure time delay process: J=1, No tradeoff

(since setpoint and disturbance the same)

Optimal controller:

Emphasis on disturbance d

Optimal PI-controller

14

Setpoint / disturbance tradeoff

Optimal setpoint:

No integral action

Optimal PI-controller

15

Comparison with SIMC

16

Comparison of J vs. M

s

for optimal and SIMC for 4 processes

17

Conclusion (so far):

How good is really the SIMC rule?

Varying

C

gives (almost) Pareto-optimal tradeoff

between performance (J) and robustness (M

s

)

C

= is a good default choice

Not possible to do much better with any other PI-

controller!

Exception: Time delay process

18

2. Can the SIMC-rule be improved?

Yes, possibly for time delay process

19

Optimal PI-settings

Optimal PI-controller

20

Optimal PI-settings (small

1

)

Time-delay process

SIMC:

I

=

1

=0

0.33

Optimal PI-controller

21

Improved SIMC-rule: Replace

1

by

1

+/3

22

Step response for time delay process

Time delay process: Setpoint and disturbance response same

=1

23

Comparison of J vs. Ms for optimal and SIMC for 4 processes

24

Conclusion

Questions:

1. How good is really the SIMC-rule?

Answer: Pretty close to optimal, except for time delay process

2. Can it be improved?

Yes, to improve for time delay process: Replace

1

by

1

+/3 in rule

to get Improved-SIMC

Not possible to do much better with any other PI-

controller!

Reference: C. Grimholt and S. Skogestad, The improved SIMC method for PI controller tuning,

IFAC-conference PID12, Brescia, Italy, March 2012

25

Model from closed-loop

response with P-controller

Kc0=1.5

ys=1

yu=0.54

yp=0.79

tp=4.4

dyinf = 0.45*(dyp + dyu)

Mo =(dyp -dyinf)/dyinf

b=dyinf/dys

A = 1.152*Mo^2 - 1.607*Mo + 1.0

r = 2*A*abs(b/(1-b))

k = (1/Kc0) * abs(b/(1-b))

theta = tp*[0.309 + 0.209*exp(-0.61*r)]

tau = theta*r

Example: Get k=0.99, theta =1.68, tau=3.03

Ref: Shamssuzzoha and Skogestad (JPC, 2010)

+ modification by C. Grimholt (Project, NTNU, 2010; see also new from PID-book 2011)

y

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