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VOLUME IISTANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAYS, BRIDGES AND AIRPORTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE



PART A- FACILITIES FOR THE ENGINEER --------------------------- 1

PART B- OTHER GENERAL REQUIREMENTS --------------------------- 5

PART C- EARTHWORK --------------------------- 6

Item 100- Clearing and Grubbing --------------- 6
Item 101- Removal of Structures and Obstructions --------------- 9
Item 102- Excavation --------------- 12
Item 103- Structure Excavation --------------- 18
Item 104- Embankment --------------- 24
Item 105- Subgrade Preparation --------------- 31
Item 106- Compaction Equipment and DensityControl Strips--------------- 34
Item 107- Overhaul --------------- 36

PART D- SUBBASE AND BASE COURSE --------------------------- 38

Item 200- Aggregate Subbase Course --------------- 38
Item 201- Aggregate Base Course --------------- 41
Item 202- Crushed Aggregate Base Course --------------- 44
Item 203- Lime Stabilized Road Mix Base Course --------------- 46
Item 204- Portland Cement Stabilized Road MixBase Course--------------- 51
Item 205- Asphalt Stabilized Road Mix BaseCourse--------------- 53
Item 206- Portland Cement Treated Plant MixBase Course--------------- 54
Item 207- Aggregate Stockpile --------------- 57

PART E- SURFACE COURSES --------------------------- 59

Item 300- Aggregate Surface Course --------------- 59
Item 301- Bituminous Prime Coat --------------- 61
Item 302- Bituminous Tack Coat --------------- 63
Item 303- Bituminous Seal Coat --------------- 65
Item 304- Bituminous Surface Treatment --------------- 68
Item 305- Bituminous Penetration MacadamPavement--------------- 73
Item 306- Bituminous Road Mix Surface Course --------------- 78
Item 307- Bituminous Plant-Mix Surface Course-General
Item 308- Cold Asphalt Plant-Mix --------------- 95
Item 309- Bituminous Plant-Mix (StockpileMaintenance Mixture)--------------- 100
Item 310- Bituminous Concrete Surface Course,Hot Laid--------------- 102
Item 311- Portland Cement Concrete Pavement --------------- 104

PART F- BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION --------------------------- 134

Item 400- Piling --------------- 134
Item 401- Railings --------------- 160
Item 402- Timber Structures --------------- 164
Item 403- Metal Structures --------------- 169
Item 404- Reinforcing Steel --------------- 207
Item 405- Structural Concrete --------------- 210
Item 406- Prestressed Concrete Structures --------------- 220
Item 407- Concrete Structures --------------- 230
Item 408- Steel Bridges --------------- 250
Item 409- Welded Structural Steel --------------- 255
Item 410- Treated and Untreated Timber --------------- 267
Item 411- Paint --------------- 269
Item 412- Elastomeric Bearing Pads --------------- 276
Item 413- Pre Molded Joint Filler for ConcretePaving and Structural Construction--------------- 281



PARTG-DRAINAGE AND SLOPEPROTECTION STRUCTURES--------------------------- 282

Item 500- Pipe Culverts and Storm Drains --------------- 282
Item 501- Underdrains --------------- 288
Item 502- Manholes, Inlets and Catch Basins --------------- 291
Item 503- Drainage Steel Grating with Frame --------------- 294
Item 504- Cleaning and Reconditioning ExistingDrainage Structures--------------- 298
Item 505- Riprap and Grouted Riprap --------------- 300
Item 506- Stone Masonry --------------- 304
Item 507- Rubble Concrete --------------- 308
Item 508- Hand-Laid Rock Embankment --------------- 310
Item 509- Sheet Piles --------------- 312
Item 510- Concrete Slope Protection --------------- 313
Item 511- Gabions and Mattresses --------------- 315

PART H- MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES --------------------------- 322
Item 600- Curb and/or Gutter --------------- 322
Item 601- Sidewalk --------------- 326
Item 602- Monuments, Markers and Guide Posts --------------- 329
Item 603- Guardrail --------------- 330
Item 604- Fencing --------------- 334
Item 605- Road Sign --------------- 336
Item 606- Pavement Markings --------------- 340
Item 607- Reflective Pavement Studs --------------- 344
Item 608- Topsoil --------------- 347
Item 609- Sprigging --------------- 348
Item 610- Sodding --------------- 352
Item 611- Tree Planting --------------- 355
Item 612- Reflective Thermoplastic StrippingMaterial (Solid Form)--------------- 362

PART I- MATERIALS DETAILS --------------------------- 367
Item 700- Hydraulic Cement --------------- 367
Item 701- Construction Lime (Hydrated) --------------- 367
Item 702- Bituminous Materials --------------- 370
Item 703- Aggregates --------------- 376
Item 703A- Mineral Filler --------------- 385
Item 704- Masonry Units --------------- 387
Item 705- Joint Materials --------------- 387
Item 706- Concrete Clay, Plastic and Fiber Pipe --------------- 392
Item 707- Metal Pipe --------------- 394
Item 708- Chemical Admixtures For Concrete --------------- 397
Item 709- Paints --------------- 401
Item 710- Reinforcing Steel and Wire Rope--------------- 404
Item 711- Fence and Guardrail --------------- 406
Item 712- Structural Metal --------------- 408
Item 713- Treated and Untreated Timber --------------- 415
Item 714- Water --------------- 416
Item 715- Geotextiles --------------- 417












PART A
FACILITIES FOR THE ENGINEER
A.1 REQUIREMENTS

A.1.1 Offices and Laboratories for the Engineer

All offices andlaboratories shall be ready for occupancy and use by the Engineer within two (2)months of the commencement of
the Works.







ITEM 106 COMPACTION EQUIPMENT AND DENSITY CONTROL STRIPS

106.1 Description

106.2.1 Compaction Equipment
1. Sheepsfoot, tamping or grid rollers shall be capable of exerting a force of 45 Newtonper millimeter (250 pounds per
inch) of length of roller drum.
2. Steel-wheel rollers other than vibratory shall be capable of exerting a force of not lessthan 45 Newton per millimeter
of width of the compression roll or rolls.
3. Vibratory steel-wheel rollers shall have a minimum mass of 6 tonnes. Thecompactor shall be equipped with
amplitude and frequency controls and specificallydesigned to compact the material on which it is used.
4. Pneumatic-tire rollers shall have smooth tread tires of equal size that will provide auniform compacting pressure for
the full width of the roller and capable of exerting aground pressure of at least 550 kpa (80 pounds per square inch).
5. Heavier compacting unit may be required to achieve the specified density of theembankment



106.2.2 Construction of Control Strips and Determination of Target Density

A control strip shall have an area of approximately 335 square meters and shall beof the same depth specified for the
construction of the course which it represents


If the mean density of the control strip is less than 98 percent of the density of laboratorycompacted specimens as
determined by testing procedures appropriate for the material beingplaced, the Engineer may order the construction of
another control strip.



PART D SUBBASE AND BASE COURSE



ITEM 200 AGGREGATE SUBBASE COURSE

The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall not be greaterthan 0.66 (two thirds) of the fraction passing the
0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve.

The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limitnot greater than 35 and plasticity index not
greater than 12 as determined byAASHTO T 89 and T 90, respectively

The coarse portion, retained on a 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve, shall have amass percent of wear not exceeding 50 by the Los
Angeles Abrasion Tests asdetermined by AASHTO T 96.

The material shall have a soaked CBR value of not less than 25% asdetermined by AASHTO T 193. The CBR value shall be
obtained at themaximum dry density and determined by AASHTO T 180, Method D



200.3.3 Spreading and Compacting
Where the required thickness is 150 mm or less, the material may bespread and compacted in one layer

maximum compacted thicknessof any layer shall not exceed 150 mm.


Compaction of each layer shall continue until a field density of at least 100percent of the maximum dry density
determined in accordance with AASHTO T180, Method D has been achieved. In-place density determination shall be
madein accordance with AASHTO T 191.

200.3.4 Trial Sections
One trial section of about 500 m2 shall be made for every type of material

200.3.5 Tolerances
The allowable tolerances shall be asspecified hereunder:

Permitted variation from design
THICKNESS OF LAYER 20 mm

Permitted variation from design +10 mm
LEVEL OF SURFACE -20 mm

Permitted SURFACE IRREGULARITY
Measured by 3-m straight-edge 20 mm

Permitted variation from design
CROSSFALL OR CAMBER 0.3%

Permitted variation from design
LONGITUDINAL GRADE over25 m in length 0.1%


ITEM 201 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE
40% weathered limestone blended with 60% crushed stones or gravel shall be allowed

The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall not be greaterthan 0.66 (two thirds) of the fraction passing the
0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve

The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limitnot greater than 25 and plasticity index not
greater than 6 as determined byAASHTO T 89 and T 90, respectively.

The coarse portion, retained on a 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve shall have amass percent of wear not exceeding 50 by the Los
Angeles Abrasion testdetermined by AASHTO T 96

The material passing the 19 mm (3/4 inch) sieve shall have a soaked CBRvalue of not less than 80% as determined by
AASHTO T 193. The CBR valueshall be obtained at the maximum dry density (MDD) as determined by AASHTOT 180,
Method D.

shall not contain more than 15 percent of materialretained on the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve.

201.3.5 Tolerances
The allowable tolerances shall be inaccordance with following:

Permitted variation from design
THICKNESS OF LAYER 10 mm

Permitted variation from design + 5 mm
LEVEL OF SURFACE -10 mm

Permitted SURFACE IRREGULARITY
Measured by 3-m straight-edge 5 mm

Permitted variation from design
CROSSFALL OR CAMBER 0.2%

Permitted variation from design
LONGITUDINAL GRADE over
25 m in length 0.1%


ITEM 202 CRUSHED AGGREGATE BASE COURSE

202.2.1 Crushed Aggregate
The portion of the material passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall notbe greater than 0.66 (two thirds) of
the fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40)sieve
The portion of the material passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall havea liquid limit of not more than 25
and a plasticity index of not more than 6 asdetermined by AASHTO T 89 and T 90, respectively.
The coarse aggregate retained on a 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve shall have amass percent of wear not exceeding 45
by the Los Angeles Abrasion Test asdetermined by AASHTO T 96, and not less than 50 mass percent shall have
atleast one (1) fractured face
The material passing the 19 mm (3/4 inch) sieve shall have a minimumsoaked CBR-value of 80% tested
according to AASHTO T 193. The CBR-valueshall be obtained at the maximum dry density determined
according to AASHTOT 180, Method D.
Filler not contain more than 15 percent of materialretained on the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve.

ITEM 203 LIME STABILIZED ROAD MIX BASE COURSE

203.2 Material Requirements

203.2.1 Soil Aggregate
The materials passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve produced in the crushing operation of either stone or gravel shall be
incorporated in the base material to the extent permitted by the gradation requirements. The plasticity index shall not
be less than 4 nor more than 10.
The aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 50 as determined by AASHTO Method T 96

203.2.4 Proportioning of Mixture
soil-aggregate shall be from 3 to 12mass percent of the dry soil.

203.2.5 Strength Requirements
CBR Test for Gravelly Soils passing the 19 mm (3/4 inch)sieve shall have a minimum soaked CBR-value of 100% tested
according toAASHTO T 193. The CBR-value shall be obtained at the maximum dry densitydetermined according to
AASHTO T 180, Method D
Unconfined Compression Test for Finer Textured Soils The 7-daycompressive strength of laboratory specimen molded
and compacted inaccordance with ASTM D 1632 to a density of 100% of maximum dry densitydetermined according to
AASHTO T 134, Method B, shall not be less than 2.1MPa (300 psi) when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1633

203.3.4 Application of Lime
A typical slurry ratio is 1 tonne lime to 2 cubic metre water
Each pass shall terminate at least 910 mm (3 ft) in advance or to the rear of theend of the preceding pass
Compaction shall continue until a field density of not less than 100% of thecompacted maximum dry density
determined in accordance with AASHTO T 180,Method D has been attained. Field Density test shall be in accordance
withAASHTO T 191

203.3.8 Trial Sections
trial sections of the stabilized base shall be constructed at least 2 weeksbefore actual base construction.


203.3.9 Tolerances
The allowable tolerances shall be in accordance with Subsection 201.3.5, Tolerance.

203.3.10 Traffic
The Contractor will not be permitted to drive heavy equipment overcompleted portions prior to the end of five (5) days
curing period

ITEM 204 PORTLAND CEMENT STABILIZED ROAD MIX BASE COURSE

204.2 Material Requirements

204.2.1 Soil Aggregate
It shall conform to the grading and quality requirements of Subsection203.2.1

204.2.2 Portland Cement
It shall conform to the requirements of Item 700, Hydraulic Cement.

204.2.3 Water
It shall conform to the requirements of Item 714, Water

204.2.4 Proportioning of Mixture
The amount of cement to be added to the soil-aggregate shall be from 6 to10 mass percent of the dry soil.

204.2.5 Strength Requirements
Strength requirements shall conform in all respects to those specified inSubsection 203.2.5


ITEM205 ASPHALT STABILIZED ROAD MIX BASE COURSE

205.2 Material Requirements

205.2.1 Soil-Aggregates
It shall conform to the applicable requirements of Item 703, Aggregates,Gradation A or B shall be used

205.2.2 Asphaltic Material
Asphaltic material shall be Anionic or Cationic Emulsified Asphalt of theslow setting type meeting the requirements of
Item 702, Bituminous Materials, Emulsified Asphalt

205.2.3 Proportioning of Mixture
asphaltic material to be added to the soil-aggregate shall be from 4 to 7 mass percent of the dry soil-aggregate.


ITEM 206 PORTLAND CEMENT TREATED PLANT MIX BASE COURSE

206.2 Material Requirements
Same as Subsections 204.2.1 through 204.2.5

206.3.2 Travel Plant Method
The salvaged or new soil-aggregate shall be pulverized until at least 80mass percent of all material other than stone or
gravel will pass a 4.75 mm (No. 4)sieve
material retained on a 50 mm (2 inches) sieve and other unsuitable material shall be removed.
A maximum time of 2 hours shall be permitted for wet mixing, lay down, and finishing when this method is used.

206.3.4 Spreading, Compacting and Finishing
Not more than 60 minutes shall elapse between the start of mixing and the time of starting compaction of the spread
mixture.
The compaction and finishing shall be completed within 2 hours of the time water is added to the mixture

206.3.5 Protection, Curing and Maintenance
The rate of application shall be between 0.5 L/m^2 to 1.00 L/m^2 of surface
Curing seal hall be maintained at least 5 days unless the treated base is protected by a subsequent course.

206.3.6 Trial Sections
Same as Subsection 203.3.8.

206.3.7 Tolerances
Same as Subsection 203.3.9.

206.3.8 Traffic
Same as Subsection 203.3.10.


ITEM 207 AGGREGATE STOCKPILE

207.2 Material Requirements

207.3 Construction Requirements



PART E SURFACE COURSES

ITEM 300 AGGREGATE SURFACE COURSE

300.2 Material Requirements
The coarse aggregate material retained on the 2.00 mm (No.10) sieve shallhave a mass percent of wear by the Los
Angeles Test (AASHTO T 96) of notmore than 45.
When crushed aggregate is called for in the Bill of Quantities, not less thanfifty (50) mass percent of the particles
retained on the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve shallhave at least one (1) fractured face
The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No.200) sieve shall not be greater thantwo-thirds of the fraction passing the 0.425
mm (No.40) sieve
The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limitnot greater than 35 and a plasticity index range
of 4 to 9, when tested by AASHTOT 89 and T 90, respectively.
Materials for gravel surface course and crushed aggregate surface courseshall have a soaked CBR Value of not less than
25% and 80% respectively asdetermined by AASHTO T 193.

300.3.4 Surface Course Thickness and Tolerances

Permitted variation fromdesign +15 mm
THICKNESS OF LAYER - 5 mm

Permitted variation fromdesign +15 mm
LEVEL OF SURFACE - 5 mm

Permitted SURFACE IRREGULARITY
Measured by 3-m straight-edge 5 mm

Permitted variation from design
CROSSFALL OR CAMBER +0.2%

Permitted variation from design
LONGITUDINAL GRADE over
25 m in length +0.1%



ITEM 301 BITUMINOUS PRIME COAT

301.2 Material Requirements

301.3.1 Surface Condition
Prime coat shall be applied only to surfaces which are dry or slightly moist.No prime coat shall be applied when the
weather is foggy or rainy

301.3.2 Equipment
The tank shall have a heating device able to heat a complete charge of bituminous liquid to 180C and not heated will be
less than 2C per hour.
distributor shall be able to vary the spray width of the bituminous liquidin maximum steps of 100 mm to a total width
of 4 m

301.3.3 Application of Bituminous Material
rate of application of the bituminous material shall be within the range of 1 to 2 litres/m2
The prime coat shall be left undisturbed for a period of at least 24 hours


ITEM 302 BITUMINOUS TACK COAT

302.2 Material Requirements

302.3 Construction Requirements

302.3.3 Application of Bituminous Material
rate ofapplication of either the Rapid Curing Cut-back or the Emulsified Asphalt shall be within the range of 0.2 to 0.7
litre/m2.


ITEM 303 BITUMINOUS SEAL COAT

303.2 Material Requirements



303.2.2 Bituminous Materials
Bituminous material shall be Asphalt Cement, Penetration Grade 120-150,Rapid Curing (RC) or Medium Curing (MC)
Cut-back Asphalt

303.2.3 Cover Aggregate
Cover Aggregate for Type 2 seal coat shall consist of sand and fines creenings, reasonably free from dirt or other
organic matter.
Aggregate for Type 3 seal coat shall be crushed stone, crushed slag or crushed gravel.
The aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40 when tested by AASHTO T 96
When crushed slag is used, it shall be of uniform density and quality and shall have a density of not less than 960
kg/m3(60 lb/cu. ft.) as determined by AASHTO T 19


303.3 Construction Requirements

303.3.2 Preparation of Surface
no event shall seal coat be placedon newly constructed or reconditioned surfaces in less than ten (10) days aftersuch
surface is laid and opened to traffic,

303.3.3 Application of Bituminous Material
Bituminous material shall be applied by means of a pressure distributor at the rate of approximately 0.9 to 1.8 litres for
asphalt cement and 1.5 to 3.0 litres for cut-back asphalt, per square metre of surface

303.3.4 Application of the Cover Aggregate
cover aggregate shall be evenly spread over the surface at the rate of approximately 0.004 to 0.007 cubic metre per
square metre.


ITEM 304 BITUMINOUS SURFACE TREATMENT

304.2 Material Requirements

304.2.1 Quantities of Materials

304.2.3 Aggregates
The aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40 when tested by AASHTO T 96
When crushed gravel is used, not less than 50 mass percent of theparticles retained on the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve shall
have at least one fractured face
When crushed slag is used, it must be of uniform density and quality andshall have a density not less than 960 kg/m3
(60 lb/cu.ft.) as determined by AASHTO T 19

304.3.3 Application of Bituminous Material
The required asphaltic material shall be applied to the surface at least twenty four (24) hours after it has been prime
coated.
Spraying shall not be done unless the road temperature has been above 20C for at least one hour prior to the
commencement of spraying operations, and the temperature shall not be less than 20C during the spraying.
The application temperature for asphalt cement shall be within the rangethat produces a viscosity of 10 to 60 second
Saybolt Furol and for cut-backasphalt


ITEM 305 BITUMINOUS PENETRATION MACADAM PAVEMENT

305.2.3 Aggregate
The aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40 whentested by AASHTO T 96
When the crushed gravel is subjected to five cycles of the sodium sulfatesoundness test (AASHTO T 104), the weighted
loss shall not exceed 12 masspercent
When crushed slag is used, it must be of uniform density and quality andshall have a density not less than 1120 kg/m3
(70 lb/cu. ft.) as determined byAASHTO T 19

305.3 Construction Requirements

305.3.1 Weather Limitations
Application of bituminous material shall be made only when the aggregateis dry and the atmospheric temperature in
the shade is 15C or above

ITEM 306 BITUMINOUS ROAD MIX SURFACE COURSE

306.2.3 Proportioning of Mixture
The proportion of bituminous material on the basis of total dry aggregate,shall be from 4.5 to 7.0 mass percent when
cut-back asphalt is used and from 6.0to 10.0 mass percent when emulsified asphalt is used.
During the mixing operation, one-half to one (0.5 to 1.0) mass percent ofhydrated lime, dry aggregate basis, shall be
added to the mixture

ITEM 307 BITUMINOUS PLANT-MIX SURFACE COURSE - GENERAL

307.2 Material Requirements

307.2.1 Composition and Quality of Bituminous Mixture

Each job-mix formula submitted shall propose definite single values for:
1. The percentage of aggregate passing each specified sieve size.
2. The percentage of bituminous material to be added.
3. The temperature of the mixture delivered on the road.
4. The kind and percentage of additive to be used.
5. The kind and percentage of mineral filler to be used.
After the job-mix is established, all mixture furnished for the project shallconform thereto within the following ranges
of tolerances:
Passing No. 4 and larger sieves 7 percent
Passing No. 8 to No. 100 sieves (inclusive) 4 percent
Passing No. 200 sieve 2 percent
Bituminous Material 0.4 percent
Temperature of Mixture 10C
The mixture shall have a minimum compressive strength of 1.4 MPa (200psi).The mixture shall have a mass percent air
voids with the range of 3 to 5.
The mixture shall also have an index of retained strength of not less than70
aggregates having maximum sizesover 25 mm (1 inch), AASHTO T 165 will be modified to use 150 mm x 150 mm (6 x 6
inches) cylindrical specimens. The 150 mm (6 inches cylinders will becompacted by the procedures outlined in AASHTO
T 167 modified to employ 10repetitions of a molding load of 9.6 MPa (1400 psi), with no appreciable holdingtime after
each application of the full load.

307.2.6 Proportioning of Mixture
proportion of bituminous material, on the basis of total dry aggregate,shall be from 5.0 to 8.0 mass percent.
Hydrated lime shall be added to the mixture during the mixing operation inthe amount of one-half to one (0.5 to 1.0)
mass percen

307.3.4 Preparation of Bituminous Material
Asphalt cement shall not be usedwhile it is foaming nor shall be heated above 159C (320F)



307.3.5 Preparation of Aggregate
Aggregates for pug mill mixing shall be heated, dried and delivered to the mixing unit at a temperature within the range
17C (30F) of the bitumen

307.3.7 Spreading and Finishing
The longitudinal joint in one layer shall offset that in the layer immediatelybelow approximately 15 cm (6 inches);
The mixture shall be placed at a temperature not less than 107C (225F)
When tar is used, the mixture shall be placed at between 66C and 107C(150F and 225F).

307.3.10 Acceptance ,Sampling and Testing
Eachsample shall be at least 150 mm x 150 mm or 100 mm diameter full depth.
The compacted pavement shall have a density equal to, or greater than 97mass percent of the density of a laboratory
specimen
asphalt pavementrepresented by the cores shall not be accepted if the deficiency in density is morethan 2%
compacted pavement shall have a thickness tolerances of -5 mm.
If the deficiency in the core thickness is more than 5 mm,

ITEM 308 COLD ASPHALT PLANT- MIX

308.2.1 Composition and Quality of Asphalt Cold Mix (Job-Mix Formula)
At least three weeks prior to production, the Contractor shall submit inwriting a job-mix formula for each mixture
supported by laboratory test data alongwith samples and sources of the components and viscosity-
temperaturerelationships information to the Engineer for testing and approva

308.2.6 Proportioning of Mixture
proportioning of Bituminous Material on the basis of total dry aggregateshall be from 4.5 to 7.0 mass percent when cut
back asphalt is used and from 6.0to 10.0 mass percent when emulsified asphalt is used.

308.3.1 Weather Limitations
Asphalt surface mixture shall not be placed when the surface temperature of the base course is below10C (50F).

308.3.2 Preparing Area To Be Paved
It is recommended that the average of five field density determinations made in each lot be equal to or greater than 97
percent of the average density of the six laboratory prepared specimens, and that no individual determination be lower
than95 percent

ITEM 309 BITUMINOUS PLANT-MIX (STOCKPILE MAINTENANCEMIXTURE)


TEM 310 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SURFACE COURSE, HOT-LAID

10.2.6 Proportioning of Mixtures
proportion of bituminous material on the basis of total dry aggregateshall be from 5.0 to 8.0 mass percent.
During the mixing operation, one-half to one (0.5 to 1.0) mass percent ofhydrated lime, dry aggregate basis, shall be
added to the mixture.


ITEM 311 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT
HydraulicCement. Only Type I Portland Cement shall be used

311.2.2 Fine Aggregate
It shall not contain more than three (3) mass percent of material passingthe 0.075 mm (No. 200 sieve) by washing nor
more than one (1) mass percenteach of clay lumps or shale.
If the fine aggregate is subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfatesoundness test, the weighted loss shall not
exceed 10 mass percent
The fine aggregate may be used if the relative strength at 7 and 28 days is not less than 95 mass percent
It shall contain not more than one (1) mass percent of material passing the0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve, not more than
0.25 mass percent of clay lumps, nor more than 3.5 mass percent of soft fragments
If the coarse aggregate is subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfatesoundness test, the weighted loss shall not
exceed 12 mass percent. It shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40
If the slag is used, its density shall not be less than 1120 kg/m3(70 lb./cu.ft.).

311.2.5 Reinforcing Steel
The sleeves for dowel bars shall be metal of approved design to cover 50mm ( 2 inches), plus or minus 5 mm (1/4 inch)
of the dowel, with a closed end,and with a suitable stop to hold the end of the sleeve at least 25 mm (1 inch) fromthe
end of the dowel

311.2.7 Admixtures
Fly Ash, if specified or permitted as a mineral admixture and as 20% partialreplacement of Portland Cement

311.2.11 Proportioning, Consistency and Strength of Concrete
require at least 364 kg of cement percubic meter of concrete to meet the minimum strength requirements
workable concrete having a slump of between 40 and 75 mm (1-1/2 and 3 inches)if not vibrated or between 10 and 40
mm (1/2 and 1-1/2 inches) if vibrated, and aflexural strength of not less than 3.8 MPa (550 psi) when tested by the
third-pointmethod or 4.5 MPa (650 psi) when tested by the mid-point method at fourteen(14) days in accordance with
AASHTO T97 and T177,
or acompressive strength of 24.1 MPa (3500 psi) for cores taken at fourteen (14) daysand tested in accordance with
AASHTO T24
Slump shall be determined using AASHTO T 119.

311.3.6 Handling, Measuring and Batching Materials

Stockpiles shall be built up in layers of not more than one (1) meter in thickness
All washed aggregates and aggregates produced or handled by hydraulicmethods, shall be stockpiled or binned for
draining at least twelve (12) hoursbefore being batched
batches maybe rejected unless mixed within 1-1/2 hours of such contact.
When mixed at the site or in a central mixing plant, the mixing time shall notbe less than fifty (50) seconds nor more
than ninety (90) seconds
ten (10) percent above themixers nominal capacity may be permitted provided concrete test data for strength,
segregation, and uniform consistency are satisfactory
The flow ofwater shall be uniform and all water shall be in the drum by the end of the firstfifteen (15) seconds of the
mixing period.
The time elapsed from the time water is added to the mix until the concrete is deposited in place at the Site shall not
exceed forty five (45) minutes when the concrete is hauled in non-agitating trucks, nor ninety (90) minutes when
hauled in truck mixers or truck agitators,
Retempering concrete by adding water are performed within forty-five (45) minutes after the initial mixing operation
and the water-cement ratio is not exceeded

311.3.8 Limitation of Mixing
temperature of mixed concrete from exceeding a maximum temperature of 90F ( 32C)
Concrete not in place within ninety (90) minutes from the time the ingredients were charged into the mixing drum or
that has developed initial set shall not be used
paving in adjoining lanesmay be permitted after three (3) days.
no case shallthe vibrator be operated longer than fifteen (15) seconds in any one location.

311.3.10 Test Specimens
at least one (1) set consisting of three (3) concretebeam test specimens, 150 mm x 150 mm x 525 mm or 900 mm shall
be taken from each 330 m2 of pavement, 230 mm depth, or fraction thereof placed each day.

Cylinder samples shall not be used as substitute for determining thea dequacy of the strength of concrete. The beams
shall be made, cured, and tested in accordance with AASHTOT 23 and T 97

311.3.11 Strike-off of Concrete and Placement of Reinforcement
Any portion of the bottom layer of concrete which has been placed more then 30 minutes without being covered with
the top layer shall be removed and replaced

311.3.12 Joints
Transverse Contraction Joint/Weakened Joint
depth of the weakened plane joint should at all times not be less than 50 mm,while the width should not be more than
6 mm.
Sawing of the joint shall commence as soon as the concretehas hardened sufficiently to permit sawing without
excessiveravelling, usually 4 to 24 hours
No transverse joint shall beconstructed within 1.50 m of an expansion joint, contraction joint, orplane of weakness.
Transverse Construction Joint
If sufficient concrete has been mixed at the time of interruption to form a slab of at least 1.5 m long
The sleeves for dowels shall be metal designed to cover 50 mm plus or minus 5 mm (1/4 inch), of the dowel, with a
watertight closed end and with a suitable stop to hold the end of the sleeves at least 25 mm (1 inch) from the end of
the dowel
The screed for the surface shall be at least 60 cm (2 feet) longer than the maximum width of the slab to be struck off.

311.3.13 Final Strike-off (Consolidation and Finishing)
Finishing machine shall be stopped when the front screed is approximately 20cm (8 inches) from the joint.
The screed for the surface shall be at least 60 cm (2 feet) longer than the maximum width of the slab to be struck off.

311.3.15 Curing
The concrete shall not be left exposed for more than hour between stages of curing or during the curing period.

311.3.16 Removal of Forms
After forms for concrete shall remain in place undisturbed for not less thantwenty four (24) hours after concrete
pouring

311.3.17 Sealing Joints
Joints shall be sealed with asphalt sealant soon after completion of the curing period and before the pavement is
opened to traffic,
The seals shall be installed in a compressive condition and shall at time of placement be below thelevel of the
pavement surface by approximately 6 mm.

311.3.19 Concrete Pavement Slip Form Method
The concrete shall be held at a uniform consistency, having a slump of not more than 40 mm (1-12/ inches).
Such protective materials shall consist of standard metal forms or wood planks having a nominal thickness of not less
than 50 mm (2 inches) and a nominal width of not less than the thickness of the pavement


311.3.22 Acceptance of Concrete
concrete will be considered satisfactory if the averages of all sets of three (3) consecutive strength test results
equal or exceed the specified strength, fc and no individual strength test result is deficient by more than 15%
of the specified strength, fc.
cores will be considered adequate if the average strength of the cores is equal to at least 85% of, and if no
single core is less than 75% of, the specified strength, fc



Deficiency in Strength Percent (%) of ContractPrice
ofConcrete Specimens,Percent (%) Allowed
Less than 5 100
5 to less than 10 80
10 to less than 15 70
15 to less than 20 60
20 to less than 25 50
25 or more 0

311.3.23 Opening to Traffic
If such tests are not conducted prior to thespecified age the pavement shall not be operated to traffic until 14 days
after theconcrete was placed.

311.3.24 Tolerance and Pavement thickness
Pavement Thickness, thickness by morethan 5 mm will be considered as the specified thickness plus 5 mmand
measurement which are less than the specified thickness by morethan 25 mm shall not be included in the average.

Adjustment for Thickness

Deficiency in the Average Percent (%) of Contract
Thickness per lot (mm) Price Per Lot
0 5 100% payment
6 10 95% payment
11 15 85% payment
16 20 70% payment
21 25 50% payment
More than 25 Remove and replace/ No payment



PART F BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION

400.1.3 Load Tests
Load tests for files shall be either Static or Pile Testing by Low-StrainDynamic Method, High-Strain Dynamic Method and
Cross-Hole Sonic Logging.

400.1.3.1 Static Testing
load shall be applied in increments of 5 or 10 tonnes. Each load increment shall be held for an interval of two and one-
halfminutes or a total period of five (5) minutes.

400.1.3.2 Pile Testing
Pile testing shall be done by Low-Strain Dynamic Method, High-StrainDynamic Method or Cross-Hole Sonic Logging
Method as required in the plans

400.1.3.2.1 Low-Strain dynamic Method
Pile integrity testing by Low-Strain Dynamic Method shall conform to ASTMD-5882-96. Since it requires the impact of
onlya small hand-held hammer, and also referred to as a Non-Destructive Method

400.1.3.2.2 High-Strain Dynamic Testing
Pile Integrity testing by High-Strain Dynamic Method shall conform to ASTM D4945-97.

400.1.3.2.3 Cross-Hole Sonic Logging of Bored Holes
400.1.4 Timber Pile Bearing Value by Formula
1000 WH
For gravity hammer, P = ------------- x ---------------
6 S+25.4

For single-action steam or air hammers, and for diesel hammers having unrestricted rebound of ram,
1000 WH
P = ----------- x -----------------
6 S+2.54

For double-action steam or air hammers, and diesel hammers having enclosed ram,
1000 E
P = ------------ x -----------------
6 S+2.54

For diesel or steam hammers on very heavy piles,
1000 E
P = ---------- x ------------------------
6 S+2.54 (Wp/W)
Where:
P =Safe load per pile in Newton or kg
W =Weight of the striking part of the hammer in Newton or kg
H =Height of fall of ram in metres
S =Average penetration per blow in mm for the last 5 to 10 blows for gravity hammers and the last 10 to 20 blows for steam
hammers
E = Hammer energy, N.m or kg.m
Wp =Weight of pile

The above formula are applicable only when:
1. The hammer has a free fall.
2. The head of the pile is free from broomed or crushed wood fiber or other serious impairment.
3. The penetration is reasonably quick and uniform.
4. There is no measurable bounce after the blow.
5. A follower is not used

400.1.5 Concrete and Steel Pile Bearing Values
A.Modified Hileys Formula or any formula from brochures of the equipment used, shall be used when the ratio of
weight of ram or hammer to weight of pile is greater than one fourth (1/4).
2WH (W) Ru

Ru = ---------------------------- Ra = --------------- Where:

(S+K) (W+Wp) FS RU = ultimate capacity of piles (KN)
Ra = capacity of pile (KN)shall be greater than
the required
W = weight of ram or hammer (KN)
H = height of fall of ram (mm)
Wp = weight of pile (KN)
S = average penetration for the last ten blows
(mm)
K = 10 mm (unless otherwise
observed/computed during driving)
FS = factor of safety (min. = 3)

B. Hileys Formula shall be used when the ratio of the weight of ramor hammer to weight of pile is less than one fourth
(1/4)
efWH (W) (W + n2Wp) Ru
Ru = ------------------------------ x --------------------------- Ra = --------------
S+1/2 (C1+C2+C3) (W + Wp) FS



where:

RU=ultimate capacity of pile (KN)
Ra=capacity of pile (KN)
Ef=efficiency of hammer (refer to table)
W=weight of ram (KN)
Wp=weight of pile (KN)
H=height of fall of ram (mm)
S=average pene tration for last ten blows (mm)
C1=temporary compression allowance for pile head and cap (refer to table)
C2=RuL/AEp
C3=range from 2.54mm to 5.08mm (0.1 to 0.2) for resilient soil to 0 for hard pan (rock, very dense sand and gravel)
L=length of pile
A=cross-sectional area of pile
Ep=modulus of elasticity of pile
n=coefficient of restitution (refer to table)
A=factor of safety (min. = 3)

Required minimum penetration of all piles shall be six (6) meters. However, for exposed piles, the embedded length
shall be equal or greater than the exposed length but not less than 6.0m

Note: Formula for other pile hammers with suggested factor of safety should be as provided /recommended by their
respective manufacturer

Note: see the DPWH blue book page 140 for tables and other constant values.

Piles shall be driven until the safe bearing power ofeach is computed to be not less than 27 tonnes

400.2.1 Untreated Timber Piles
Timber shall conform to the requirements of Item 713
400.2.2 Treated Timber Piles (See page 142)
400.2.3 Concrete Piles (See page 143)
400.2.4 Steel Shells (see page 143)
400.2.5 Steel Pipes
400.2.6 Steel H-Piles
400.2.7 Sheet Piles
400.2.7 Sheet Piles
400.2.9 Splices
400.2.10 Paint

400.3 Construction Requirements
400.3.1 Location and Site Preparation
400.3.3 Pile Driving
driven within an allowed variation of 20mm per metre of pile length from the vertical or batter as shown on
the Plans maximum allowable variation at the butt end of the pile shall be 75mm in any direction be within
150mm from the theoretical location underneath the pile cap or underneath the superstructure
Piles shall be used only in places where the minimum penetration of 3m infirm materials, or 5m in soft
materials can be obtained.
Hammers shall be gravity hammers, single and double acting steam or pneumatic hammers or diesel hammers.
Gravity hammers shall not weigh less than 60 percent of the combined weight of the pile and driving head but not less
than 2,000 kg
The fall shall be regulated so as to avoid injury to the pile and shall in no case exceed 4.50m for timber and steel piles
and 2.50m for concrete piles
When Water jets are used, plants shall have sufficient capacity to deliver at all time a pressure equivalent to at least
690KPa at two 19 mm (3/4 inch) jet nozzles.
Piles shall not be driven within 7 m of concrete less than 7 days old
Test 1. Penetration Test on Bitumen
The penetration test is one of the oldest and most commonly used tests on asphalt cements or residues from
distillation of asphalt cutbacks or emulsions. The standardized procedure for this test can be found in ASTM D5
[ASTM, 2001]. It is an empirical test that measures the consistency (hardness) of an asphalt at a specified test
condition.
Procedure of Penetration Test on Bitumen:
In the standard test condition, a standard needle of a total load of 100 g is applied to the surface of an asphalt or
Liquid bitumen sample at a temperature of 25 C for 5 seconds. The amount of penetration of the needle at the end
of 5 seconds is measured in units of 0.1 mm (or penetration unit). A softer asphalt will have a higher penetration,
while a harder asphalt will have a lower penetration. Other test conditions that have been used include
1. 0 C, 200 g, 60 sec., and
2. 46 C, 50 g, 5 sec.

Test 2. Flash Point Test on asphalt:
The flash point test determines the temperature to which an asphalt can be safely heated in the presence of an open
flame. The test is performed by heating an asphalt sample in an open cup at a specified rate and determining the
temperature at which a small flame passing over the surface of the cup will cause the vapors from the asphalt sample
temporarily to ignite or flash. The commonly used flash point test methods include
1. The Cleveland Open Cup (ASTM D92)
2. Tag Open Cup (ASTM D1310).
The Cleveland Open-Cup method is used on asphalt cements or asphalts with relatively higher flash points, while the
Tag Open-Cup method is used on cutback asphalts or asphalts with flash points of less than 79 C. Minimum flash
point requirements are included in the specifications for asphalt cements for safety reasons. Flash point tests can also
be used to detect contaminating materials such as gasoline or kerosine in an asphalt cement. Contamination of an
asphalt cement by such materials can be indicated by a substantial drop in flash point.
When the flash point test is used to detect contaminating materials, the Pensky-Martens Closed Tester method (ASTM
D93), which tends to give more indicative results, is normally used. In recent years, the flash point test results have
been related to the hardening potential of asphalt. An asphalt with a high flash point is more likely to have a lower
hardening potential in the field.

Test 3. Solubility Test on asphalt bitumen
Asphalt consists primarily of bitumens, which are high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons soluble in carbon disulfide. The
bitumen content of a bituminous material is measured by means of its solubility in carbon disulfide.
Procedure for Solubility test on Bitumen
In the standard test for bitumen content (ASTM D4), a small sample of about 2 g of the asphalt is dissolved in 100 ml
of carbon disulfide and the solution is filtered through a filtering mat in a filtering crucible. The material retained on
the filter is then dried and weighed, and used to calculate the bitumen content as a percentage of the weight of the
original asphalt. Due to the extreme flammability of carbon disulfide, solubility in trichloroethylene, rather than
solubility in carbon disulfide, is usually used in asphalt cement specifications. The standard solubility test using
trichloroethylene is designated as ASTM D 2042.
The solubility test is used to detect contamination in asphalt cement. Specifications for asphalt cements normally
require a minimum solubility in trichloroethylene of 99.0 percent.
Unfortunately, trichloroethylene has been identified as a carcinogen and contributing to the depletion of the earths
ozone layer. The use of trichloroethylene will most likely be banned in the near future. There is a need to use a less
hazardous and non-chlorinated solvent for this purpose. Results of several investigations have indicated that the
solvent n-Propyl Bromide appears to be a feasible alternative to trichloroethylene for use in this application.


Test 4. Ductility Test on Asphalt
The ductility test (ASTM D113) measures the distance a standard asphalt sample will stretch without breaking under a
standard testing condition (5 cm/min at 25 C). It is generally considered that an asphalt with a very low ductility will
have poor adhesive properties and thus poor performance in service. Specifications for asphalt cements normally
contain requirements for minimum ductility.



Test 5. Viscosity Tests on Bitumen Asphalt
The viscosity test measures the viscosity of an asphalt. Both the viscosity test and the penetration test measure the
consistency of an asphalt at some specified temperatures and are used to designate grades of asphalts. The
advantage of using the viscosity test as compared with the penetration test is that the viscosity test measures a
fundamental physical property rather than an empirical value. Viscosity is defined as the ratio between the applied
shear stress and induced shear rate of a fluid.
When shear rate is expressed in units of 1/sec. and shear stress in units of Pascal, viscosity will be in units of Pascal-
seconds. One Pascal-second is equal to 10 Poises. The lower the viscosity of an asphalt, the faster the asphalt will
flow under the same stress. For a Newtonian fluid, the relationship between shear stress and shear rate is linear, and
thus the viscosity is constant at different shear rates or shear stress. However, for a non-Newtonian fluid, the
relationship between shear stress and shear rate is not linear, and thus the apparent viscosity will change as the
shear rate or shear stress changes.
Asphalts tend to behave as slightly non-Newtonian fluids, especially at lower temperatures. When different methods
are used to measure the viscosity of an asphalt, the test results might be significantly different, since the different
methods might be measuring the viscosity at different shear rates. It is thus very important to indicate the test
method used when viscosity results are presented.
The most commonly used viscosity test on asphalt cements is the Absolute Viscosity Test by Vacuum Capillary
Viscometer (ASTM D2171).
The standard test temperature is 60 C. The absolute viscosity test measures the viscosity in units of Poise. The
viscosity at 60 C represents the viscosity of the asphalt at the maximum temperature a pavement is likely to
experience in most parts of the U.S. When the viscosity of an asphalt at a higher temperature (such as 135 C) is to
be determined, the most commonly-used test is the Kinematic Viscosity Test (ASTM D2170), which measures the
kinematic viscosity in units of Stokes or centi-Stokes.
Kinematic viscosity is defined as: When viscosity is in units of Poise and density in units of g/cm, 3 the kinematic
viscosity will be in units of Stokes. To convert from kinematic viscosity (in units of Stokes) to absolute viscosity (in
units of Poises), one simply multiplies the number of Stokes by the density in units of g/cm
3
.