You are on page 1of 7

Principles of Teaching 1

What is principle?
Principles of Teaching refers to the psychological laws of
learning educational concepts and the rules of practice upon which
all educational procedures are formed.

Elements of Teaching and Learning
Teachers
Learners
Conductive Learning
Environmental/Favorable Environment

Teacher is the prime mover of the educational wheel.
Learner are the key participants in the learning process.
Favorable Environment provides essentials features and
ingredients that make a headway in giving the processes and
methodologies needed for a smooth linkage among the three
elements.

CONJUSIVE IN LEARNING ENVIRONMENT:
The room should be big enough
Students should provided with comfortable seats
Well Arrange Seats
Well Ventilated
Classrooms should be light
Classrooms should be clean
Should be observant to the students
Environment should favorable in learning

The Learner is an embodied spirit. The Learners is equipped
with cognitive as well as appetitive faculties.

COGNITIVE FACILITIES:
Sense (see, hear, feel, taste and smell whatever is to be
learned)
Instinct ( natural or acquired tendency)
Imagination (able to form representations of material
objects which are not actually present to the senses)
Memory (retain, recall and recognize past mental acts.)
Intellect (form concepts or ideas, make judgement and
reason out)

Cognitive Factor Psychology factor
Is the teacher is teaching, what.
Is been hear, see
Your mind is use when imagining
Appetitive Faculties Functioning Normally
Feelings/Emotions
Rational will serves as guiding force and the main
integrity force in the learners character. For effective
and efficient the five senses must function normally.

What I hear, I Forget (Not all remember)
What I see, I remember (Sometimes)
What I Do, I Understand (The Best Way to do)

If there is an activity,, let them do the activity

DISTINGUISHING EEMENTS OF LEARNER
1. Ability
Differ in the way they observe and interpret
happenings in their surroundings
Differ on their reactions and facility to learn
Differ on their mental ability
2. Aptitude - refers to the students innate talent or gift.
Indicates a natural capacity to learn certain skills
3. Interest
Vary in activities that are undertaken due to a story
appeal or attract or attraction.

Dealing your students differently
Difficult question will be given to the bright ones
4. Family and Cultural background
Learners who come from different social economic
background manifest in upbringing practices.
5. Attitude - refer to an individuals perspective and
disposition. Some positive attitudes of learner.
`a. Curiosity
b. Responsibility
c. Creativity
d. Persistent


Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligence
1. Verbal linguistic intelligence sounds, meanings,
structures and styles of language sensitive to speaking,
writing and reading.
Ex. Politician, Sales Rep., Script Writers,
Newscaster, Teachers, Priest
2. Logical Mathematical Intelligence patterns,
numbers and numerical data, causes and effects
objective and and quantitative reasoning sensitive to
finding patterns, making calculations, forming and
testing hypothesis using the scientific method, deductive
and inductive reasoning.
Ex. Attorey Scientist, Computer Programmer, Analyst
3. Spatial Inteligence color, shape, usual puzzles,
symmetry, lines, images, sensitivity in representing ideas
visually, creating mental images, noticing visually,
creating mental images, noticing visual details, drawing
and sketching.
Ex. Archetect, Painters, Graphic Artist, Interior Designer
4. Bodily Kinetic Intelligence touch, movement,
physical self athletician, activities requiring speed,
flexibility, hard-eye coordination and balance.
Ex. Mechanic, surgeon
5. Musical Intelligence tone, beat, tempo, melody, pitch,
sound, sensitive in listening singing, playing an
instrument.
Ex. Composer, Musicians, singers.
6. Interpersonal Intelligence body language, moods,
feelings, Sensitive in noticing and responding to other
peoples feeling and personalities.
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence ones own strength
weakness, goals and desires. Sensitive in setting goals,
accessing personal abilities and liabilities, monitoring
ones own thinking.
8. Naturalist Intelligence - natural objects, plants,
animals, natural occury patterns, ecological issues.
Sensitive in identifying and classify living things and
natural objects.
9. Existential Intelligence ability to be sensitive to, or
have the capacity for, concept analyzing or tackling
deeper or larger questions about human existence such
as the meaning of life, why are we born, What is one
consciousness or how did we get there.

The Teacher

Professional Teacher is the licensed professional who
posses dignity and reputation with high moral values as well
as Technical and professional competences She/he adheres
to observe and practice a set of ethical and more principles,
standard and values,

A professional Teacher
a. Can effect change and learning (Sense of Efficiency)
b. Expert in what she teaches (Subject Matter Knowledge)
c. Know how she/he teaches (pedagogical Knowledge)




Attributes of a Professional Teacher
1. Control of the knowledge base of teaching and learning and
use of this knowledge to guide the science and art of his/her
teaching practice.
2. Repertoire of best teaching practice and can use these to
instruct children in classroom and to work with adults in the
school setting.
3. Dispositions and skills to approach all aspects of his/her
work in a reflective collegial and problem solving manner.
4. View of learning to teach as a lifelong process and
dispositions and skills for working towards improving
his/her own teaching as will as improving schools.
5. Sense of service is the badge of a professional teacher.

LEARNING STYLES
1. Visual Learners Study graphs, models and pictures and
take notes to review later.
2. Auditory learners list closely to class, reacts well to tapes
and films in the class.
3. Verbal Learners likely to absorbs reading materials such
lectures more easily that other students
4. Tactile learners favor subjects that allow them to work
with hands
5. Kinesthetic learners learn more by moving physically
6. Active and reflective learners
a. Active learners Tend to retain and understand but
by doing something with it, Discovery, applying it to
explaining it to others. They tend to do the group
work.
b. Reflective learners prefer to think about it quietly
first
7. Visual and Verbal Learners
a. Visual Learners remember best what they see.
b. Verbal Learners - Get more out of words (eg.
Written, Spoken)

8. Sensing and Intuitive Learners
a. Sensing learners tend to like learning facts often
like solving problems by well establishing methods
b. Intuitive Learners often prefer discovering
possibilities that relationships, like innovation and
dislike repetition
9. Sequential and Global learners
a. Sequential Learners tend to gain understanding
in linear steps with each step following logically
from the previous one.
b. Global Learners tend to learn in large jump
absorbing material almost randomly w/o connections
and then suddenly getting it.

THINKING STYLES
1. Concrete Sequential Thinkers tend to be based on
reality. Hands-on is a good way for these people to learn.
2. Concrete Random Thinkers Are experimenters. They are
based on reality, but are willing to take more of a trial and
error approach
3. Abstract Random Thinker organize information through
reflection. World of feeling and emotions
4. Abstract Sequential Thinkers Love the world of theory
and abstract though. They thinking processes one logical,
rational, and intellectual work alone rather than in group.

To facilitate learning, teacher must be:
1. Expert in his/her subject matter and skilled in the science
and art teaching
2. Have a pleasing personality and a model of values
3. Have passion for teaching, sense of humor and enthusiasm



OUTSTANDING PERSONAL QUALITITIES OF A
TEACHER
1. Passion
2. Humor
3. Values and Attitude
a. Open Mindness
b. Fairness and Impartiality
c. Sincerity and Honesty
d. Professionalism
4. Patience
5. Enthusiasm

THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

Learning Environment consists of:
1. Classroom
2. Instructional Features
3. Non- threatening classroom climate

PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

Principles rule for guiding the ship of education so that it will
reach the port designated by the philosophy of education
Is a compass by w/c the path of education is directed
Mean any general truth or guiding norm by which a
process is carried on
Chief guide to make teaching and learning effective
and productive
1. Learning is an experience w/c occurs inside the learner.
2. Learning is the discovery of the personal meaning and
relevance of ideas
3. Learning (Behavioral Change) is a consequence of
experience
4. Learning is cooperative and collaborative process
5. Learning is an revolutionary process
6. Learning is a painful process
7. One of the richest resources for the learning is the learner
himself
8. The process of learning is emotional as well as intellectual
9. The process of problem solving and learning are highly
unique and individual

PRINCIPLES OF GOOD TEACHING
1. Active Learning
2. Many Methods
3. Motivation
4. Well-balanced curriculum
5. Individual differences
6. Lesson planning
7. The power of suggestion
8. Encouragement
9. Remedial teaching
10. Democratic environment
11. Stimulation
12. Life-like situation
13. Independence

LESSON PLAN
Lesson Plan (Welson Bossing) is a statement of achievements to
be realized and the specific means by which these are to be
attainmed as a result of trhe activities engaged on day by day
under the guidance of the teacher.

Why is Lesson Plan important?
1. A pupil educational ground depends on the selection of the
subject matter, activities, experiences and methods adapted
to his interest, needs, abilities and level of maturity.
2. A lesson plan includes framing objects and choosing subject
matter, problems, materials and evaluation technique.
3. Making a lesson plan involves foreseeing what is likely to
happen and choosing experience that will change leaners for
the better.
4. A lesson plan serves as a guide to the apprentice teacher.
5. Planning presents waste of time

PARTS OF A LESSON PLAN
I. Objectives they are divided to the changes in the behavior
of the learners.
Cognitive refer to the mental ability (Learning facts &
Information)
Affective refer to the behavior & characteristics (Attitude
Appreciation)
Psychomotor refer to the action ( Habits & Skills)

II. Subject Matter
Topic/Concepts Title of the days lesson
Reference: Title of the book, Author/s, pages
Materials Colorful, Meaningful, Attractive Visual
Aids
Strategies different methods strategies used
depending on the aim, teacher, learner , lesson
Skills Verbs taken from the Objective (Gerund
Form)
Subject/s Integration to the lesson
Values focused values
III. Learning Activities
a. Preparatory Activities
Drill activity that will enable the students to automize
response to a prerequisites skill of the new lesson
Review activity that will refresh or renew previously
taught material
Introduction activity that will set the purpose of the day
lesson
All activities should be motivating to arouse the interest of
the learners



These motivational activities could be in two types:
1. Intrinsic Motivation
Sustaining self interest to learn
Maintains self curiosity and involvement the work by
using purpose, doubt, as well as familiar things
2. Extrinsic Motivation
Real life situation or within the experience of the
learners are incorporated
The teachers uses different activities as a vehicle to
translate the knowledge, values and skills into learning
that could be applied in their lives outside the school

3. Discussion/ Analysis asking of a series of effective or
cognitive questions about the lesson presented

4. Abstraction/Generalization
The summary of the lesson
Organizing significant information about the lesson
presented
Complete graphics organizer like concept maps, venn
diagram, fish bone, table, matrices, etc.

5. Closure/Application relates the lesson to other situation in
the forms of:
Dramatization simulation and play
Storytelling, oral reading
Construction drawing
Written composition
Singing or reciting a poem
b. Evaluation Determine whether the objectives are met
and achieved
Questioning, summarizing, journals
Assigning work-project, research
Administering short query, portfolios

c. Assignment an activity done outside the classroom/s
at home
Reinforce or enrich the days lesson
Set the materials that students have to bring to
school to implement the next lesson
The acrivity should help attain the days lesson
Objectives. It should be interesting and
differentiated
Objectives
provides goals to be attained,
give direction to the class discussion,
call for outcomes to expect.
General
aim is usually broad in scope and may be the objective of a
course, subject or semester.\
It cannot be attained in one lesson. Ex. To develop
Specific
Usually attainable in a specific lesson and contributes to the
accomplishing of the general aim.

There should be 3 objectives in the 3 domains of learning

CRITERIA OF OBJECTIVES
S-pecific
M-easurable
A-ttainable
R-esult-oriented
T-ime bound

TYPES OF LESSON PLAN:
Detailed - anticipating teaching because it puts into writing
the classroom activities that may occur. It is divided into 2
column----The TA and SA/PA. It is the longest plan because
it contains the procedure w/ questions and answer from the
learners.
Semi-detailed shorter that the detailed. No longer divided
into two columns because PA/SA is omitted. It copies the
different steps in the procedure from the preparatory to the
lesson
Brief shorter that the semi-detailed. It copies all the
onjective, subject matter, evaluation & assignment from the
semi-detailed. In the procedure, only important greetings are
copied from preparatory activities and lesson proper. The
different steps are omitted.

TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS & TOOLS
Visual
Redia
Models
Drawing

Teaching Approach teaches viewpoint
Teaching Method logical procedure
Teaching Strategy general design
Teaching Technique Style or act

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN CHOOSING A METHOD
Objectives
Subject Matter
Learners
Materials & Technology
Time Allotment
Teacher

INSTRUCTIONAL MODEL/DESIGN
Multi-grade instruction combined w/ a class
Team teaching Two more teacher
Distance education needs of individuals
Computer-assessed instruction utilize computer


TYPES OF LESSON
Developmental Lesson new lesson
Review Lesson renew the study
Drill Lesson Automization of certain response
Application lesson provides oppurtunities
Appreciation lesson understand & Value

TEACHING APPROCHES
Discovery Approach through discovery
Conceptual Approach integrates ideas
Inquiry Approach aspect Tearching
o Inductive Method specific to general
o Deductive Method general to specific
o Laboratory Method/Experimental Method
-Teaching procedure
Investigation or Experimentation