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MACEDA VS.

VASQUEZ
221 SCRA 464
Date of Promulgation: April 22, 1993
Ponente: Nocon, J.
Keywords:administrative power;falsifation of ertifate of servie;administrative and
riminal lia!ility; separation of powers; o"e of t#e om!udsman
$ui%&uide: '#ere a riminal omplaint against a (udge or ot#er ourt employee arises from
t#eir administrative duties, t#e )m!udsman must defer ation on said omplaint and refer it
to t#e *upreme +ourt for determination w#et#er said (udge or ourt employee #ad ated
wit#in t#e sope of t#eir administrative duties,
-ats:
. Petitioner /0onifaio*an12aeda, Presiding (udge of 0ran# 12 of t#e 34+ of Anti5ue6
seeks the review of the following orders of the Ofce of the Om!dsm"n:
/16 4#e )rder dated *eptem!er 17, 1991 denying t#e e8.parte motion to refer to t#e
*upreme +ourt /*+6 fled !y petitioner; and
/26 4#e )rder dated 9ovem!er 22, 1991 denying petitioner:s motion for
reonsideration and direting petitioner to fle #is ounter.a"davit and ot#er
ontroverting evidenes,
. #es$ondent%s&'"$oleon A. Aier" of the (!lic Attorne)*s Ofce+
"lleg"tions,
/16Petitioner falsifed #is +ertifate of *ervie dated -e!ruary ;, 1979, !y ertifying
"that all civil and criminal cases which have been submitted or decision or
determination or a !eriod o "# da$s have been determined and decidedon or beore
Januar$ %1, 1""&," w#en petitioner %new t#at no deision #ad !een rendered in < ivil
and 1= riminal ases t#at #ave !een su!mitted for deision,
/26Petitioner similarly falsifed #is ertifates of servie for t#e mont#s of -e!ruary
and April to August of 1979; and t#ose from (anuary to *eptem!er 199=,
. (etitioner%s "rg!ments,
/16 >e #ad !een granted !y t#e *+ an e8tension of 9= days to deide t#e
aforementioned ases,
/264#e )m!udsman #as no ?urisdition over said ase despite t#e *+@s ruling in 'ra!
vs. Sandi(anba$an, sine t#e oAense #arged arose from t#e ?udge:s performane of
#is o"ial duties, w#i# is under t#e ontrol and supervision of t#e *+,
/364#e investigation of t#e )m!udsman onstitutes an enroa#ment into t#e *+:s
onstitutional duty of supervision over all inferior ourts,
BssueCs:
/16 'C9 t#e )"e of t#e )m!udsman ould entertain a riminal omplaint for t#e
alleged falsifation of a ?udge:s ertifation su!mitted to t#e *+,
/26 Bf it an /wit# regard to Bssue 16, wCn a referral s#ould !e made frst to t#e *+,
3uling:
. 4#e instant petition is granted,
. 4#e *+ direted t#e )m!udsman to dismiss t#e omplaint and to refer it to t#e *+ for
appropriate ation,
3atio:
&-+ .ss!e -, /ES.
. 4#ere is not#ing in t#e deision in 'ra!t#at would restrit it only to oAenses
ommitted !y a ?udge unrelated to #is o"ial duties,
. A ?udge w#o falsifes #is ertifate of servie is:
/16 "dministr"tivel) li"leto the SC for serious misondut and ine"ieny under
*etion 1, 3ule 1D= of t#e 3ules of +ourt, and
/26 crimin"ll) li"le to the St"te under t#e 3evised Penal +ode for #is felonious
at,
&0+ .ss!e 0, /ES.
. #eferr"l to the SC
o 4#e )m!udsman s#ould frst refer t#e matter of petitioner:s ertifates of
servie to t#e *+ for determination of w#et#er said ertifates reEeted t#e
true status of #is pending ase load, as t#e +ourt #as t#e neessary reords to
ma%e su# a determination,
o 4#e )m!udsman annot ompel t#e *+, as one of t#e t#ree !ran#es of
government, to su!mit its reords, or to allow its personnel to testify on t#e
matter,
. Administr"tive (ower
o Article VIII, section 6 of the 1987 Constitutione8lusively vests in t#e *+
administrative supervision over all ourts and ourt personnel, from t#e
Presiding (ustie of t#e +ourt of Appeals down to t#e lowest muniipal trial
ourt ler%,
o 0y virtue of t#e +ourt@s administrative power, it is only t#e *+ t#at an
oversee t#e ?udges: and ourt personnel:s ompliane wit# all laws, and ta%e
t#e proper administrative ation against t#em if t#ey ommit any violation,
. Se$"r"tion of (owers
o Bn t#e a!sene of any administrative ation ta%en against petitioner !y t#e *+
wit# regard to #is ertifates of servie, t#e investigation !eing onduted !y
t#e )m!udsman enroa#es into t#e +ourt:s power of administrative
supervision over all ourts and its personnel, in violation of t#e dotrine of
separation of powers,
o 9o ot#er !ran# of government may intrude into t#e +ourt@s administrative
power, wit#out running afoul of t#e dotrine of separation of powers,
. Om!dsm"n%s 1!sti2c"tion
o 4#e )m!udsman annot ?ustify its investigation of petitioner on t#e powers
granted to it !y Article XI, section 13 (1) and (2) of the 1987
Constitution, for su# a ?ustifation not only runs ounter to t#e speif
mandate of t#e +onstitution granting supervisory powers to t#e *+ over all
ourts and t#eir personnel, !ut li%ewise undermines t#e independene of t#e
?udiiary,
. #"tion"le for SC #eferr"l
o Administratively, t#e 5uestion !efore t#e +ourt is: Should a )ud(e, havin(
been (ranted b$ this Court an e*tension o time to decide cases beore him,
re!ort these cases in his certi+cate o service,
o As t#e aforementioned 5uestion #ad not yet !een raised and resolved !y t#e
*+, it is 5uestiona!le #ow t#e )m!udsman ould resolve t#e riminal
omplaint t#at re5uires t#e resolution of t#e aforementioned 5uestion,
&regorio >onasan BB petitioner vs,
4#e Panel of Bnvestigating Proseutors
)f t#e Department of (ustie
&,3,9o, 1<9FDF April 13,2==D
Gessons Applia!le: 3ule on Bnterpretative 3egulations /persons6, Powers of t#e )m!udsman /onsti6,
onurrent ?urisdition of t#e )m!udsman and t#e D)( to ondut preliminary investigation /onsti6
Gaw Applia!le: *etion 13, Artile HB of t#e +onstitution, Art, 2 +ivil +ode
-ats:
August D, 2==3: +BD&.P9PCP Diretor Idguardo 2atillano fled an a"davit.omplaint wit# t#e
Department of (ustie /D)(6 w#i# ontains t#e following in part:
o (uly 2F, 2==3: rime of oup d@ etat was ommitted !y military personnel w#o oupied )a%wood and
*enator &regorio J&ringoK >onasan, BB
o )n or a!out 11 p,m, (une D,2==3: A meeting was #eld and presided !y *enator >onasan in a #ouse
loated in *an (uan, 2etro 2anila
o Iarly morning of (uly 2F, 2==3: +apt, &erardo &am!ala, in !e#alf of t#e military re!els oupying
)a%wood, made a pu!li statement aired on national television, stating t#eir wit#drawal of support to
t#e #ain of ommand of t#e A-P and t#e &overnment of President &loria 2aapagal Arroyo, 'illing to
ris% t#eir lives to a#ieve t#e 9ational 3eovery Agenda /93A6 of *enator >onasan w#i# t#ey !elieve
is t#e only program t#at would solve t#e ills of soiety,
*worn statement of A-P 2a?or Perfeto 3agil stated t#at:
o (une D, 2==3 a!out 11 pm: *enator &regorio J&ringoK >onasan arrived wit# +apt, 4uringa to #old t#e
93P meeting w#ere t#ey onluded t#e use of fore, violene and armed struggle to a#ieve t#e vision
of 93P w#ere a ?unta will !e onstituted w#i# will run t#e new government, 4#ey #ad a !lood ompat
and t#at #e only partiipated due to t#e t#reat made !y *enator >onasan w#en #e said JKung %aya
nating pumatay sa ating mga %ala!an, %aya din nating pumatay sa mga %asama#ang magtata%sil,K
o (uly 2F, 2==3: >e saw on 4L t#at Gieutenant Antonio 4rillanes, +aptain &erardo &am!ala, +aptain
Ale?ano and some ot#ers w#o were present during t#e 93P meeting #e attended, #aving a press
onferene a!out t#eir oupation of t#e )a%wood >otel, >e saw t#at t#e letter MBM on t#e arm !ands
and t#e !anner is t#e same letter MBM in t#e !anner is t#e same as t#eir !lood ompat wound,
August 2F, 2==3: *enator >onasan appeared wit# ounsel at t#e D)( to fle a a 2otion for +larifation
5uestioning D)(:s ?urisdition over t#e ase sine t#e imputed ats were ommitted in relation to #is
pu!li o"e !y a group of pu!li o"ials wit# *alary &rade 31 w#i# s#ould !e #andled !y t#e )"e
of t#e )m!udsman and t#e *andigan!ayan
*enator >onasan t#en fled a petition for ertiorari under 3ule ;< of t#e 3ules of +ourt against t#e D)(
Panel and its mem!ers, +BD&.P9P.PCDiretor Iduardo 2atillano and )m!udsman *imeon L, 2arelo,
attri!uting grave a!use of disretion on t#e part of t#e D)( Panel in issuing t#e afore5uoted )rder of
*eptem!er 1=, 2==3 direting #im to fle #is respetive ounter.a"davits and ontroverting evidene
on t#e ground t#at t#e D)( #as no ?urisdition to ondut t#e preliminary investigation
Bssues:
1, '#et#er in regards to )m!udsman.D)( +irular no, 9<.==1, t#e o"e of t#e )m!udsman
s#ould deputi1e t#e proseutors of t#e D)( to ondut t#e preliminary investigation,
2, '#et#er t#e )m!udsman.D)( (oint +irular no, 9<.==1 is ineAetive on t#e ground t#at it was
not pu!lis#ed
3, '#et#er t#e )m!udsman #as ?urisdition to ondut t#e preliminary investigation !eause t#e
petitioner is a pu!li o"er wit# salary grade 31 /&rade 2F or >ig#er6 t#ere!y falling wit#in t#e
?urisdition of t#e *andigan 0ayan,
>eld: '#erefore, t#e petition for ertiorari is DB*2B**ID for la% of merit
1, 9o,
)m!udsman ases involving riminal oAenses may !e su!divided into two lasses, to wit: /16
t#ose ogni1a!le !y t#e *andigan!ayan, and /26 t#ose falling under t#e ?urisdition of t#e regular
ourts, 4#e diAerene !etween t#e two, aside from t#e ategory of t#e ourts w#erein t#ey are
fled, is on t#e aut#ority to investigate as distinguis#ed from t#e aut#ority to proseute
4#e power to investigate or ondut a preliminary investigation on any )m!udsman ase may
!e e8erised !y an investigator or proseutor of t#e )"e of t#e )m!udsman, or !y any Provinial
or +ity Proseutor or t#eir assistane, eit#er in t#eir regular apaities or as deputi1ed
)m!udsmanproseutors,
irular supports t#e view of t#e respondent )m!udsman t#at it is ?ust an internal agreement
!etween t#e )m!udsman and t#e D)(
4#e +onstitution, 4#e )m!udsman At of 1979, Administrative order no, 7 of t#e o"e of t#e
)m!udsman, 4#e prevailing ?urisprudene and under t#e 3evised 3ules on +riminal Proedure, All
reogni1e and up#old t#e onurrent ?urisdition of t#e )m!udsman and t#e D)( to ondut
preliminary investigation on #arges fled against pu!li o"ers and employees,
4#e D)( Panel need not !e aut#ori1ed nor deputi1ed !y t#e )m!udsman to ondut t#e
preliminary investigation for omplaints fled wit# it !eause t#e D)(:s aut#ority to at as t#e
prinipal law ageny of t#e government and investigate t#e ommission of rimes under t#e
3evised Penal +ode is derived from t#e 3evised Administrative +ode w#i# #ad !een #eld in t#e
9atividad ase13 as not !eing ontrary to t#e +onstitution, 4#us, t#ere is not even a need to
delegate t#e ondut of t#e preliminary investigation to an ageny w#i# #as t#e ?urisdition to do
so in t#e frst plae, >owever, t#e )m!udsman may assert its primary ?urisdition at any stage of
t#e investigation,
2, 9o,
Bn t#e ase of People vs, $ue Po Gay, 9D P#il, ;D= /19<D6, 4#e only irulars and regulations w#i#
presri!e a penalty for its violation s#ould !e pu!lis#ed !efore !eoming eAetive,
Bn t#e ase of 4aNada L, 4uvera, 1D; *ra D<3 /197;6, 4#e >onora!le +ourt rules t#at:
o Bnterpretative regulations and t#ose merely internal in nature, t#at is regulating only t#e personnel of
t#e administrative ageny and not t#e pu!li, need not !e pu!lis#ed, 9eit#er is pu!liation re5uired of
t#e so alled letters of instrutions issued !y t#e administrative superiors onerning t#e rules on
guidelines to !e followed !y t#eir su!ordinates in performane of t#eir duties,
)20.D)( (oint +irulars no, 9<.==1 is merely an internal irular !etween t#e D)( and t#e
o"e of t#e )m!udsman, )utlining aut#ority and responsi!ilities among proseutors of t#e D)(
and of t#e o"e of t#e )m!udsman in t#e ondut of preliminary investigation, Bt does not regulate
t#e ondut of persons or t#e pu!li, in general,
3, 9o, '#et#er or not t#e oAense is wit#in e8lusive ?urisdition or not will not resolve t#e present
petition so as not to pre.empt t#e result of t#e investigation onduted !y t#e D)( Panel,
G.R. No. 94595 February 26, 1991
ROMAN CRUZ, JR., petitioner,
vs.
THE HONORABE !AN"#GANBA$AN a%& '(e HONORABE )RE!#"ENT#A COMM#!!#ON ON GOO"
GO*ERNMENT, respondents.
Siguion Reyna, Montecillo & Ongsiangko for petitioner.

GANCA$CO, J.:p
The issue in this petition is whether or not the respondent Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG)
has the authority to conduct a preliminary investigation and file the information with the Sandiganbayan for violation of
the nti!Graft and Corrupt Practices ct by alleged cronies or associates of former President "erdinand #. $arcos.
%n &anuary '(, ')*), an information was filed by the PCGG Chairman, $ateo Caparas, with the Sandiganbayan
charging petitioner +oman Cru,, &r. and certain other individuals as follows-
That on or about $ay '., ')*/, in $etro $anila, Philippines, and within the 0urisdiction of this
1onorable Court, the said accused, being then the President and General $anager and the 2ice
President and Treasurer, respectively of the Government Service 3nsurance System (GS3S), a
government financial institution, conspiring and confederating together and with others who will be
charged separately, did then and there, in the discharge of their official administrative functions,
willfully, 4nowingly and unlawfully and contrary to Central 5an4 +ules and +egulations, enter into a
contract with Cor!sia, a private corporation, whereby GS3S, under the terms and conditions
manifestly and grossly disadvantageous to the GS3S, sold, transferred and conveyed to said Cor!
sia seven percent (67) 8(!year Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) bonds with a total face
value of #9#2#: $3993%: "%;+ 1;:<+#< "%+T= T1%;S:< T>% 1;:<+#< S3?T=!S3?
and 8(@'(( P'',AA(,8...8() P#S%S at about forty (A(7) percent discount or at a lower price of
only about S#2#: $3993%: T>% 1;:<+#< T1+## (sic) (P6,8(/,(((.(() P#S%S, when said
bonds could then be easily sold, and was in fact eventually sold to C%$5:B, a few days
thereafter, at about twelve ('87) percent discount only or at a much higher price of T#: $3993%:
"%;+ 1;:<+#< "3"T##: T1%;S:< %:# 1;:<+#< (P'(,A'C,'((.(() P#S%S, thereby
giving Cor!sia unwarranted benefits and advantages, to the damage and pre0udice of the
Philippine Government in the sum of about T1+## $3993%: T>% 1;:<+#< T>#92#
T1%;S:< (P/,8'8,(((.(() P#S%S, Philippine Currency.
1
Said information was filed after a preliminary investigation was conducted by "iscal "reddie . Gome, of the
respondent PCGG, based on a complaint, various affidavits and counter!affidavits and eDhibits submitted to him.
%n "ebruary 8, ')*), petitioner filed a motion to Euash the information to which an opposition was filed by the
respondent PCGG and a reply was filed by petitioner. t the hearing of the motion to Euash on $arch 88, ')*),
respondent PCGG informed the court that it will file an amended information.
%n $ay 8), ')*) respondent PCGG filed an amended information which reads as follows-
That on or about $ay '., ')*/, in $etro $anila, Philippines, and within the 0urisdiction of this
1onorable Court, the said accused ROMAN A. CRUZ, a subordinate and close associate of forer
!resident "erdinand #. Marcos, being then the President and General $anager of the Government
Service 3nsurance System (GS3S), a government financial institution and a high ran4ing officer of
various government corporations by taking undue ad$antage of %is public office and by using %is
po&ers, aut%ority, influence, connections, or relations%ip to said forer !resident "erdinand
#.Marcos and MANU#' S. RO(R)*U#Z, 2ice President and Treasurer also of GS3S, conspiring
and confederating together and with others who will be charged separately, did then and there, in
the discharge of their official administrative functions, willfully, 4nowingly, and unlawfully, and
contrary to Central 5an4 rules and regulations, enter into a contract with Cor!sia, a private
corporation, whereby GS3S, under terms and conditions manifestly and grossly disadvantageous to
the GS3S, sold, transferred and conveyed unto said Cor!sia seven percent (67)!8( year Cultural
Center of the Philippines (CCP) bonds with total face value of #9#2#: $3993%: "%;+
1;:<+#< "%+T= T1%;S:< T>% 1;:<+#< S3?T=!S3? and 8(@'(( (P'',AA(,8...8()
P#S%S at about forty (A(7) percent discount or at a low price of only about S#2#: $3993%:
T>% 1;:<+#< T1+## T1%;S:< (P6,8(/,(((.(() P#S%S, when said bonds could then be
easily sold, and was in fact eventually sold to C%$5:B, a few days thereafter, at about twelve
('87) percent discount only or at a much higher price of T#: $3993%: "%;+ 1;:<+#<
"3"T##: T1%;S:< %:# 1;:<+#< (P'(,A'C,'((.(() P#S%S, thereby giving Cor!sia
unwarranted benefits and advantages, to the damage and pre0udice of the Philippine Government
in the sum of about T1+## $3993%: T>% 1;:<+#< T>#92# T1%;S:< P/,8'8,(((.(()
P#S%S.
2
Petitioner filed his comment and opposition to the amended information and a supplementary motion to Euash. fter
a hearing on the matter, on &une '., ')*) the respondent court issued an order that reads as follows-
preliminary discussion, between the parties, however, indicated that the position of the accused
Cru, is that, on the face of the complaint and of the information filed with the PCGG to support that
complaint, the Fcrony related crimeF alleged thereon did not eDist and for which reason from the
very first instance, the PCGG did not have the FliteralF 0ustification to even entertain the matter
under its enabling enactments. The parties agree that the issue, therefore, to be presented before
the Court is whether or not the complaint, and the affidavits in support of that complaint, would
sustain the proposition, assuming that these affidavits are duly substantiated, that the crime
charged in the present 3nformation is Fcrony related crimeF for which the PCGG has adeEuate
authority to investigate and to file an 3nformation on the very first instance. The Court will not loo4
into the correctness of the determination of probable cause, that matter being which the eDclusive
realm of the investigating office and 0urisdiction is conceded to it.
+
n opposition to petitionerGs motion was filed by respondent PCGG to which petitioner filed a reply.
%n ugust 6, '))( respondent court issued a resolution denying the motion to Euash. motion for reconsideration
filed by petitioner was denied by the respondent court on $ay 'C, '))(.
1ence, this petition which is predicated on the following grounds-

>3T1 T1# #""#CT323T= %" T1# ')*6 C%:ST3T;T3%:, +#SP%:<#:T PCGG :% 9%:G#+
1< := ;T1%+3T= T% P+%S#C;T# CS#S, S;C1 &;+3S<3CT3%: 5#3:G S%9#9=
2#ST#< 3: T1# %""3C# %" T1# %$5;<S$:H T1# P+%S#C;T3:G %""3C#+ 5#3:G
>3T1%;T ;T1%+3T= T% P+%S#C;T#, 99 P+%C##<3:GS T1#+#"T#+ >#+# :;99 :<
2%3<.
5
SS;$3:G, +G;#:<%, +#SP%:<#:T PCGG ST399 1< ;T1%+3T= T% P+%S#C;T# T1#
CS#S #:;$#+T#< 3: S#CT3%: 8() %" #?#C;T32# %+<#+ :%. ', T1# +#SP%:<#:T
S:<3G:5=: 1< :% &;+3S<3CT3%: %2#+ 1#+#3: P#T3T3%:#+ 5= +#S%: %"
&;+3S<3CT3%:99= <#"#CT32# 3:"%+$T3%: :< C%:S#I;#:T9= T1# $#:<#<
3:"%+$T3%: >13C1 <<#< T1# &;+3S<3CT3%:9 $TT#+S C%;9< :%T 5# <$3TT#<
>3T1%;T P+#93$3:+= 3:2#ST3GT3%: %: S;C1 $TT#+S, #?C#PT 3: 23%9T3%: %"
P#T3T3%:#+GS S;5ST:T32# +3G1TS :< +3G1T T% <;# P+%C#SS.
C
SS;$3:G, +G;#:<%, T1T +#SP%:<#:T PCGG 1< &;+3S<3CT3%: T% "39#
3:"%+$T3%:S "%+ CTS "993:G ;:<#+ S#CT3%: 8() %" #.%. :%. ', T1#
+#SP%:<#:T S:<3G:5=: CT#< 3: G+2# 5;S# %" <3SC+#T3%: 3: :%T +;93:G
T1T ;P%: T1# #23<#:C# 3T +#I;3+#< T% 5# P9C#< 5#"%+# 3T, T1#+# >S
:% !R)MA "AC)# CS# "%+ T1# "393:G %" T1# $#:<#< 3:"%+$T3%:, T1#
2#+$#:TS >13C1 P;+P%+T T% $B# C+%:= CS# 5#3:G "9S#, T1: (sic) :<
:%T #ST593S1#< 5= T1# +#C%+< %" T1# P+#93$3:+= 3:2#ST3GT3%:.
4
The Euestion raised in this petition has been resolved by this Court in #duardo M. Co+uangco, ,r. $s. !residential
Coission on *ood *o$ernent, et al.,
5
where the Court made the following disEuisition-
1owever, this eDclusive 0urisdiction of the Tanodbayan to conduct preliminary investigation of said
cases was modified by #Decutive %rder :o. ' signed by President Cora,on C. Euino on "ebruary
8*, ')*. creating the PCGG and constituting its membership to assist the President in the recovery
of ill gotten wealth accumulated by the former President, his relatives and cronies. Therein it is
provided, among others-
Sec. 8. J -%e Coission s%all be c%arged &it% t%e task of assisting t%e !resident in regard to
t%e follo&ing atters-
(a) -%e reco$ery of all ill.gotten &ealt% accumulated by former President
"erdinand #. $arcos, his immediate family, relatives, subordinates and close
associates, whether located in the Philippines or abroad, including the ta4eover
or seEuestration of all business enterprises and entities owned or controlled by
them, during his administration, directly or through nominees, by ta4ing undue
advantage of their public office and@or using their powers, authority, influence,
connections or relationship.
(b) -%e in$estigation of suc% cases of graft and corruption as t%e !resident ay
assign to t%e Coission fro tie to tie.
(c) The adoption of safeguards to ensure that the above practices shall not be
repeated in any manner under the new government, and the institution of
adeEuate measures to prevent the occurrence of corruption.
Sec. /. The Commission shall have the power and authority-
(a) -o conduct in$estigations as ay be necessary in order to accoplis% and
carry out t%e purposes of t%is order. (#mphasis supplied.)
;nder #Decutive %rder :o. 'A signed by President Euino on $ay 6, ' )*., it is also provided-
Sec. '. ny provision of the law to the contrary notwithstanding, the Presidential
Commission on Good Government with the assistance of the %ffice of the
Solicitor General and other government agencies, is hereby empowered to file
and prosecute all cases in$estigated by it under #Decutive %rder :o. ', dated
"ebruary 8*, ')*. and #Decutive %rder :o. 8, dated $arch '8, ')*., as ay be
&arranted by its findings.
Sec. 8. The Presidential Commission on Good Government s%all file all suc%
cases, whether civil or criminal, &it% t%e Sandiganbayan, &%ic% S%all %a$e
e/clusi$e and original +urisdiction t%ereof.
Sec. /. Civil suits for restitution, reparation of damages, or indemnification for
conseEuential damages, forfeiture proceedings provided for under +epublic ct
:o. '/6), or any other civil actions under the Civil Code or other eDisting laws, in
connection with #Decutive %rder :o. 3 dated "ebruary 8*, ' )*. and #Decutive
%rder :o. 8 dated $arch '8, ')*., may be filed separately from and proceed
independently of any criminal proceedings and may be proved by preponderance
of evidence. (#mphasis supplied.)
"rom the foregoing provisions of law, particularly Sections 8(b) and /(a) of #Decutive %rder :o. '
and Sections ' and 8 of #Decutive %rder :o. 'A, it is clear that the PCGG has the power to
investigate and prosecute such ill!gotten wealth cases of the former President, his relatives and
associates, and graft and corrupt practices cases that may be assigned by the President to the
PCGG to be filed with the Sandiganbayan. :o doubt, the authority to investigate eDtended to the
PCGG includes the authority, to conduct a preliminary investigation.
6
3n the same case >e ruled that after the ratification of the ')*6 Constitution whereby the office of the %mbudsman
was created under rticle ?3, the said authority of respondent PCGG was maintained, to wit-
This Court, in Zaldi$ar, interpreting the aforesaid provision of the Constitution, particularly Section
'/(l) thereof vesting on the %mbudsman the right and the power to investigate on its own or on
complaint, any act or omission of any public official, employee, office or agency which appears Fto
be illegal, un0ust, improper, or inefficient,F held that the general power of investigation covers the
lesser power to conduct a preliminary investigation. Thus, as the power of investigation vested on
the %mbudsman under the Constitution includes the power to conduct such a preliminary
investigation, then the special prosecutor (former Tanodbayan) may no longer conduct such a
preliminary investigation unless duly authori,ed by the %mbudsman.
reading of the foregoing provision of the Constitution does not show that the power of
investigation including preliminary investigation vested on the %mbudsman is eDclusive. 1ence, the
said provision of the Constitution did not repeal or remove the power to conduct an investigation,
including the authority to conduct a preliminary investigation, vested on the PCGG by #Decutive
%rders :os. ' and 'A.
,
nd even upon the passage of +epublic ct :o. .66( 4nown as the %mbudsman ct of ')*) whereby under Section
'C(l) the %mbudsman has primary 0urisdiction over the cases cogni,able by the Sandiganbayan, this Court held
in Co+uangco that this authority of the %mbudsman is Fnot eDclusive but is concurrent with other similarly authori,ed
agencies of the government.F
-
Thus, this Court held Fthat the authority of the PCGG to conduct preliminary
investigation of ill!gotten wealth and@or uneDplained wealth amassed before "ebruary 8C, ')*.,F is
maintained.
9
"rom the foregoing what is clear is that the PCGG, at the time it conducted the investigation and filed the information
against petitioner in this case, had the authority to investigate and prosecute such ill!gotten wealth cases of former
President "erdinand #. $arcos, members of his family, his relatives, subordinates, and close associates, and graft
and corrupt practices cases that may be assigned from time to time by the President to the PCGG to be filed with the
Sandiganbayan.
careful reading of Sections 8(a) and /, of #Decutive %rder :o. ', in relation with Sections ', 8, and / of #Decutive
%rder :o. 'A, show that what the authority of the respondent PCGG to investigate and prosecute covers are-
(a) The investigation and prosecution of the Civil action for the recovery of ill!gotten wealth under +epublic ct :o.
'/6), accumulated by former President $arcos, his immediate family, relatives, subordinates and close associates,
whether located in the Philippines or abroad, including the ta4eover or seEuestration of all business enterprises and
entities owned or controlled by them, during his administration, directly or through his nominees, by ta4ing undue
advantage of their public office and@or using their powers, authority and influence, connections or relationshipH and
(b) The investigation and prosecution of such offenses committed in the acEuisition of said ill!gotten wealth as
contemplated under Section 8(a) of #Decutive %rder :o. '.
1owever, other violations of the nti!Graft and Corrupt Practices ct not otherwise falling under the foregoing
categories, reEuire a previous authority of the President for the respondent PCGG to investigate and prosecute the
same in accordance with Section 8(b) of #Decutive %rder :o. '. %therwise, 0urisdiction over such cases is vested in
the %mbudsman and other duly authori,ed investigating agencies as the provincial and city prosecutors, their
assistants, the Chief State Prosecutor and his assistants, and the state prosecutors.
Thus for a penal violation to fall under the 0urisdiction of the respondent PCGG under Section 8(a) of #Decutive %rder
:o. ', the following elements must concur-
('). 3t must relate to alleged ill!gotten wealthH
(8). %f the late President $arcos, his immediate family relatives, subordinates and close associatesH
(/). >ho too4 undue advantage of their public office and@or used their power, authority, influence, connections or
relationship.
reading of the information and the amended information that was filed by the PCGG in this case shows that
petitioner is charged with a violation of +epublic ct :o. /(') as amended, the nti!Graft and Corrupt Practices ct.
3t is alleged that petitioner, as president and general manager of the GS3S, allegedly entered into a contract of sale
with Cor!sia, a private corporation, manifestly and grossly disadvantageous to the GS3S, of seven percent (67) of
the 8(!year Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) bonds with a total face value of #9#2#: $3993%: "%;+
1;:<+#< "%+T= T1%;S:< T>% 1;:<+#< S3?T= P#S%S and 8(@'(( (P'',AA(,88..8(), at about forty
percent (A(7) discount, or at a lower price of about S#2#: $3993%: T>% 1;:<+#< T1+## T1%;S:< P#S%S
(P6,8(/,(((.((), when said bonds could then be easily sold and was in fact eventually sold to C%$5:B a few days
thereafter at twelve percent ('87) discount only, to the damage and pre0udice of the Philippine government in the
sum of T1+## $3993%: T>% 1;:<+#< T>#92# T1%;S:< P#S%S (P/,8'8,(((.(().
The amended information that was thereafter filed against petitioner contained substantially the same allegations with
the only amendment that petitioner was identified as Fa subordinate and crony@associate of former President
"erdinand #. $arcos,F and with the additional allegation of Fta4ing undue advantage of his public office and by using
his relationship to said former President "erdinand #. $arcos, . . . .F There is no allegation that, President $arcos, his
immediate family, relatives, subordinate or close associate, as petitioner, thereby acEuired ill!gotten wealth. 3n fact all
that the information and its amendment allege is that damage was thereby caused to the Philippine government.
"rom its allegation it also appears that it was Cor!sia which gained or profited by this transaction not petitioner.
ConseEuently, the amended information that was filed against petitioner does not fall under the category of criminal
actions for recovery of ill!gotten wealth filed against a member of the family of President $arcos, relatives,
subordinates or close associates, who too4 undue advantage of their office or authority as contemplated under
Section 8(a) of #Decutive %rder :o. '.
>hat the petitioner is actually charged with is for a violation of +epublic ct :o. /('). Public respondent PCGG does
not pretend that the President assigned to it this particular case against the petitioner for investigation and
prosecution in accordance with Section 8(b) of #Decutive %rder :o. '.
$oreover, an eDamination of the complaint filed with respondent PCGG, as well as the affidavits, counter!affidavits
and eDhibits submitted at the preliminary investigation show that there is no evidence at all that this alleged violation
is crony related, committed by petitioner by ta4ing advantage of his public office, and was committed in relation with
the ill!gotten wealth being sought to be recovered aforestated.
1.
There is, therefore, no evidence in the hands of
the respondent PCGG to 0ustify the amendment of the information.
3ndeed, the said amendment appears to be an afterthought to ma4e it fall under the type of offenses respondent
PCGG may investigate and prosecute under the law. 3t is a fundamental principle that when on its face the
information is null and void for lac4 of authority to file the same, it cannot be cured nor resurrected by an
amendment.
11
nother preliminary investigation must be underta4en and thereafter, based on evidence
adduced, a new information should be filed.
12
ConseEuently all the actions respondent PCGG had ta4en in this case including the filing of the information and
amended information with the respondent court should be struc4 down.
>1#+#"%+#, the petition is G+:T#< and the Euestioned resolutions of the respondent court dated ugust 6,
')*) and $ay 'C, '))( are hereby +#2#+S#< :< S#T S3<#, and another 0udgment is hereby rendered
<3S$3SS3:G the case S.5. Criminal Case :o. '//A8 and permanently en0oining public respondents from further
proceeding with the said case. The records of this case are hereby remanded and referred to the 1onorable
%mbudsman, who has primary 0urisdiction over the same, for appropriate action.
S% %+<#+#<.
G.R. No. 1.2,-1. A/r01 22, 199+.
5%:3"C3% S:K $C#<, Presiding &udge, 5ranch '8, +egional Trial Court, ntiEue, petitioner,
vs.
1%:. %$5;<S$: C%:+<% $. 2SI;#K :< TT=. :P%9#%: . 53#+, respondents.
5onifacio San, $aceda for and in his own behalf.
Public ttorneyGs %ffice for private respondent.
S=995;S
'. +#$#<39 9>H &;+3S<3CT3%:H %""3C# %" T1# %$5;<S$: 1S &;+3S<3CT3%: T% 3:2#ST3GT#
%""#:S# C%$$3TT#< 5= &;<G# >1#T1#+ %+ :%T %""#:S# +#9T#S T% %""3C39 <;T3#SH +#S%:.
J Petitioner also contends that the %mbudsman has no 0urisdiction over said cases despite this CourtGs ruling in
%rap vs. Sandiganbayan, since the offense charged arose from the 0udgeGs performance of his official duties, which is
under the control and supervision of the Supreme Court . . . The Court disagrees with the first part of petitionerGs
basic argument. There is nothing in the decision in %rap that would restrict it only to offenses committed by a 0udge
unrelated to his official duties. 0udge who falsifies his certificate of service is administratively liable to the Supreme
Court for serious misconduct and inefficiency under Section ', +ule 'A( of the +ules of Court, and criminally liable to
the State under the +evised Penal Code for his felonious act.
8. 3<.H 3<.H 3<.H &;+3S<3CT3%: T% 3:2#ST3GT# %""#:S# +#9T#< T% %""3C39 <;T3#S S;5&#CT T%
P+3%+ <$3:3ST+T32# CT3%: TB#: G3:ST &;<G# 5= S;P+#$# C%;+TH +#S%:. J 1owever, >e
agree with petitioner that in the absence of any administrative action ta4en against him by this Court with regard to
his certificates of service, the investigation being conducted by the %mbudsman encroaches into the CourtGs power of
administrative supervision over all courts and its personnel, in violation of the doctrine of separation of powers.
/. 3<.H 3<.H 3<.H 3<.H P+%C#<;+# T% 5# %5S#+2#< 5= %$5;<S$: +#G+<3:G C%$P93:T G3:ST
&;<G# %+ %T1#+ C%;+T #$P9%=##H P;+P%S#. J Thus, the %mbudsman should first refer the matter of
petitionerGs certificates of service to this Court for determination of whether said certificates reflected the true status of
his pending case load, as the Court has the necessary records to ma4e such a determination . . . 3n fine, where a
criminal complaint against a 0udge or other court employee arises from their administrative duties, the %mbudsman
must defer action on said complaint and refer the same to this Court for determination whether said 0udge or court
employee had acted within the scope of their administrative duties.
A. 3<.H 3<.H 3<.H 3<.H %$5;<S$: C::%T S;5P%#: S;P+#$# C%;+T :< 3TS P#+S%::#9H +#S%:. J
The %mbudsman cannot compel this Court, as one of the three branches of government, to submit its records, or to
allow its personnel to testify on this matter, as suggested by public respondent biera in his affidavit!complaint. The
rationale for the foregoing pronouncement is evident in this case. dministratively, the Euestion before ;s is this-
should a 0udge, having been granted by this Court an eDtension of time to decide cases before him, report these
cases in his certificate of serviceL s this Euestion had not yet been raised with, much less resolved by, this Court,
how could the %mbudsman resolve the present criminal complaint that reEuires the resolution of said EuestionL
< # C 3 S 3 % :
:%C%:, & p-
The issue in this petition for certiorari with prayer for preliminary mandatory in0unction and@or restraining order is
whether the %ffice of the %mbudsman could entertain a criminal complaint for the alleged falsification of a 0udgeGs
certification submitted to the Supreme Court, and assuming that it can, whether a referral should be made first to the
Supreme Court.
Petitioner 5onifacio San, $aceda, Presiding &udge of 5ranch '8 of the +egional Trial Court of ntiEue, see4s the
review of the following orders of the %ffice of the %mbudsman- (') the %rder dated September '*, '))' denying the
eD!parte motion to refer to the Supreme Court filed by petitionerH and (8) the %rder dated :ovember 88, ')C' denying
petitionerGs motion for reconsideration and directing petitioner to file his counter!affidavit and other controverting
evidences.
3n his affidavit!complaint dated pril '*, '))' filed before the %ffice of the %mbudsman, respondent :apoleon .
biera of the Public ttorneyGs %ffice alleged that petitioner had falsified his Certificate of Service ' dated "ebruary .,
')*), by certifying Fthat all civil and criminal cases which have been submitted for decision or determination for a
period of )( days have been determined and decided on or before &anuary /', '))*,F when in truth and in fact,
petitioner 4new that no decision had been rendered in five (C) civil and ten ('() criminal cases that have been
submitted for decision. +espondent biera further alleged that petitioner similarly falsified his certificates of service for
the months of "ebruary, pril, $ay, &une, &uly and ugust, all in ')*)H and the months beginning &anuary up to
September '))(, or for a total of seventeen ('6) months.
%n the other hand, petitioner contends that he had been granted by this Court an eDtension of ninety ()() days to
decide the aforementioned cases.
Petitioner also contends that the %mbudsman has no 0urisdiction over said case despite this CourtGs ruling in %rap vs.
Sandiganbayan, 8 since the offense charged arose from the 0udgeGs performance of his official duties, which is under
the control and supervision of the Supreme Court. "urthermore, the investigation of the %mbudsman constitutes an
encroachment into the Supreme CourtGs constitutional duty of supervision over all inferior courts.
The Court disagrees with the first Part of petitionerGs basic argument. There is nothing in the decision in %rap that
would restrict it only to offenses committed by a 0udge unrelated to his official duties. 0udge who falsifies his
certificate of service is administratively liable to the Supreme Court for serious misconduct and inefficiency under
Section ', +ule 'A( of the +ules of Court, and criminally liable to the State under the +evised Penal Code for his
felonious act.
1owever, >e agree with petitioner that in the absence of any administrative action ta4en against him by this Court
with regard to his certificates of service, the investigation being conducted by the %mbudsman encroaches into the
CourtGs power of administrative supervision over all courts and its personnel, in violation of the doctrine of separation
of powers.
rticle 2333, section . of the ')*6 Constitution eDclusively vests in the Supreme Court administrative supervision over
all courts and court personnel, from the Presiding &ustice of the Court of ppeals down to the lowest municipal trial
court cler4. 5y virtue of this power, it is only the Supreme Court that can oversee the 0udgesG and court personnelGs
compliance with all laws, and ta4e the proper administrative action against them if they commit any violation thereof.
:o other branch of government may intrude into this power, without running afoul of the doctrine of separation of
powers.
The %mbudsman cannot 0ustify its investigation of petitioner on the powers granted to it by the Constitution, / for
such a 0ustification not only runs counter to the specific mandate of the Constitution granting supervisory powers to
the Supreme Court over all courts and their personnel, but li4ewise undermines the independence of the 0udiciary.
Thus, the %mbudsman should first refer the matter of petitionerGs certificates of service to this Court for determination
of whether said certificates reflected the true status of his pending case load, as the Court has the necessary records
to ma4e such a determination. The %mbudsman cannot compel this Court, as one of the three branches of
government, to submit its records, or to allow its personnel to testify on this matter, as suggested by public
respondent biera in his affidavit!complaint. A
The rationale for the foregoing pronouncement is evident in this case. dministratively. the Euestion before ;s is this-
should a 0udge, having been granted by this Court an eDtension of time to decide cases before him, report these
cases in his certificate of serviceL s this Euestion had not yet been raised with, much less resolved by, this Court.
how could the %mbudsman resolve the present criminal complaint that reEuires the resolution of said EuestionL
3n fine, where a criminal complaint against a &udge or other court employee arises from their administrative duties,
the %mbudsman must defer action on said complaint and refer the same to this Court for determination whether said
&udge or court employee had acted within the scope of their administrative duties.
>1#+#"%+#, the instant petition is hereby G+:T#<. The %mbudsman is hereby directed to dismiss the
complaint filed by public respondent tty. :apoleon . biera and to refer the same to this Court for appropriate
action. S% %+<#+#<.
2G.R. No3. 14.19942... February 6, 2..25
FE#C#TO !. MACA#NO, petitioner, vs. !AN"#GANBA$AN a%&
OFF#CE OF THE OMBU"!MAN, respondents.
" E C # ! # O N
)AR"O, J.6
The case is a petition for certiorari
M'N
assailing the 0urisdiction of the
%mbudsman and the Sandiganbayan to ta4e cogni,ance of two criminal
cases
M8N
against petitioner and his wife 9iwayway S. Tan, contending that he is
not a public officer within the 0urisdiction of the Sandiganbayan.
M/N
%n September '., '))8, the Special Prosecutor, %ffice of the
%mbudsman, with the approval of the %mbudsman, filed with the
Sandiganbayan two informations against petitioner and 9iwayway S. Tan
charging them with estafa through falsification of official documents (Criminal
Case :o. '*(88) and frustrated estafa through falsification of mercantile
documents (Criminal Case :o. ')8.*), as follows-
CRIMINAL CASE NO. 18022
That on or about the 15th day of Marh! 1"8" and for #o$et%$e &r%or or #ub#e'uent
thereto! %n the Mun%%&a(%ty of Manda(uyon)! Metro Man%(a! and *%th%n the
+ur%#d%t%on of th%# ,onorab(e Court! the abo-e.na$ed au#ed! /ELICITO S.
MACALINO! be%n) then the A##%#tant Mana)er of the Trea#ury 0%-%#%on and the
,ead of the Loan# Ad$%n%#trat%on 1 In#urane Set%on of the 2h%(%&&%ne Nat%ona(
Con#trut%on Cor&orat%on 32NCC4! a )o-ern$ent.ontro((ed or&orat%on *%th off%e#
at E0SA orner Re(%ane St.! Manda(uyon)! and hene! a &ub(% off%er! *h%(e %n the
&erfor$ane of h%# off%%a( funt%on#! ta5%n) ad-anta)e of h%# &o#%t%on! o$$%tt%n) the
offen#e %n re(at%on to h%# off%e and on#&%r%n) and onfederat%n) *%th h%# #&ou#e
LI6A76A7 S. TAN! be%n) then the o*ner of 6a5er Mar5et%n)! d%d then and there
*%((fu((y! un(a*fu((y! fe(on%ou#(y and by $ean# of dee%t defraud the 2h%(%&&%ne
Nat%ona( Con#trut%on Cor&orat%on %n the fo((o*%n) $anner8 %n &re&ar%n) the
a&&(%at%on *%th the 2h%(%&&%ne Nat%ona( 9an5! 9uend%a 9ranh for the %##uane of a
de$and draft %n the a$ount of NINE ,:N0RE0 EI;,T7 T,REE T,O:SAN0
SI< ,:N0RE0 EI;,T7.T6O 1 11=100 2ESOS 32"8>!?82.114! 2h%(%&&%ne
Curreny! %n fa-or of 9an5er# Tru#t Co$&any! au#ed /ELICITO S.MACALINO
#u&er%$&o#ed the na$e 6a5er Mar5et%n)@ a# &ayee to $a5e %t a&&ear that the
de$and draft *a# &ayab(e to %t! *hen %n truth and %n fat and a# the au#ed -ery *e((
5ne*! %t *a# the 9an5er# Tru#t Co$&any *h%h *a# the rea( &ayee a# %nd%ated %n
Che5 Aouher No. >.800.8" and 2N9 Che5 No. 92>?BC? #u&&ort%n) #a%d
a&&(%at%on for de$and draftD #ub#e'uent(y au#ed /ELICITO S. MACALINO
(%5e*%#e %n#erted %nto the (etter of 2NCC to 2N9 9uend%a 9ranh the *ord# &ayab(e
to 6a5er Mar5et%n)@ to $a5e %t a&&ear that the de$and draft# to be &%5ed u& by the
de#%)nated $e##en)er *ere &ayab(e to 6a5er Mar5et%n) *hen %n truth and %n fat the
rea( &ayee *a# 9an5er# Tru#t Co$&anyD and a# a re#u(t of #uh at# of fa(#%f%at%on!
2N9 9uend%a %##ued 1" de$and draft# for 250!000.00 eah and another de$and draft
for2>>!?82.11! a((! &ayab(e to 6a5er Mar5et%n)! *h%h *ere #ub#e'uent(y de(%-ered
to au#ed /e(%%tor S. Maa(%no and *h%h au#ed LI6A76A7 S. TAN thereafter
eEhan)ed *%th 2N9 9a(an)a 9ranh for 1" he5# at 250!000.00 eah and another
for 2>>!?82.11 and a(( of *h%h #he (ater de&o#%ted %nto Aount No. 00C2.0282.? of
6a5er Mar5et%n) at 2h%(tru#t Cubao! thereby au#%n) &eun%ary da$a)e and
&re+ud%e to 2h%(%&&%ne Nat%ona( Con#trut%on Cor&orat%on %n the a$ount
of 2"8>!?82.11.
CONTRAR7 TO LA6.
Man%(a! 2h%(%&&%ne#! Au)u#t 2C! 1""2.@
MAN
CRIMINAL CASE NO. 1"2?8
That on or about the Cth day of A&r%(! 1""0! and #ub#e'uent(y thereafter! %n the
Mun%%&a(%ty of Manda(uyon)! Metro Man%(a! and *%th%n the +ur%#d%t%on of th%#
,onorab(e Court! the abo-e.na$ed au#ed! /ELICITO S. MACALINO! be%n) then
the A##%#tant Mana)er of the Trea#ury 0%-%#%on and the ,ead of the Loan#
Ad$%n%#trat%on and In#urane Set%on of the 2h%(%&&%ne Nat%ona( Con#trut%on
Cor&orat%on! a )o-ern$ent.ontro((ed or&orat%on *%th off%e# at E0SA orner
Re(%ane St.! Manda(uyon)! Metro Man%(a! and hene! a &ub(% off%er! *h%(e %n the
&erfor$ane of h%# off%%a( funt%on#! ta5%n) ad-anta)e of h%# &o#%t%on! o$$%tt%n) the
offen#e %n re(at%on to h%# off%e! and on#&%r%n) and onfederat%n) *%th h%# #&ou#e
LI6A76A7 S. TAN! be%n) then the o*ner of 6a5er Mar5et%n)! d%d then and there
*%((fu((y! un(a*fu((y! fe(on%ou#(y and by $ean# of dee%t defraud the 2h%(%&&%ne
Nat%ona( Con#trut%on Cor&orat%on %n the fo((o*%n) $anner8 after ree%-%n) Che5
Aouher No. 0C.C22."0 o-er%n) the &art%a( &ay$ent by 2NCC of the #%n5%n) fund to
Internat%ona( Cor&orate 9an5 3Interban54 a# *e(( a# Che5 No. 552>12 for T6O
MILLION T6O ,:N0RE0 /I/T7 T,O:SAN0 2ESOS 322!250!000.004!
2h%(%&&%ne Curreny! &ayab(e to Interban5 for the &ur&o#e! au#ed /ELICITO
S.MACALINO fa(#%f%ed 2N9 Che5 No. 552>12 by a(ter%n) the &ayee %nd%ated
there%n to $a5e %t a&&ear that the afore#a%d he5 *a# &ayab(e to 6a5er Mar5et%n)
%n#tead of Interban5 and further fa(#%f%ed the #hedu(e of he5 d%#bur#e$ent# #ent to
2N9 9uend%a by $a5%n) %t a&&ear there%n that the &ayee of Che5 No. 552>12 *a#
6a5er Mar5et%n) *hen %n truth and %n fat and a# the au#ed -ery *e(( 5ne*! %t *a#
Interban5 *h%h *a# the rea( &ayeeD au#ed LI6A76A7 S. TAN thereafter
de&o#%ted Che5 No. 552>12 %nto Aount No. 00C2.0282.? of 6a5er Mar5et%n) at
2h%(tru#t Cubao and 6a5er Mar5et%n) #ub#e'uent(y %##ued 2h%(tru#t Che5 No.
1C80>" for 2100!000.00 %n fa-or of au#ed /ELICITO S. MACALINOD *h%h at#
of fa(#%f%at%on &erfor$ed by the au#ed *ou(d ha-e defrauded the 2h%(%&&%ne
Nat%ona( Con#trut%on Cor&orat%on of22!250!000.00 had not 2N9 9uend%a ordered the
d%#honor of Che5 No. 552>12 after not%n) the a(terat%on=era#ure# thereon! thereby
fa%(%n) to &rodue the fe(ony by rea#on of au#e# %nde&endent of the *%(( of the
au#ed.
CONTRAR7 TO LA6.
Man%(a! 2h%(%&&%ne#! May 28! 1"">.@
MCN
;pon arraignment on :ovember ), '))8, petitioner pleaded not guilty to
the charges. 1ence, trial proceeded.
M.N
1owever, during the initial presentation of evidence for the defense,
petitioner moved for leave to file a motion to dismiss on the ground that the
Sandiganbayan has no 0urisdiction over him since he is not a public officer
because the Philippine :ational Construction Corporation (P:CC), formerly
the Construction and <evelopment Corporation of the Philippines (C<CP), is
not a government!owned or controlled corporation with original charter.
M6N
The
People of the Philippines opposed the motion.
M*N
%n ugust C, '))), the Sandiganbayan promulgated a resolution denying
petitionerOs motion to dismiss for lac4 of merit.
M)N
1ence, this petition.
M'(N
T(e #33ue
The sole issue raised is whether petitioner, an employee of the P:CC, is a
public officer within the coverage of +. . :o. /('), as amended.
T(e Cour'73 Ru10%8
Petitioner contends that an employee of the P:CC is not a public officer
as defined under +epublic ct :o. /('), as follows-
Se. 2. 3a4 EEE EEE EEE.
3b4 2ub(% off%er %n(ude# e(et%-e and a&&o%nt%-e off%%a(# and e$&(oyee#!
&er$anent or te$&orary! *hether %n the un(a##%f%ed or (a##%f%ed or eEe$&ted #er-%e
ree%-%n) o$&en#at%on! e-en no$%na(! fro$ the )o-ern$ent a# def%ned %n the
&reed%n) &ara)ra&h.@
>e agree.
To resolve the issue, we resort to the ')*6 Constitution. rticle ?3, on the
ccountability of Public %fficers, provides-
Set%on 12. The O$bud#$an and h%# de&ut%e#! a# &rotetor# of the &eo&(e! #ha(( at
&ro$&t(y on o$&(a%nt# f%(ed %n any for$ or $anner a)a%n#t
&ub(% off%%a(# or e$&(oyee# of the ;o-ern$ent! or any #ubd%-%#%on! a)eny or
%n#tru$enta(%ty thereof! %n(ud%n) )o-ern$ent.o*ned or ontro((ed or&orat%on# E E
E.@
Set%on 1>. The Off%e of the O$bud#$an #ha(( ha-e the fo((o*%n) &o*er#!
funt%on# and dut%e#8
1. In-e#t%)ate on %t# o*n! or on o$&(a%nt by any &er#on! any at or o$%##%on of any
&ub(% off%%a( or e$&(oyee! off%e or a)eny! *hen #uh at or o$%##%on a&&ear# to be
%((e)a(! un+u#t! %$&ro&er and %neff%%ent. E E E
2. 0%ret! u&on o$&(a%nt or at %t# %n#tane! any &ub(% off%%a( or e$&(oyee of the
)o-ern$ent! or any #ubd%-%#%on! a)eny or %n#tru$enta(%ty thereof! a# *e(( a# of any
)o-ern$ent.o*ned or ontro((ed or&orat%on# *%thor%)%na( harter#! to &erfor$ and
eE&ed%te any at or duty re'u%red by (a*! or to #to&! &re-ent! and orret any abu#e or
%$&ro&r%ety %n the &erfor$ane of dut%e#.@ 3under#or%n) #u&&(%ed4
"urther, rticle 3?!5, Section 8 (') of the ')*6 Constitution provides-
The %-%( #er-%e e$brae# a(( branhe#! #ubd%-%#%on#! %n#tru$enta(%t%e#! and a)en%e#
of the ;o-ern$ent! %n(ud%n) )o-ern$ent.o*ned and ontro((ed or&orat%on# *%th
or%)%na( harter#.@ 3under#or%n) #u&&(%ed4
+epublic ct :o. .66( provides-
Set%on 15. 2o*er#! /unt%on# and 0ut%e# .The Off%e of the O$bud#$an #ha(( ha-e
the fo((o*%n) &o*er#! funt%on# and dut%e#8
1. In-e#t%)ate and &ro#eute on %t# o*n or on o$&(a%nt by any &er#on! any at or
o$%##%on of any &ub(% off%er or e$&(oyee! off%e or a)eny! *hen #uh at or
o$%##%on a&&ear# to be %((e)a(! un+u#t! %$&ro&er or %neff%%ent. E E E.
2. 0%ret! u&on o$&(a%nt or at %t# o*n %n#tane! any off%er or e$&(oyee of the
;o-ern$ent! or of any #ubd%-%#%on! a)eny or %n#tru$enta(%ty thereof! a# *e(( a# any
)o-ern$ent.o*ned or ontro((ed or&orat%on# *%thor%)%na( harter#! to &erfor$ and
eE&ed%te any at or duty re'u%red by (a*! or to #to&! &re-ent! and orret any abu#e or
%$&ro&r%ety %n the &erfor$ane of dut%e#.@
3nasmuch as the P:CC has no original charter as it was incorporated
under the general law on corporations, it follows inevitably that petitioner is not
a public officer within the coverage of +. . :o. /('), as amended. Thus, the
Sandiganbayan has no 0urisdiction over him. The only instance when the
Sandiganbayan has 0urisdiction over a private individual is when the complaint
charges him either as a co!principal, accomplice or accessory of a public
officer who has been charged with a crime within the 0urisdiction of
Sandiganbayan.
M''N
The cases
M'8N
cited by respondent People of the Philippines are inapplicable
because they were decided under the provisions of the ')6/ Constitution
which included as public officers, officials and employees of corporations
owned and controlled by the government though organi,ed and eDisting under
the general corporation law. The ')*6 Constitution eDcluded such
corporations.
The crimes charged against petitioner were committed in ')*) and '))(.
M'/N
The criminal actions were instituted in '))8. 3t is well!settled that Pthe
0urisdiction of a court to try a criminal case is determined by the law in force at
the institution of the action.Q
M'AN
T(e Fa11o
#N *#E9 9HEREOF, the Court G+:TS the petition. The Court S#TS
S3<# the order dated &uly 8), '))) of the Sandiganbayan in Criminal Cases
:os. '*(88 and ')8.* and %+<#+S the <3S$3SS9 of the two (8) cases
against petitioner and his wife.
:o costs.
!O OR"ERE".
2G.R. No. 14-944. February 5, 2..+5
MA$OR A*#N B. GARC#A, petitioner, vs. HONORABE )R#MO C.
M#RO, 0% (03 :a/a:0'y a3 "e/u'y O;bu&3;a% <or '(e
*03aya3, *#RG#N#A )AANCA4!ANT#AGO, 0% (er :a/a:0'y a3
"0re:'or, O<<0:e o< '(e O;bu&3;a% =*03aya3>, AAN FRANC#!CO
!. GARC#ANO, 0% (03 :a/a:0'y a3 Gra<' #%?e3'08a'0o% O<<0:er 1,
O<<0:e o< '(e O;bu&3;a% =*03aya3>, respondents.
" E C # ! # O N
AZCUNA, J.6
special civil action for certiorari, prohibition, and mandamus is before us.
The facts are fairly simple.
Petitioner lvin 5. Garcia, as then mayor of Cebu City, signed a contract
with ".#. Kuellig on $ay 6, '))*. ".#. Kuellig is the Philippine distributor of
5itumeD, a brand name of an asphalt product. The contract essentially
provided that ".#. Kuellig shall be the eDclusive supplier of asphalt for the
cityOs asphalt batching plant for a period of three years, from '))* to 8((',
with the initial delivery of asphalt in September, '))*.
SubseEuently, petitioner was elected to a new term as mayor. The
respondent <eputy %mbudsman for the 2isayas thereafter sought to hold him
administratively liable on the aforesaid contract and ordered him preventively
suspended for siD months. Petitioner came to us in an earlier petition alleging
grave abuse of discretion.
3n *arcia $. Mo+ica,
O1P
we held for petitioner, stating that the siD!month
suspension period was no longer necessary, as respondent had sufficient time
to gather evidence without petitionerOs intervention during his nearly one!
month suspension. "urthermore, we ruled that as pronounced in Salalia $.
*uingona,
O2P
an officialOs reelection eDpresses the sovereign will of the
electorate to forgive or condone any act or omission constituting a ground for
administrative discipline committed during the previous term.
:ewspaper accounts of the alleged anomalies on the sub0ect contract
started to surface in the local media in $arch of '))). +espondent <eputy
%mbudsman, in a letter dated $arch /(, '))), reEuired the <irector of the
Commission on udit (C%) of +egion 233 to conduct a special audit. %n the
same day, it li4ewise reEuested the City dministrator of the %ffice of the
$ayor to submit documents pertaining to the asphalt supply of the city and a
copy of the sub0ect contract.
Special Prosecution %fficer &esus +odrigo T. Tagaan of the %ffice of the
%mbudsman was assigned to conduct the inEuiry doc4eted as 3:I!23S!))!
('/8. 3n his report,
O3P
Special Prosecution %fficer Tagaan recommended that a
criminal and an administrative complaint be filed against petitioner Garcia and
several others. %n &une 8', '))), Tagaan filed an affidavit
ODP
with the Graft
3nvestigation %ffice against petitioner Garcia and others for violation of
Section /(g) of +epublic ct :o. /(') or the nti!Graft and Corrupt Practices
ct.
%n ugust '., '))), the %ffice of the City uditor filed with the <eputy
%mbudsman its report which was prepared by State uditors 1ilario S.
Cabreros and Sulpicio C. Iue0ada, &r. The C% Special udit +eport
concluded-
E E E
IN S:M! the &ro&r%ety of the fore)o%n) tran#at%on# %# h%)h(y 'ue#t%onab(e %n -%e* of
the fat that &ay$entF#G *ere $ade e-en %f the %te$# *ere not yet de(%-ered *h%h %# a
(ear a#e of A0AANCE 2A7MENT %n -%o(at%on of eE%#t%n) (a*! ru(e# and
re)u(at%on#.
O<P
E E E
State uditors Cabreros and Iue0ada thereafter submitted a 0oint affidavit
dated September 8), '))) on their findings. The relevant portions of the 0oint
affidavit are as follows-
E E E
. That by -%rtue of S2 Re#o(ut%on No. >1?B and ado&t%n) the Co$$%ttee on
A*ard# Re#o(ut%on #er%e# of 1""B! a three 3>4 year ontrat *a# $ade and eEeuted by
and bet*een the C%ty of Cebu re&re#ented by ,on. A(-%n 9. ;ar%a here%nafter
referred to a# the buyer@ and /.E. Hue((%) In. re&re#ented by %t# ;enera( Mana)er!
M%he( M%(oda here%nafter referred to a# the Se((er@D
d. That #a%d three 3>4 year ontrat *a# AOI0 #%ne there *a# no a-a%(ab(e
a&&ro&r%at%on= fund# to o-er the &ro&o#ed eE&end%ture# at the t%$e of the eEeut%on of
the ontrat %n -%o(at%on of Set%on 85 and 8? of 20 1CC5 other*%#e 5no*n a# the
State Aud%t FCGode of the 2h%(%&&%ne#. Con#e'uent(y! the off%er# enter%n) %nto the
ontrat #ha(( be (%ab(e to the )o-ern$ent a# &ro-%ded for %n Set%on 8B of the #a$e
ode. Moreo-er! the eEeut%on by the C%ty Mayor of a three 3>4 year ontrat
eEeeded the author%ty )ranted to h%$ by the San))un%an) 2an(un)#od &er S2
Re#o(ut%on No. >1?BD
E E E
). That the C%ty of Cebu %# ob(%)ated to &ay /.E. Hue((%) In. a f%Eed a$ount %n
do((ar 3ICC>.184 &er $etr% ton but &ayab(e %n 2h%(%&&%ne 2e#o *h%h #%tuat%on %#
d%#ad-anta)eou# to the C%ty %n -%e* of the f(utuat%n) -a(uat%on of the 2h%(%&&%ne 2e#o
-%# a -%# the :S 0o((ar. A# a re#u(t! the C%ty *%(( )et on(y the e'u%-a(ent 'uant%ty of
9%tu$en de&end%n) u&on the &re-a%(%n) rate of 2h%(%&&%ne 2e#o at the t%$e of
&ay$ent. And be#%de#! Set%on# C5 and CB of COA C%ru(ar No. "2.>8? &ro-%de8 that
the &r%e $u#t be erta%n and def%n%te %n a$ount and $u#t be %n 2h%(%&&%ne Curreny
#&e%a((y #o that the ontrat%n) &arty %# a f%r$ o&erat%n) %n the 2h%(%&&%ne#D
h. That the &r%e offered by /.E. Hue((%) In. to #e(( %t# &rodut %n 9%tuonta%ner#
*a# at 21B! B2B.20 &er $etr% ton *h%h &ur&orted(y %t 3#%4
%n(uded the tehno(o)y but the -ery #a$e &rodut ou(d be &urha#ed at a (o*er
&r%e %n the (oa( $ar5et at 28!"B5.00 &er $etr% ton. A# a on#e'uene! the C%ty
;o-ern$ent had to &ay the a$ount of 21"!C1B!"18.00 +u#t for the u#e of
9%tuonta%ner# a(one. The rea#onab(ene## therefore of the &r%e &a%d %# ,I;,L7
0O:9T/:LD
%. That before the eEeut%on by the C%ty Mayor of a three 3>4 year ontrat! the
C%ty ;o-ern$ent had a(ready &urha#ed A#&ha(t 85=100 2enetrat%on ;rade 9u(5 fro$
/.E. Hue((%) In. &er 2urha#e Order No#. >1?C! 1C5>! and 1"C8D
+. That the tran#at%on# $ent%oned %n the %$$ed%ate(y &reed%n) &ara)ra&h *ere
,I;,L7 J:ESTIONA9LE %n -%e* of the fat that fu(( &ay$ent# *ere $ade e-en %f
the %te$# *ere not yet de(%-ered! *herea# 2O No. ?"5 #ub+et of the %n'u%ry 3under
ontrat4 a((# for the de(%-ery of ?00 $etr% ton# of A#&ha(t 85=100 at 21B!B2B.20 or a
tota( a$ount of 210!?>?!>20.00 Fand the#eG *ere not de(%-ered at a(( %n #&%te of fu((
&ay$ent $ade a(( of *h%h FareG %n -%o(at%on of Set%on >>8 of RA B1?0 and Set%on
88 of 201CC5D
O;P
E E E
The State uditors later filed a supplemental 0oint affidavit dated pril '*,
8(((, wherein they disclosed other details such as the alleged ghost
deliveries of asphalt.
OFP
Special Prosecution %fficer Tagaan resigned from office in &anuary, 8(((
and his name was subseEuently dropped as complainant. 1ence, during the
0oint clarificatory hearing and preliminary conference before the <eputy
%mbudsman on September '8, 8(((, the counsel of respondents therein
averred that the dropping of the name of Special Prosecution %fficer Tagaan
as complainant in the case deprived them of the right to confront their
accusers.
O7P
%n %ctober /, 8(((, the <eputy %mbudsman issued an %rder
reEuiring petitioner Garcia to submit his counter!affidavit pursuant to the
conduct of a preliminary investigation, thus-
E E E E E E E E E
6,ERE/ORE! and &ur#uant to Se. C! 2ara)ra&h 9! Ru(e II and Set%on 5!
2ara)ra&h A! Ru(e III of Ad$%n%#trat%-e Order No. B %##ued by the Off%e of the
O$bud#$an! you are hereby ordered to f%(e your ounter.aff%da-%t to the here%n
attahed fat.f%nd%n) %n'u%ry re&ort of the Co$&(a%nant! COMMISSION ON A:0IT.
Re)%on AII! Cebu C%ty! to)ether *%th the Ko%nt State$ent of State Aud%tor# ,%(ar%o
Cabrero# and Su(&%%o Jue+ada! Kr.! a# *e(( a# the%r Su&&(e$enta( Ko%nt Aff%da-%t to the
#a%d COA re&ort! *%th%n TEN 3104 0A7S fro$ ree%&t hereof *%th &roof of #er-%e
thereof to the o$&(a%nant=# *ho $ay f%(e h%#=her=the%r re&(y.aff%da-%t *%th%n TEN
3104 0A7S fro$ ree%&t of #uh ounter.aff%da-%t. 7our fa%(ure to f%(e your ounter.
aff%da-%t and other ontro-ert%n) e-%dene=# *%(( $ean a *a%-er on your &art to refute
the har)e# a)a%n#t you and the a#e *%(( be re#o(-ed on the e-%dene=# on reord.
O9P
E E E E E E E E E
Petitioner Garcia did not comply with the said %rder and instead filed, on
:ovember 88, 8(((, a $otion to be "urnished a Copy of the Complaint!
ffidavit and $otion to Suspend 3mplementation of the %rder dated %ctober /,
8(((. 3n a second %rder dated <ecember 8., 8(((, respondent <eputy
%mbudsman denied the $otion and gave petitioner Garcia another period of
ten days within which to file his counter!affidavit. Petitioner again refused to
comply and filed a $otion for +econsideration dated &anuary '6, 8((' and
a Supplemental $anifestation with a $otion to <ismiss on the Ground of 9ac4
of &urisdiction dated "ebruary ', 8(('.
%n &une '*, 8((', the <eputy %mbudsman issued a third %rder stating in
part that-
E E E
To a-o%d further de(ay %n the re#o(ut%on of th%# a#e! *h%h $ay &re+ud%e other
re#&ondent# *ho ha-e t%$e(y f%(ed the%r ounter.aff%da-%t#! th%# Off%e re#o(-e# to
on#%der the Mot%on#! Man%fe#tat%on# and Su&&(e$enta( Mot%on# of re#&ondent ;ar%a
*h%h no* for$ed &art of the reord# of the a#e a# h%# ANS6ER to the o$&(a%nt
&ur#uant to Set%on C34! Ru(e II of Ad$%n%#trat%-e Order No. B of the Off%e of the
O$bud#$an.
6,ERE/ORE! &re$%#e# on#%dered! the &re(%$%nary %n-e#t%)at%on of th%# a#e %# no*
on#%dered TERMINATE0 and th%# Off%e *%(( no* &roeed to re#o(-e the #a$e on
the ba#%# of the e-%dene on reord.
O1=P
E E E
See4ing now to dismiss the criminal investigation before the %mbudsman,
doc4eted as %$5!23S!C+3$!))!(CA., and to restrain respondents from
proceeding with the preliminary investigation on the matter, petitioner has filed
the present case.
Petitioner raises the following Euestions-
#.
0OES T,E COA S2ECIAL A:0IT RE2ORT CONSTIT:TE A AALI0
COM2LAINT T,AT IS S://ICIENT TO S:22ORT A CRIMINAL
2ROCEE0IN;L
##.
0I0 RES2ON0ENTS ACT 6IT, ;RAAE A9:SE O/ 0ISCRETION
AMO:NTIN; TO LACM OR E<CESS O/ K:RIS0ICTION 97 :NILATERALL7
CONAERTIN; A MERE COA /ACT./IN0IN; RE2ORT INTO A COM2LAINT
AN0 IN REJ:IRIN; 2ETITIONER TO S:9MIT A CO:NTER.A//I0AAIT IN
RES2ONSE TO T,E SAMEL
O11P
>e start with the rules.
Sections (8) and (A), +ule 33 of dministrative %rder :o. 6 or the +ules of
Procedure of the %ffice of the %mbudsman provide-
E E E
Se. 2. Evaluation N :&on e-a(uat%n) the o$&(a%nt! the %n-e#t%)at%n) off%er
#ha(( reo$$end *hether or not %t $ay be8
a4 d%#$%##ed outr%)ht for *ant of &a(&ab(e $er%t8
b4 referred to re#&ondent for o$$entD
4 endor#ed to the &ro&er )o-ern$ent off%e or a)eny *h%h ha#
+ur%#d%t%on o-er the a#eD
d4 for*arded to the a&&ro&r%ate off%e or off%%a( for fat.f%nd%n)
%n-e#t%)at%onD
e4 referred for ad$%n%#trat%-e ad+ud%at%onD or
f4 #ub+eted to a &re(%$%nary %n-e#t%)at%on
E E E
Se. C. Procedure N The &re(%$%nary %n-e#t%)at%on of a#e# fa((%n) under the
+ur%#d%t%on of the Sand%)anbayan and the Re)%ona( Tr%a( Court #ha(( be onduted %n
the $anner &re#r%bed %n Set%on >! Ru(e 112 of the Ru(e# of Court! #ub+et to the
fo((o*%n) &ro-%#%on#8
a4 If the o$&(a%nt %# not under oath or %# ba#ed on(y on off%%a( re&ort#! the
%n-e#t%)at%n) off%er #ha(( re'u%re the o$&(a%nant or #u&&ort%n) *%tne##e# to
eEeute aff%da-%t# to #ub#tant%ate the o$&(a%nt#.
b4 After #uh aff%da-%t# ha-e been #eured! the %n-e#t%)at%n) off%er #ha(( %##ue
an order! attah%n) thereto a o&y of the aff%da-%t# and other #u&&ort%n)
dou$ent#! d%ret%n) the re#&ondent to #ub$%t! *%th%n ten 3104 day# fro$
ree%&t thereof! h%# ounter.aff%da-%t# and ontro-ert%n) e-%dene *%th &roof
of #er-%e thereof on the o$&(a%nant. The o$&(a%nant $ay f%(e re&(y
aff%da-%t# *%th%n ten 3104 day# after #er-%e of the ounter.aff%da-%t#.
4 If the re#&ondent doe# not f%(e a ounter.aff%da-%t! the %n-e#t%)at%n) off%er
$ay on#%der the o$$ent f%(ed by h%$! %f any! a# h%# an#*er to the
o$&(a%nt. In any e-ent! the re#&ondent #ha(( ha-e ae## to the e-%dene
on reord
d4 No $ot%on to d%#$%## #ha(( be a((o*ed eEe&t for (a5 of
+ur%#d%t%on. Ne%ther $ay a $ot%on for a b%(( of &art%u(ar# be enterta%ned. If
re#&ondent de#%re# any $atter %n the
o$&(a%ntO# aff%da-%t to be (ar%f%ed! the &art%u(ar%Pat%on thereof $ay be
done at the t%$e of (ar%f%atory 'ue#t%on%n) %n the $anner &ro-%ded %n
&ara)ra&h 3f4 of th%# #et%on.
e4 If the re#&ondent annot be #er-ed *%th the order $ent%oned %n &ara)ra&h ?
hereof! or ha-%n) been #er-ed! doe# not o$&(y there*%th! the o$&(a%nt
#ha(( be dee$ed #ub$%tted for re#o(ut%on on the ba#%# of the e-%dene on
reord.
f4 If! after the f%(%n) of the re'u%#%te aff%da-%t# and the%r #u&&ort%n) e-%dene#!
there are fat# $ater%a( to be the a#e *h%h the %n-e#t%)at%n) off%er $ay
need to be (ar%f%ed on! he $ay ondut a (ar%f%atory hear%n) dur%n) *h%h
the &art%e# #ha(( be afforded the o&&ortun%ty to be &re#ent but *%thout the
r%)ht to eEa$%ne or ro##.eEa$%ne the *%tne## be%n) 'ue#t%oned. 6here the
a&&earane of the &art%e# or *%tne##e# %# %$&rat%ab(e! the (ar%f%atory
'ue#t%on%n) $ay be onduted %n *r%t%n)! *hereby the 'ue#t%on# de#%red to
be a#5ed by the %n-e#t%)at%n) off%er or a &arty #ha(( be redued %nto *r%t%n)
and #er-ed on the *%tne## onerned *ho #ha(( be re'u%red to an#*er the
#a$e %n *r%t%n) and under oath.
)4 :&on the ter$%nat%on of the &re(%$%nary %n-e#t%)at%on! the %n-e#t%)at%n)
off%er #ha(( for*ard the reord# of the a#e to)ether *%th h%# re#o(ut%on to
the de#%)nated author%t%e# for the%r a&&ro&r%ate at%on thereon.
No %nfor$at%on $ay be f%(ed and no o$&(a%nt $ay be d%#$%##ed *%thout the *r%tten
author%ty or a&&ro-a( of the O$bud#$an %n a#e# fa((%n) *%th%n the +ur%#d%t%on of the
Sand%)anbayan! or the &ro&er 0e&uty O$bud#$an %n a(( other a#e#.
E E E
>e recogni,e the importance of the complainant submitting his affidavit
and the affidavits of his witnesses. The reason is that after the
%mbudsman and his deputies have gathered evidence, their investigation
ceases to be general and eDploratory, and the proceedings ta4e on an
adversarial nature.
O12P
Petitioner argues that the %mbudsman cannot compel him to file a
counter!affidavit because no valid complaint eDists against him. 1e claims
that the C% Special udit +eport and the supporting affidavits submitted by
State uditors Cabreros and Iue0ada do not constitute a valid
complaint. Petitioner cites (uterte $. Sandiganbayan
O13P
wherein we held that a
C% Special udit +eport is not eEuivalent to the affidavits reEuired under
Section A, +ule 33 of .%. :o. 6.
PetitionerOs reliance on (uterte is misplaced. >hen petitioners therein
were as4ed to file a comment on a C% Special udit +eport, they were
already being sub0ected to a preliminary investigation @0'(ou' be0%8 3o
0%<or;e&. They were directed to submit a point!by!point comment u%&er
oa'( on the mere allegations in a civil case before the +egional Trial Court
which had already been dismissed and on the C% Special udit
+eport. $oreover, said petitioners were not furnished a single affidavit of any
person charging them of any offense.
3n this case, the <eputy %mbudsmanOs %rder dated %ctober /, 8(((
reEuiring petitioner to submit his counter!affidavit was accompanied by the
C% Special udit +eport and the 0oint affidavit and supplemental 0oint
affidavit of State uditors Cabreros and Iue0ada.
Petitioner does not deny his receipt of these documents, but he argues
that the 0oint affidavits accompanying the C% Special udit +eport do not
comply with the specific legal standards by which the sufficiency of a
complaint is 0udged. 1e cites Matilde, ,r. $. ,abson
O1DP
and contends that the
complaint filed against him prior to his filing his counter!affidavit must allege
the acts complained of as constituting an offense. 1e further maintains that
these allegations must be in an ordinary and concise language to enable a
person of common understanding to 4now what offense is intended to be
charged and the court to render proper 0udgment.
3t should be noted that in Matilde, the assailed informations not only
uniformly charged the accused for simple theft but also alleged that the
accused were wor4ing in the company to whom the stolen articles belonged
and that these accused were Pwor4ing on or using or producingQ the stolen
articles as employees of the company. The lower court therein found the
accused guilty under Presidential <ecree :o. '// which carried a higher
penalty than that of simple theft. 1ence, this Court ruled that the informations
violated the accused personsO right to be informed of the accusations against
them.
The complaint being referred to by petitioner is the complaint filed 0%
:our' in a criminal case. "or purposes of initiating a preliminary investigation
before the %ffice of the %mbudsman, a complaint Pin any form or mannerQ is
sufficient.
Section '8, rticle ?3 of the Constitution states that the
%mbudsman and his <eputies, as protectors of the people, shall act
promptly on Pcomplaints filed in any form or manner against public officials or
employees of Government.Q 3n Alonte $. 0as1ue2,
O1<P
we held that even
unverified and anonymous letters may suffice to start an investigation. 3n
permitting the filing of complaints Pin any form or manner,Q the framers of the
Constitution too4 into account the well!4nown reticence of the people which
4eep them from complaining against official wrongdoings. The %ffice of the
%mbudsman is different from the other investigatory and prosecutory
agencies of the government because those sub0ect to its 0urisdiction are public
officials who, through official pressure and influence, can Euash, delay or
dismiss investigations held against them.
O1;P
3n any case, the 0oint affidavits submitted by State uditors Cabreros and
Iue0ada contain allegations specific enough for petitioner to prepare his
evidence and counter!arguments. "or instance, the affidavits attest that the
sub0ect contract was entered into with no available funds appropriated to
cover the eDpenditure, in violation of Sections *C and *. of Presidential
<ecree 'AAC or the State udit Code of the Philippines, ma4ing the officers
who entered into such a contract liable under Section *6 of the same
law. Said affidavits clearly state that petitioner Garcia, by entering into a
three!year contract with ".#. Kuellig, eDceeded the authority granted to him by
the Sangguniang Panlungsod (SP) in SP +esolution :o. /'.6. The affidavits
also outline how the sub0ect contract is allegedly manifestly disadvantageous
to the city, in violation of the nti!Graft and Corrupt Practices ct.
O1FP
ll these
are serious and specific allegations under oath that warrant as4ing petitioner
to submit a counter!affidavit to present his side.
"inally, the fact that Special Prosecution %fficer Tagaan already resigned
from his office and that his name was withdrawn as complainant from the case
is of no fatal conseEuence. "irst, TagaanOs report and affidavit still form part of
the records of the case. 1e could still be called by subpoena if
necessary. Second, we agree with the Solicitor General that Tagaan was a
nominal party, whose duty as special prosecutor was to investigate the
commission of crimes and
file the corresponding complaint whenever warranted.
O17P
Since the illegal
acts imputed are public offenses, the real complainant is the State, which is
represented by the remaining complainants.
9HEREFORE, premises considered, the petition is <3S$3SS#<. :o
costs.
!O OR"ERE".
G.R. No. 159,4, A/r01 1+, 2..4
GREGOR#O B. HONA!AN ##, petitioner,
vs.
THE )ANE OF #N*E!T#GAT#NG )RO!ECUTOR! OF THE "E)ARTMENT OF JU!T#CE =EO "ACERA, !U!AN
F. "ACANA$, E"NA A. *AENZUEA AN" !EBA!T#AN F. CA)ONONG, JR.>, C#"G4)N)4 )A"#RECTOR
E"UAR"O MAT#ANO, a%& HON. OMBU"!MAN !#MEON *. MARCEO, respondents.
< # C 3 S 3 % :
AU!TR#A4MART#NEZ, J.6
%n ugust A, 8((/, an affidavit!complaint was filed with the <epartment of &ustice (<%&) by respondent C3<G!P:P@P
<irector #duardo $atillano. 3t reads in part-
R
8. fter a thorough investigation, 3 found that a crime of coup dGetat was indeed committed by military
personnel who occupied %a4wood on the 86
th
day of &uly 8((/ and Senator Gregorio FGringoF1onasan, 33 R
/. R
A. The said crime was committed as follows-
A.' %n &une A, 8((/, at on or about '' p.m., in a house located in San &uan, $etro $anila, a meeting was
held and presided by Senator 1onasan. A''a:(e& a3 A%%eB CBC 03 '(e a<<0&a?0' o< Perfecto Ragil and
made an integral part of this complaint.
R
A.* 3n the early morning of &uly 86, 8((/, Capt. Gerardo Gambala, for and in behalf of the military
rebels occupying %a4wood, made a public statement aired on nation television, stating their
withdrawal of support to the chain of command of the "P and the Government of President Gloria
$acapagal rroyo and they are willing to ris4 their lives in order to achieve the :ational +ecovery
genda of Sen. 1onasan, which they believe is the only program that would solve the ills of society.
. . . (#mphasis supplied).
The Sworn Statement of "P $a0or Perfecto +agil referred to by P:P@P <irector $atillano is Euoted verbatim, to wit-
'. That 3 am a member of the Communication S#lectronics and 3nformation Systems Services, rmed
"orces of the Philippines with the ran4 of $a0orH
8. That 3 met a certain Captain Gary le0ano of the Presidential Security Guard (PSG) during our 2ery
3mportant Person (23P) Protection Course sometime in last wee4 of $arch 8((/H
/. That sometime in $ay 8((/, Captain le0ano gave me a copy of the pamphlet of the :ational +ecovery
Program (:+P) and told me that- FBailangan ng 5ansa ng taong 4agaya mo na walang bahid ng corruption
4aya basahin mo ito (referring to :+P) pamphlet. 3 too4 the pamphlet but never had the time to read itH
A. That sometime in the afternoon of &une A, 8((/, Captain le0ano invited me to 0oin him in a meeting
where the :+P would be discussed and that there would be a special guestH
C. That Capt. le0ano and 3 arrived at the meeting at past ) oGcloc4 in the evening of &une A, 8((/ in a house
located somewhere in San &uan, $etro $anilaH
.. That upon arrival we were given a document consisting of about /!A pages containing discussion of
issues and concerns within the framewor4 of :+P and we were li4ewise served with dinnerH
6. That while we were still having dinner at about past '' oGcloc4 in the evening, Sen. Gregorio FGringoF
1onasan arrived together with another fellow who was later introduced as Capt. TuringanH
*. That after Sen. 1onasan had ta4en his dinner, the meeting proper started presided by Sen. 1onasanH
). That Sen. 1onasan discussed the :+P, the graft and corruption in the government including the military
institution, the 0udiciary, the eDecutive branch and the li4eH
'(. That the discussion concluded that we must use force, violence and armed struggle to achieve the vision
of :+P. t this point, 3 raised the argument that it is my belief that reforms will be achieved through the
democratic processes and not thru force and violence and@or armed struggle. Sen. 1onasan countered that
Fwe will never achieve reforms through the democratic processes because the people who are in power will
not give up their positions as they have their vested interests to protect.F fter a few more eDchanges of
views, Sen. 1onasan appeared irritated and as4ed me directly three (/) times- F3n 4a ba o outLF 3 then as4ed
whether all those present numbering /( people, more or less, are really committed, Sen. 1onasan replied-
FBung 4aya nating pumatay sa ating mga 4alaban, 4aya din nating pumatay sa mga 4asamahang
magtata4sil.F 3 decided not to pursue further EuestionsH
''. That in the course of the meeting, he presented the plan of action to achieve the goals of :+P, i.e.,
overthrow of the government under the present leadership thru armed revolution and after which, a 0unta will
be constituted and that 0unta will run the new government. 1e further said that some of us will resign from
the military service and occupy civilian positions in the new government. 1e also said that there is urgency
that we implement this plan and that we would be notified of the neDt activities.
'8. That after the discussion and his presentation, he eDplained the rites that we were to undergo!some sort
of Fblood compactF. 1e read a prayer that sounded more li4e a pledge and we all recited it with raised arms
and clenched fists. 1e then too4 a 4nife and demonstrated how to ma4e a cut on the left upper inner arm
until it bleeds. The cut was in form of the letter F3F in the old alphabet but was done in a way that it actually
loo4ed li4e letter F1F. Then, he pressed his right thumb against the blood and pressed the thumb on the
lower middle portion of the copy of the Prayer. 1e then covered his thumb mar4 in blood with tape. 1e then
pressed the cut on his left arm against the :+P flag and left mar4 of letter F3F on it. #verybody else followedH
'/. That when my turn came, 3 slightly made a cut on my upper inner arm and pric4ed a portion of it to let it
bleed and 3 followed what Senator 1%:S: didH
'A. That 3 did not li4e to participate in the rites but 3 had the fear for my life with what Senator 1%:S:
said that FR4aya nating pumatay ng 4asamahanFH
'C. That after the rites, the meeting was ad0ourned and we left the placeH
'.. That 3 avoided Captain le0ano after that meeting but 3 was eDtra cautious that he would not notice it for
fear of my life due to the threat made by Senator 1%:S: during the meeting on &une A, 8((/ and the
information relayed to me by Captain le0ano that their group had already deeply established their networ4
inside the intelligence communityH
'6. That sometime in the first wee4 of &uly 8((/, Captain le0ano came to see me to return the rifle that he
borrowed and told me that when the group arrives at the $alacaTang Compound for F<!<=F, my tas4 is to
switch off the telephone P5? that serves the $alacaTang compleD. 3 told him that 3 could not do it. :o
further conversation ensued and he leftH
'*. That on Sunday, &uly 86, 8((/, while watching the television, 3 saw flashed on the screen 9ieutenant
ntonio Trillanes, Captain Gerardo Gambala, Captain le0ano and some others who were present during the
&une A
th
meeting that 3 attended, having a press conference about their occupation of the %a4wood 1otel. 3
also saw that the letter F3F on the arm bands and the banner is the same letter F3F in the banner which was
displayed and on which we pressed our wound to leave the imprint of the letter F3FH
'). That this ffidavit is being eDecuted in order to attest the veracity of the foregoing and in order to charge
S#:T%+ G+#G%+3% FG+3:G%F 1%:S:, Capt. "#93? T;+3:G:, Capt. G+= 9#&:%, 9t.
:T%:3% T+399:#S, Capt. G#++<% G$59 and others for violation of rticle '/A! of the +evised
Penal Code for the offense of Fcoup d3etatF. (#mphasis supplied)
The affidavit!complaint is doc4eted as 3.S. :o. 8((/!''8( and the Panel of 3nvestigating Prosecutors of the
<epartment of &ustice (<%& Panel for brevity) sent a subpoena to petitioner for preliminary investigation.
%n ugust 86, 8((/, petitioner, together with his counsel, appeared at the <%&. 1e filed a $otion for Clarification
Euestioning <%&Gs 0urisdiction over the case, asserting that since the imputed acts were committed in relation to his
public office, it is the %ffice of the %mbudsman, not the <%&, that has the 0urisdiction to conduct the corresponding
preliminary investigationH that should the charge be filed in court, it is the Sandiganbayan, not the regular courts, that
can legally ta4e cogni,ance of the case considering that he belongs to the group of public officials with Salary Grade
/'H and praying that the proceedings be suspended until final resolution of his motion.
+espondent $atillano submitted his comment@opposition thereto and petitioner filed a reply.
%n September '(, 8((/, the <%& Panel issued an %rder, to wit-
%n ugust 86, 8((/, Senator Gregorio 5. 1onasan 33 filed through counsel a F$otion to Clarify &urisdictionF.
%n September ', 8((/, complainant filed a Comment@%pposition to the said motion.
The motion and comment@opposition are hereby duly noted and shall be passed upon in the resolution of
this case.
3n the meantime, in view of the submission by complainant of additional affidavits@evidence and to afford
respondents ample opportunity to controvert the same, respondents, thru counsel are hereby directed to file
their respective counter!affidavits and controverting evidence on or before September 8/, 8((/.
'
1ence, Senator Gregorio 5. 1onasan 33 filed the herein petition for certiorari under +ule .C of the +ules of Court
against the <%& Panel and its members, C3<G!P:P!P@<irector #duardo $atillano and %mbudsman Simeon 2.
$arcelo, attributing grave abuse of discretion on the part of the <%& Panel in issuing the aforeEuoted %rder of
September '(, 8((/ on the ground that the <%& has no 0urisdiction to conduct the preliminary investigation.
+espondent %mbudsman, the %ffice of Solicitor General in representation of respondents <%& Panel, and <irector
$atillano submitted their respective comments.
The Court heard the parties in oral arguments on the following issues-
') >hether respondent <epartment of &ustice Panel of 3nvestigators has 0urisdiction to conduct preliminary
investigation over the charge of coup d3etat against petitionerH
8) >hether %mbudsman!<%& Circular :o. )C!((' violates the Constitution and +epublic ct :o. .66( or
%mbudsman ct of ')*)H and
/) >hether respondent <%& Panel of 3nvestigators committed grave abuse of discretion in deferring the
resolution of the petitionerGs motion to clarify 0urisdiction considering the claim of the petitioner that the <%&
Panel has no 0urisdiction to conduct preliminary investigation.
fter the oral arguments, the parties submitted their respective memoranda. The arguments of petitioner are-
'. The %ffice of the %mbudsman has 0urisdiction to conduct the preliminary investigation over all public
officials, including petitioner.
8. +espondent <%& Panel is neither authori,ed nor deputi,ed under %$5!<%& &oint Circular :o. )C!((' to
conduct the preliminary investigation involving 1onasan.
/. #ven if deputi,ed, the respondent <%& Panel is still without authority since %$5!<%& &oint Circular :o.
)C!((' is ultra $ires for being violative of the Constitution, beyond the powers granted to the %mbudsman by
+.. .66( and inoperative due to lac4 of publication, hence null and void.
A. Since petitioner is charged with coup de 3etat in relation to his office, it is the %ffice of the %mbudsman
which has the 0urisdiction to conduct the preliminary investigation.
C. The respondent <%& Panel gravely erred in deferring the resolution of petitionerGs $otion to Clarify
&urisdiction since the issue involved therein is determinative of the validity of the preliminary investigation.
.. +espondent <%& Panel gravely erred when it resolved petitionerGs $otion in the guise of directing him to
submit Counter!ffidavit and yet refused and@or failed to perform its duties to resolve petitionerGs $otion
stating its legal and factual bases.
The arguments of respondent <%& Panel are-
'. The <%& has 0urisdiction to conduct the preliminary investigation on petitioner pursuant to Section /,
Chapter 3, Title 333, 5oo4 32 of the +evised dministrative Code of ')*6 in relation to P.<. :o. '86C, as
amended by P.<. :o. 'C'/.
8. Petitioner is charged with a crime that is not directly nor intimately related to his public office as a Senator.
The factual allegations in the complaint and the supporting affidavits are bereft of the reEuisite neDus
between petitionerGs office and the acts complained of.
/. The challenge against the constitutionality of the %$5!<%& &oint Circular, as a ground to Euestion the
0urisdiction of the <%& over the complaint below, is misplaced. The 0urisdiction of the <%& is a statutory grant
under the +evised dministrative Code. 3t is not derived from any provision of the 0oint circular which
embodies the guidelines governing the authority of both the <%& and the %ffice of the %mbudsman to
conduct preliminary investigation on offenses charged in relation to public office.
A. 3nstead of filing his counter!affidavit, petitioner opted to file a motion to clarify 0urisdiction which, for all
intents and purposes, is actually a motion to dismiss that is a prohibited pleading under Section /, +ule ''8
of the +evised +ules of Criminal Procedure. The <%& Panel is not reEuired to act or even recogni,e it since
a preliminary investigation is reEuired solely for the purpose of determining whether there is a sufficient
ground to engender a well founded belief that a crime has been committed and the respondent is probably
guilty thereof and should be held for trial. The <%& panel did not outrightly re0ect the motion of petitioner but
ruled to pass upon the same in the determination of the probable causeH thus, it has not violated any law or
rule or any norm of discretion.
The arguments of respondent %mbudsman are-
'. The <%& Panel has full authority and 0urisdiction to conduct preliminary investigation over the petitioner
for the reason that the crime of coup d3etat under rticle :o. '/A! of the +evised Penal Code (+PC) may
fall under the 0urisdiction of the Sandiganbayan only if the same is committed Fin relation to officeF of
petitioner, pursuant to Section A, P.<. :o. '.(., as amended by +.. :o. 6)6C and +.. :o. *8A).
8. PetitionerGs premise that the <%& Panel derives its authority to conduct preliminary investigation over
cases involving public officers solely from the %$5!<%& &oint Circular :o. )C!((' is misplaced because the
<%&Gs concurrent authority with the %$5 to conduct preliminary investigation of cases involving public
officials has been recogni,ed in Sanc%e2 $s. (eetriou 4556 SCRA 756 89::;<= and incorporated in Section
A, +ule ''8 of the +evised +ules of Criminal Procedure.
/. PetitionerGs assertion that the &oint Circular is ultra $ires and the <%& cannot be deputi,ed by the
%mbudsman en masse but must be given in reference to specific cases has no factual or legal basis. There
is no rule or law which reEuires the %mbudsman to write out individuali,ed authorities to deputi,e
prosecutors on a per case basis. The power of the %mbudsman to deputi,e <%& prosecutors proceeds from
the Constitutional grant of power to reEuest assistance from any government agency necessary to discharge
its functions, as well as from the statutory authority to so deputi,e said <%& prosecutors under Sec. /' of
+ .66(.
A. The &oint Circular which is an internal arrangement between the <%& and the %ffice of the %mbudsman
need not be published since it neither contains a penal provision nor does it prescribe a mandatory act or
prohibit any under pain or penalty. 3t does not regulate the conduct of persons or the public, in general.
The Court finds the petition without merit.
The authority of respondent <%& Panel is based not on the assailed %$5!<%& Circular :o. )C!((' but on the
provisions of the ')*6 dministrative Code under Chapter 3, Title 333, 5oo4 32, governing the <%&, which provides-
Sec. '. <eclaration of policy ! 3t is the declared policy of the State to provide the government with a principal
law agency which shall be both its 1e8a1 :ou%3e1 a%& /ro3e:u'0o% ar;H administer the criminal 0ustice
system in accordance with the accepted processes thereof consisting in the investigation of the crimes,
prosecution of offenders and administration of the correctional systemH R
Sec. /. Powers and "unctions ! To accomplish its mandate, the <epartment shall have the following powers
and functions-
R
=2> #%?e3'08a'e '(e :o;;0330o% o< :r0;e3, /ro3e:u'e o<<e%&er3 a%& a&;0%03'er '(e /roba'0o% a%&
:orre:'0o% 3y3'e;D =E;/(a303 3u//10e&>
and Section ' of P.<. '86C, effective pril '', ')6*, to wit-
S#CT3%: '. Creation of t%e National !rosecution Ser$ice> Super$ision and Control of t%e Secretary of
,ustice. S There is hereby created and established a :ational Prosecution Service under the supervision
and control of the Secretary of &ustice, to be composed of the Prosecution Staff in the %ffice of the
Secretary of &ustice and such number of +egional State Prosecution %ffices, and Provincial and City
"iscalGs %ffices as are hereinafter provided, which 3(a11 be /r0;ar01y re3/o%30b1e <or '(e 0%?e3'08a'0o%
a%& /ro3e:u'0o% o< a11 :a3e3 0%?o1?0%8 ?0o1a'0o%3 o< /e%a1 1a@3. (#mphasis supplied)
Petitioner claims that it is the %mbudsman, not the <%&, that has the 0urisdiction to conduct the preliminary
investigation under paragraph ('), Section '/, rticle ?3 of the ')*6 Constitution, which confers upon the %ffice of the
%mbudsman the power to in$estigate on its o&n, or on coplaint by any person, any act or oission of any public
official, eployee, office or agency, &%en suc% act or oission appears to be illegal, un+ust, iproper, or inefficient.
Petitioner rationali,es that the ')*6 dministrative Code and the %mbudsman ct of ')*) cannot prevail over the
Constitution, pursuant to rticle 6 of the Civil Code, which provides-
rticle 6. 9aws are repealed only by subseEuent ones, and their violation or non!observance shall not be
eDcused by disuse, or custom or practice to the contrary.
>hen the courts declare a law to be inconsistent with the Constitution, the former shall be void and the latter
shall govern.
dministrative or eDecutive acts, orders and regulations shall be valid only when they are not contrary to the laws or
the Constitution.
and Mabanag $s. 'ope2 0ito.
8
The Court is not convinced. Paragraph (') of Section '/, rticle ?3 of the Constitution, $i2-
S#C. '/. -%e Office of t%e Obudsan s%all %a$e t%e follo&ing po&ers, functions, and duties-
'. 3nvestigate on its own, or on complaint by any person, any act or omission of any public official,
employee, office or agency, when such act or omission appears to be illegal, un0ust, improper, or inefficient.
does not eDclude other government agencies tas4ed by law to investigate and prosecute cases involving public
officials. 3f it were the intention of the framers of the ')*6 Constitution, they would have eDpressly declared the
eDclusive conferment of the power to the %mbudsman. 3nstead, paragraph (*) of the same Section '/ of the
Constitution provides-
(*) Promulgate its rules of procedure and eDercise such other powers or perform such functions or duties as
may be provided by law.
ccordingly, Congress enacted +.. .66(, otherwise 4nown as FThe %mbudsman ct of ')*).F Section 'C thereof
provides-
Sec. 'C. Powers, "unctions and <uties. ! The %ffice of the %mbudsman shall have the following powers,
functions and duties-
(') 3nvestigate and prosecute on its own or on complaint by any person, any act or omission of any public
officer or employee, office or agency, when such act or omission appears to be illegal, un0ust, improper or
inefficient. #' (a3 /r0;ary Eur03&0:'0o% o?er :a3e3 :o8%0Fab1e by '(e !a%&08a%baya% a%&, 0% '(e
eBer:03e o< '(03 /r0;ary Eur03&0:'0o%, 0' ;ay 'aGe o?er, a' a%y 3'a8e, <ro; a%y 0%?e3'08a'ory a8e%:y o<
'(e 8o?er%;e%', '(e 0%?e3'08a'0o% o< 3u:( :a3e3.
R. (#mphasis supplied)
Pursuant to the authority given to the %mbudsman by the Constitution and the %mbudsman ct of ')*) to lay down
its own rules and procedure, the %ffice of the %mbudsman promulgated dministrative %rder :o. *, dated :ovember
*, '))(, entitled, Clarifying and Modifying Certain Rules of !rocedure of t%e Obudsan, to wit-
complaint filed in or ta4en cogni,ance of by the %ffice of the %mbudsman charging any public officer or
employee including those in government!owned or controlled corporations, with an act or omission alleged
to be illegal, un0ust, improper or inefficient is an %mbudsman case. Such a complaint may be the sub0ect of
criminal or administrative proceedings, or both.
For /ur/o3e3 o< 0%?e3'08a'0o% a%& /ro3e:u'0o%, O;bu&3;a% :a3e3 0%?o1?0%8 :r0;0%a1 o<<e%3e3 ;ay
be 3ub&0?0&e& 0%'o '@o :1a33e3, 'o @0'6 =1> '(o3e :o8%0Fab1e by '(e !a%&08a%baya%, a%& =2> '(o3e
<a110%8 u%&er '(e Eur03&0:'0o% o< '(e re8u1ar :our'3. T(e &0<<ere%:e be'@ee% '(e '@o, a30&e <ro; '(e
:a'e8ory o< '(e :our'3 @(ere0% '(ey are <01e&, 03 o% '(e au'(or0'y 'o 0%?e3'08a'e a3 &03'0%8u03(e& <ro;
'(e au'(or0'y 'o /ro3e:u'e, 3u:( :a3e3.
T(e /o@er 'o 0%?e3'08a'e or :o%&u:' a /re10;0%ary 0%?e3'08a'0o% o% a%y O;bu&3;a% :a3e ;ay be
eBer:03e& by a% 0%?e3'08a'or or /ro3e:u'or o< '(e O<<0:e o< '(e O;bu&3;a%, or by a%y )ro?0%:0a1 or
C0'y )ro3e:u'or or '(e0r a3303'a%:e, e0'(er 0% '(e0r re8u1ar :a/a:0'0e3 or a3 &e/u'0Fe& O;bu&3;a%
/ro3e:u'or3.
T(e /ro3e:u'0o% o< :a3e3 :o8%0Fab1e by '(e !a%&08a%baya% 3(a11 be u%&er '(e &0re:' eB:1u30?e
:o%'ro1 a%& 3u/er?030o% o< '(e O<<0:e o< '(e O;bu&3;a%. #% :a3e3 :o8%0Fab1e by '(e re8u1ar Cour'3,
'(e :o%'ro1 a%& 3u/er?030o% by '(e O<<0:e o< '(e O;bu&3;a% 03 o%1y 0% O;bu&3;a% :a3e3 0% '(e
3e%3e &e<0%e& abo?e. T(e 1a@ re:o8%0Fe3 a :o%:urre%:e o< Eur03&0:'0o% be'@ee% '(e O<<0:e o< '(e
O;bu&3;a% a%& o'(er 0%?e3'08a'0?e a8e%:0e3 o< '(e 8o?er%;e%' 0% '(e /ro3e:u'0o% o< :a3e3
:o8%0Fab1e by re8u1ar :our'3. (#mphasis supplied)
3t is noteworthy that as early as '))(, the %mbudsman had properly differentiated the authority to investigate cases
from the authority to prosecute cases. 3t is on this note that the Court will first dwell on the nature or eDtent of the
authority of the %mbudsman to investigate cases. >hence, focus is directed to the second sentence of paragraph
('), Section 'C of the %mbudsman ct which specifically provides that the %mbudsman has primary 0urisdiction over
cases cogni,able by the Sandiganbayan, and, in the eDercise of this primary 0urisdiction, it may ta4e over, at any
stage, from any investigating agency of the government, the investigation of such cases.
That the power of the %mbudsman to investigate offenses involving public officers or employees is not eDclusive but
is concurrent with other similarly authori,ed agencies of the government such as the provincial, city and state
prosecutors has long been settled in several decisions of the Court.
3n Co+uangco, ,r. $s. !residential Coission on *ood *o$ernent, decided in '))(, the Court eDpressly declared-
reading of the foregoing provision of the Constitution does not show that the power of investigation
including preliminary investigation vested on the %mbudsman is eDclusive.
/
3nterpreting the primary 0urisdiction of the %mbudsman under Section 'C (') of the %mbudsman ct, the Court held in
said case-
;nder Section 'C (') of +epublic ct :o. .66( aforecited, the %mbudsman has primary 0urisdiction over
cases cogni,able by the Sandiganbayan so that it may ta4e over at any stage from any investigatory agency
of the government, the investigation of such cases. T(e au'(or0'y o< '(e O;bu&3;a% 'o 0%?e3'08a'e
o<<e%3e3 0%?o1?0%8 /ub10: o<<0:er3 or e;/1oyee3 03 %o' eB:1u30?e bu' 03 :o%:urre%' @0'( o'(er
30;01ar1y au'(or0Fe& a8e%:0e3 o< '(e 8o?er%;e%'. !u:( 0%?e3'08a'ory a8e%:0e3 re<erre& 'o 0%:1u&e '(e
)CGG a%& '(e /ro?0%:0a1 a%& :0'y /ro3e:u'or3 a%& '(e0r a3303'a%'3, '(e 3'a'e /ro3e:u'or3 a%& '(e
Eu&8e3 o< '(e ;u%0:0/a1 'r0a1 :our'3 a%& ;u%0:0/a1 :0r:u0' 'r0a1 :our'.
#% o'(er @or&3 '(e /ro?030o% o< '(e 1a@ (a3 o/e%e& u/ '(e au'(or0'y 'o :o%&u:' /re10;0%ary
0%?e3'08a'0o% o< o<<e%3e3 :o8%0Fab1e by '(e !a%&08a%baya% 'o a11 0%?e3'08a'ory a8e%:0e3 o< '(e
8o?er%;e%' &u1y au'(or0Fe& 'o :o%&u:' a /re10;0%ary 0%?e3'08a'0o% u%&er !e:'0o% 2, Ru1e 112 o< '(e
19-5 Ru1e3 o< Cr0;0%a1 )ro:e&ure @0'( '(e o%1y Hua10<0:a'0o% '(a' '(e O;bu&3;a% ;ay 'aGe o?er a'
a%y 3'a8e o< 3u:( 0%?e3'08a'0o% 0% '(e eBer:03e o< (03 /r0;ary Eur03&0:'0o%.
A
(#mphasis supplied)
little over a month later, the Court, in (eloso $s. (oingo,
C
pronounced that the %mbudsman, under the authority of
Section '/ (') of the ')*6 Constitution, has 0urisdiction to investigate any crime committed by a public official,
elucidating thus-
s protector of the people, the office of the %mbudsman has the power, function and duty to Fact promptly
on complaints filed in any form or manner against public officialsF (Sec. '8) and to Finvestigate D D D any act
or omission of any public official D D D when such act or omission appears to be illegal, un0ust, improper or
inefficient.F (Sec. '/M'N.) The %mbudsman is also empowered to Fdirect the officer concerned,F in this case
the Special Prosecutor, Fto ta4e appropriate action against a public official D D D and to recommend his
prosecutionF (Sec. '/M/N).
The clause Fany MillegalN act or omission of any public officialF is broad enough to embrace any crime
committed by a public official. The law does not Eualify the nature of the illegal act or omission of the public
official or employee that the %mbudsman may investigate. 3t does not reEuire that the act or omission be
related to or be connected with or arise from, the performance of official duty. Since the law does not
distinguish, neither should we.
The reason for the creation of the %mbudsman in the ')*6 Constitution and for the grant to it of broad
investigative authority, is to insulate said office from the long tentacles of officialdom that are able to
penetrate 0udgesG and fiscalsG offices, and others involved in the prosecution of erring public officials, and
through the eDertion of official pressure and influence, Euash, delay, or dismiss investigations into
malfeasances and misfeasances committed by public officers. 3t was deemed necessary, therefore, to create
a special office to investigate all criminal complaints against public officers regardless of whether or not the
acts or omissions complained of are related to or arise from the performance of the duties of their office. The
%mbudsman ct ma4es perfectly clear that the 0urisdiction of the %mbudsman encompasses Fall kinds of
alfeasance, isfeasance, and non.feasance that have been committed by any officer or eployee as
mentioned in Section '/ hereof, during %is tenure of officeF (Sec. '., +.. .66().
. . . . . . . . .
3ndeed, the labors of the constitutional commission that created the %mbudsman as a special body to
investigate erring public officials would be wasted if its 0urisdiction were confined to the investigation of minor
and less grave offenses arising from, or related to, the duties of public office, but would eDclude those grave
and terrible crimes that spring from abuses of official powers and prerogatives, for it is the investigation of
the latter where the need for an independent, fearless, and honest investigative body, li4e the %mbudsman,
is greatest.
.
t first blush, there appears to be conflicting views in the rulings of the Court in the Co+uangco, ,r. case and
the(eloso case. 1owever, the contrariety is more apparent than real. 3n subseEuent cases, the Court elucidated on
the nature of the powers of the %mbudsman to investigate.
3n '))/, the Court held in Sanc%e2 $s. (eetriou,
6
that while it may be true that the %mbudsman has 0urisdiction to
investigate and prosecute any illegal act or omission of any public official, the authority of the %mbudsman to
investigate is merely a primary and not an eDclusive authority, thus-
The %mbudsman is indeed empowered under Section 'C, paragraph (') of + .66( to investigate and
prosecute any illegal act or omission of any public official. 1owever as we held only two years ago in the
case of guinaldo vs. <omagas,
*
this authority Fis not an eDclusive authority but rather a shared or
concurrent authority in respect of the offense charged.F
Petitioners finally assert that the information and amended information filed in this case needed the approval
of the %mbudsman. 3t is not disputed that the information and amended information here did not have the
approval of the %mbudsman. 1owever, we do not believe that such approval was necessary at all. 3n <eloso
v. <omingo, ')' SC+ CAC ('))(), the Court held that the %mbudsman has authority to investigate charges
of illegal acts or omissions on the part of any public official, i.e., any crime imputed to a public official. #'
;u3', (o@e?er, be /o0%'e& ou' '(a' '(e au'(or0'y o< '(e O;bu&3;a% 'o 0%?e3'08a'e Ca%y 2011e8a15 a:'
or o;0330o% o< a%y /ub10: o<<0:0a1C =191 !CRA 55.> 03 %o' a% eB:1u30?e au'(or0'y bu' ra'(er a 3(are&
or :o%:urre%' au'(or0'y 0% re3/e:' o< '(e o<<e%3e :(ar8e&, i.e., the crime of sedition. Thus, the non!
involvement of the office of the %mbudsman in the present case does not have any adverse legal
conseEuence upon the authority of the panel of prosecutors to file and prosecute the information or
amended information.
#% <a:', o'(er 0%?e3'08a'ory a8e%:0e3 o< '(e 8o?er%;e%' 3u:( a3 '(e "e/ar';e%' o< Ju3'0:e 0%
:o%%e:'0o% @0'( '(e :(ar8e o< 3e&0'0o%, a%& '(e )re30&e%'0a1 Co;;0330o% o% Goo& Go?er%;e%', 0% 011
8o''e% @ea1'( :a3e3, ;ay :o%&u:' '(e 0%?e3'08a'0o%.
)
(#mphasis supplied)
3n Nati$idad $s. "eli/,
'(
a '))A case, where the petitioner municipal mayor contended that it is the %mbudsman and
not the provincial fiscal who has the authority to conduct a preliminary investigation over his case for alleged $urder,
the Court held-
The (eloso case has already been re!eDamined in two cases, namely Aguinaldo $s. (oagas and Sanc%e2
$s. (eetriou. 1owever, by way of amplification, we feel the need for tracing the history of the legislation
relative to the 0urisdiction of Sandiganbayan since the %mbudsmanGs primary 0urisdiction is dependent on
the cases cogni,able by the former.
3n the process, we shall observe how the policy of the law, with reference to the sub0ect matter, has been in
a state of fluD.
These laws, in chronological order, are the following- (a) Pres. <ecree :o. 'A*., !! the first law on the
SandiganbayanH (b) Pres. <ecree :o. '.(. which eDpressly repealed Pres. <ecree :o. 'A*.H (c) Section 8(
of 5atas Pambansa 5lg. '8)H (d) Pres. <ecree :o. '*.(H and (e) Pres. <ecree :o. '*.'.
The latest law on the Sandiganbayan, Sec. ' of Pres. <ecree :o. '*.' reads as follows-
FS#CT3%: '. Section A of Presidential <ecree :o. '.(. is hereby amended to read as follows-
GS#C. A. ,urisdiction. S The Sandiganbayan shall eDercise-
G(a) #Dclusive original 0urisdiction in all cases involving-
. . .
(8) %ther offenses or felonies committed by public officers and employees in relation to
t%eir office, including those employed in government!owned or controlled corporation,
whether simple or compleDed with other crimes, where the penalty prescribed by law is
higher thatprision correccional or imprisonment for siD (.) years, or a fine of P.,(((-
P+%23<#<, 1%>#2#+, that offenses or felonies mentioned in this paragraph where the
penalty prescribed by law does not eDceed prision correccional or imprisonment for siD (.)
years or a fine ofP.,((( shall be tried by the proper +egional Trial Court, $etropolitan
Trial Court, $unicipal Trial Court and $unicipal Circuit Trial Court.F
perusal of the aforecited law shows that two reEuirements must concur under Sec. A (a) (8) for an offense
to fall under the SandiganbayanGs 0urisdiction, namely- the offense committed by the public officer must be in
relation to his office and the penalty prescribed be higher then prision correccional or imprisonment for siD
(.) years, or a fine of P.,(((.((.
''
pplying the law to the case at bench, we find that although the second reEuirement has been met, the first
reEuirement is wanting. review of these Presidential <ecrees, eDcept 5atas Pambansa 5lg. '8), would
reveal that the crime committed by public officers or employees must be Fin relation to their officeF if it is to
fall within the 0urisdiction of the Sandiganbayan. This phrase which is traceable to Pres. <ecree :o. 'A.*,
has been retained by Pres. <ecree :o. '*.' as a reEuirement before the %mbudsman can acEuire primary
0urisdiction on its power to investigate.
#' :a%%o' be &e%0e& '(a' )re3. "e:ree No. 1-61 03 0% pari materia 'o Ar'0:1e I#, !e:'0o%3 12 a%& 1+ o<
'(e 19-, Co%3'0'u'0o% a%& '(e O;bu&3;a% A:' o< 19-9 be:au3e, a3 ear10er ;e%'0o%e&, '(e
O;bu&3;a%J3 /o@er 'o 0%?e3'08a'e 03 &e/e%&e%' o% '(e :a3e3 :o8%0Fab1e by '(e !a%&08a%baya%.
!'a'u'e3 are 0% pari materia @(e% '(ey re1a'e 'o '(e 3a;e /er3o% or '(0%8 or 'o '(e 3a;e :1a33 o<
/er3o%3 or '(0%83, or obEe:', or :o?er '(e 3a;e 3/e:0<0: or /ar'0:u1ar 3ubEe:' ;a''er.
#' 03 aB0o;a'0: 0% 3'a'u'ory :o%3'ru:'0o% '(a' a 3'a'u'e ;u3' be 0%'er/re'e&, %o' o%1y 'o be :o%303'e%'
@0'( 0'3e1<, bu' a13o 'o (ar;o%0Fe @0'( o'(er 1a@3 o% '(e 3a;e 3ubEe:' ;a''er, a3 'o <or; a :o;/1e'e,
:o(ere%' a%& 0%'e11080b1e 3y3'e;. T(e ru1e 03 eB/re33e& 0% '(e ;aB0;, Cinterpretare et concordare
legibus est optimus interpretandi,C or e?ery 3'a'u'e ;u3' be 3o :o%3'rue& a%& (ar;o%0Fe& @0'( o'(er
3'a'u'e3 a3 'o <or; a u%0<or; 3y3'e; o< Eur03/ru&e%:e. T(u3, 0% '(e a//10:a'0o% a%& 0%'er/re'a'0o% o<
Ar'0:1e I#, !e:'0o%3 12 a%& 1+ o< '(e 19-, Co%3'0'u'0o% a%& '(e O;bu&3;a% A:' o< 19-9, )re3. "e:ree
No. 1-61 ;u3' be 'aGe% 0%'o :o%30&era'0o%. #' ;u3' be a33u;e& '(a' @(e% '(e 19-, Co%3'0'u'0o% @a3
@r0''e%, 0'3 <ra;er3 (a& 0% ;0%& /re?0ou3 3'a'u'e3 re1a'0%8 'o '(e 3a;e 3ubEe:' ;a''er. #% '(e ab3e%:e
o< a%y eB/re33 re/ea1 or a;e%&;e%', '(e 19-, Co%3'0'u'0o% a%& '(e O;bu&3;a% A:' o< 19-9 are
&ee;e& 0% a::or& @0'( eB03'0%8 3'a'u'e, 3/e:0<0:a11y, )re3. "e:ree No. 1-61.
'8
(#mphasis supplied)
+.. :o. *8A) which amended Section A, paragraph (b) of the Sandiganbayan 9aw (P.<. '*.') li4ewise provides that
for other offenses, aside from those enumerated under paragraphs (a) and (c), to fall under the eDclusive 0urisdiction
of the Sandiganbayan, they must have been committed by public officers or employees in relation to their office.
3n summation, the Constitution, Section 'C of the %mbudsman ct of ')*) and Section A of the Sandiganbayan 9aw,
as amended, do not give to the %mbudsman eDclusive 0urisdiction to investigate offenses committed by public officers
or employees. The authority of the %mbudsman to investigate offenses involving public officers or employees is
concurrent with other government investigating agencies such as provincial, city and state prosecutors. 1owever, the
%mbudsman, in the eDercise of its primary 0urisdiction over cases cogni,able by the Sandiganbayan, may ta4e over,
at any stage, from any investigating agency of the government, the investigation of such cases.
3n other words, respondent <%& Panel is not precluded from conducting any investigation of cases against public
officers involving violations of penal laws but if the cases fall under the eDclusive 0urisdiction of the Sandiganbayan,
then respondent %mbudsman may, in the eDercise of its primary 0urisdiction ta4e over at any stage.
Thus, with the 0urisprudential declarations that the %mbudsman and the <%& have concurrent 0urisdiction to conduct
preliminary investigation, the respective heads of said offices came up with %$5!<%& &oint Circular :o. )C!((' for
the proper guidelines of their respective prosecutors in the conduct of their investigations, to wit-
%$5!<%& &%3:T C3+C;9+ :%. )C!(('
Series of '))C
T%- 99 G+"T 3:2#ST3GT3%:@SP#C39 P+%S#C;T3%: %""3C#+S %" T1# %""3C# %" T1#
%$5;<S$:
99 +#G3%:9 STT# P+%S#C;T%+S :< T1#3+ SS3ST:TS, P+%23:C39@C3T= P+%S#C;T%+S
:< T1#3+ SS3ST:TS, STT# P+%S#C;T%+S :< P+%S#C;T3:G TT%+:#=S %" T1#
<#P+T$#:T %" &;ST3C#.
S;5&#CT- 1:<93:G C%$P93:TS "39#< G3:ST P;593C %""3C#+S :< #$P9%=##S, T1#
C%:<;CT %" P+#93$3:+= 3:2#ST3GT3%:, P+#P+T3%: %" +#S%9;T3%:S :<
3:"%+$T3%:S :< P+%S#C;T3%: %" CS#S 5= P+%23:C39 :< C3T= P+%S#C;T%+S :<
T1#3+ SS3ST:TS.
D!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!D
3n a recent dialogue between the %""3C# %" T1# %$5;<S$: and the <#P+T$#:T %" &;ST3C#,
discussion centered around the latest pronouncement of the supreme court on the eDtent to which the
ombudsman may call upon the government prosecutors for assistance in the investigation and prosecution
of criminal cases cogni,able by his office and the conditions under which he may do so. lso discussed was
+epublic ct :o. 6)6C otherwise 4nown as Fan act to strengthen the functional and structural organi,ation of
the sandiganbayan, amending for the purpose presidential decree no. '.(., as amendedF and its
implications on the 0urisdiction of the office of the %mbudsman on criminal offenses committed by public
officers and employees.
Concerns were eDpressed on unnecessary delays that could be caused by discussions on 0urisdiction
between the %""3C# %" T1# %$5;<S$: and the department of 0ustice, and by procedural conflicts in
the filing of complaints against public officers and employees, the conduct of preliminary investigations, the
preparation of resolutions and informations, and the prosecution of cases by provincial and city prosecutors
and their assistants as deputi,ed prosecutors of the ombudsman.
+ecogni,ing the concerns, the office of the ombudsman and the department of 0ustice, in a series of
consultations, have agreed on the following guidelines to be observed in the investigation and prosecution of
cases against public officers and employees-
'. Preliminary investigation and prosecution of offenses committed by public officers and employees in
relation to office whether cogni,able by the sandiganbayan or the regular courts, and whether filed with the
office of the ombudsman or with the office of the provincial@city prosecutor shall be under the control and
supervision of the office of the ombudsman.
8. ;nless the %mbudsman under its Constitutional mandate finds reason to believe otherwise, offenses not
in relation to office and cogni,able by the regular courts shall be investigated and prosecuted by the office of
the provincial@city prosecutor, which shall rule thereon with finality.
/. Preparation of criminal information shall be the responsibility of the investigating officer who conducted
the preliminary investigation. +esolutions recommending prosecution together with the duly accomplished
criminal informations shall be forwarded to the appropriate approving authority.
A. Considering that the office of the ombudsman has 0urisdiction over public officers and employees and for
effective monitoring of all investigations and prosecutions of cases involving public officers and employees,
the office of the provincial@city prosecutor shall submit to the office of the ombudsman a monthly list of
complaints filed with their respective offices against public officers and employees.
$anila, Philippines, %ctober C, '))C.
(signed)
T#%"3ST% T. G;3:G%:, &+.
Secretary
<epartment of &ustice
(signed)
:3:% . <#S3#+T%
%mbudsman
%ffice of the %mbudsman
close eDamination of the circular supports the view of the respondent %mbudsman that it is 0ust an internal
agreement between the %mbudsman and the <%&.
Sections 8 and A, +ule ''8 of the +evised +ules on Criminal Procedure on Preliminary 3nvestigation, effective
<ecember ', 8(((, to wit-
S#C. 8. %fficers authori,ed to conduct preliminary investigations!
The following may conduct preliminary investigations-
(a) Provincial or City Prosecutors and their assistantsH
(b) &udges of the $unicipal Trial Courts and $unicipal Circuit Trial CourtsH
(c) :ational and +egional State ProsecutorsH and
(d) %ther officers as may be authori,ed by law.
T(e0r au'(or0'y 'o :o%&u:' /re10;0%ary 0%?e3'08a'0o% 3(a11 0%:1u&e a11 :r0;e3 :o8%0Fab1e by '(e /ro/er
:our' 0% '(e0r re3/e:'0?e 'err0'or0a1 Eur03&0:'0o%3.
S#C. A. +esolution of investigating prosecutor and its review. ! 3f the investigating prosecutor finds cause to
hold the respondent for trial, he shall prepare the resolution and information, 1e shall certify under oath in
the information that he, or as shown by the record, an authori,ed officer, has personally eDamined the
complainant and his witnessesH that there is reasonable ground to believe that a crime has been committed
and that the accused is probably guilty thereofH that the accused was informed of the complaint and of the
evidence submitted against himH and that he was given an opportunity to submit controverting evidence.
%therwise, he shall recommend the dismissal of the complaint.
>ithin five (C) days from his resolution, he shall forward the record of the case to the provincial or city
prosecutor or chief state prosecutor, or 'o '(e O;bu&3;a% or (03 &e/u'y 0% :a3e3 o< o<<e%3e3
:o8%0Fab1e by '(e !a%&08a%baya% 0% '(e eBer:03e o< 0'3 or080%a1 Eur03&0:'0o%. They shall act on the
resolution within ten ('() days from their receipt thereof and shall immediately inform the parties of such
action.
No :o;/1a0%' or 0%<or;a'0o% ;ay be <01e& or &03;033e& by a% 0%?e3'08a'0%8 /ro3e:u'or @0'(ou' '(e
/r0or @r0''e% au'(or0'y or a//ro?a1 o< '(e /ro?0%:0a1 or :0'y /ro3e:u'or or :(0e< 3'a'e /ro3e:u'or or '(e
O;bu&3;a% or (03 &e/u'y.
>here the investigating prosecutor recommends the dismissal of the complaint but his recommendation is
disapproved by the provincial or city prosecutor or chief state prosecutor or the %mbudsman or his deputy
on the ground that a probable cause eDists, the latter may, by himself file the information against the
respondent, or direct another assistant prosecutor or state prosecutor to do so without conducting another
preliminary investigation.
3f upon petition by a proper party under such rules as the <epartment of &ustice may prescribe or otu
proprio, the Secretary of &ustice reverses or modifies the resolution of the provincial or city prosecutor or
chief state prosecutor, he shall direct the prosecutor concerned either to file the corresponding information
without conducting another preliminary investigation, or to dismiss or move for dismissal of the complaint or
information with notice to the parties. The same +ule shall apply in preliminary investigations conducted by
the officers of the %ffice of the %mbudsman. (#mphasis supplied)
confirm the authority of the <%& prosecutors to conduct preliminary investigation of criminal complaints filed with
them for offenses cogni,able by the proper court within their respective territorial 0urisdictions, including those
offenses which come within the original 0urisdiction of the SandiganbayanH but with the Eualification that in offenses
falling within the original 0urisdiction of the Sandiganbayan, '(e /ro3e:u'or 3(a11, a<'er '(e0r 0%?e3'08a'0o%, 'ra%3;0'
'(e re:or&3 a%& '(e0r re3o1u'0o%3 'o '(e O;bu&3;a% or (03 &e/u'y <or a//ro/r0a'e a:'0o%. lso, the prosecutor
cannot dismiss the complaint without the prior written authority of the %mbudsman or his deputy, nor can the
prosecutor file an 3nformation with the Sandiganbayan without being deputi,ed by, and without prior written authority
of the %mbudsman or his deputy.
:eDt, petitioner contends that under %$5!&oint Circular :o. )C!((', there is no showing that the %ffice of the
%mbudsman has deputi,ed the prosecutors of the <%& to conduct the preliminary investigation of the charge filed
against him.
>e find no merit in this argument. s we have lengthily discussed, the Constitution, the %mbudsman ct of ')*),
dministrative %rder :o. * of the %ffice of the %mbudsman, the prevailing 0urisprudence and under the +evised
+ules on Criminal Procedure, all recogni,e and uphold the concurrent 0urisdiction of the %mbudsman and the <%& to
conduct preliminary investigation on charges filed against public officers and employees.
To reiterate for emphasis, the power to investigate or conduct preliminary investigation on charges against any public
officers or employees may be eDercised by an investigator or by any provincial or city prosecutor or their assistants,
either in their regular capacities or as deputi,ed %mbudsman prosecutors. The fact that all prosecutors are in effect
deputi,ed %mbudsman prosecutors under the %$5!<%& Circular is a mere superfluity. The <%& Panel need not be
authori,ed nor deputi,ed by the %mbudsman to conduct the preliminary investigation for complaints filed with it
because the <%&Gs authority to act as the principal law agency of the government and investigate the commission of
crimes under the +evised Penal Code is derived from the +evised dministrative Code which had been held in
the Nati$idad case
'/
as not being contrary to the Constitution. Thus, there is not even a need to delegate the conduct
of the preliminary investigation to an agency which has the 0urisdiction to do so in the first place. 1owever, the
%mbudsman may assert its primary 0urisdiction at any stage of the investigation.
PetitionerGs contention that %$5!<%& &oint Circular :o. )C!((' is ineffective on the ground that it was not published
is not plausible. >e agree with and adopt the %mbudsmanGs dissertation on the matter, to wit-
Petitioner appears to be of the belief, although NOT founded on a proper reading and application of
0urisprudence, that %$5!<%& &oint Circular :o. )C!((', an internal arrangement between the <%& and the
%ffice of the %mbudsman, has to be published.
s early as ')CA, the 1onorable Court has already laid down the rule in the case of People vs. Que Po
Lay, )A Phil. .A( (')CA) that only circulars and regulations which prescribe a penalty for its violation should
be published before becoming effective, this, on the general principle and theory that before the public is
bound by its contents, especially its penal provision, a law, regulation or circular must first be published and
the people officially and specifically informed of said contents and its penalties- said precedent, to date, has
not yet been modified or reversed. %$5!<%& &oint Circular :o. )C!((' <%#S :%T contain any penal
provision or prescribe a mandatory act or prohibit any, under pain or penalty.
>hat is more, in the case of Tanada v. Tuvera, 'A. SC+ AC/ (')*.), the 1onorable Court ruled that-
3nterpretative regulations and those merely internal in nature, that is, regulating only the personnel of the
administrative agency and not the public, need not be published. :either is publication reEuired of the so!
called letters of instructions issued by administrative superiors concerning the rules or guidelines to be
followed by their subordinates in the performance of their duties. (at page ACA. emphasis supplied)
%$5!<%& &oint Circular :o. )C!((' is merely an internal circular between the <%& and the %ffice of the
%mbudsman, outlining authority and responsibilities among prosecutors of the <%& and of the %ffice of the
%mbudsman in the conduct of preliminary investigation. %$5!<%& &oint Circular :o. )C!((' <%#S :%T
regulate the conduct of persons or the public, in general.
ccordingly, there is no merit to petitionerGs submission that %$5!<%& &oint Circular :o. )C!((' has to be
published.
'A
Petitioner insists that the %mbudsman has 0urisdiction to conduct the preliminary investigation because petitioner is a
public officer with salary Grade /' so that the case against him falls eDclusively within the 0urisdiction of the
Sandiganbayan. Considering the CourtGs finding that the <%& has concurrent 0urisdiction to investigate charges
against public officers, the fact that petitioner holds a Salary Grade /' position does not by itself remove from the
<%& Panel the authority to investigate the charge of coup d3etat against him.
The Euestion whether or not the offense allegedly committed by petitioner is one of those enumerated in the
Sandiganbayan 9aw that fall within the eDclusive 0urisdiction of the Sandiganbayan will not be resolved in the present
petition so as not to pre!empt the result of the investigation being conducted by the <%& Panel as to the Euestions
whether or not probable cause eDists to warrant the filing of the information against the petitionerH and to which court
should the information be filed considering the presence of other respondents in the sub0ect complaint.
9HEREFORE, the petition for certiorari is <3S$3SS#< for lac4 of merit.
!O OR"ERE".
<avide, &r., C.&., Panganiban, Carpio, Corona, Carpio!$orales, Calle0o, Sr., ,cuna, and Tinga, &&., concur.
Puno, &., 0oins &. =nares!Santiago.
2itug, &., see separate dissenting opinion.
Iuisumbing, &., 0oins the dissent.
=nares!Santiago, &., see separate dissenting opinion.
Sandoval!Gutierre,, &., see dissenting opinion.
2G.R. No. 11,,41. !e/'e;ber 29, 2..45
MO#!E! !. !AM!ON, petitioner, vs. OFF#CE OF THE OMBU"!MAN,
E*AUAT#ON AN" )RE#M#NAR$ #N*E!T#GAT#ON BUREAU,
NORMA !ANCHEZ a%& EON#TO . CATARROJA, respondents.
" E C # ! # O N
CORONA, J.6
This petition for certiorari and andaus see4s the reversal of public
respondent %ffice of the %mbudsman #valuation and Preliminary
3nvestigation 5ureauOs- M'N 0oint resolution dated $ay 86, '))A (P0oint
resolutionQ)
M'N
which dismissed petitioner $oises S. SamsonOs complaint
(doc4eted as %$5!(!)/!()8() against private respondents <r. 9eonito 9.
Catarro0a and :orma Sanche, for allegedly printing and issuing health
certificates sans serial numbers and official receipts to applicants without prior
medical eDamination, in violation of + /(') (the nti!Graft and Corrupt
Practices ct), as well as private respondentsO counter!charges against
petitioner for libel, falsification and per0ury (doc4eted as %$5!(!)/!/'(6), and
M8N order dated ugust 8., '))A
M8N
which denied petitionerOs motion for partial
reconsideration of said 0oint resolution.
%n pril 8', '))/, petitioner $oises S. Samson, on behalf of unidentified
complainants, charged private respondents <r. 9eonito 9. Catarro0a and
:orma Sanche,, Chiefs of the Iue,on City 1ealth Sanitation and "ood and
<rugs <ivisions, respectively, with violation of paragraphs (b), (e) and (h) of
Section / of + /('), essentially, as follows-
'. That respondent 9eonito Catarro0a caused the printing of health certificates without
serial numbers at his own eDpense and thereafter, he sold and parted with the said
blan4 and already signed health certificates at P8(.(( each to co!respondent :orma
Sanche, and li4ewise to an unnamed employee of the 5usiness Permits and
9icenses %ffice (5P9%), %ffice of the $ayor, Iue,on City, who then re!sold the
same to fiDers. 3n turn, the said fiDers disposed of the health certificates to
applicants for P6(.(( each without official receiptsH
8. That on "ebruary '(, '))/, respondent Catarro0a signed and issued twenty (8()
health certificates to employees of the $aD restaurant even without the reEuired
physical and medical eDaminations and immuni,ations, in consideration of the
amount of PA((.(( which was paid by Pons Sepulveda for and in behalf of said
employeesH
/. That li4ewise on the same date aforestated, respondent Catarro0a issued health
certificate :o. 'CC)C!)/ to one lberto de &esus without the reEuired physical and
medical eDamination and immuni,ation, after the latter had paid an additional and
unreceipted amount of PC(.(( demanded by one of the staff in the office of
respondent Catarro0a. 1owever, the said health certificate is not recorded in the
official logboo4 of his office for duly issued health certificates.
M/N
Section /, paragraphs (b), (e) and (h) of + /(') provides-
SEC. >. Corru&t &rat%e# of &ub(% off%er#. N EEE
3b4 0%ret(y or %nd%ret(y re'ue#t%n) or ree%-%n) any )%ft! &re#ent! #hare!
&erenta)e! or benef%t! for h%$#e(f or for any other &er#on! %n onnet%on *%th any
ontrat or tran#at%on bet*een the ;o-ern$ent and any other &arty! *here%n the
&ub(% off%er %n h%# off%%a( a&a%ty ha# to %nter-ene under the (a*.
EEE EEE EEE
3e4 Cau#%n) any undue %n+ury to any &arty! %n(ud%n) the ;o-ern$ent! or )%-%n) any
&r%-ate &arty any un*arranted benef%t#! ad-anta)e or &referene %n the d%#har)e of h%#
off%%a( ad$%n%#trat%-e or +ud%%a( funt%on# throu)h $an%fe#t &art%a(%ty! e-%dent bad
fa%th or )ro## %neEu#ab(e ne)(%)ene. Th%# &ro-%#%on #ha(( a&&(y to off%er# and
e$&(oyee# of off%e# or )o-ern$ent or&orat%on# har)ed *%th the )rant of (%en#e# or
&er$%t# or other one##%on#.
EEE EEE EEE
3h4 0%ret(y or %nd%ret(y ha-%n) f%nan%a( or &eun%ary %ntere#t %n any bu#%ne##!
ontrat or tran#at%on %n onnet%on *%th *h%h he %nter-ene# or ta5e# &art %n h%#
off%%a( a&a%ty! or %n *h%h he %# &roh%b%ted by the Con#t%tut%on or by any (a* fro$
ha-%n) any %ntere#t.
Private respondents counter!alleged that petitioner had neither the
personality to sue nor personal 4nowledge of the veracity of the complaint,
which was mere hearsay, not having been supported by any affidavit from the
purportedly affected, if not fictitious, health certificate applicants or sanitary
inspectors. lso, petitioner did not present any of his witnesses before the
investigating committee created by then Iue,on City $ayor 3smael $athay.
Thus, private respondents filed counter!charges against petitioner for libel,
falsification and per0ury.
MAN
%n $ay 86, '))A, public respondent, through Graft 3nvestigation %fficer
9amberto G. Sagum, issued a 0oint resolution dismissing the cases filed by
both parties-
6,ERE/ORE! &re$%#e# on#%dered! there be%n) no &robab(e au#e to +u#t%fy further
%n'u%ry %nto the %n#tant har)e# and ounter.har)e# e$bod%ed %n the abo-e.ent%t(ed
a#e#! (et the#e a#e# be! a# the #a$e are! hereby reo$$ended! 0ISMISSE0.
SO RESOLAE0.
MCN
$r. +aul +. rnau and ssistant %mbudsman belardo 9. portadera, &r.
reviewed and later on endorsed the aforesaid 0oint resolution to %verall
<eputy %mbudsman "rancisco . 2illa, who approved it on &une 88, '))A.
The public respondent, in its ugust 8., '))A order, approved by %verall
<eputy %mbudsman 2illa on September ), '))A,
M.N
denied petitionerOs motion
for partial reconsideration of the 0oint resolution with respect to the dismissal
of %$5!(!)/!()8(.
1ence, this petition imputing grave abuse of discretion on the part of
public respondent for dismissing %$5!(!)/!()8(, a supposedly pria
facie graft case against private respondents.
The petition must be dismissed for lac4 of merit. The public respondent
did not act without or in eDcess of its 0urisdiction or with grave abuse of
discretion amounting to lac4 or eDcess of 0urisdiction in issuing the assailed
0oint resolution and order. :either can it be compelled by mandamus to
reverse its findings and dispositions.
Grave abuse of discretion implies a capricious and whimsical eDercise of
0udgment that is eEuivalent to lac4 of 0urisdiction. 3n other words, the power of
discretion is eDercised in an arbitrary or despotic manner by reason of passion
or personal hostility. 3t must be so patent and gross as to amount to an
evasion of positive duty and a virtual refusal to perform the duty en0oined or to
act at all in contemplation of law.
M6N
3n this case, we do not find any grave abuse of discretion on the part of
public respondent in dismissing %$5!(!)/!()8( for lac4 of evidence to
establish a probable cause against private respondents.
PetitionerOs complaint was predicated on his assertion that the possession
of pre!printed and non!seriali,ed health certificates by the applicants
manifests that they secured them after paying the fees without undergoing the
usual physical and medical eDamination and immuni,ation.
:onetheless, public respondent found that-
FTGhe har)e and a((e)at%on# #et forth %n the o$&(a%nt.aff%da-%t ta5en %n +uEta&o#%t%on
*%th the ontro-ert%n) #tate$ent# of an#*er%n) re#&ondent# on reord! ne)ate the
ad-er#e #&e%f%at%on# e$bod%ed %n the #a%d o$&(a%nt.aff%da-%t to the effet that
re#&ondent# Leon%to Catarro+a and Nor$a SanheP ha-e -%o(ated the &ro-%#%on# of the
Ant%.;raft La* 3R.A. >01"! a# a$ended4. A# ha# been abo-e e(u%dated by the%r
re#&et%-e ounter.#tate$ent#! %t a&&ear# that the e-%dene on reord fa%(ed to
#ub#tant%ate the a((e)ed ano$a(%e# &er&etrated by the here%n re#&ondent#. In the f%r#t
&(ae! o$&(a%nant *a# not ab(e to &re#ent e-%dene d%#(o#%n) the fat that there are
other hea(th ert%f%ate# *h%h *ere &r%nted &er#ona((y by re#&ondent Catarro+a. :&on
the other hand! the S&e%a( Co$$%ttee *h%h %n-e#t%)ated the a((e)ed ano$a(%e# %n the
San%tat%on 0%-%#%on of the JuePon C%ty ,ea(th 0e&art$ent! a$e u& *%th the f%nd%n)#
that the hea(th ert%f%ate %##ued to A(berto de Ke#u# a(%a# Ce(er%no de(a CruP! *a#
&r%nted and %##ued off%%a((y by the JuePon C%ty ,ea(th 0e&art$ent. On th%# #ore! no
rebutt%n) e-%dene *hat#oe-er! *a# #ub$%tted re)ard%n) the &re.&r%nted and un.
#er%a(%Ped hea(th ert%f%ate#. Indeed! a# &ut forth by the re#&ondent#! o$&(a%nant d%d
not $%nd &re#ent%n) the #*orn #tate$ent# of any of the a((e)ed o$&(a%n%n) *%tne##e#
$ent%oned %n h%# o$&(a%nt.aff%da-%t to #u&&ort the na5ed #tate$ent# a)a%n#t the
re#&ondent#.
To th%# eEtent! *e are hard &ut to #ee ho* the &ro-%#%on# of the Ant%.;raft La* ha-e
been -%o(ated by the re#&ondent#. /or one th%n)! re#&ondent# d%d not au#e undue
%n+ury to the a((e)ed o$&(a%n%n) *%tne##e# and $uh (e##! to the a((e)ed
a&&(%ant#. Ne%ther! d%d re#&ondent# )%-e any &r%-ate &arty any un*arranted benef%t#!
ad-anta)e or &referene %n the d%#har)e of the%r off%%a( funt%on#. At any rate! the
S&e%a( Co$$%ttee ha-%n) been ta#5ed to %n-e#t%)ate the denun%at%on# of
o$&(a%nant Coun%(or Mo%#e# Sa$#on *h%h re(ate to the #a$e fatua( %##ue# a# %n
the %n#tant a#e! found no #uff%%ent e-%dene to *arrant further %n-e#t%)at%on a)a%n#t
re#&ondent Leon%to Catarro+a. In the #a$e $anner! the #a%d Co$$%ttee a(#o fa%(ed to
uno-er any %ota of e-%dene a)a%n#t re#&ondent Nor$a SanheP. 3See8 the Co$$%ttee
Re&ort! &&. >1>.>C>! Reord#4.
A(( of the abo-e! ta5en to)ether are $ore than #uff%%ent to d%#&ro-e the a##ert%on# that
ano$a(%e# *ere &er&etrated %n the San%tat%on 0%-%#%on of the JuePon C%ty ,ea(th
0e&art$ent bear%n) on the %##uane# of hea(th ert%f%ate#.
There an! therefore! be no other on(u#%on other than the har)e and %t#
#&e%f%at%on# are de-o%d of (e)a( and fatua( +u#t%f%at%on# and that for a(( %ntent# and
&ur&o#e#! the %n#tant a#e %# a $ere &rodut of an unfounded #u#&%%on of o$&(a%nant
here%n.
M*N
3n its ugust 8., '))A order, public respondent also sEuarely and
thoroughly passed upon the issues raised in petitionerOs motion for partial
reconsideration-
FTGhe fatua( and (e)a( %##ue# ra%#ed there%n had been a(ready a$&(y &a##ed u&on!
dea(t *%th and on#%dered &a%n#ta5%n)(y to the eEtent that the Re#o(ut%on $er%ted the
un'ua(%f%ed a&&ro-a( of the ,onorab(e O-era(( 0e&uty O$bud#$an. To on#%der
the$ a)a%n on the ba#%# of the #a$e re&re#entat%on# and rat%ona(%Pat%on after they had
been #ho*n to be untenab(e! *ou(d &erfore! re#u(t %n the #a$e on(u#%on and
reo$$endat%on.
A# %t *ere! the e##ene of the )round re$a%n# the #a$e. ,o*e-er! +u#t to #et fore-er
at re#t the atua( and (e)a( %##ue# re.ra%#ed %n th%# $ot%on! *e #ha(( ne-erthe(e##! ta5e
the$ u& one a)a%n.
Re the a((e)ed &r%nt%n) of other hea(th ert%f%ate# by re#&ondent Catarro+a! (et %t be
#a%d &o%nted(y %n th%# a#e! that fro$ the te#t%$on%e# of the e$&(oyee# of the JuePon
C%ty ,ea(th 0e&art$ent and other off%e# %n(ud%n) o$&(a%nantO# *%tne##! A(berto de
Ke#u#! the S&e%a( Co$$%ttee *h%h %n-e#t%)ated the ano$a(%e# #u&&o#ed(y
&er&etrated by #o$e &er#onne( %n the San%tat%on 0%-%#%on fa%(ed to uno-er e-%dene or
dou$ent# that tended to #ho* or &ro-e that there are other hea(th ert%f%ate# *h%h
had been &r%nted &er#ona((y by re#&ondent Catarro+a. In fat! &er (o)boo5! the hea(th
ert%f%ate %##ued to A(berto de Ke#u# a(%a# Ce(er%no de(a CruP *a# &r%nted and %##ued
off%%a((y by the JuePon C%ty ,ea(th 0e&art$ent. /urther! the #a%d o$$%ttee dur%n)
the our#e of %t# %n-e#t%)at%on had found that the Ad$%n%#trat%-e 0%-%#%on &roure#
#uff%%ent hea(th for$# needed by the #a%d 0e&art$ent %n(ud%n) hea(th ert%f%ate#
and that there *a# no e-%dene &re#ented or turned u& *h%h #ho*ed that there are
fa5e or unauthor%Ped hea(th ert%f%ate# 3See &&. 1>8.1>"! Reord#4.
A# re)ard# the a##ert%on of o$&(a%nant that t*enty 3204 un#er%a(%Ped hea(th
ert%f%ate# bear the #%)nature# of re#&ondent Catarro+a and hene! %t *ou(d #tand to
#ho* that re#&ondent Catarro+a d%d %t# &r%nt%n) &er#ona((y a# the #a%d #a$&(e# are
$ore than enou)h to e#tab(%#h the fat of &r%nt%n).
On th%# #ore! #uff%e %t to #tate that the %n-e#t%)at%n) Co$$%ttee a(#o noted that fro$
the te#t%$ony of *%tne## Mr#. Monto+o %t %# d%#(o#ed that #he enountered a&&(%ant#
*ho *ere a(ready ho(der# of hea(th ert%f%ate#. ,o*e-er! the #a$e *%tne## eE&re##ed
her doubt# a# to the authent%%ty of the #%)nature of re#&ondent Catarro+a. Moreo-er!
re#&ondent Catarro+a &ut# %t orret(y *hen he ontended that o$&(a%nant d%d not
*%tne## the tran#at%on bet*een the f%Eer# and the a&&(%ant# *ho a((e)ed(y bou)ht
hea(th ert%f%ate# *%thout a((e)ed(y ha-%n) under)one the u#ua( &hy#%a( and $ed%a(
eEa$%nat%on# and %$$un%Pat%on and #o! he %# not a o$&etent *%tne## to te#t%fy on the
authent%%ty of the #a%d hea(th ert%f%ate# a# he *a# not &r%-y to the a((e)ed %((e)a(
tran#at%on.
L%5e*%#e! re#&ondent Catarro+a a##e-erated that o$&(a%nant fa%(ed to &re#ent
o$&etent *%tne## before the #a%d #&e%a( Co$$%ttee *h%h onduted the fat.
f%nd%n) %n-e#t%)at%on. Ne%ther! d%d he &re#ent the #*orn #tate$ent# of any of the
a((e)ed o$&(a%n%n) *%tne##e# $ent%oned %n h%# o$&(a%nt.aff%da-%t to #ub#tant%ate the
bare #tate$ent# a)a%n#t the re#&ondent#.
M)N
"or private respondents to be held criminally liable under paragraph (b) of
Section / of + /('), they must have reEuested or received, directly or
indirectly, any gift or benefit for themselves or for another public officer who
has to intervene in any contract or transaction with the government. ;nder
paragraph (e), they must have given unwarranted benefits with evident bad
faith, gross ineDcusable negligence or manifest partiality. ;nder paragraph (h),
they must have had a financial interest, directly or indirectly, in any transaction
in which they too4 part in their official function or in any transaction in which
they were prohibited by the Constitution or any law from having any interest
therein.
=et, petitioner failed to present any proof that there was probable cause to
hold private respondents liable under any of the aforestated
provisions. Sufficient proof of guilt of the private respondents should have
been adduced by petitioner so that when the case is eventually tried, the trial
court may not be compelled, as a matter of law, to order an acEuittal. 3f the
%mbudsman, using professional 0udgment, finds the case dismissible, the
Court shall respect such finding, unless clothed with grave abuse of
discretion. %therwise, the courts will be grievously hampered by innumerable
petitions assailing the dismissal of investigatory proceedings by the
%mbudsman with regard to complaints filed before it. 3n much the same way,
the courts will be swamped with cases if they will have to review the eDercise
of discretion by fiscals or prosecuting attorneys each time the latter decide to
file an information in court or dismiss a complaint by a private complainant.
M'(N
The Constitution and + .66( (the P%mbudsman ct of ')*)Q) endowed
the %ffice of the %mbudsman with a wide latitude of investigatory and
prosecutorial powers, virtually free from legislative, eDecutive or 0udicial
intervention, in order to insulate it from outside pressure and improper
influence. Section '/('), rticle ?3 of the ')*6 Constitution provides-
Se. 1>. The Off%e of the O$bud#$an #ha(( ha-e the fo((o*%n) &o*er#! funt%on#!
and dut%e#8
(') 3nvestigate on its own, or on complaint by any person, any act or omission of any
public official, employee, office or agency, when such act or omission appears to be
illegal, un0ust, improper, or inefficient.
Section 'C('), + .66( states-
SEC. 15. 2o*er#! /unt%on# and 0ut%e#. N EEE
314 In-e#t%)ate and &ro#eute on %t# o*n or on o$&(a%nt by any &er#on! any at or
o$%##%on of any &ub(% off%er or e$&(oyee! off%e or a)eny! *hen #uh at or
o$%##%on a&&ear# to be %((e)a(! un+u#t! %$&ro&er or %neff%%ent. It ha# &r%$ary
+ur%#d%t%on o-er a#e# o)n%Pab(e by the Sand%)anbayan and! %n the eEer%#e of th%#
&r%$ary +ur%#d%t%on! %t $ay ta5e o-er! at any #ta)e! fro$ any %n-e#t%)atory a)eny of
;o-ern$ent! the %n-e#t%)at%on of #uh a#e#.
"urthermore, the calibration of evidence to asses whether a pria
facie graft case eDists against private respondents is a Euestion of fact. The
Supreme Court is not a trier of facts, more so in the consideration of the
eDtraordinary writ of certiorari where neither Euestions of fact nor law are
entertained, but only Euestions of lac4 or eDcess of 0urisdiction or grave abuse
of discretion.
M''N
"inally, andaus will not lie in the absence of any of the following
grounds- MaN that the court, officer, board, or person against whom the action
is ta4en, unlawfully neglected the performance of an act which the law
specifically en0oins as a duty resulting from office, trust, or station, or MbN that
such court, officer, board or person has unlawfully eDcluded the petitioner from
the use and en0oyment of a right or office to which he is entitled.
M'8N
Mandaus will lie to compel an officer to perform a ministerial duty but not
to compel the performance of a discretionary duty reEuiring the eDercise of
0udgment,
M'/N
as in this case.
9HEREFORE, the petition is hereby <#:3#< for lac4 of merit.
!O OR"ERE".
MARIALEN C. CORPUZ and G.R. No. 162214
ANTONIO H. ROMAN, SR.,
2et%t%oner#! 2re#ent8

2:NO! J., Chairman,Q
- versus - A:STRIA.MARTINEH!QQ
CALLEKO! SR.!
TIN;A! QQQ and
THE SANDIGANBAYAN (S!"#a$ C,ICO.NAHARIO! JJ.
%o&'() D#*#+#on, and THE PEOPLE
O% THE PHILIPPINES, 2ro$u()ated8
Re#&ondent#. No-e$ber 11! 200C
E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E

D E C I S I O N


CALLE-O, SR., J..


Th%# %# a &et%t%on for ert%orar% for the nu((%f%at%on of the /ebruary C! 2002
Re#o(ut%on of the Sand%)anbayan 30%-%#%on of /%-e Me$ber#4
F1G
#ett%n) a#%de the
-erba( Order of Ku#t%e Nar%#o S. Nar%o! the Cha%r$an of %t# /ourth 0%-%#%on!
order%n) the d%#$%##a( of Cr%$%na( Ca#e# No#. 25"11.25"15D 25"1B.25">"D 25"8>.
2?01?D and %t# 0ee$ber 12! 200> Re#o(ut%on deny%n) the $ot%on# for
reon#%derat%on of the &et%t%oner# and the other au#ed %n #a%d a#e#!
F2G
a# *e(( a#
the%r &et%t%on for $anda$u# to o$&e( the Sand%)anbayan to d%#$%## the #a%d a#e#.

T)! An(!"!d!n(+


After the ter$%nat%on of the re'u%#%te &re(%$%nary %n-e#t%)at%on %n OM9
Ca#e# No#. 0."".2188 to 2205! the Off%e of the O$bud#$an %##ued a Re#o(ut%on
on Ku(y 2B! 2000 f%nd%n) &robab(e au#e a)a%n#t &et%t%oner# Anton%o ,. Ro$an! Sr.
and Mar%a(en C. Cor&uP! the 2re#%dent and A%e.2re#%dent of /ILS7N Cor&orat%on!
re#&et%-e(y! and #e-era( other#. On A&r%( 10! 2000! the &et%t%oner#! the
:nder#eretary of /%nane Anton%o 2. 9e(%ena! and the off%er# of the 2etron
Cor&orat%on! *ere har)ed *%th -%o(at%on of Set%on >3e4 of Re&ub(% At No.
>01"! %n-o(-%n) the #o.a((ed taE red%t #a$@ %n an Infor$at%on do5eted a#
Cr%$%na( Ca#e No. 25"22 *h%h read#8

The under#%)ned O$bud#$an 2ro#eutor#! Off%e of the O$bud#$an!
hereby au#e ANTONIO 2. 9ELICENA! :L0ARICO 2. AN0:TAN! KR.!
MONICO A. KACO9! CELSO L. LE;AR0A! A90:LAHIH /. AL.M,A77AL!
A2OLINARIO ;. RE7ES! RE7NAL0O A. CAM2OS! RA/AEL S. 0IAH! KR.!
ANTONIO ,. ROMAN! SR.! AN0 MARIALEN C. COR2:H! of -%o(at%on of
Set%on >3e4 of Re&ub(% At No. >01"! a# a$ended! other*%#e 5no*n a# the Ant%.
;raft and Corru&t 2rat%e# At! o$$%tted a# fo((o*#8

That! dur%n) the &er%od fro$ 1> May 1""C to 0" Kune 1""B!
or for #o$et%$e &r%or or #ub#e'uent thereto! %n the C%ty of Man%(a!
Metro Man%(a! 2h%(%&&%ne#! and *%th%n the +ur%#d%t%on of th%#
,onorab(e Court! the afore$ent%oned f%r#t t*o 324 au#ed Anton%o
2. 9e(%ena and :(dar%o 2. Andutan! Kr.! both &ub(% off%er#! be%n)
then the A##%#tant Seretary=Ad$%n%#trator! and 0e&uty EEeut%-e
0%retor! re#&et%-e(y! of the One Sto& Sho& Inter.A)eny TaE
Cred%t 1 0uty 0ra*ba5 Center! 0e&art$ent of /%nane! Man%(a!
*h%(e %n the &erfor$ane of the%r off%%a( funt%on# and at%n) *%th
e-%dent bad fa%th and $an%fe#t &art%a(%ty! on#&%r%n) and
onfederat%n) *%th eah other! to)ether *%th au#ed Mon%o A.
Kaob! Ce(#o L. Le)arda! Abdu(aP%P /. A(.Mhayya(! A&o(%nar%o ;.
Reye#! Reyna(do A. Ca$&o# and Rafae( S. 0%aP! Kr.! a(( off%%a(# of
2etron Cor&orat%on! and Anton%o ,. Ro$an! Sr. and Mar%a(en C.
Cor&uP! both off%er# of /%(#yn Cor&orat%on! d%d then and there!
*%((fu((y! un(a*fu((y and (sic) reo$$end and r%$%na((y a&&ro-e
the tran#fer of the fo((o*%n) TaE Cred%t Cert%f%ate# &ur&orted(y
%##ued to /%(#yn Cor&.! to *%t8

TCC No. A$ount
015" 2 B1>!21>.00
01?C 1!>""!"12.00
0205 1!>1>!5B?.00
110? 1!128!118.00
1010 2!2?8!5"".00
102" "5?!??2.00
10>0 2!2C>!51B.00
11?5 1!282!215.00
1180 1!>""!"50.00
118" 1!88C!>2B.00
120C B02!105.00
1208 5?>!121.00
12C5 5?2!551.00
1C"? 1!82?!>C2.00
1C"B 2!C5>!521.00
1C"8 B>1!1"?.00
1C"" C18!5>C.00
15?C 1!C>1!"12.00
15"2 2!00?!"20.00
1?>> B8C!1C8.00
1?>C 1!21>!080.00
1??B 1!?C"!B"".00
1B>2 11"!B"5.00
1B5? 2!??>!B11.00
1B"8 2!C>?!"C?.00
1805 ?02!212.00
21?0 2!>B5!"C".00
1"B?2 "C8!215.00
1"B?> 2!011!B5>.00
2205 >!B01!B0>.00
221" C!B"2!1"0.00
225> CC1!C?1.00
22B> 1!081!>C".00
22BC 1!2>B!0B8.00
2>08 1!805!2"1.00
2>0" 1!0CC!8>B.00
2>>1 1!CBC!5>B.00
2C20 1!80B!C>5.00
2C21 1!>51!>85.00
2C22 ?8B!520.00
2C2> 1!508!B15.00
2C2C 501!8">.00
2C>0 1!?0"!B2?.00
2C>? "01!1C?.00
2C?> 1!01?!?B>.00
2C?5 >>B!001.00
2C82 1!"?0!"1?.00
258> 5">!8B?.00
258B 1!588!88>.00
2?02 1!BB0!?>8.00
2B2B 1!C8B!8">.00
2B28 1!C02!?12.00
2B55 1!C""!"0".00
2B?2 1!1?>!B8".00
2B?> 1!85C!2C5.00
>11> 1!0B"!BB0.00
>1>1 ""!5B8.00
>1?C C5"!"8?.00
>202 >!?""!10>.00
>20C 1!225!1>5.00
>288 C08!000.00
>28" B!228!5B2.00
>2"1 2!8CC!BBC.00
>5>0 >BC!2B2.00
>5C" 1!?58!1B2.00
>550 ?1>!C10.00
>C1? ?5>!B50.00
>?5> >B0!500.00
>?B0 805!C80.00
>B08 2!8""!?">.00
>"0" 1!8?B!1>".00
>"10 1!50"!52".00
C00" 2!>08!2?C.00
C0>5 2!B"0!>>1.00
C0C2 ?!>2?!C>1.00
C1CB 5!>1B!B81.00
C2"" >!>>?!55".00
C55B C!"8B!21C.00
RRRRRRRRRRRRRR
Tota( 21>1!5CB!0C>.00
SSSSSSSSSSS

fro$ /%(#yn Cor&orat%on! re&re#ented by au#ed Anton%o ,. Ro$an! Sr. and
Mar%a(en C. Cor&uP! unto and %n fa-or of 2etron Cor&.! re&re#ented by au#ed
Mon%o A. Kaob! Ce#ar L. Le)arda! Abdu(aP%P /. A(.Mhayya(! A&o(%nar%o ;.
Reye#! Reyna(do A. Ca$&o# or Rafae( S. 0%aP! Kr.! *%thout (e)a( ba#%# and
&ro&er=re'u%red dou$entat%on! thereby au#%n) undue %n+ury and da$a)e to the
)o-ern$ent %n the afore#tated a$ount and at the #a$e t%$e )%-%n) un*arranted
benef%t! &referene or ad-anta)e to the #a%d &r%-ate f%r$#.

CONTRAR7 TO LA6.
F>G

A#%de fro$ the afore#tated a#e! #%Ety.one 3?14 #%$%(ar Infor$at%on# *ere
f%(ed by the Off%e of the O$bud#$an a)a%n#t #o$e f%fty 3504 &ub(% off%%a(# and
&r%-ate %nd%-%dua(# re(at%n) to the %##uane of taE red%t ert%f%ate#.

The au#ed Mon%o A. Kaob and Ce(#o Le)arda *ere arra%)ned and
&(eaded not )u%(ty.
FCG

A# narrated by the &et%t%oner#! the fo((o*%n) e-ent# tran#&%red %n the
Sand%)anbayan/Off%e of the O$bud#$an8

C.2 Cr%$%na( Ca#e No. 25"22! a(on) *%th other a#e# %n-o(-%n) a((e)ed(y
ano$a(ou# TCC tran#fer#! na$e(y! Cr%$%na( Ca#e# No#. 25"11.25"15! 25"1B.
25"21! 25"2>.25">"! and 25"8>.2?01? *ere raff(ed to the /ourth 0%-%#%on of
the Sandiganbayan.

C.> On 1B A&r%( 2000! &et%t%oner# f%(ed *%th the Off%e of the
O$bud#$an a Aery :r)ent Mot%on for Lea-e to /%(e Mot%on for Reon#%derat%on
or Re%n-e#t%)at%on@ dated 1? A&r%( 2000! *%th an attahed Mot%on for
Reon#%derat%on or Re%n-e#t%)at%on 3Re8 Re#o(ut%on dated 2B Marh 20004@ dated
1B A&r%( 2000! throu)h *h%h they #ou)ht re-er#a( of the Off%e of the
O$bud#$anO# 2B Marh 2000 Re#o(ut%on@ *h%h d%reted the f%(%n) of the
Infor$at%on@ %n Cr%$%na( Ca#e No. 25"22. A o&y of &et%t%oner#O Aery :r)ent
Mot%on for Lea-e to /%(e Mot%on for Reon#%derat%on or Re%n-e#t%)at%on@ dated 1?
A&r%( 2000! *%th the%r Mot%on for Reon#%derat%on or Re%n-e#t%)at%on 3Re8
Re#o(ut%on dated 2B
C.C Marh 20004@ dated 1B A&r%( 2000 attahed to %t a# %t# AnneE 1@! %#
attahed to th%# 2et%t%on@! and $ade an %nte)ra( &art of %t! a# %t# AnneE 0.@

C.5 On 28 A&r%( 2000! the /ourth 0%-%#%on of the Sandiganbayan %##ued
an Order@ )rant%n) &et%t%oner#! a$on) other $o-ant#! (ea-e to f%(e the%r
re#&et%-e $ot%on# for re%n-e#t%)at%on or reon#%derat%on! and )a-e the
2ro#eut%on #%Ety 3?04 day# to re#o(-e the #a%d $ot%on#.

C.? The #%Ety 3?04 day dead(%ne )%-en the 2ro#eut%on to o$&(ete %t#
re%n-e#t%)at%on# and re&ort %t# f%nd%n)# %n re(at%on to #uh re%n-e#t%)at%on# &a##ed
*%thout the 2ro#eut%on re#o(-%n) &et%t%oner#O Mot%on for Reon#%derat%on or
Re%n-e#t%)at%on 3Re8 Re#o(ut%on dated 2B Marh 20004@ dated 1B A&r%( 2000.

C.B The 2ro#eut%onO# fa%(ure to re#o(-e the $ot%on# for reon#%derat%on
f%(ed by &et%t%oner# and the other au#ed %n Cr%$%na( Ca#e# No#. 25"11.25">"
and 25"8>.2?01? dra))ed on %nto the $%dd(e of 2001.

C.8 At the hear%n) of Cr%$%na( Ca#e# No#. 25"11.25">" and 25"8>.
2?01? he(d on 1 Kune 2001! the 2ro#eut%on *a# #&e%f%a((y *arned by the ourt
that #hou(d %t fa%( to re#o(-e the au#edO# &end%n) $ot%on# for reon#%derat%on! %t
*a# &o##%b(e that Cr%$%na( Ca#e# No#. 25"11.25">" and 25"8>.2?01? *ou(d be
d%#$%##ed.

C." The ourtO# *arn%n) not*%th#tand%n)! the 2ro#eut%on! %n a
Man%fe#tat%on@ dated 21 Kune 2001! a)a%n #ou)ht ane((at%on of the arra%)n$ent
and &re.tr%a( onferene %n Cr%$%na( Ca#e# No#. 25"11.25">" and 25"8>.2?01?
#et on 2 Ku(y 2001! but the ourt den%ed that re'ue#t %n a Re#o(ut%on@ dated 2?
Kune 2001! %n *h%h the ourt a)a%n re$%nded the 2ro#eut%on that Cr%$%na( Ca#e#
No#. 25"11.25">" and 25"8>.2?01? had been &end%n) for $ore than a year and
that further de(ay au#ed by %t *ou(d not be ountenaned.

C.10 0e#&%te the ourtO# *arn%n)! the 2ro#eut%on #t%(( fa%(ed to re#o(-e the
&end%n) $ot%on# for re%n-e#t%)at%on by the t%$e of the #hedu(ed arra%)n$ent and
&re.tr%a( onferene #et on 2 Ku(y 2001! &ro$&t%n) the ourt to %##ue an order
*h%h )a-e the 2ro#eut%on an add%t%ona( ten 3104 day# to re#o(-e the $ot%on#! and
re#et the #hedu(ed arra%)n$ent and &re.tr%a( onferene to 1B Ku(y 2001.

C.11 0e#&%te the (a&#e of the ten 3104 day add%t%ona( &er%od )%-en %t! the
2ro#eut%on a)a%n fa%(ed to o$&(ete! and #ub$%t the re#u(t# of! %t# re%n-e#t%)at%on!
and %n#tead f%(ed a Man%fe#tat%on@ re'ue#t%n) the ane((at%on and re#ett%n) of the
arra%)n$ent and &re.tr%a( onferene #et on 1B Ku(y 2001.

C.12 In an Order@ dated 1B Ku(y 2001! the ourt d%reted the 2ro#eut%on
to o$&(ete %t# re%n-e#t%)at%on! and #ub$%t the re#u(t# of that re%n-e#t%)at%on to the
ourt! by 1? Au)u#t 2001! and )ranted the 2ro#eut%onO# re'ue#t for a re#ett%n) by
ane(%n) the #hedu(ed arra%)n$ent and &re.tr%a( onferene and #ett%n) %t on 20
Au)u#t 2001.

C.1> On 1? Au)u#t 2001! the 2ro#eut%on a)a%n fa%(ed to re&ort
o$&(et%on of the re%n-e#t%)at%on &roe##! but on(y f%(ed an O$n%bu# Mot%on@ %n
*h%h %t %nfor$ed the ourt on(y that the &ro#eutor onerned had a(ready $ade
a reo$$endat%on to the Off%e of the S&e%a( 2ro#eutor. There be%n) no
re#o(ut%on of the &end%n) $ot%on# for re%n-e#t%)at%on yet! the 2ro#eut%on #ou)ht
yet another ane((at%on of the #hedu(ed arra%)n$ent and &re.tr%a( onferene on
20 Au)u#t 2001.

C.1C The 2ro#eut%on re&eated %t# re'ue#t for defer$ent of the #hedu(ed
arra%)n$ent and &re.tr%a( onferene at the #hedu(ed hear%n) on 20 Au)u#t 2001!
but th%# t%$e! the re'ue#t *a# den%ed by Ku#t%e Nar%o! *ho %##ued an ora( order
d%#$%##%n) the a#e on aount of the (on) de(ay a##o%ated *%th the 2ro#eut%onO#
re#o(ut%on of the $ot%on# for re%n-e#t%)at%on f%(ed by au#ed.

C.15 ,o*e-er! #%ne Ku#t%e Nar%o and the other 324 re)u(ar $e$ber# of
the /ourth 0%-%#%on of the Sandiganbayan ou(d not reah unan%$%ty on
u&ho(d%n) Ku#t%e Nar%oO# d%#$%##a( of Cr%$%na( Ca#e# No#. 25"11.25">" and
25"8>.2?01?! a S&e%a( /ourth 0%-%#%on o$&o#ed of f%-e 354 $e$ber# of the
,onorab(e Sandiganbayan *a# on#t%tuted &ur#uant to Set%on 13b4 of Ru(e <AIII
of the 1"8C Re-%#ed Ru(e# of the Sandiganbayan.

C.1? On C /ebruary 2002! a bare $a+or%ty of re#&ondent ourt!
F5G
o-erru(%n) d%##ent# by Ku#t%e Nar%o and Ku#t%e Raou( A%tor%no! %##ued %t# f%r#t
'ue#t%oned Re#o(ut%on@ dated C /ebruary 2002! the d%#&o#%t%-e &ort%on of *h%h
#et a#%de the order of d%#$%##a( %##ued by Ku#t%e Nar%o %n o&en ourt at the
hear%n) of 20 Au)u#t 2001 %n the fo((o*%n) $anner8

6,ERE/ORE! the d%#$%##a( of the#e a#e# ora((y ordered
%n o&en ourt by the Cha%r$an of the /ourth 0%-%#%on dur%n) %t#
ourt #e##%on he(d on Au)u#t 20! 2001! and re%terated %n h%#
#ub#e'uent ponencia, %# hereby #et a#%de. EEE.@

C.1B 2et%t%oner# f%(ed the%r Mot%on for Reon#%derat%on@ dated 11
/ebruary 2002 fro$ the 'ue#t%oned Re#o(ut%on@ dated C /ebruary 2002 on 18
/ebruary 2002. A o&y of &et%t%oner#O Mot%on for Reon#%derat%on@ dated 11
/ebruary 2002 %# attahed to th%# 2et%t%on@! and $ade an %nte)ra( &art of %t! a# %t#
AnneE E.@
F?G

Se-era( of the other au#ed a(#o f%(ed #%$%(ar $ot%on# for reon#%derat%on
and=or $ot%on# to 'ua#h=d%#$%## *h%h the &ro#eut%on o&&o#ed.
FBG

On 0ee$ber 12! 200>! the Sand%)anbayan! by unan%$ou# -ote! %##ued a
Re#o(ut%on deny%n) a(( the $ot%on# re#&et%-e(y f%(ed by the au#ed! %n(ud%n) the
&et%t%oner#8

6,ERE/ORE! for (a5 of $er%t! the ourt %##ue# an O$n%bu#
Re#o(ut%on denying a(( the abo-e de#r%bed motions or reconsideration.
Th%# d%#&o#%t%on render# $oot and aade$% the re#o(ut%on of the ourt
dated May ?! 2002 &enned by Ku#t%e Nar%#o S. Nar%o! *h%h deferred at%on on
the Man%fe#tat%on of the &ro#eut%on on#%der%n) that there %# no need for the ourt
to at on the #a$e! a# the Man%fe#tat%on *a# f%(ed $ere(y for the ourtO#
%nfor$at%on on the at%on ta5en by the Off%e of the S&e%a( 2ro#eutor on the
-ar%ou# $ot%on# for reon#%derat%on f%(ed by the au#ed %n the#e a#e#.

SO OR0ERE0.
F8G

On(y the &et%t%oner# f%(ed the%r &et%t%on for ert%orar% and $anda$u# a##a%(%n)
the /ebruary C! 2002 and the 0ee$ber 12! 200> Re#o(ut%on# of the
Sand%)anbayan! a##ert%n) that the )raft ourt o$$%tted a )ra-e abu#e of %t#
d%#ret%on a$ount%n) to eEe## or (a5 of +ur%#d%t%on %n %##u%n) the #a$e.
F"G

In %t# Co$$ent on the &et%t%on! the Off%e of the O$bud#$an! throu)h the
Off%e of the S&e%a( 2ro#eutor! a-er# that the de(ay %n the #ub$%##%on to the
Sand%)anbayan of %t# re&ort on %t# re%n-e#t%)at%on *a# au#ed by the &endeny of
the other a#e# of e'ua(! %f not of $ore %$&ortane! not to $ent%on the f%(%n) of
t*enty.t*o 3224 other $ot%on# for reon#%derat%on and=or re%n-e#t%)at%on by the
other au#ed %n the #a%d a#e#.
F10G
It a##ert# that the $ore than one.year de(ay %# not
a&r%%ou#! $uh (e##! %nto(erab(y a&r%%ou#. It a(#o ontend# that the ora(
d%#$%##a( of the a#e# by Ku#t%e Nar%#o S. Nar%o *a# too dra#t%! a# %t de&r%-ed the
re#&ondent of %t# r%)ht to &ro#eute the a#e# and &ro-e the )u%(t of the &et%t%oner#
beyond rea#onab(e doubt for the r%$e# har)ed.
T)! R&$#n/ o0 ()! Co&'(

The &et%t%on %# den%ed due our#e.


/or a &et%t%on for ert%orar% to be )ranted! %t $u#t #et out and de$on#trate!
&(a%n(y and d%#t%nt(y! a(( the fat# e##ent%a( to e#tab(%#h a r%)ht to a *r%t.
F11G
The
&et%t%oner# $u#t a((e)e %n the%r &et%t%on and e#tab(%#h fat# to #ho* that any other
eE%#t%n) re$edy %# not #&eedy or ade'uate
F12G
and that 3a4 the *r%t %# d%reted
a)a%n#t a tr%buna(! board or off%er eEer%#%n) +ud%%a( or 'ua#%-+ud%%a( funt%on#D
3b4 #uh tr%buna(! board or off%er ha# ated *%thout or %n eEe## of +ur%#d%t%on! or
*%th )ra-e abu#e of d%#ret%on a$ount%n) to eEe## or (a5 of +ur%#d%t%onD and! 34
there %# no a&&ea( or any &(a%n! #&eedy and ade'uate re$edy %n the ord%nary our#e
of (a*.
F1>G

The &ub(% re#&ondent at# *%thout +ur%#d%t%on %f %t doe# not ha-e the (e)a(
&o*er to deter$%ne the a#eD there %# eEe## of +ur%#d%t%on *here the re#&ondent!
be%n) (othed *%th the &o*er to deter$%ne the a#e! o-er#te&# %t# author%ty a#
deter$%ned by (a*. There %# )ra-e abu#e of d%#ret%on *here the &ub(% re#&ondent
at# %n a a&r%%ou#! *h%$#%a(! arb%trary or de#&ot% $anner %n the eEer%#e of %t#
+ud)$ent a# to be #a%d to be e'u%-a(ent to (a5 of +ur%#d%t%on.
F1CG
Mere abu#e of
d%#ret%on %# not enou)h.

In a &et%t%on for ert%orar%! the +ur%#d%t%on of the ourt %# narro* %n #o&e. It
%# (%$%ted to re#o(-%n) on(y error# of +ur%#d%t%on. It %# not to #tray
at *%(( and re#o(-e 'ue#t%on# or %##ue# beyond %t# o$&etene #uh a# error# of
+ud)$ent. Error# of +ud)$ent of the tr%a( ourt are to be re#o(-ed by the a&&e((ate
ourt %n the a&&ea( or via a &et%t%on for re-%e* on ert%orar% %n th%# Court under
Ru(e C5 of the Ru(e# of Court. Cert%orar% *%(( %##ue on(y to orret error# of
+ur%#d%t%on. It %# not a re$edy to orret error# of +ud)$ent.
F15G
An error of
+ud)$ent %# one %n *h%h the ourt $ay o$$%t %n the eEer%#e of %t# +ur%#d%t%on!
and *h%h error %# re-er#%b(e on(y by an a&&ea(. A# (on) a# the ourt at# *%th%n %t#
+ur%#d%t%on! any a((e)ed error# o$$%tted %n the eEer%#e of %t# d%#ret%on *%((
a$ount to noth%n) $ore than $ere error# of +ud)$ent! orret%b(e by an a&&ea( or a
&et%t%on for re-%e* under Ru(e C5 of the Ru(e# of Court.
F1?G
An error of +ur%#d%t%on
%# one *here the at o$&(a%ned of *a# %##ued by the ourt *%thout or %n eEe## of
+ur%#d%t%on and *h%h error %# orret%b(e on(y by the eEtraord%nary *r%t of
ert%orar%.
F1BG

;enera((y! the &erfor$ane of an off%%a( at or duty *h%h nee##ar%(y
%n-o(-e# the eEer%#e of d%#ret%on or +ud)$ent annot be o$&e((ed by
$anda$u#. ,o*e-er! a *r%t of $anda$u# $ay %##ue *here there %# )ra-e abu#e
of d%#ret%on! $an%fe#t %n+u#t%e! or &a(&ab(e eEe## of author%ty.
F18G


In th%# a#e! *e f%nd and #o ru(e that the Sand%)anbayan d%d not o$$%t
)ra-e abu#e of d%#ret%on a$ount%n) to eEe## or (a5 of +ur%#d%t%on %n %##u%n) the
a##a%(ed re#o(ut%on#. 6e a(#o he(d that the &et%t%oner# are not ent%t(ed to a *r%t of
$anda$u#.

!he "erbal #rder o $ismissal
%y Justice &ario 's ( &ullity


In the unan%$ou# Re#o(ut%on of 0ee$ber 12! 200>! the Sand%)anbayan
ru(ed a# fo((o*#8

In the a#e# at bar! the d%#$%##a( $ade %n o&en ourt by the Cha%r$an!
*h%h *a# not redued %n *r%t%n)! %# not a -a(%d d%#$%##a( or ter$%nat%on of the
a#e#. Th%# %# beau#e the Cha%r$an annot un%(atera((y d%#$%## the #a$e *%thout
the a&&ro-a( or on#ent of the other $e$ber# of the 0%-%#%on.
The Sandiganbayan %# a o((e)%ate ourt and under %t# %nterna( ru(e# &re-a%(%n) at
the t%$e 3Ru(e <AIII! Set%on 13b4 of the 1"8C )evised )ules o the
Sandiganbayan, *h%h %# no* Set%on 13b4! Ru(e AIII of the 2002 )evised
'nternal )ules o the Sandiganbayan), an order! re#o(ut%on or +ud)$ent! %n order
to be -a(%d N that %# to #ay! %n order to be on#%dered a# an off%%a( at%on of the
Court %t#e(f N $u#t bear the unan%$ou# a&&ro-a( of the $e$ber# of the d%-%#%on!
or %n a#e of (a5 thereof! by the $a+or%ty -ote of the $e$ber# of a #&e%a(
d%-%#%on of f%-e.
F1"G

6e a)ree *%th the fore)o%n) rat%o%nat%on. Set%on 1! Ru(e 120 of the
Re-%#ed Ru(e# of Cr%$%na( 2roedure! $andate# that a +ud)$ent $u#t be *r%tten %n
the off%%a( (an)ua)e! &er#ona((y and d%ret(y &re&ared by the +ud)e and #%)ned by
h%$ and #ha(( onta%n (ear(y and d%#t%nt(y a #tate$ent of the fat# and the (a*
u&on *h%h %t %# ba#ed. The ru(e a&&(%e# to a f%na( order d%#$%##%n) a r%$%na( a#e
)rounded on the -%o(at%on of the r%)ht# of the au#ed to a #&eedy tr%a(.
F20G
A -erba(
+ud)$ent or order of d%#$%##a( %# a -%o(at%on of the &ro-%#%onD hene! #uh order %#!
%n onte$&(at%on of (a*! not %n esse! therefore! %neffet%-e. Ku#t%e Nar%o fa%(ed to
%##ue a *r%tten re#o(ut%on d%#$%##%n) the r%$%na( a#e# for fa%(ure of the
&ro#eut%on to #ub$%t %t# re&ort on the re%n-e#t%)at%on of the a#e# *%th%n the #%Ety.
day &er%od f%Eed by the )raft ourt. Moreo-er! the -erba( order *a# re+eted by
$a+or%ty -ote of the $e$ber# of the Sand%)anbayan S&e%a( 0%-%#%on. In f%ne!
there ha# been no -a(%d and effet%-e order of d%#$%##a( of the a#e#. The
Sand%)anbayan annot then be fau(ted for %##u%n) the a##a%(ed re#o(ut%on#.

Ne%ther are the &et%t%oner# ent%t(ed to a *r%t of $anda$u# to o$&e( the
Sand%)anbayan to re%n#tate the a#e#! on#%der%n) that the -erba( order of Ku#t%e
Nar%o a# afore#tated doe# not eE%#t at a(( %n onte$&(at%on of (a*.

'n Criminal Cases, the (ccused 's
Entitled !o a Speedy $isposition o
the Cases against *im


No (e## than Set%on 1?! Art%(e III of the 1"8B Con#t%tut%on &ro-%de# that
a(( &er#on# #ha(( ha-e the r%)ht to a #&eedy d%#&o#%t%on of the%r a#e# before a((
+ud%%a(! 'ua#%.+ud%%a( or ad$%n%#trat%-e bod%e#. The +ud%%a( bod%e#@ en-%#a)ed %n
the #a%d &ro-%#%on %n(ude the Off%e of the O$bud#$an and the Off%e of the
S&e%a( 2ro#eutor.

Ru(e 115! Set%on 13h4 of the Re-%#ed Ru(e# of Cr%$%na( 2roedure further
&ro-%de# that the au#ed ha# the r%)ht to ha-e a #&eedy! %$&art%a( and &ub(% tr%a(.
The #a%d ru(e re'u%re# that the arra%)n$ent of the au#ed #hou(d be he(d *%th%n
th%rty 3>04 day# fro$ the date the ourt a'u%red +ur%#d%t%on o-er the &er#on of the
au#ed! un(e## a #horter &er%od %# &ro-%ded by #&e%a( (a* or un(e## eEu#ab(e
de(ay# a# &ro-%ded %n Ru(e 11"! Set%on 10 of the Ru(e# are attendant.
F21G
Suh
r%)ht# to due &roe##! #&eedy tr%a( and d%#&o#%t%on of the a#e *ere f%r#t art%u(ated
a# ear(y a# 12"B %n En)(and8 To none *%(( *e #ee! to none *%(( *e deny or de(ay
r%)ht or +u#t%e.@
F22G


It annot be o-er#tre##ed that the au#ed %n a(( r%$%na( &ro#eut%on# are
ent%t(ed to due &roe## a# $uh a# the &ro#eut%on. In !atad v. Sandiganbayan,
F2>G
*e he(d that #ub#tant%a( adherene to the re'u%re$ent# of the (a* )o-ern%n) the
ondut of &re(%$%nary %n-e#t%)at%on! %n(ud%n) #ub#tant%a( o$&(%ane *%th the
t%$e (%$%tat%on &re#r%bed by the (a* for the re#o(ut%on of the a#e by the
&ro#eutor! %# &art of the &roedura( due &roe## on#t%tut%ona((y )uaranteed by the
funda$enta( (a*. Th%# ru(%n) (ear(y a&&(%e# to re%n-e#t%)at%on# author%Ped by the
tr%a( ourt#! %n(ud%n) the Sand%)anbayan.

The r%)ht of the au#ed to a #&eedy tr%a( and to a #&eedy d%#&o#%t%on of the
a#e a)a%n#t h%$ *a# de#%)ned to &re-ent the o&&re##%on of the %t%Pen by ho(d%n)
r%$%na( &ro#eut%on #u#&ended o-er h%$ for an %ndef%n%te t%$e! and to &re-ent
de(ay# %n the ad$%n%#trat%on of +u#t%e by $andat%n) the ourt# to &roeed *%th
rea#onab(e d%#&ath %n the tr%a( of r%$%na( a#e#.
F2CG
Suh r%)ht to a #&eedy tr%a( and
a #&eedy d%#&o#%t%on of a a#e %# -%o(ated on(y *hen the &roeed%n) %# attended by
-eEat%ou#! a&r%%ou# and o&&re##%-e de(ay#. The %n'u%ry a# to *hether or not an
au#ed ha# been den%ed #uh r%)ht %# not #u#e&t%b(e by &re%#e 'ua(%f%at%on. The
one&t of a #&eedy d%#&o#%t%on %# a re(at%-e ter$ and $u#t nee##ar%(y be a f(eE%b(e
one&t.
F25G

6h%(e +u#t%e %# ad$%n%#tered *%th d%#&ath! the e##ent%a( %n)red%ent %#
order(y! eE&ed%t%ou# and not $ere #&eed.
F2?G
It annot be def%n%te(y #a%d ho* (on)
%# too (on) %n a #y#te$ *here +u#t%e %# #u&&o#ed to be #*%ft! but de(%berate. It %#
on#%#tent *%th de(ay# and de&end# u&on %ru$#tane#. It #eure# r%)ht# to the
au#ed! but %t doe# not &re(ude the r%)ht# of &ub(% +u#t%e.
F2BG
A(#o! %t $u#t be
borne %n $%nd that the r%)ht# )%-en to the au#ed by the Con#t%tut%on and the Ru(e#
of Court are #h%e(d#! not *ea&on#D hene! ourt# are to )%-e $ean%n) to that %ntent.
F28G

A ba(an%n) te#t of a&&(y%n) #o%eta( %ntere#t# and the r%)ht# of the au#ed
nee##ar%(y o$&e(# the ourt to a&&roah #&eedy tr%a( a#e# on an ad hoc ba#%#.
F2"G

In deter$%n%n) *hether the au#ed ha# been de&r%-ed of h%# r%)ht to a
#&eedy d%#&o#%t%on of the a#e and to a #&eedy tr%a(! four fator# $u#t be
on#%dered8 3a4 (en)th of de(ayD 3b4 the rea#on for the de(ayD 34 the defendantO#
a##ert%on of h%# r%)htD and 3d4 &re+ud%e to the defendant. 2re+ud%e #hou(d be
a##e##ed %n the (%)ht of the %ntere#t of the defendant that the #&eedy tr%a( *a#
de#%)ned to &rotet! na$e(y8 to &re-ent o&&re##%-e &re.tr%a( %narerat%onD to
$%n%$%Pe anE%ety and onern# of the au#ed to tr%a(D and to (%$%t the &o##%b%(%ty
that h%# defen#e *%(( be %$&a%red. Of the#e! the $o#t #er%ou# %# the (a#t! beau#e the
%nab%(%ty of a defendant ade'uate(y to &re&are h%# a#e #5e*# the fa%rne## of the
ent%re #y#te$. There %# a(#o &re+ud%e %f the defen#e *%tne##e# are unab(e to rea((
aurate(y the e-ent# of the d%#tant &a#t.
F>0G
E-en %f the au#ed %# not %$&r%#oned
&r%or to tr%a(! he %# #t%(( d%#ad-anta)ed by re#tra%nt# on h%# (%berty and by (%-%n)
under a (oud of anE%ety! #u#&%%on and often! ho#t%(%ty.
F>1G
,%# f%nan%a( re#oure#
$ay be dra%ned! h%# a##o%at%on %# urta%(ed! and he %# #ub+eted to &ub(% ob(o'uy.
F>2G
0e(ay %# a t*o.ed)e #*ord. It %# the )o-ern$ent that bear# the burden of
&ro-%n) %t# a#e beyond rea#onab(e doubt. The &a##a)e of t%$e $ay $a5e %t
d%ff%u(t or %$&o##%b(e for the )o-ern$ent to arry %t# burden.
F>>G
The Con#t%tut%on
and the Ru(e# do not re'u%re %$&o##%b%(%t%e# or eEtraord%nary effort#! d%(%)ene or
eEert%on fro$ ourt# or the &ro#eutor! nor onte$&(ate that #uh r%)ht #ha((
de&r%-e the State of a rea#onab(e o&&ortun%ty of fa%r(y &ro#eut%n) r%$%na(#.
F>CG
A#
he(d %n +illiams v. ,nited States!
F>5G
for the )o-ern$ent to #u#ta%n %t# r%)ht to try the
au#ed de#&%te a de(ay! %t $u#t #ho* t*o th%n)#8 3a4 that the au#ed #uffered no
#er%ou# &re+ud%e beyond that *h%h en#ued fro$ the ord%nary and %ne-%tab(e de(ayD
and 3b4 that there *a# no $ore de(ay than %# rea#onab(y attr%butab(e to the ord%nary
&roe##e# of +u#t%e.

C(o#e(y re(ated to the (en)th of de(ay %# the rea#on or +u#t%f%at%on of the
State for #uh de(ay. 0%fferent *e%)ht# #hou(d be a##%)ned to d%fferent rea#on# or
+u#t%f%at%on# %n-o5ed by the State. /or %n#tane! a de(%berate atte$&t to de(ay the
tr%a( %n order to ha$&er or &re+ud%e the defen#e #hou(d be *e%)hted hea-%(y a)a%n#t
the State. A(#o! %t %# %$&ro&er for the &ro#eutor to %ntent%ona((y de(ay to )a%n #o$e
tat%a( ad-anta)e o-er the defendant or to hara## or &re+ud%e h%$.
F>?G
On the other
hand! the hea-y a#e (oad of the &ro#eut%on or a $%##%n) *%tne## #hou(d be
*e%)hted (e## hea-%(y a)a%n#t the State. Coro((ar%(y! Set%on C! Ru(e 11" of the
Re-%#ed Ru(e# of Cr%$%na( 2roedure enu$erate# the fator# for )rant%n) a
ont%nuane.
F>BG

!he $elay in the (rraignment (nd
!he !rial o the Petitioners -as
Caused %y !hem, the #ther
(ccused and the #mbudsman/
Special Prosecutor


In %t# /ebruary C! 2002 Re#o(ut%on! the Sand%)anbayan o-erru(ed the -erba(
Order of Ku#t%e Nar%o for the fo((o*%n) rea#on#8

In the &re#ent a#e! 314 there %# a(ready a de(ay of the tr%a( for $ore than
one year no*D 324 but %t %# not #ho*n that the de(ay %# -eEat%ou#! a&r%%ou# and
o&&re##%-eD 3>4 %t $ay be that! a# #tated %n the here%n d%##ented Re#o(ut%on! at the
hear%n)# onduted %n the#e a#e#! the defen#e ora((y! o&en(y and on#%#tent(y
a#5ed for the d%#$%##a( of the#e a#e#D@ ho*e-er! the#e ora( $an%fe#tat%on# *ere
$ore of 5nee.+er5 reat%on#@ of the defen#e oun#e( %n tho#e hear%n)# e-eryt%$e
the &ro#eut%on re'ue#ted for &o#t&one$ent than anyth%n) e(#e a# #a%d defen#e
oun#e( d%d not #er%ou#(y &ur#ue the d%#$%##a( of the#e a#e#! #uh a# by redu%n)
the%r re'ue#t@ %n a for$a( *r%tten $ot%on to d%#$%## and=or %n#%#t%n) that the ourt
for$a((y ru(e on the%r re'ue#t for d%#$%##a( and )o on ert%orar% %f den%edD and 3C4
on#%der%n) the nature and %$&ortane of the a#e#! %f there %# any &re+ud%e that
$ay ha-e re#u(ted a# a on#e'uene of the #er%e# of &o#t&one$ent#! %t *ou(d be
$ore a)a%n#t the )o-ern$ent than a)a%n#t any of the au#edD ho*e-er! be that a#
%t $ay! none of the here%n au#ed ha# o$e out to (a%$ ha-%n) been thu#
&re+ud%ed.
F>8G


The reord# #ho* that the fa%(ure of the &et%t%oner# and the other au#ed to
be arra%)ned and the a#e a)a%n#t the$ tr%ed *a# au#ed by 314 the f%(%n) of the%r
$ot%on for reon#%derat%on and=or re%n-e#t%)at%on *h%h *a# )ranted by the
Sand%)anbayanD and 324 the fa%(ure of the O$bud#$an=S&e%a( 2ro#eutor to
ter$%nate h%# re%n-e#t%)at%on and #ub$%t h%# re&ort thereon *%th%n the #%Ety.day
&er%od f%Eed by the )raft ourt.

The O$bud#$an=S&e%a( 2ro#eutor f%(ed the Infor$at%on# on A&r%( 10!
2000 e-en before the (a&#e of the f%-e.day &er%od *%th%n *h%h to f%(e a $ot%on for
reon#%derat%on or the re%n-e#t%)at%on thereof a# &ro-%ded %n Ad$%n%#trat%-e Order
No. 15 of the O$bud#$an.
F>"G
Th%# %$&e((ed the &et%t%oner# to f%(e on A&r%( 1B!
2000 a -ery ur)ent $ot%on for (ea-e to f%(e a $ot%on for reon#%derat%on of the #a%d
re#o(ut%on f%nd%n) &robab(e au#e a)a%n#t the$ or the re%n-e#t%)at%on thereof! on
the )round that there *a# no fatua( and (e)a( ba#%# for the%r %nd%t$ent for
-%o(at%on of Set%on >3e4 of Re&. At No. >01".

On A&r%( 28! 2000! the Sand%)anbayan %##ued a Re#o(ut%on )rant%n) the
$ot%on of the &et%t%oner# and )a-e the &ro#eutor a &er%od of #%Ety 3?04 day# fro$
not%e *%th%n *h%h to ondut a re%n-e#t%)at%on of the a#e. ,o*e-er! a#%de fro$
the &et%t%oner#! the other au#ed f%(ed 2> #e&arate $ot%on# for
reon#%derat%on=re%n-e#t%)at%on %n Cr%$%na( Ca#e# No#. 25"11.25">" and 25"8>.
2?01?.

The arra%)n$ent of the au#ed %n(ud%n) the &et%t%oner# and the &re.tr%a( of
the a#e# had to be #u#&ended by the Sand%)anbayan unt%( after the
O$bud#$an=S&e%a( 2ro#eutor had o$&(eted the on#o(%dated re%n-e#t%)at%on of
the a#e# and #ub$%tted h%# on#o(%dated re&ort to the )raft ourt. ,o*e-er! the
2ro#eutor fa%(ed to ter$%nate h%# re%n-e#t%)at%on of the a#e# *%th%n the &er%od
)%-en h%$! *h%h %$&e((ed the Sand%)anbayan! o-er the -erba( ob+et%on# of the
&et%t%oner#! to re&eated(y re#et the arra%)n$ent of the &et%t%oner# and that of the
other au#ed. Thereafter! Ku#t%e Nar%o -erba((y d%#$%##ed the a#e# on Au)u#t
20! 2001! de#&%te the O$n%bu# Mot%on@ of the 2ro#eut%on on Au)u#t 1?! 2001
%nfor$%n) the Sand%)anbayan that he had a(ready #ub$%tted h%# reo$$endat%on
on h%# re%n-e#t%)at%on to the Off%e of the S&e%a( 2ro#eutor for the (atterO#
on#%derat%on and a&&ro-a(.

!he Petitioners -ere %urdened to
Prove the .actual and /egal %asis
.or 0otion &olle Prose1ui2
!he Prosecutor -as %urdened
!o Prove a "alid Justiication
.or &on-Compliance -ith
!he #rder o the Sandiganbayan
(nd the 0otion or Continuance


2refator%(y! *e f%nd %t unfa%r for the $a+or%ty $e$ber# of the Sand%)anbayan
to brand the -erba( $ot%on# nolle prose1ui of the &et%t%oner# a# a $ere 5nee.+er5
reat%on=at%on@ to the 2ro#eutorO# re&eated $ot%on# for ont%nuane. A(thou)h the
&et%t%oner# fa%(ed to f%(e *r%tten $ot%on# for the d%#$%##a( of the a#e#! the%r -erba(
$ot%on# #hou(d not be bru#hed a#%de a# tr%-%a(. Idea((y! the &et%t%oner# #hou(d f%(e
for$a( $ot%on# for the d%#$%##a( of the a#e#. ,o*e-er! they are not &re(uded
fro$ ora((y $o-%n) for the d%#$%##a( of the #a%d a#e#. In 0cCandles v. $istrict
Court,
FC0G
the a&&e((ate ourt he(d that the &ro&er $ethod of $a5%n) de$and# for
#&eedy tr%a( %# by $ot%on# f%(ed %n the a#e or $ade %n o&en ourt. A de$and
therefor $u#t be $ade %n ourt. The Sand%)anbayan *ou(d ha-e ated beyond %t#
author%ty %f %t had d%#$%##ed the a#e a)a%n#t the au#ed #%$&(y beau#e the
&ro#eutor had )one to #(ee& at the #*%th *h%(e the defendant and h%# oun#e(
re#ted %n #%(ene.
FC1G
The au#ed $u#t not be re*arded by the d%#$%##a( of the a#e
and the State and #o%ety &un%#hed by the ne)(et of the &ro#eutor un(e## the
au#ed h%$#e(f a((# the attent%on of the ourt to the $atter.
FC2G

:nder Set%on "! Ru(e 11" of the Re-%#ed Ru(e# of Cr%$%na( 2roedure! the
&et%t%oner# had the burden of &ro-%n) the fatua( ba#%# for the%r $ot%on# for the
d%#$%##a( of the Infor$at%on# on the )round of a den%a( of the%r r%)ht to a #&eedy
tr%a( and to a #&eedy d%#&o#%t%on of the a#e# a)a%n#t the$. They *ere burdened to
&ro-e that #uh de(ay au#ed by the 2ro#eutor *a# -eEat%ou#! a&r%%ou# or
*h%$#%a(. On the other hand! the 2ro#eutor *a# burdened to &re#ent e-%dene to
e#tab(%#h that the de(ay %n the #ub$%##%on of h%# re&ort on the re%n-e#t%)at%on of the
a#e# *a# rea#onab(y attr%buted to the ord%nary &roe## of +u#t%e! and that the
au#ed #uffered no #er%ou# &re+ud%e beyond that *h%h en#ued after an %ne-%tab(e
and ord%nary de(ay.

Indub%tab(y! there *a# an undue and %nord%nate de(ay %n the re%n-e#t%)at%on
of the a#e# by the O$bud#$an=S&e%a( 2ro#eutor! and! on#e'uent(y! the
#ub$%##%on of h%# re&ort thereon. 0e#&%te the (a&#e of $ore than one year! he fa%(ed
to o$&(y *%th the Order# of the Sand%)anbayan. It bear# #tre##%n) that a
re%n-e#t%)at%on %# #u$$ary %n nature! and $ere(y %n-o(-e# a reeEa$%nat%on and re.
e-a(uat%on of the e-%dene a(ready #ub$%tted by the o$&(a%nant and the au#ed!
a# *e(( a# the %n%t%a( f%nd%n) of &robab(e au#e *h%h (ed to the f%(%n) of the
Infor$at%on# after the re'u%#%te &re(%$%nary %n-e#t%)at%on. :nden%ab(y! the
O$bud#$an=S&e%a( 2ro#eutor %# #add(ed *%th a#e# of e'ua(! %f not of $ore
%$&ortane@ than the a#e# a)a%n#t the &et%t%oner#. ,o*e-er! th%# %# not a -a(%d
+u#t%f%at%on for an %nord%nate de(ay of one 314 year %n the ter$%nat%on of the
re%n-e#t%)at%on of the a#e#. The 2ro#eutor #hou(d ha-e eE&ed%ted the
re%n-e#t%)at%on not on(y beau#e he *a# ordered by the Sand%)anbayan to #ub$%t a
re&ort *%th%n #%Ety 3?04 day#! but a(#o beau#e he %# bound to do #o under the
Con#t%tut%on! and under Set%on 1> of Re&. At No. ?BB08

The O$bud#$an and h%# de&ut%e#! a# &rotetor# of the &eo&(e! #ha(( at
&ro$&t(y on o$&(a%nt# f%(ed %n any for$ or $anner a)a%n#t &ub(% off%%a(# or
e$&(oyee# of the ;o-ern$ent! or any #ubd%-%#%on! a)eny or %n#tru$enta(%ty
thereof! %n(ud%n) )o-ern$ent.o*ned or ontro((ed or&orat%on#! and #ha((! %n
a&&ro&r%ate a#e#! not%fy the o$&(a%nant# of the at%on ta5en and the re#u(t#
thereof. 3Set%on 12! Art%(e <I of the 1"8B Con#t%tut%on4

The O$bud#$an and h%# de&ut%e#! a# &rotetor# of the &eo&(e! #ha(( at
&ro$&t(y on o$&(a%nt# f%(ed %n any for$ or $anner a)a%n#t &ub(% off%%a(# or
e$&(oyee# of the ;o-ern$ent! or any #ubd%-%#%on! a)eny or %n#tru$enta(%ty
thereof! %n(ud%n) )o-ern$ent.o*ned or ontro((ed or&orat%on#! and enfore
the%r ad$%n%#trat%-e! %-%( and r%$%na( (%ab%(%ty %n e-ery a#e *here the e-%dene
*arrant# %n order to &ro$ote eff%%ent #er-%e by the )o-ern$ent to the &eo&(e.
3Set%on 1>! Re&ub(% At No. ?BB04

In *odges v. ,nited States,
FC>G
%t *a# e$&ha#%Ped that the )o-ern$ent! and
for that $atter! the tr%a( ourt! %# not *%thout re#&on#%b%(%ty for the eE&ed%t%ou# tr%a(
for r%$%na( a#e#. The burden for tr%a( &ro$&tne## doe# not #o(e(y re#t u&on the
defen#e. The r%)ht to a #&eedy tr%a( %# not to be honored on(y for the -%)%(ant and
the 5no*(ed)eab(e.
FCCG
In$e "era v. /ayague!
FC5G
*e a(#o he(d that8
The on#t%tut%ona( $andate to &ro$&t(y d%#&o#e of a#e# doe# not on(y
refer to the de%#%on of a#e# on the%r $er%t#! but a(#o to the re#o(ut%on of $ot%on#
and other %nter(outory $atter#! a# the on#t%tut%ona( &ro-%#%on# eE&(%%t(y $ent%on
a#e#@ and $atter#.@ Therefore! re#&ondent +ud)e $u#t not be eEu#ed for h%#
de(ay %n re#o(-%n) the %n%dent %n C%-%( Ca#e No. 1B!215.


!he $ismissal o the
'normation +as !oo $rastic


6e note that the 2ro#eutor %nfor$ed the Sand%)anbayan on Au)u#t 1?!
2001 that he had a(ready #ub$%tted h%# reo$$endat%on on the re%n-e#t%)at%on of
the a#e# to the S&e%a( 2ro#eutor! and re'ue#ted for ont%nuane ane*. The )raft
ourt a)a%n ob(%)ed! and re#et the arra%)n$ent of the au#ed to Au)u#t 20! 2001!
on(y to be %nfor$ed by the 2ro#eutor that h%# reo$$endat%on had not yet been
ated u&on by the S&e%a( 2ro#eutor=O$bud#$an. The uneE&(a%ned de(ay by the
O$bud#$an=S&e%a( 2ro#eutor of h%# o$&(%ane *%th the Sand%)anbayanO#
d%ret%-e br%n)# to $%nd the tr%te and d%#tre##%n) ob#er-at%on of th%# Court
%n (bardo v. Sandiganbayan8
FC?G

C(ear(y! the de(ay %n th%# a#e d%#re)arded the O$bud#$anO# duty! a#
$andated by the Con#t%tut%on and Re&ub(% At No. ?BB0! to enfore the r%$%na(
(%ab%(%ty of )o-ern$ent off%er# or e$&(oyee# %n e-ery a#e
*here the e-%dene *arrant# %n order to &ro$ote eff%%ent #er-%e to the &eo&(e.
The fat that u& to th%# t%$e no tr%a( ha# been #et! a&&arent(y due to the %nab%(%ty of
the O$bud#$an to o$&(ete the re%n-e#t%)at%on %# a d%#tre##%n) %nd%t$ent of the
r%$%na( +u#t%e #y#te$! &art%u(ar(y %t# %n-e#t%)at%-e and &ro#eutory &%((ar#.


The Sand%)anbayan! for %t# &art! %# not free of b(a$e. In re#o(-%n) the
$ot%on# for reon#%derat%on of the &et%t%oner# and the other au#ed! %t #hou(d ha-e
re'u%red the O$bud#$an=S&e%a( 2ro#eutor! under &a%n of onte$&t! to eE&(a%n
and +u#t%fy the %nord%nate de(ay %n the #ub$%##%on of the re&ort on the
re%n-e#t%)at%on. The Sand%)anbayan fa%(ed to do #o. The )raft ourt *a# ontent to
%##ue $ere order# deny%n) the $ot%on# for reon#%derat%on of the &et%t%oner# and
the other au#ed.

The Court %# *ont to #tre## that the State! throu)h the Sand%)anbayan and the
O$bud#$an=S&e%a( 2ro#eutor! ha# the duty of %n#ur%n) that the r%$%na( +u#t%e
#y#te$ %# on#%#tent *%th due &roe## and the on#t%tut%ona( r%)ht# of the au#ed.
So%ety ha# a &art%u(ar %ntere#t %n br%n)%n) #*%ft &ro#eut%on# and #o%etyO#
re&re#entat%-e# are the one# *ho #hou(d &rotet that %ntere#t.
FCBG
It ha# been he(d
that the r%)ht to a &ro$&t %n'u%ry %nto r%$%na( har)e# %# funda$enta( and the duty
of the har)%n) author%ty %# to &ro-%de a &ro$&t d%#&o#%t%on of the a#e.
FC8G

2re#%nd%n) fro$ the fore)o%n)! *e a)ree *%th the Sand%)anbayan that the
d%#$%##a( of the a#e# *a# &re%&%tate and un*arranted. The State #hou(d not be
&re+ud%ed and de&r%-ed of %t# r%)ht to &ro#eute the a#e# #%$&(y beau#e of the
%ne&t%tude or nonha(ane of the O$bud#$an=S&e%a( 2ro#eutor.

:nder Set%on "! Ru(e 11" of the Re-%#ed Ru(e# of Cr%$%na( 2roedure! the
tr%a( ourt $ay d%#$%## a r%$%na( a#e on a $ot%on nolle prose1ui %f the au#ed %#
not brou)ht to tr%a( *%th%n the &re#r%bed t%$e and %# de&r%-ed of h%# r%)ht to a
#&eedy tr%a( or d%#&o#%t%on of the a#e on aount of unrea#onab(e or a&r%%ou#
de(ay au#ed by the &ro#eut%on.
FC"G
En contrario, the au#ed %# not ent%t(ed to a
d%#$%##a( *here #uh de(ay *a# au#ed by &roeed%n)# or $ot%on# %n#t%tuted by
h%$.
F50G
9ut %t $u#t be under#tood that an o-erPea(ou# or &re%&%tate d%#$%##a( of a
a#e $ay enab(e the defendant! *ho $ay be )u%(ty! to )o free *%thout ha-%n) been
tr%ed! thereby %nfr%n)%n) the #o%eta( %ntere#t %n try%n) &eo&(e au#ed of r%$e#
rather than )rant%n) the$ %$$un%Pat%on beau#e of (e)a( error.
F51G
Not too (on)
a)o! *e e$&ha#%Ped that8

TFTGhe State! (%5e any other (%t%)ant! %# ent%t(ed to %t# day %n ourt! and to a
rea#onab(e o&&ortun%ty to &re#ent %t# a#e. A ha#ty d%#$%##a( #uh a# the one %n
'ue#t%on! %n#tead of un(o))%n) do5et#! ha# atua((y %nrea#ed the *or5(oad of
the +u#t%e #y#te$ a# a *ho(e and au#ed una((ed.for de(ay# %n the f%na(
re#o(ut%on of th%# and other a#e#. :n*%tt%n)(y! the &re%&%tate at%on of the
re#&ondent ourt! %n#tead of ea#%n) the burden of the au#ed! $ere(y &ro(on)ed
the (%t%)at%on and %ron%a((y enou)h! unnee##ar%(y de(ayed the a#e N %n the
&roe##! au#%n) the -ery e-%( %t a&&arent(y #ou)ht to a-o%d. Suh at%on doe# not
%n#&%re &ub(% onf%dene %n the ad$%n%#trat%on of +u#t%e.
F52G
There an be no deny%n) the fat that the &et%t%oner#! a# *e(( a# the other
au#ed! *a# &re+ud%ed by the de(ay %n the re%n-e#t%)at%on of the a#e# and the
#ub$%##%on by the O$bud#$an=S&e%a( 2ro#eutor of h%# re&ort thereon. So *a#
the State. 6e ha-e ba(aned the #o%eta( %ntere#t %n-o(-ed %n the a#e# and the need
to )%-e #ub#tane to the &et%t%oner#O on#t%tut%ona( r%)ht# and the%r 'ue#t for +u#t%e!
and *e are on-%ned that the d%#$%##a( of the a#e# %# too dra#t% a re$edy to be
aorded to the &et%t%oner#. The (oud of #u#&%%on $ay #t%(( (%n)er o-er the head#
of the &et%t%oner# by the &re%&%tate d%#$%##a( of the a#e#. 6e re&eat .. the a#e#
%n-o(-e the #o.a((ed taE red%t ert%f%ate# #a$ and hundred# of $%((%on# of &e#o#
a((e)ed(y &er&etrated by )o-ern$ent off%%a(# %n onn%-ane *%th &r%-ate
%nd%-%dua(#. The 2eo&(e ha# yet to &ro-e the )u%(t of the &et%t%oner# of the r%$e#
har)ed beyond rea#onab(e doubt. 6e a)ree *%th the ru(%n) of the Sand%)anbayan
that before re#ort%n) to the eEtre$e #ant%on of de&r%-%n) the &et%t%oner a hane to
&ro-e %t# a#e by d%#$%##%n) the a#e#! the O$bud#$an=S&e%a( 2ro#eutor #hou(d
be ordered by the Sand%)anbayan under &a%n of onte$&t! to eE&(a%n the de(ay %n
the #ub$%##%on of h%# re&ort on h%# re%n-e#t%)at%on.

IN LIGHT O% ALL THE %OREGOING, the &et%t%on %# DENIED DUE
COURSE.

SO ORDERED.
ISMAEL G. KHAN, JR. and G.R. No. 125296
WENCESLAO L. MALABANAN,
Petitioners, Present:

PUNO, J., Chairperson,
SANDOVAL-GUTIERREZ,
- v e r s u s - CORONA,
AZCUNA and
GARCIA, JJ.

OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN,
DEPUTY OMBUDSMAN
(VISAYAS), ROSAURO F.
TORRALBA
*
and CELESTINO
BANDALA,
**
Respondents. Promulgated:

July 20, 2006

x- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -x

D E C I S I O N

CORONA, J.:


This petition for certiorari under Rule 65 of the Rules of Court
addresses the issue of whether public respondents Deputy
Ombudsman (Visayas) and the Ombudsman have jurisdiction over
petitioners Ismael G. Khan, Jr.
and Wenceslao L. Malabanan, former ofcers of Philippine Airlines
(PAL), for violation of Republic Act No. (RA) 3019
[1]
(the Anti-Graft
and Corrupt Practices Act).

In February 1989, private
respondents Rosauro Torralba and Celestino Bandala charged
petitioners before the Deputy Ombudsman (Visayas) for violation of
RA 3019. In their complaint, private respondents accused
petitioners of using their positions in PAL to secure a contract for
Synergy Services Corporation, a corporation engaged in hauling and
janitorial services in which they were shareholders.

Petitioners fled an omnibus motion to dismiss the complaint
on the following grounds: (1) the Ombudsman had no jurisdiction
over them since PAL was a private entity and (2) they were not
public ofcers, hence, outside the application of RA 3019.

In a resolution dated July 13, 1989,
[2]
the Deputy
Ombudsman
[3]
denied petitioners omnibus motion to dismiss.

On petitioners frst argument, he ruled that, although PAL
was originally organized as a private corporation, its controlling
stock was later acquired by the government through the
Government Service Insurance System (GSIS).
[4]
Therefore, it
became a government-owned or controlled corporation (GOCC) as
enunciated in Quimpo v. Tanodbayan.
[5]

On the second argument, the Deputy Ombudsman held that
petitioners were public ofcers within the defnition of RA 3019,
Section 2 (b). Under that provision, public ofcers included
elective, appointive ofcials and employees, permanent or
temporary, whether in the classifed or unclassifed or exempt
service receiving compensation, even nominal, from the
Government.

The dispositive portion of the Deputy Ombudsmans order
read:


>1#+#"%+#, finding no merit to MpetitionersON %$:35;S
$%T3%: T% <3S$3SS, the same is hereby <#:3#< and
petitioners are hereby ordered to submit their answer within ten
('() days from receipt hereof.
M.N

DDD DDD DDD

Petitioners appealed the order to the Ombudsman. There, they
raised the same issues. Treating the appeal as a motion for
reconsideration, the Ombudsman dismissed it on February 22,
1996. He held that petitioners were ofcers of a GOCC, hence, he
had jurisdiction over them.
[7]
He also afrmed the Deputy
Ombudsmans ruling that Quimpo was applicable to petitioners
case.

In this petition for certiorari, with prayer for issuance of a
temporary restraining order, petitioners assail the orders dated July
13, 1989 and February 22, 1996 of the Deputy Ombudsman
(Visayas) and the Ombudsman, respectively. They claim that public
respondents acted without jurisdiction and/or grave abuse of
discretion in proceeding with the investigation of the case against
them although they were ofcers of a private corporation and not
public ofcers."
[8]

In support of their petition, petitioners argue that: (1) the
Ombudsmans jurisdiction only covers GOCCs with original
charters and these do not include PAL, a private entity created
under the general corporation law; (2) Quimpo does not apply to the
case at bar and (3) RA 3019 only concerns public ofcers, thus,
they cannot be investigated or prosecuted under that law.

We fnd merit in petitioners arguments and hold that public
respondents do not have the authority to prosecute them for
violation of RA 3019.


JURISDICTION OF THE
OMBUDSMAN OVER GOCCS IS
CONFINED ONLY
TO THOSE WITH ORIGINAL CHA
RTERS


The 1987 Constitution states the powers and functions of the
Ofce of the Ombudsman. Specifcally, Article XI, Section 13(2)
provides:

Sec. '/. The %ffice of the %mbudsman shall have the
following powers, functions, and duties-

DDD DDD DDD

(8) <irect, upon complaint or at its own instance, any public
official or employee of the Government, or any
subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, as well as
any government!owned or controlled corporation &it%
original c%arter, to perform and eDpedite any act or duty
reEuired by law, or to stop, prevent, and correct any
abuse or impropriety in the performance of duties. (italics
supplied)


DDD DDD DDD


Based on the foregoing provision, the Ofce of the
Ombudsman exercises jurisdiction over public ofcials/ employees
of GOCCs with original charters. This being so, it can only
investigate and prosecute acts or omissions of the
ofcials/employees of government corporations. Therefore, although
the government later on acquired the controlling interest in PAL, the
fact remains that the latter did not have an original charter and
its ofcers/employees could not be investigated and/or prosecuted
by the Ombudsman.

In Juco v. National Labor Relations Commission,
[9]
we ruled that
the phrase with original charter means chartered by special law
as distinguished from corporations organized under the Corporation
Code. PAL, being originally a private corporation seeded by private
capital and created under the general corporation law, does not fall
within the jurisdictional powers of the Ombudsman under Article
XI, Section 13(2) of the Constitution. Consequently, the latter is
devoid of authority to investigate or prosecute petitioners.





QUIMPO NOT APPLICABLE
TO THE CASE AT BAR

Quimpo
[10]
is not applicable to the case at bar. In that
case, Felicito Quimpo charged in 1984 two ofcers of PETROPHIL in
theTanodbayan (now Ombudsman) for violation of RA 3019. These
ofcers sought the dismissal of the case on the ground that
the Tanodbayanhad no jurisdiction over them as ofcers/employees
of a private company. The Court declared that the Tanodbayan had
jurisdiction over them because PETROPHIL ceased to be a private
entity when Philippine National Oil Corporation (PNOC) acquired its
shares.

In hindsight, although Quimpo appears, on frst impression,
relevant to this case (like PETROPHIL, PALs shares were also
acquired by the government), closer scrutiny reveals that it is not
actually on all fours with the facts here.

In Quimpo, the government acquired PETROPHIL to perform
functions related to government programs and policies on
oil.
[11]
The fact that the purpose in acquiring PETROPHIL was for it
to undertake governmental functions related to oil was decisive in
sustaining theTanodbayans jurisdiction over it. This was certainly
not the case with PAL. The records indicate that the government
acquired the controlling interest in the airline as a result of the
conversion into equity of its unpaid loans in GSIS. No governmental
functions at all were involved.

Furthermore, Quimpo was decided prior to the 1987
Constitution. In fact, it was the 1973 Constitution which the Court
relied on in concluding that the Tanodbayan had jurisdiction
over PETROPHILs accused ofcers. Particularly, the Court cited
Article XIII, Section 6:

S#C. .. The 5atasang Pambansa shall create an office of
the %mbudsman, to be 4nown as the Tanodbayan, which shall
receive and investigate complaints relative to public
office, including t%ose in go$ernent.o&ned or controlled
corporations, ma4e appropriate recommendations, and in case of
failure of 0ustice as defined by law, file and prosecute the
corresponding criminal, civil, or administrative case before the
proper court or body. (italics supplied)


The term government-owned or controlled corporations in
the 1973 Constitution was qualifed by the 1987 Constitution to
refer only to those with original charters.
[12]



PETITIONERS, AS THEN OFFICERS OF
PAL, WERE NOT PUBLIC OFFICERS


Neither the 1987 Constitution nor RA 6670 (The Ombudsman
Act of 1989) defnes who public ofcers are. Instead, its varied
defnitions and concepts are found in diferent statutes
[13]
and
jurisprudence.
[14]
Usually quoted in our decisions is Mechem, a
recognized authority on the subject. In the 2002 case of Laurel
v. Desierto,
[15]
the Court extensively quoted his exposition on the
term public ofcers:

public office is the right, authority and duty, created and
conferred by law, by which, for a given period, either fiDed by law
or enduring at the pleasure of the creating power,an indi$idual is
in$ested &it% soe portion of t%e so$ereign functions of t%e
go$ernent, to be e/ercised by %i for t%e benefit of t%e public.
-%e indi$idual so in$ested is a public officer.

The characteristics of a public office, according to $echem,
include the delegation of sovereign functions, its creation by law
and not by contract, an oath, salary, continuance of the position,
scope of duties, and the designation of the position as an office.

DDD DDD DDD

$echem describes the delegation to the individual of the
sovereign functions of government as PMtNhe most important
characteristicQ in determining whether a position is a public office
or not.

-%e ost iportant c%aracteristic &%ic% distinguis%es an
office fro an eployent or contract is t%at t%e creation and
conferring of an office in$ol$es a delegation to t%e indi$idual of
soe of t%e so$ereign functions of go$ernent to be e/ercised by
%i for t%e benefit of t%e public> ? t%at soe portion of t%e
so$ereignty of t%e country, eit%er legislati$e, e/ecuti$e, or +udicial,
attac%es, for t%e tie being, to be e/ercised for t%e public benefit.
Unless t%e po&ers conferred are of t%is nature, t%e indi$idual is
not a public officer.
M'.N
(italics supplied)

From the foregoing, it can be reasonably inferred that public
ofcers are those endowed with the exercise of sovereign executive,
legislative or judicial functions.
[17]
The explication of the term is
also consistent with the Courts pronouncement in Quimpo that, in
the case of ofcers/employees in GOCCs, they are deemed public
ofcers if their corporations are tasked to carry out governmental
functions.

In any event, PAL has since reverted to private ownership and
we fnd it pointless to scrutinize the implications of a legal issue
that technically no longer exists.
WHEREFORE, the petition is hereby GRANTED. Public
respondents Deputy Ombudsman (Visayas) and Ofce of the
Ombudsman are restrained from proceeding with the investigation
or prosecution of the complaint against petitioners for violation of
RA 3019. Accordingly, their assailed orders of July 13, 1989 and
February 22, 1996, respectively, are SET ASIDE and ANNULLED.

SO ORDERED.
O%%ICE O% THE OMBUDSMAN, G.R. No. 161623
2et%t%oner!
2re#ent8

7NARES.SANTIA;O! J.,
. versus . Chairperson,
A:STRIA.MARTINEH!

CALLEKO! SR.!
C,ICO.NAHARIO! and
NAC,:RA! JJ.
HEIDI M. ESTANDARTE and
THE COURT O% APPEALS, 2ro$u()ated8
T4ENTIETH DI5ISION!
Re#&ondent#. A&r%( 1>! 200B

E.........................................................................................E

D E C I S I O N
CALLE-O, SR., J..


9efore the Court %# a 2et%t%on for Re-%e* of the 0e%#%on
F1G
of the Court of
A&&ea(# 3CA4 %n CA.;.R. S2 No. 85585 dated Kune 1C! 2005 *h%h #et a#%de the
de%#%on of the Off%e of the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 f%nd%n) re#&ondent ,e%d% M.
E#tandarte )u%(ty of )ra-e $%#ondut.

The anteedent# are a# fo((o*#8

On Au)u#t 1B! 1""8! 2eo&(eO# ;raft*ath! throu)h %t# Cha%r$an! 0r. 2atr%%o
7. Tan! referred to the Off%e of the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4! for
%$$ed%ate %n-e#t%)at%on! a o$&(a%nt of the /au(ty C(ub and 0e&art$ent
,ead# of the Ra$on Torre# Nat%ona( ,%)h Shoo( 3here%nafter the /au(ty C(ub4
a)a%n#t ,e%d% E#tandarte! the #hoo( &r%n%&a(. The o$&(a%nt on#%#ted of >>
a((e)at%on# of %$&ro&r%et%e# ran)%n) fro$ %((e)a( hand(%n) of #hoo( fund#! %rre)u(ar
f%nan%a( tran#at%on#! &er+ury! and abu#e of author%ty.
F2G
,o*e-er! the o$&(a%nt
*a# not #ub#r%bed and #*orn to by the o$&(a%nant! and not #u&&orted by the
#*orn #tate$ent# of *%tne##e#. The o$&(a%nt a(#o (a5ed a #tate$ent of non.
foru$ #ho&&%n) a# re'u%red under CSC Re#o(ut%on No. "5.>0"" dated May "!
1""5.
F>G
The O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 treated the $atter a# a re'ue#t for a##%#tane!
and do5eted the o$&(a%nt a# RAS.AIS "8.10>0.

On Au)u#t >1! 1""8! the O$bud#$an for*arded the o$&(a%nt to the
0e&art$ent of Eduat%on! Cu(ture and S&ort# Re)%ona( Off%e AI 30ECS.Re)%on
AI4 and the Co$$%##%on on Aud%t 3COA4 for a&&ro&r%ate at%on &ur#uant to
Set%on 15324 of Re&ub(% At No. ?BB0! other*%#e 5no*n a# the O$bud#$an At
of 1"8".
FCG
On Se&te$ber 2"! 1""8! the 0ECS.Re)%on AI found that the o$&(a%nt
d%d not o$&(y *%th the for$a(%t%e# under EEeut%-e Order No. 2"2! other*%#e
5no*n a# The Ad$%n%#trat%-e Code of 1"8B. Thu#! %t d%#$%##ed the o$&(a%nt!
*%thout &re+ud%e to the f%(%n) of an a&&ro&r%ate one.

:ndaunted! the /au(ty C(ub f%(ed a for$a( o$&(a%nt N #*orn and
#ub#r%bed to by the o$&(a%nant# N *%th 0ECS.Re)%on AI on /ebruary 5! 1""".
F5G
,o*e-er! %n a (etter
F?G
dated /ebruary 12! 1"""! the #a%d off%e d%#$%##ed the
o$&(a%nt outr%)ht for (a5 of -er%f%at%on and ert%f%at%on a)a%n#t foru$ #ho&&%n).

On Marh 22! 1"""! the 0ECS.Re)%on AI ree%-ed the re'u%#%te -er%f%at%on
and ert%f%at%on.
FBG
Th%# a#e *a# ent%t(ed /au(ty and 0e&art$ent ,ead# of
the Ra$on Torre#Nat%ona( ,%)h Shoo(! 9a)o C%ty -. ,e%d% E#tandarte.@

On A&r%( 1"! 1"""! the 0ECS.Re)%on AI re'u%red E#tandarte to an#*er the
har)e# %n *r%t%n).
F8G
E#tandarte f%(ed her an#*er to the o$&(a%nt on Kune B! 1""".
F"G
Thereafter! a S&e%a( In-e#t%)at%n) Co$$%ttee *a# reated to hear the a#eD
0ECS.Re)%on AI a&&ro-ed the o$&o#%t%on of the Co$$%ttee %n a 1
#t
Indor#e$ent
dated Ku(y 2?! 1""".
F10G
The Co$$%ttee %##ued a #ub&oena duces tecum addre##ed to
the State Aud%tor a##%)ned to the a#e! re'u%r%n) h%$ to &rodue the or%)%na( o&%e#
of erta%n dou$ent#. The State Aud%tor! ho*e-er! re&(%ed that he ou(d not o$&(y
*%th the #ub&oena beau#e the dou$ent# are be%n) u#ed by the O$bud#$an
3A%#aya#4 %n the r%$%na( and ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e# &end%n) before %t *h%h
onerned the #a$e &art%e#.
F11G

On Se&te$ber 1B! 1"""! the Co$$%ttee he(d a &re.hear%n) onferene.
F12G
It
%##ued a 1
#t
Indor#e$ent on 0ee$ber ?! 1"""! reo$$end%n) the d%#$%##a( of the
a#e on the )round of foru$ #ho&&%n).

Mean*h%(e! the COA referred the o$&(a%nt a)a%n#t E#tandarte to the
2ro-%n%a( Aud%tor for the 2ro-%ne of Ne)ro# O%denta(! Cr%#&%n A. 2%na)a! Kr.
2ur#uant thereto! 2%na)a onduted an %n-e#t%)at%on and #ub$%tted h%# re&ort to the
O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4. ,e found that E#tandarteO# at%on# %n onnet%on *%th 2C of
the >> a((e)at%on# %n the o$&(a%nt *ere *%th%n the bound# of &ro&r%ety.@
F1>G
The
2ro-%n%a( Aud%tor $ade the fo((o*%n) f%nd%n)#8

Co$&(a%nt No. 2 . The o((et%on# of $%#e((aneou# fee of Ten 2e#o# 3210.004
3AnneE II4 &er #tudent u&on enro($ent *h%h *a# not author%Ped by 0ECS.

A# eE&(a%ned by the &r%n%&a( %n her (etter dated Kune 8! 1""8! th%# &rat%e
had been )o%n) on *hen #he a##u$ed thereat and the #a$e ha# the %$&(%ed
&er$%##%on of the 2TA 3AnneE III4.

/%nd%n)8

The %$&o#%t%on of th%# $%#e((aneou# fee of Ten 2e#o# 3210.004 %# %n
-%o(at%on of 0ECS Order No. 2B #. 1""5 dated May 2C! 1""5 3AnneE IA4.

Co$&(a%nt 1" 1 2C

The &r%n%&a(! M%## ,e%d% M. E#tandarte bou)ht the .>8 Ca(%ber ,and)un
and Shot)un *h%h #he re)%#tered under her na$e! *h%h #hou(d not be done #o
beau#e the $oney #he u#ed to &urha#e #a%d f%rear$ a$e fro$ the #tudent
)o-ern$ent fund.

/%nd%n)8

The f%rear$# a# a((e)ed by the &r%n%&a( *ere %ntended for the u#e of the
#eur%ty )uard of the #hoo(. ,o*e-er! the ar$ dea(er had #eured the (%en#e# of
the f%rear$# %n the na$e of the &r%n%&a(. The#e f%rear$# had been turned.o-er to
the Shoo( Su&&(y Off%er 3AnneE A4. Re&re#entat%on# had been $ade for the
tran#fer of the (%en#e to the #hoo(! Ra$on Torre# Nat%ona( ,%)h Shoo( 3AnneE
AI.A4.

Co$&(a%nt 21 1 >1

She #o(d! 5e&t and d%#bur#ed the %no$e of the o(d ne*#&a&er *%th no
aount%n) by the COA #%ne 1""C.

Co$&(a%nt 2> 1 25

The &r%n%&a( M#. E#tandarte ae&ted a#h and %n 5%nd donat%on# *%thout
be%n) &ro&er(y hanne(ed and aounted f%r#t by the &ro&erty u#tod%an and the
a#h *%thout f%r#t Fbe%n)G de&o#%ted %n the Tru#t /und.

/%nd%n)8

Ca#h donat%on# a# a5no*(ed)ed by M#. ,e%d% E#tandarte are a# fo((o*#8

Soure A$ount

Mr#. Ma. 9e(en K. E(%Pa(de
3not 2h%(.A$ L%fe4 3AnneE AI4 2 10!000.00
Coa Co(a 9ott(er# 3AnneE AIII4 100!000.00
Mr. Mo+%$a 3AnneE I<4 5>!C00.00
Sa(e# N O(d Ne*#&a&er 3AnneE <4 >!"C".00
T o t a ( 21?B!>C".00
SSSSSSSSS

The donat%on# and the &roeed# fro$ the #a(e of o(d ne*#&a&er *ere &er#ona((y
ree%-ed and d%#bur#ed by M#. E#tandarte. ,o*e-er! the#e a$ount# *ere not
a5no*(ed)ed throu)h the %##uane of off%%a( ree%&t#. ,ene the donat%on# *ere
not ta5en u& %n the boo5 of aount# of the #hoo(. /urther the#e a$ount# *ere
d%#bur#ed &er#ona((y by the &r%n%&a( M#. ,e%d% E#tandarte *ho ated a# the
&roure$ent and d%#bur#%n) off%er at the #a$e t%$e and %n -%o(at%on of the
a&&(%ab(e (a* *h%h &ro-%de# to *%t8

Set%on ?>! 20 1CC5

Aount%n) for Money# and 2ro&erty ree%-ed by &ub(% off%%a(#
N EEe&t a# $ay other*%#e be #&e%f%a((y &ro-%ded by (a* or o$&etent
author%ty a(( $oney# and &ro&erty off%%a((y ree%-ed by a &ub(% off%e
%n any a&a%ty or u&on any oa#%on $u#t be aounted for a#
)o-ern$ent fund# and )o-ern$ent &ro&erty. ;o-ern$ent &ro&erty
#hou(d be ta5en u& %n the boo5# of the a)eny onerned at a'u%#%t%on
o#t or an a&&ra%#ed -a(ue.

Set%on ?8 20 1CC5

I##uane of Off%%a( Ree%&t N 314 No &ay$ent of any nature #ha(( be
ree%-ed by a o((et%n) off%er *%thout %$$ed%ate(y %##u%n) an off%%a( ree%&t %n
a5no*(ed)$ent thereof. The ree%&t $ay be %n the for$ of &o#ta)e! %nterna(
re-enue or dou$entary #ta$&# and the (%5e! or off%%a((y nu$bered ree%&t#!
#ub+et to &ro&er u#tody! aountab%(%ty and aud%t.

Set%on 112 20 1CC5

Reord%n) of f%nan%a( tran#at%on# N Eah )o-ern$ent a)eny #ha((
reord %t# f%nan%a( tran#at%on# and o&erat%on onfor$ab(y *%th )enera((y
ae&ted aount%n) &r%n%&(e# and %n aordane *%th &ert%nent (a*# and
re)u(at%on#.


In -%e* of the fore)o%n) f%nd%n)# of the Aud%tor! the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4
%##ued the Me$orandu$ dated Otober 8! 1"""! *%th the fo((o*%n)
reo$$endat%on8

1.4 Th%# RAS be u&)raded to r%$%na( and ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e# a)a%n#t M#.
E#tandarteD

2.4 2ro-%n%a( Aud%tor Cr%#&%n 2%na)a! Kr. be re'u%red to #ub$%t 3h%#4 Aff%da-%t=#
or #*orn #tate$ent=# %n order to #ub#tant%ate h%# f%nd%n)#. The #a$e %# true
*%th re#&et to the o$&(a%nt#D

>.4 :&on ree%&t of the Aff%da-%t# of 2ro-%n%a( Aud%tor 2%na)a! Kr. and the
o$&(a%nant#! a &re-ent%-e #u#&en#%on order be %##ued a)a%n#t re#&ondent
E#tandarte for a &er%od a# $ay be *arranted under the %ru$#tane! to be
deter$%ned and reo$$ended by the %n-e#t%)ator to *ho$ the ad$%n%#trat%-e
a#e $ay be a##%)nedD and

C.4 RAS.AIS."8.10>0 be on#%dered (o#ed and ter$%nated.
F1CG

The O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 de%ded to refer the ad$%n%#trat%-e a#&et of the
a#e 3OM9.AIS.A0M."".0"C1! ent%t(ed COA Re)%on ?! Off%e of the 2ro-%n%a(
Aud%tor -. ,e%d% E#tandarte@4 to the 0ECS.Re)%on AI for ad$%n%#trat%-e
ad+ud%at%on &ur#uant to Set%on 2>324 of Re&. At No. ?BB0. The o$&(ete reord#
of the a#e *ere for*arded to the 0ECS.Re)%on AI %n a (etter dated No-e$ber 2"!
1""".
F15G

It a&&eared! ho*e-er! that the 0ECS.Re)%on AI d%d not ree%-e th%# referra(
beau#e on 0ee$ber B! 1"""! %t %n'u%red on the #tatu# of RAS.AIS."8.10>0 fro$
the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4.
F1?G
On Marh "! 2000! the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4
%n'u%red about the &ro)re## of the a#e fro$ the 0ECS.Re)%on AI!
F1BG
and *hen %t
d%d not ree%-e an an#*er! %t #ent another (etter.%n'u%ry on Se&te$ber 21! 2000.
F18G
/%na((y! on No-e$ber 22! 2000! the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 ree%-ed a (etter
fro$ the 0ECS.Re)%on AI %nfor$%n) %t that the (atter d%d not ree%-e any referra(
onern%n) the a#e.
F1"G
,ene! the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 a)a%n for*arded the
reord# of the a#e to the 0ECS.Re)%on AI! *h%h ree%-ed the$ on 0ee$ber 2?!
2000.
F20G

The 0ECS.Re)%on AI d%reted the on#o(%dat%on of th%# a#e 3COA
Re)%on ?! Off%e of the 2ro-%n%a( Aud%tor -. ,e%d% E#tandarte4 *%th the a#e
&end%n) before %t 3/au(ty and 0e&art$ent ,ead# of
the Ra$on Torre# Nat%ona( ,%)h Shoo(! 9a)o C%ty -. ,e%d% E#tandarte4.
F21G
Thereafter! the hear%n) of the a#e by the S&e%a( In-e#t%)at%n) Co$$%ttee
re#u$ed.

In -%e* of the referra( to 0ECS.Re)%on AI! the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4
on#%dered OM9.AIS.A0M."".0"C1 (o#ed and ter$%nated %n %t# Me$orandu$
of No-e$ber 2B! 2001.
F22G

In a (etter
F2>G
dated A&r%( 2"! 2002! the /au(ty C(ub re'ue#ted the
O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 to ta5e o-er the a#e for #&eed%er d%#&o#%t%on. M#. Lu%a
Kane ;re%a! a $e$ber of the /au(ty C(ub! a(#o *rote a (etter to the O$bud#$an
3A%#aya#4 o$&(a%n%n) that #he *a# be%n) o&&re##ed by E#tandarte. She (%5e*%#e
re'ue#ted the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 to ta5e o-er the a#e. Con#e'uent(y! on Ku(y
5! 2002! the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 %nfor$ed the 0ECS.Re)%on AI that %t *ou(d
not ob+et %f the a#e %# returned to %t.
F2CG

On Au)u#t 1?! 2002! 0ECS.Re)%on AI turned o-er the reord# of the a#e to
the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 for ad+ud%at%on! #tat%n) that F%Gt %# the %$&re##%on of
th%# Off%e that the o$&(a%nant# %ntend that the%r a#e be heard by the Off%e of the
O$bud#$an and that Off%e had a(#o $an%fe#ted %t# *%((%n)ne## to rea##u$e
+ur%#d%t%on of the #a$e.@
F25G
The a#e *a# do5eted a# OM9.A.A.02.05B2.K.

On No-e$ber ?! 2002! the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 #et the a#e for
&re(%$%nary onferene.
F2?G
In the $eant%$e! E#tandarte f%(ed an :r)ent Mot%on to
Re$and
F2BG
the a#e to the 0ECS.Re)%on AI on the )round that +ur%#d%t%on %#
no* eE(u#%-e(y -e#ted on the (atter. On 0ee$ber 1B! 2002!
the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 den%ed the $ot%on rat%o%nat%n) that %t *a# not barred
fro$ a##u$%n) +ur%#d%t%on o-er the o$&(a%nt after the 0ECS.Re)%on AI had
re(%n'u%#hed %t# +ur%#d%t%on o-er the #a$e.
F28G
E#tandarte f%(ed a $ot%on for
reon#%derat%on of #a%d Order! *h%h *a# (ater den%ed by the O$bud#$an
3A%#aya#4.
F2"G

The &re(%$%nary onferene *a# #et on May 21! 200>. On the #a%d date! on(y
the oun#e( of COA *a# &re#ent. The O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4! therefore! %##ued an
Order #tat%n) that %n -%e* of E#tandarteO# fa%(ure to attend the #hedu(ed hear%n)!
#he %# dee$ed to ha-e *a%-ed her r%)ht to a for$a( %n-e#t%)at%on un(e## #he %# ab(e
to +u#t%fy her ab#ene. In an :r)ent Mot%on for 2o#t&one$ent!
F>0G
E#tandarteO#
oun#e( eE&(a%ned that he *a# due to attend a hear%n) %n another ourt on the
#hedu(ed day of the hear%n). ,e $an%fe#ted that they %ntended to ha((en)e the
O$bud#$anO# order deny%n) the $ot%on to re$and the a#e to the 0ECS.Re)%on
AI throu)h a &et%t%on for certiorari. In %t# Order
F>1G
dated Ku(y 2C! 200>! the
O$bud#$an re#et the &re(%$%nary onferene to Ku(y >0! 200>.

On Ku(y 21! 200>! E#tandarte f%(ed a Mot%on to Su#&end 2roeed%n)# on the
)round that #he f%(ed a &et%t%on for re-%e* on certiorari *%th the CA a##a%(%n) the
order deny%n) her $ot%on to re$and the a#e to the 0ECS.Re)%on AI. The
O$bud#$an den%ed the $ot%on.
F>2G

On Ku(y 2"! 200> E#tandarte f%(ed an :r)ent Mot%on for 2o#t&one$ent
F>>G
of
the hear%n) #hedu(ed the fo((o*%n) day! and a Mot%on for Reon#%derat%on *%th
Mot%on for Ao(untary Inh%b%t%on! a##a%(%n) the den%a( of her $ot%on to #u#&end the
&roeed%n)#. ,o*e-er! due to her fa%(ure to furn%#h the o$&(a%nant# *%th a o&y
of the $ot%on to &o#t&one! the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 &roeeded *%th the
&re(%$%nary onferene *%th on(y the o$&(a%nant# &re#ent. Thereafter! the a#e
*a# #ub$%tted for re#o(ut%on.
F>CG

In a 0e%#%on dated Marh "! 200C! the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 found
E#tandarte )u%(ty of )ra-e $%#ondut! thu#8

6,ERE/ORE! &re$%#e# on#%dered! re#&ondent ,e%d%
E#tandarte! 2r%n%&a(! Ra$on Torre# Nat%ona( ,%)h Shoo(! 9a)o C%ty!
Ne)ro# O%denta(! %# hereby found )u%(ty of ;ra-e M%#ondut! and %#
$eted the &ena(ty of 0%#$%##a( fro$ Ser-%e! *%th &er&etua(
d%#'ua(%f%at%on to ho(d &ub(% off%e and forfe%ture of a(( benef%t# and
ane((at%on of C%-%( Ser-%e e(%)%b%(%t%e#.
F>5G

The O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 he(d that E#tandarteO# fa%(ure to %##ue ree%&t# for
the donat%on# ree%-ed %n -%o(at%on of Set%on# ?>! ?8! and 112 of 2re#%dent%a(
0eree 3204 No. 1CC5! a# *e(( a# the a&&ro&r%at%on for &er#ona( u#e of the
&roeed# fro$ the #a(e of the o(d ne*#&a&er# and the ounter&art ontr%but%on of
the #tudent# for d%&(o$a a#e!@ on#t%tute )ra-e $%#ondut. The at of #ub$%tt%n)
ree%&t# *h%h do not &ro-e that d%#&uted %te$# *ere &urha#ed #u))e#t# that
E#tandarte %# &red%#&o#ed to o$$%t $%#re&re#entat%on.
F>?G

E#tandarte f%(ed a &et%t%on for re-%e* *%th &rayer for the %##uane of a
te$&orary re#tra%n%n) order=*r%t of &re(%$%nary %n+unt%on *%th the CA. She
a((e)ed that the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 -%o(ated her r%)ht to due &roe## *hen her
re'ue#t for a for$a( %n-e#t%)at%on *a# den%edD that the 0ECS.Re)%on AI ha#
+ur%#d%t%on o-er the a#eD and that the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 fa%(ed to at *%th the
o(d neutra(%ty of an %$&art%a( +ud)e.
F>BG

On Se&te$ber 10! 200C! the CA ordered the %##uane of a TRO.
F>8G
It (ater
)ranted E#tandarteO# a&&(%at%on for a *r%t of &re(%$%nary %n+unt%on %n a
Re#o(ut%on
F>"G
datedNo-e$ber 10! 200C.

On Kune 1C! 2005! the CA %##ued the a##a%(ed 0e%#%on )rant%n) the &et%t%on
and re$and%n) the a#e to the S&e%a( In-e#t%)at%n) Co$$%ttee of the 0ECS.
Re)%on AI. The d%#&o#%t%-e &ort%on of the de%#%on read#8

4HERE%ORE! %n -%e* of a(( the fore)o%n) &re$%#e#! +ud)$ent %# hereby
rendered by u# GRANTING the &et%t%on f%(ed %n the a#e at benh! SETTING
ASIDE the de%#%on rendered by the Off%e of the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 on
Marh "! 200C %n OMB656A632637226- and the order %##ued by %t %n the #a$e
a#e on Kune >! 200C and ORDERING the Off%e of the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 to
re$and the reord of OMB65IS6ADM68863841 to the S&e%a( In-e#t%)at%n)
Co$$%ttee of 0ECS.Re)%on AI reated on Ku(y 2?! 1""" for the #a%d o$$%ttee
to ondut further &roeed%n)# there%n *%th ut$o#t d%#&ath and e-entua((y to
#ub$%t %t# f%nd%n)# and reo$$endat%on# to the 0%retor of 2ub(% Shoo(# for the
&ro&er d%#&o#%t%on thereof.

IT IS SO OR0ERE0.
FC0G

The CA he(d that the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 ated *%thout or %n eEe## of
+ur%#d%t%on *hen %t too5 o-er the a#e after %t %##ued a $e$orandu$ on#%der%n)
the a#e (o#ed and ter$%nated and after +ur%#d%t%on had a(ready been -e#ted %n the
S&e%a( In-e#t%)at%n) Co$$%ttee. Suh at -%o(ate# the dotr%ne of &r%$ary
+ur%#d%t%on. One +ur%#d%t%on %# a'u%red by or attahed to a &ro&er %n-e#t%)at%-e
body or a)eny! #uh +ur%#d%t%on ont%nue# unt%( the ter$%nat%on of the a#e.
C%t%n) .abella v. Court o (ppeals
FC1G
and Emin v. de /eon!
FC2G
the CA he(d that Re&.
At No. C?B0 #&e%f%a((y o-er# and )o-ern# ad$%n%#trat%-e &roeed%n)# %n-o(-%n)
&ub(% #hoo( teaher#! and +ur%#d%t%on o-er #uh a#e# %# or%)%na((y and
eE(u#%-e(y (od)ed *%th the In-e#t%)at%n) Co$$%ttee reated &ur#uant to Set%on "
of Re&. At No. C?B0.
FC>G

The a&&e((ate ourt further he(d that! a##u$%n) the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4
ha# +ur%#d%t%on! the a##a%(ed de%#%on and order *ou(d ha-e to be #et a#%de beau#e
E#tandarte *a# den%ed her r%)ht to #ub#tant%-e and &roedura( due &roe##. It
&o%nted out that #he *a# den%ed the r%)ht to a for$a( %n-e#t%)at%on and the
o&&ortun%ty to be heard. /o((o*%n) the CourtO# ru(%n) %n !apiador v. #ice o the
#mbudsman!
FCCG
the CA he(d that the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 ha# no author%ty to
d%ret(y %$&o#e the &ena(ty of d%#$%##a( on tho#e *ho are the #ub+et of %t#
%n-e#t%)at%on beau#e %t# &o*er %# $ere(y reo$$endatory.
FC5G

The O$bud#$an! no* &et%t%oner! #ub$%t# the fo((o*%n) %##ue#8

I.

T,E O//ICE O/ T,E OM9:0SMAN ,AS /:LL A0MINISTRATIAE
0ISCI2LINAR7 K:RIS0ICTION OAER 2:9LIC O//ICIALS AN0
EM2LO7EES :N0ER ITS A:T,ORIT7! INCL:0IN; T,E LESSER
2O6ER TO EN/ORCE T,E SANCTIONS M2OSE0 ON ERRIN;
/:NCTIONARIES! 2:9LIC SC,OOL TEAC,ERS INCL:0E0.
II.

T,E RELIANCE 97 T,E ,ONORA9LE CO:RT O/ A22EALS ON
T,E #%'!E) $'C!,0 IN TA2IA0OR AS. O//ICE O/ T,E OM9:0SMAN!
>B" SCRA >22 320024 0IS2OSSESIN; T,E OM9:0SMAN O/ ITS
0ISCI2LINAR7 A:T,ORIT7! CONSTIT:TES A ;RAAE ERROR
CONSI0ERIN; T,AT8 T,E 2O6ER O/ T,E OM9:0SMAN TO
IM2LEMENT ITS K:0;MENTS ,AS ALREA07 9EEN SETTLE0 97 NO
LESS T,AN T,E ,ONORA9LE CO:RT IN T,E CASE O/ LE0ESMA FAS.G
CO:RT O/ A22EALS! ET AL.! C?5 SCRA C>B 320054! AN0 /:RT,ER
A//IRME0 IN T,E CASE O/ O//ICE O/ T,E OM9:0SMAN AS. CO:RT
O/ A22EALS! ET AL.! ;.R. NO. 1?0?B5! 2ROM:L;ATE0 ON 1? K:NE 200?.

III.

T,E O//ICE O/ T,E OM9:0SMAN 0I0 NOT COMMIT AN7
REAERSI9LE ERROR 6,EN IT TOOM OAER T,E A0MINISTRATIAE
A0K:0ICATION O/ T,E 0ISCI2LINAR7 CASE A;AINST 2RIAATE
RES2ON0ENT ESTAN0ARTE. AS IN 2OINT O/ LA6 IT ACJ:IRE0
K:RIS0ICTION OAER T,E SAI0 CASE 6,EN T,E 0E2ARTMENT O/
E0:CATION RE/ERRE0 T,E SAME TO T,E OM9:0SMAN.

IA.

CONTRAR7 TO T,E /IN0IN;S O/ T,E A22ELLATE CO:RT! 2RIAATE
RES2ON0ENT ESTAN0ARTE 6AS NOT 0ENIE0 S:9STANTIAE AN0
2ROCE0:RAL 0:E F2ROCESSG! AN0 NEIT,ER 6AS T,E
A0MINISTRATIAE 2ROCEE0IN; A;AINST ,ER TAINTE0 6IT, AN7
IRRE;:LARIT7! AS IN /ACT T,E OM9:0SMAN A//OR0E0 ,ER 0:E
2ROCESS.

A.

S:9STANTIAL EAI0ENCE E<ISTS TO S:22ORT T,E /IN0IN;S O/
;:ILT O/ 2RIAATE RES2ON0ENT ESTAN0ARTE 6,IC, 6ARRANTS
T,E IM2OSITION ON ,ER O/ T,E A0MINISTRATIAE 2ENALT7 O/
0ISMISSAL /ROM T,E SERAICE.
FC?G


2et%t%oner ontend# that the CA erred %n ho(d%n) that %t %# bereft of the
author%ty to d%ret(y %$&o#e on the re#&ondent the #ant%on of d%#$%##a( fro$
#er-%e. It #tre##e# that %t ha# fu(( and o$&(ete ad$%n%#trat%-e d%#%&(%nary
+ur%#d%t%on o-er &ub(% #hoo( teaher#. It &o%nt# out that /edesma v. Court o
(ppeals
FCBG
a(ready de(ared that the ru(%n) %n the!apiador a#e! that the
O$bud#$an ha# no author%ty to d%ret(y d%#$%## an e$&(oyee fro$ )o-ern$ent
#er-%e! %# $ere(y an obiter dictum. Therefore! %t ha# the author%ty to deter$%ne the
ad$%n%#trat%-e (%ab%(%ty of a &ub(% off%%a( or e$&(oyee! and d%ret and o$&e( the
head of off%e and a)eny onerned to %$&(e$ent the &ena(ty %$&o#ed.
FC8G

2et%t%oner #ub$%t# that %t ha# onurrent d%#%&(%nary +ur%#d%t%on *%th the
0ECS o-er the ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e a)a%n#t the re#&ondent. Kur%#d%t%on o-er the
#a%d a#e %# not eE(u#%-e to the 0ECS! a# the re#&ondent %# a &ub(% off%%a( and
the offen#e har)ed &erta%n# to the &erfor$ane of her off%%a( funt%on#.
Con#e'uent(y! there %# no bar for %t to ta5e o)n%Pane of the a#e after the 0ECS
referred %t for ad$%n%#trat%-e ad+ud%at%on.
FC"G

2et%t%oner further a-er# that the .abella a#e %# not a&&(%ab(e to the &re#ent
a#e beau#e %t doe# not %n-o(-e an %##ue of %((e)a( on#t%tut%on of any %n-e#t%)at%n)
o$$%ttee. Re&. At No. C?B0 &ro-%de# for the ad$%n%#trat%-e d%#%&(%nary
&roedure %n a#e# %n-o(-%n) &ub(% #hoo( teaher# *here the a#e %# f%(ed *%th the
0ECS.
F50G

2et%t%oner ontend# that the re#&ondent *a# )%-en a$&(e o&&ortun%t%e# to
rebut the har)e# and defend her#e(f fro$ the ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e f%(ed a)a%n#t her.
9y her fa%(ure to o$&(y *%th the order to #ub$%t a &o#%t%on &a&er! #ub$%tt%n)
%n#tead fr%-o(ou# $ot%on# that de(ayed the &roeed%n)#! re#&ondent *a# dee$ed to
ha-e *a%-ed her r%)ht to a for$a( %n-e#t%)at%on. 2et%t%oner &o%nt# out that
re#&ondent o&ted for a for$a( %n-e#t%)at%on on(y *hen the a#e *a# #ub$%tted for
re#o(ut%on.
F51G

/%na((y! &et%t%oner $a%nta%n# that %t# f%nd%n) %# ba#ed on $ore than #ub#tant%a(
e-%dene. /atua( f%nd%n)# of ad$%n%#trat%-e and 'ua#%.+ud%%a( a)en%e# are
)enera((y aorded not on(y re#&et but at a(( t%$e# f%na(%ty.
F52G

Re#&ondent! for her &art! ar)ue# that &et%t%oner annot d%-e#t the 0ECS of %t#
+ur%#d%t%on o-er the ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e beau#e one +ur%#d%t%on attahe#! %t
ont%nue# unt%( the ter$%nat%on of the a#e.@ She &o#%t# that *hen the 0ECS
a##u$ed +ur%#d%t%on o-er the a#e! the &et%t%oner *a# effet%-e(y &re(uded fro$
a##u$%n) the #a$e +ur%#d%t%on.
F5>G

The &%-ota( %##ue %n th%# &et%t%on %# *hether or not the 0ECS ha# eE(u#%-e
+ur%#d%t%on o-er the a#e.

The &et%t%on ha# no $er%t.

The +ur%#d%t%on of the O$bud#$an o-er d%#%&(%nary a#e# a)a%n#t
)o-ern$ent e$&(oyee#! *h%h %n(ude# &ub(% #hoo( teaher#! %# -e#ted by no (e##
than Set%on 12! Art%(e <I of the Con#t%tut%on *h%h #tate#U


Se. 12. The O$bud#$an and h%# 0e&ut%e#! a# &rotetor# of the &eo&(e!
#ha(( at &ro$&t(y on o$&(a%nt# f%(ed %n any for$ or $anner a)a%n#t &ub(%
off%%a(# or e$&(oyee# of the ;o-ern$ent! or any #ubd%-%#%on! a)eny or
%n#tru$enta(%ty thereof! %n(ud%n) )o-ern$ent.o*ned or ontro((ed or&orat%on#!
and #ha((! %n a&&ro&r%ate a#e#! not%fy the o$&(a%nant# of the at%on ta5en and the
re#u(t thereof.
F5CG

In a a#e of reent -%nta)e! the Court he(d that the O$bud#$an ha# fu((
ad$%n%#trat%-e d%#%&(%nary author%ty o-er &ub(% off%%a(# and e$&(oyee# of the
)o-ern$ent! thu#8

A(( the#e &ro-%#%on# %n Re&ub(% At No. ?BB0 ta5en to)ether re-ea( the
$an%fe#t %ntent of the (a*$a5er# to be#to* on the Off%e of the
O$bud#$an ull ad$%n%#trat%-e d%#%&(%nary author%ty. The#e &ro-%#%on# o-er the
ent%re )a$ut of ad$%n%#trat%-e ad+ud%at%on *h%h enta%(# the author%ty to! inter
alia! ree%-e o$&(a%nt#! ondut %n-e#t%)at%on#! ho(d hear%n)# %n aordane *%th
%t# ru(e# of &roedure! #u$$on *%tne##e# and re'u%re the &rodut%on of
dou$ent#! &(ae under &re-ent%-e #u#&en#%on &ub(% off%er# and e$&(oyee#
&end%n) an %n-e#t%)at%on! deter$%ne the a&&ro&r%ate &ena(ty %$&o#ab(e on err%n)
&ub(% off%er# or e$&(oyee# a# *arranted by the e-%dene! and nee##ar%(y!
%$&o#e the #a%d &ena(ty.
F55G


,o*e-er! Set%on " of Re&. At No. C?B0! other*%#e 5no*n a# the Ma)na
Carta for 2ub(% Shoo( Teaher#! &ro-%de# that8

Set%on ". (dministrative Charges. U Ad$%n%#trat%-e har)e# a)a%n#t a
teaher #ha(( be heard %n%t%a((y by a o$$%ttee o$&o#ed of the orre#&ond%n)
Shoo( Su&er%ntendent of the 0%-%#%on or a du(y author%Ped re&re#entat%-e *ho
*ou(d at (ea#t ha-e the ran5 of a d%-%#%on #u&er-%#or! *here the teaher be(on)#!
a# ha%r$an! a re&re#entat%-e of the (oa( or! %n %t# ab#ene! any eE%#t%n) &ro-%n%a(
or nat%ona( teaherO# or)an%Pat%on and a #u&er-%#or of the 0%-%#%on! the (a#t t*o to
be de#%)nated by the 0%retor of 2ub(% Shoo(#. The o$$%ttee #ha(( #ub$%t %t#
f%nd%n)#! and reo$$endat%on# to the 0%retor of 2ub(% Shoo(# *%th%n th%rty
day# fro$ the ter$%nat%on of the hear%n)#8 2ro-%ded! ho*e-er! That! *here the
#hoo( #u&er%ntendent %# the o$&(a%nant or an %ntere#ted &arty! a(( the $e$ber# of
the o$$%ttee #ha(( be a&&o%nted by the Seretary of Eduat%on.

In .abella v. Court o (ppeals!
F5?G
the Court ru(ed that Set%on " of Re&. At
No. C?B0 ref(et# the (e)%#(at%-e %ntent to %$&o#e a #tandard and a #e&arate #et of
&roedura( re'u%re$ent# %n onnet%on *%th ad$%n%#trat%-e &roeed%n)# %n-o(-%n)
&ub(% #hoo( teaher#. And %n (lcala v. "illar!
F5BG
th%# Court e$&ha#%Ped that8

Re&ub(% At No. ?BB0! the O$bud#$an At of 1"8"! &ro-%de# that the
Off%e of the O$bud#$an #ha(( ha-e d%#%&(%nary author%ty o-er a(( e(et%-e and
a&&o%nt%-e off%%a(# of the ;o-ern$ent and %t# #ubd%-%#%on#! %n#tru$enta(%t%e# and
a)en%e#! %n(ud%n) $e$ber# of the Cab%net! (oa( )o-ern$ent! )o-ern$ent.
o*ned or ontro((ed or&orat%on# and the%r #ub#%d%ar%e# eEe&t o-er off%%a(# *ho
$ay be re$o-ed by %$&eah$ent or o-er Me$ber# of Con)re##! and the
Kud%%ary. ,o*e-er! %n .abella v. Court o (ppeals! %t *a# he(d that R.A. No.
C?B0! the Ma)na Carta for 2ub(% Shoo( Teaher#!+!"#0#"a$$9 "o*!'+ and
/o*!'n+ ad:#n#+('a(#*! 'o"!!d#n/+ #n*o$*#n/ public school teachers.
F58G

:ndoubted(y! the 0ECS.Re)%on AI f%r#t a##u$ed +ur%#d%t%on o-er the
ad$%n%#trat%-e o$&(a%nt a)a%n#t the re#&ondent. It #hou(d be rea((ed that *hen
2eo&(eO# ;raft*ath for*arded the o$&(a%nt to the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4! the
(atter treated %t a# a re'ue#t for a##%#tane and referred %t to the 0ECS.Re)%on AI
and COA for a&&ro&r%ate at%on. After %t had re#o(-ed to u&)rade the $atter to an
ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e! the O$bud#$an de%ded not to ta5e o)n%Pane of the #a$e
and refer %t! %n#tead! to the 0ECS.Re)%on AI &ur#uant to Set%on 2>324 of R.A.
?BB0 *h%h &ro-%de#8

Set%on 2>. .ormal 'nvestigation.U

E E E E

324 At %t# o&t%on! the Off%e of the O$bud#$an $ay refer erta%n
o$&(a%nt# to the &ro&er d%#%&(%nary author%ty 0o' ()! #n+(#(&(#on o0 a'o'#a(!
ad:#n#+('a(#*! 'o"!!d#n/+ a)a%n#t err%n) &ub(% off%er# or e$&(oyee#! *h%h
#ha(( be ter$%nated *%th%n the &er%od &re#r%bed %n the %-%( #er-%e (a*. Any de(ay
*%thout +u#t au#e %n at%n) on any referra( $ade by the Off%e of the O$bud#$an
#ha(( be a )round for ad$%n%#trat%-e at%on a)a%n#t the off%er# or e$&(oyee# to
*ho$ #uh referra(# are addre##ed and #ha(( on#t%tute a )raft offen#e &un%#hab(e
by a f%ne of not eEeed%n) f%-e thou#and 325!000.004. 3E$&ha#%# #u&&(%ed.4

6e do not a)ree *%th &et%t%onerO# ontent%on that %t ou(d a##u$e +ur%#d%t%on
o-er the ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e after the 0ECS.Re)%on AI had -o(untar%(y
re(%n'u%#hed %t# +ur%#d%t%on o-er the #a$e %n fa-or of the &et%t%oner. Kur%#d%t%on %#
a $atter of (a*. Kur%#d%t%on one a'u%red %# not (o#t u&on the %n#tane of the
&art%e# but ont%nue# unt%( the a#e %# ter$%nated.
F5"G
6hen the o$&(a%nant# f%(ed
the%r for$a( o$&(a%nt *%th the 0ECS.Re)%on AI! +ur%#d%t%on *a# -e#ted on the
(atter. It annot no* be tran#ferred to &et%t%oner u&on the %n#tane of the
o$&(a%nant#! e-en *%th the a'u%e#ene of the 0ECS and &et%t%oner.

Nonethe(e##! e-en %f *e ho(d that the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 had onurrent
+ur%#d%t%on o-er the ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e! *e *ou(d #t%(( #u#ta%n the 0ECSO
author%ty to de%de the ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e. In one a#e! the Court &ronouned that
U

In any e-ent! #%ne 6e are not dea(%n) *%th +ur%#d%t%on but $a%n(y *%th
-enue! on#%der%n) both ourt onerned do ha-e +ur%#d%t%on o-er the au#e of
at%on of the &art%e# here%n a)a%n#t eah other!()! ;!((!' '&$! #n ()! !*!n( o0
"on0$#"( ;!(<!!n (<o "o&'(+ o0 "on"&''!n( =&'#+d#"(#on a+ #n ()! '!+!n( "a+!,
#+ (o a$$o< ()! $#(#/a(#on (o ;! ('#!d and d!"#d!d ;9 ()! "o&'( <)#"), &nd!' ()!
"#'"&:+(an"!+ o;(a#n#n/ #n ()! "on('o*!'+9, <o&$d, #n ()! :#nd o0 ()#+ Co&'(,
;! #n a ;!((!' o+#(#on
(o +!'*! ()! #n(!'!+(+ o0 =&+(#"!, "on+#d!'#n/ ()! na(&'! o0 ()!
"on('o*!'+9, ()! "o:a'a(#*! a""!++#;#$#(9 o0 ()! "o&'( (o ()! a'(#!+, )a*#n/
#n *#!< ()!#' !"&$#a' o+#(#on+ and "aa;#$#(#!+, and o()!' +#:#$a' 0a"(o'+. E E
E E
F?0G


Con#%der%n) that the re#&ondent %# a &ub(% #hoo( teaher *ho %# o-ered by
the &ro-%#%on# of Re&. At No. C?B0! the Ma)na Carta for 2ub(% Shoo( Teaher#!
the 0ECS.Re)%on AI %# %n a better &o#%t%on to de%de the $atter. Moreo-er! the
0ECS ha# a(ready o$$ened &roeed%n)# o-er the ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e by
on#t%tut%n) the S&e%a( In-e#t%)at%n) Co$$%ttee &ur#uant to Set%on " of Re&. At
No. C?B0.

6e are not un$%ndfu( of the CourtO# ru(%n) %n Emin v. $e /eon
F?1G
re%terated
%n (lcala v. "illar!
F?2G
that a &arty $ay be e#to&&ed fro$ a##a%(%n) the +ur%#d%t%on of
the 0ECS8

A# he(d &re-%ou#(y! &art%%&at%on by &art%e# %n the ad$%n%#trat%-e
&roeed%n)# *%thout ra%#%n) any ob+et%on thereto bar# the$ fro$ ra%#%n) any
+ur%#d%t%ona( %nf%r$%ty after an ad-er#e de%#%on %# rendered a)a%n#t the$. In the
a#e at bar! &et%t%oner ra%#ed the %##ue of (a5 of +ur%#d%t%on for the f%r#t t%$e %n h%#
a$ended &et%t%on for re-%e* before the CA. ,e d%d not ra%#e th%# $atter %n h%#
Mot%on to 0%#$%## f%(ed before the CSC Re)%ona( Off%e. Notab(y! %n h%# Counter.
Aff%da-%t! he h%$#e(f %n-o5ed the +ur%#d%t%on of the Co$$%##%on by #tat%n) that
he *a# o&en to further %n-e#t%)at%on by the CSC to br%n) (%)ht to the $atter@ and
by further &ray%n) for any re$edy or +ud)$ent *h%h under the &re$%#e# are +u#t
and e'u%tab(e. It %# an unde#%rab(e &rat%e of a &arty &art%%&at%n) %n the
&roeed%n)#! #ub$%tt%n) h%# a#e for de%#%on! and then ae&t%n) the +ud)$ent
on(y %f fa-orab(e! but atta5%n) %t for (a5 of +ur%#d%t%on! *hen ad-er#e.
F?>G


,o*e-er! the ru(%n)# of the Court %n (lcala and de /eon are not a&&(%ab(e
%n th%# a#e. /ro$ the -ery #tart! re#&ondent on#%#tent(y &rote#ted the referra( of
the a#e ba5 to the O$bud#$an! and de$anded that the #a$e be re$anded to the
0ECS. She refu#ed to &art%%&ate %n the &roeed%n)# before the O$bud#$an
&re%#e(y beau#e #he be(%e-ed that +ur%#d%t%on *a# a(ready -e#ted on the 0ECS.
Re)%on AI. ,ene! #he f%(ed
%n#tead a $ot%on to re$and the a#e to the 0ECS.Re)%on AI and $ot%on# to
&o#t&one or #u#&end the &roeed%n)#. On the other hand! *hat *a# #tr%5%n) %n
the Emin and (lcalaa#e# *a# that the re#&ondent there%n at%-e(y &art%%&ated %n
the &roeed%n)# before the other tr%buna(.

4HERE%ORE, &re$%#e# on#%dered! the &et%t%on %# DENIED. The
0e%#%on of the Court of A&&ea(# dated Kune 1C! 2005 %# A%%IRMED.

SO ORDERED.
O%%ICE O% THE OMBUDSMAN, G.R. No. 161211
2et%t%oner!
2re#ent8

2AN;ANI9AN! C.J.!
2:NO!
J:IS:M9IN;!
7NARES.SANTIA;O!
- versus - SAN0OAAL.;:TIERREH!
CAR2IO!
A:STRIA.MARTINEH!
CORONA!
CAR2IO MORALES!
CALLEKO! SR.!
AHC:NA!
%ARIDA T. LUCERO and TIN;A!
COURT O% APPEALS C,ICO.NAHARIO!
(C!;& C#(9,, ;ARCIA! and
Re#&ondent#. AELASCO! KR.! JJ.

2ro$u()ated8

No-e$ber 2C! 200?

E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E


D E C I S I O N

CALLE-O, SR., J..


9efore the Court %# a 2et%t%on for Re-%e* under Ru(e C5 of the Ru(e# of
Court of the 0e%#%on
F1G
of the Court of A&&ea(# 3CA4 %n CA.;.R. S2 No. 8>>5?
re-er#%n) the de%#%on of the O$bud#$an %n OM9 A.A.02.025C./! *h%h ordered
re#&ondent /ar%da T. Luero d%#$%##ed fro$ the #er-%e for d%#hone#ty.

A# u((ed by the CA fro$ the reord# of the a#e! the anteedent# are a#
fo((o*#8
2et%t%oner /ar%da T. Luero *a# a&&o%nted on No-e$ber 18! 1""" a# C(er5
II of the Land Tran#&ortat%on Off%e! Re)%ona( Off%e No. AII! and *a# a##%)ned
at the Ch%ef /%nane 0%-%#%on %n order to au)$ent the &er#onne( o$&(e$ent
thereat. In a Me$orandu$ dated No-e$ber 18! 1""" *h%h *a# %##ued by
Re)%ona( 0%retor I#abe(o M. A&or! #he *a# (%5e*%#e d%reted to a##%#t the
Re)%ona( Ca#h%er %n o((et%n) and ree%-%n) $%#e((aneou# fee#=re-enue#.

On Se&te$ber 2"! 2000! then OIC.
Re)%ona( 0%retor 2orfer%o I. MendoPa of the LTO! Re)%ona( Off%e No.
AII! Cebu C%ty re'ue#ted COA to ondut an aud%t %n the Ca#h Set%on of the
O&erat%on# 0%-%#%on of the%r off%e %n order to deter$%ne the eEtent of
$a(-er#at%on of fund# +u#t d%#o-ered o-er%n) the &er%od fro$ No-e$ber 18!
1""" u& to Se&te$ber >0! 2000.

At%n) on the #a%d re'ue#t! on Otober 2! 2000! an aud%t *a# onduted by
State Aud%tor Nora 9. T%u! at the Ca#h Set%on of the O&erat%on# 0%-%#%on of LTO
Re)%ona( Off%e No. AII *here the 2et%t%oner *a# a##%)ned.

After ondut%n) her aud%t! State Aud%tor Nora 9. T%u &re&ared an Aud%t
Ob#er-at%on Me$orandu$ re-ea(%n) 2et%t%oner to ha-e %##ued #%Ety.n%ne 3?"4
a(tered $%#e((aneou# ree%&t#. The afore#a%d Aud%t Ob#er-at%on Me$orandu$
#tate#! %n &art! the fo((o*%n)8

E E E *here%n the du&(%ate o&%e# of #a%d $%#e((aneou# ree%&t# on
f%(e *%th the &roe##or=o$&uter d%d not ta((y *%th the o&%e# of the
$%#e((aneou# ree%&t# on f%(e *%th the aud%tor. The $%#e((aneou#
ree%&t# attahed to the #u&&ort%n) dou$ent# on f%(e at the off%e of the
Re)%ona( 0%retor ref(eted (e##er a$ount#! thereby ab#trat%n) the
d%fferene tota(%n) 2C?!C00.00.@

A# a on#e'uene thereof! a Not%e of Char)e! NC No. 00.001.101 3004
dated No-e$ber 1C! 2000! *a# %##ued by the COA! LTO Re)%on No. AII! ree%&t
of *h%h *a# a5no*(ed)ed by the for$er Re)%ona( 0%retor# I#abe(o M. A&or
and 2orfer%o I. MendoPa of the Land Tran#&ortat%on Off%e.

Thereafter! an ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e for d%#hone#ty *a# f%(ed a)a%n#t the
2et%t%oner %n the Off%e of the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4.

On Ku(y 18! 2002! 2et%t%oner f%(ed her Counter.Aff%da-%t deny%n) the
har)e#. She (a%$ed the ab#ene of (e)a( author%ty on her &art to ree%-e a#h
o((et%on# %n beha(f of the a)eny or to %##ue off%%a( ree%&t# for $%#e((aneou#
fee#=re-enue# of the LTO. She a((e)ed that #he *a# not )%-en any off%%a(
de#%)nat%on to a##%#t the a#h%er %n the o((et%on and ree%&t of the $%#e((aneou#
%no$e#=fee#. 2et%t%oner further a-erred that the %##uane of the Me$orandu$!
dated No-e$ber 18! 1"""! &ur&orted(y a##%)n%n) her to a##%#t the a#h%er *a# a
$ere afterthou)ht and #a%d Me$orandu$ *a# antedated to +%be *%th the
&o#tu(at%on that #he *a# author%Ped to ree%-e the o((et%on# %n beha(f of the LTO
fro$ the #tart of her a##u$&t%on %nto off%e on No-e$ber 18! 1""".

On Ku(y 20! 200>! the Off%e of the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 rendered %t#
0e%#%on f%nd%n) the 2et%t%oner )u%(ty of d%#hone#ty. The d%#&o#%t%-e &ort%on of the
#a%d 0e%#%on read# a# fo((o*#8

6,ERE/ORE! &re$%#e# on#%dered! re#&ondent had (ear(y
o$$%tted 0IS,ONEST7 u&on *h%h a &ena(ty of 0ISMISSAL fro$
the #er-%e *%th the ae##ory &ena(t%e# of /OR/EIT:RE O/ ALL
9ENE/ITS and 0ISJ:ALI/ICATON TO ,OL0 2:9LIC O//ICE IS
,ERE97 IM2OSE0.

2et%t%oner #ou)ht reon#%derat%on of the afore'uoted 0e%#%on! but the
Off%e of the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 den%ed %t on Kanuary 2?! 200C.

A))r%e-ed *%th the afore#a%d 0e%#%on and Order of the Re#&ondent
Off%e of the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4! the 2et%t%oner f%(ed %n th%# Court a 2et%t%on
for Re-%e* thereof.

The )round# #et forth by the 2et%t%oner %n her &et%t%on are a# fo((o*#8

I

T,ERE IS NO S://ICIENT EAI0ENCE TO ESTA9LIS, T,AT S,E
IS ;:ILT7 O/ 0IS,ONEST7.

II

T,E RES2ON0ENT O//ICE O/ T,E OM9:0SMAN 3AISA7AS4
,AS NO 2O6ER TO 0IRECTL7 0ISMISS ,ER /ROM T,E
SERAICE.
F2G


In %t# 0e%#%on
F>G
dated Kune 15! 2005! the a&&e((ate ourt u&he(d the f%nd%n)
of the O$bud#$an and found &et%t%oner )u%(ty of d%#hone#ty. ,o*e-er! the CA
de(ared that the O$bud#$an had no author%ty to order &et%t%onerO# d%#$%##a( fro$
the #er-%e %n aordane *%th the ru(%n) %n !apiador v. #ice o the #mbudsman.
FCG


The d%#&o#%t%-e &ort%on of the 0e%#%on read#8

6,ERE/ORE! %n -%e* of the fore)o%n) &re$%#e#! +ud)$ent %# hereby
rendered by u# SETTIN; ASI0E the 0e%#%on dated Ku(y 20! 200> and the Order
dated Kanuary 2?! 200C rendered and %##ued by the Re#&ondent Off%e of the
O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 %n OM9.AIS.A.02.025C./ but on(y %n#ofar a# #a%d off%e
d%ret(y %$&o#e# u&on the 2et%t%oner the &ena(ty of d%#$%##a( fro$ the #er-%e. The
#a%d off%e $ay reo$$end #uh &ena(ty to the &ro&er d%#%&(%n%n) author%ty.

SO OR0ERE0.
F5G


The O$bud#$an f%(ed a $ot%on for &art%a( reon#%derat%on! *h%h the CA
den%ed.

Thu#! &et%t%oner Re&ub(% of the 2h%(%&&%ne# f%(ed the %n#tant &et%t%on for and
%n beha(f of the O$bud#$an #ee5%n) the re-er#a( of the CA ru(%n). It ar)ue# that8
I

T,E O//ICE O/ T,E OM9:0SMAN ,AS /:LL A0MINISTRATIAE
0ISCI2LINAR7 K:RIS0ICTION OAER 2:9LIC O//ICIALS AN0
EM2LO7EES :N0ER ITS A:T,ORIT7! INCL:0IN; T,E LESSER
2O6ER TO EN/ORCE T,E SANCTIONS IM2OSE0 ON ERRIN;
/:NCTIONARIES.

II

T,E RELIANCE 97 T,E ,ONORA9LE CO:RT O/ A22EALS ON
T,E #%'!E) $'C!,0 IN !(P'($#) "S. #..'CE #. !*E #0%,$S0(&!
>B" SCRA >22 320024 0IS2OSSESSIN; T,E OM9:0SMAN O/ ITS
0ISCI2LINAR7 A:T,ORIT7! CONSTIT:TES A ;RAAE AN0 2AL2A9LE
ERROR O/ LA6 CONSI0ERIN; T,AT8

A. S:C, A 2ASSIN; STATEMENT M:ST 9E INTER2RETE0 TO
MEAN T,AT T,E OM9:0SMAN CANNOT 0IRECTL7@
IM2LEMENT ITS A0MINISTRATIAE 0ECISIONSD

9. S:C, STATEMENT IS AN0 ,AS REMAINE0 AN #%'!E)
$'C!,0 6,IC, 0OES NOT ,AAE T,E STAT:S O/ A LE;AL
0OCTRINE AN0

C. T,E 2O6ER O/ T,E OM9:0SMAN TO IM2LEMENT ITS
K:0;MENTS ,AS 9EEN A//IRME0 IN /E$ES0( "S. C#,)! #.
(PPE(/S, ;.R. NO. 1?1?2"! 2" K:L7 2005.
F?G


2et%t%oner $a%nta%n# that the a&&e((ate ourt erred %n re(y%n) on the obiter
dictum of th%# Court %n !apiador. 2et%t%oner a##ert# that under Set%on 1>! Art%(e
<I of the Con#t%tut%on! and Set%on# 1>! 153>4! 1?! 1"! 21 and 25 of Re&ub(% At
No. ?BB0! the O$bud#$an %# e$&o*ered to order the d%#$%##a( of a&&o%nt%-e
)o-ern$ent e$&(oyee# %n ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e#. 2et%t%oner further a##ert# that %t
behoo-ed the CA to re(y on the def%n%t%-e ru(%n) of th%# Court %n /edesma v. Court
o (ppeals.
FBG

In her Co$$ent on the &et%t%on! re#&ondent ounter# that! under the
Con#t%tut%on! the O$bud#$an an on(y reo$$end the re$o-a( of a &ub(% off%er
or e$&(oyee found to be at fau(t. She %n#%#t# further that there %# no #ub#tant%a(
ba#%# for de(ar%n) her (%ab(e for d%#hone#ty.

The thre#ho(d %##ue# for re#o(ut%on are a# fo((o*#8 314 *hether the
O$bud#$an %# e$&o*ered to order the re$o-a( of &ub(% off%%a(# or e$&(oyee# %n
ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e#D and 324 *hether there %# #uff%%ent e-%dene to ho(d
re#&ondent (%ab(e for d%#hone#ty.

On the f%r#t %##ue! *e a)ree *%th &et%t%onerO# ontent%on that the a&&e((ate
ourt erred %n re(y%n) on the obiter dictum of the Court %n !apiador.
F8G
A# the Court
had the oa#%on to #tate %n /edesma v. Court o (ppeals8
F"G
/or the%r &art! the So(%%tor ;enera( and the Off%e of the O$bud#$an
ar)ue that the *ord recommend@ $u#t be ta5en %n on+unt%on *%th the &hra#e
and ensure compliance there-ith.@ The &ro&er %nter&retat%on of the CourtO#
#tate$ent %n !apiador #hou(d be that the O$bud#$an ha# the author%ty to
deter$%ne the ad$%n%#trat%-e (%ab%(%ty of a &ub(% off%%a( or e$&(oyee at fau(t! and
d%ret and o$&e( the head of the off%e or a)eny onerned to %$&(e$ent the
&ena(ty %$&o#ed. In other *ord#! %t $ere(y onern# the procedural a#&et of the
O$bud#$anO# funt%on# and not %t# 3urisdiction.
6e a)ree *%th the rat%o%nat%on of &ub(% re#&ondent#. Se-era( rea#on#
$%(%tate a)a%n#t a (%tera( %nter&retat%on of the #ub+et on#t%tut%ona(
&ro-%#%on. /%r#t(y! a ur#ory read%n) of !apiador re-ea(# that the $a%n &o%nt of the
a#e *a# the fa%(ure of the o$&(a%nant there%n to &re#ent #ub#tant%a( e-%dene to
&ro-e the har)e# of the ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e. The #tate$ent that $ade referene to
the &o*er of the O$bud#$an %#! at be#t! $ere(y an obiter dictum and! a# %t %#
un#u&&orted by #uff%%ent eE&(anat%on! %# #u#e&t%b(e to -ary%n) %nter&retat%on#! a#
*hat &re%#e(y %# before u# %n th%# a#e. ,ene! %t annot be %ted a# a dotr%na(
de(arat%on of th%# Court nor %# %t #afe fro$ +ud%%a( eEa$%nat%on.


The %##ue ra%#ed %n th%# Court ha# a(ready been re#o(-ed %n #ice o the
#mbudsman v. Court o (ppeals.
F10G
In that a#e! the Court de(ared that %n the
eEer%#e of %t# ad$%n%#trat%-e d%#%&(%nary author%ty under Set%on 12! Art%(e <I of
the 1"8B Con#t%tut%on and Re&ub(% At No. ?BB0! the Off%e of the O$bud#$an %#
e$&o*ered not $ere(y to reo$$end! but to %$&o#e the &ena(ty of re$o-a(!
#u#&en#%on! de$ot%on! f%ne! en#ure! or &ro#eut%on of a &ub(% off%er or e$&(oyee
found to be at fau(t. The Court #tated that th%# *a# the $an%fe#t %ntent of the
(e)%#(ature8

A(( the#e &ro-%#%on# %n Re&ub(% At No. ?BB0 ta5en to)ether re-ea( the
$an%fe#t %ntent of the (a*$a5er# to be#to* on the Off%e of the
O$bud#$an ull ad$%n%#trat%-e d%#%&(%nary author%ty. The#e &ro-%#%on# o-er the
ent%re )a$ut of ad$%n%#trat%-e ad+ud%at%on *h%h enta%(# the author%ty to! inter
alia, ree%-e o$&(a%nt#! ondut %n-e#t%)at%on#! ho(d hear%n)# %n aordane
*%th %t# ru(e# of &roedure! #u$$on *%tne##e# and re'u%re the &rodut%on of
dou$ent#! &(ae under &re-ent%-e #u#&en#%on &ub(% off%er# and e$&(oyee#
&end%n) an %n-e#t%)at%on! deter$%ne the a&&ro&r%ate &ena(ty %$&o#ab(e on err%n)
&ub(% off%er# or e$&(oyee# a# *arranted by the e-%dene! and! nee##ar%(y!
%$&o#e the #a%d &ena(ty.

The eE&(anat%on of Senator Ed)ardo An)ara! one of the #&on#or# of Senate
9%(( No. 5>C *h%h! a# on#o(%dated *%th ,ou#e 9%(( No. 1>?C?! bea$e RA ?BB0!
%# %n#trut%-e8

S!na(o' La&'!$. 9eau#e! Mr. 2re#%dent! %n the (%)ht of another #et%on
of the b%((! *%th re#&et to Set%on 1>! d%#%&(%nary author%ty! f%r#t! the
O$bud#$an here %# )ranted the &o*er of d%#%&(%n%n) &ub(% off%er# and
e$&(oyee#! *h%(e other bod%e# $ay not be #o author%PedD #eond! the
Con#t%tut%on %t#e(f e$&o*er# the Off%e of the O$bud#$an $ere(y to
%n-e#t%)ate and re-%e*D but the b%(( here author%Pe# the O$bud#$an! and
)rant# the &o*er of d%#%&(%n%n) &ub(% off%er# and e$&(oyee#. It )oe#
beyond the on#t%tut%ona( &ro-%#%on.

S!na(o' An/a'a. 6e((! %f the ;ent(e$an %# throu)h *%th h%#
#tate$ent ...

S!na(o' La&'!$. 6e((! ye#.

S!na(o' An/a'a. I do not a)ree that th%# b%(( %# )o%n) beyond *hat the
Con#t%tut%on ha# &re#r%bed for the O$bud#$anD beau#e! a# I under#tand
%t! the constitutional provision -as construed in the proceedings o the
Constitutional Commission and in act, let it to the /egislature to
determine the po-ers and unctions to be allocated to the #mbudsman. 't
did not say or it did not prohibit the /egislature rom granting disciplinary
po-er that -e are no- granting to the #mbudsman. 9ut o-er and beyond
that %nter&retat%on! Mr. 2re#%dent! %# the 'ue#t%on that one $u#t a(*ay# a#5!
%f he *ant# th%# %n#t%tut%on of the O$bud#$an to be effet%-e! rather than
#%$&(y be (%5e the other *athdo)# the &a#t ad$%n%#trat%on# reated. Then
*e be(%e-e! the Co$$%ttee be(%e-e#! that -e must give the #mbudsman the
necessary teeth in order to implement its o-n decision. 6e be(%e-e that th%#
%# fu((y %n aord *%th the /%(%&%no u#to$ and trad%t%on! and ba#ed on our
h%#tor%a( eE&er%ene. Short o not giving the #mbudsman the disciplining
authority, ' thin4 -e might as -ell 4iss the system goodbye, because it -ill
be li4e the same -atchdogs created in the past-toothless and inutile.

Senator An)ara! by *ay of re&(y to the 'uer%e# of Senator Ne&ta(%
;onPa(e#! further eE&(a%ned8

S!na(o' Gon>a$!+. A(( r%)ht. There are erta%n ad$%##%on#
and! ho*e-er re(utant(y )%-en! at (ea#t! (et u# )o further beau#e the
;ent(e$an %# %n-o5%n) the *ho(e of Set%on 1>. I $%)ht rea((y be *ron)!
and I *ant to be orreted h%# ear(y.

No*! under &ara)ra&h 324! %t #ay#8

0%ret! u&on o$&(a%nt or at %t# o*n %n#tane! any &ub(% off%%a( or
e$&(oyee of the ;o-ern$ent! or any #ubd%-%#%on thereof to &erfor$ and
eE&ed%te. . .

2robab(y a $%n%#ter%a( at beau#e %t #ay#8

... any at or duty re'u%red by (a* or to #to&! &re-ent and orret any
abu#e or %$&ro&r%ety %n the &erfor$ane of dut%e#.

There %# ne%ther a )rant of d%#%&(%n%n) author%ty! nor an *e %$&(y one
fro$ th%# #&e%f% &ro-%#%onD on(y fro$ th%# #&e%f% &ro-%#%on.

S!na(o' An/a'a. My an#*er! a)a%n! Mr. 2re#%dent! %# that one annot
der%-e that broad! #*ee&%n) on(u#%on #o(e(y on the ba#%# of th%# &ro-%#%on.

S!na(o' Gon>a$!+. There %# none #o(e(y on th%# &ro-%#%on. Let u# )o to
3>48

0%ret the off%er onerned to ta5e a&&ro&r%ate at%on a)a%n#t a &ub(%
off%%a( or e$&(oyee at fau(t N

There %# a deter$%nat%on! that %#! at fau(t! and th%# %# -ery %$&ortant!

.reo$$end h%# re$o-a(! #u#&en#%on! de$ot%on! f%ne! en#ure! or
&ro#eut%on! and en#ure o$&(%ane there*%th.

Mr. 2re#%dent! the &o*er here! e-en after a deter$%nat%on of
fau(t! %# $ere(y to reo$$end to the a&&ro&r%ate off%e or a)eny the
%$&o#%t%on of ad$%n%#trat%-e #ant%on#! *h%h! under th%# (a*! %n#tead
are to be %$&o#ed by the O$bud#$an h%$#e(f or d%ret(y. Cou(d not the
;ent(e$an #ee a onf(%t bet*een the#e t*o &ro-%#%on#! Mr. 2re#%dentL

S!na(o' An/a'a. I do not #ee any onf(%t! Mr. 2re#%dent. A# I
#a%d! the )rant of d%#%&(%nary &o*er %# #o$eth%n) that the Con#t%tut%on
doe# not forb%d.

S!na(o' Gon>a$!+. 6e((! *e *%(( ta5e %t d%fferent(y.

S!na(o' An/a'a. (gain, the 1uestion is5 's it necessary to grant
the #mbudsman such a po-er in order to ma4e it eective6 !hat is a
means necessary to the end, to the ob3ective.

S!na(o' Gon>a$!+. I# %t! therefore! no* another &o*erL

S!na(o' An/a'a. ' submit that the means, that is, the
disciplinary po-er, is necessary to achieving that ob3ective o ma4ing
an eective #mbudsman.

The (e)%#(at%-e h%#tory of Re&ub(% At No. ?BB0 thu# bear# out the
on(u#%on that the Off%e of the O$bud#$an *a# %ntended to &o##e## fu((
ad$%n%#trat%-e d%#%&(%nary author%ty! %n(ud%n) the &o*er to %$&o#e the
&ena(ty of re$o-a(! #u#&en#%on! de$ot%on! f%ne! en#ure! or &ro#eut%on of a
&ub(% off%er or e$&(oyee found to be at fau(t. The (a*$a5er# en-%#%oned
the Off%e of the O$bud#$an to be an at%-%#t *ath$an!@ not $ere(y a
&a##%-e one. And th%# %ntent *a# )%-en -a(%dat%on by the Court %n ,y v.
Sandiganbayan *here %t #tated that8


C(ear(y! the 2h%(%&&%ne O$bud#$an de&art# fro$ the (a##%a(
O$bud#$an $ode( *ho#e funt%on %# $ere(y to ree%-e and &roe##
the &eo&(eO# o$&(a%nt# a)a%n#t orru&t and abu#%-e )o-ern$ent
&er#onne(. The 2h%(%&&%ne O$bud#$an! a# &rotetor of the &eo&(e! %#
ar$ed *%th the &o*er to &ro#eute err%n) &ub(% off%er# and
e$&(oyee#! )%-%n) h%$ an at%-e ro(e %n the enfore$ent of (a*# on
ant%.)raft and orru&t &rat%e# and #uh other offen#e# that $ay be
o$$%tted by #uh off%er# and e$&(oyee#. !he legislature has
vested him -ith broad po-ers to enable him to implement his o-n
actions. E E E


On the #eond %##ue! the Court 'uote# *%th a&&ro-a( the ru(%n) of the
O$bud#$an and the a&&e((ate ourt that there %# a$&(e e-%dene of &et%t%onerO#
d%#hone#ty8

E E E The Off%e of the O$bud#$an 3A%#aya#4 *a# ho*e-er orret *hen
%t a$e u& *%th a f%nd%n) that the 2et%t%oner %# )u%(ty of d%#hone#ty.

The 2et%t%oner #ub$%tted the fo((o*%n) ar)u$ent# %n ontend%n) that the
a##a%(ed 0e%#%on of the Re#&ondent Off%e of the O$bud#$an (a5# fatua( ba#%#8

C.? Re#&ondent COA on(ude# that %t *a# Mr#. Luero
*ho fa(#%f%ed the ree%&t# and $%#a&&ro&r%ated the orre#&ond%n)
a$ount# %n-o(-ed beau#e #he *a# &re#ent at the Ca#h%erO# Off%e
a((e)ed(y %##u%n) ree%&t#.

C.B On ro##.eEa$%nat%on! the eEa$%n%n) aud%tor! M#. Nora
T%u! ba#ed her on(u#%on %$&ut%n) (%ab%(%ty unto the here%n
&et%t%oner on her e-a(uat%on of the #%)nature# a&&ear%n) %n the
'ue#t%oned ree%&t# e-en %f #he ha# not #een the &et%t%oner atua((y
aff%E%n) her #%)nature# there%n.

C.1C On the other hand! the te#t%$ony of the a#h%er her#e(f!
M#. Lu%ana 0%d%an! #%$%(ar(y annot be )%-en redene.

C.15 In her te#t%$ony! #he ad$%tted that #he %# not e-en #ure
that the ree%&t# atua((y turned o-er to her *ere the -ery #a$e
one# no* a((e)ed(y fa(#%f%ed and the #ub+et $atter of th%# a#e.

C.1? She +u#t $ade a #*ee&%n) on(u#%on that %t ou(d be
the &et%t%onerO# beau#e the #%)nature# there%n are $ade ha#t%(y and
that %t %# the (atter *ho turned o-er the#e ree%&t# to her.

C.2> If %ndeed #he *a# author%Ped &ur#uant to the #a%d
Me$orandu$ to o((et M%#e((aneou# Ino$e and Re-enue! then
*hy #he *a# not 3#%4 re'u%red to &ut u& a bond! %n aordane
*%th Set%on# 101 314 and 324 of 2re#%dent%a( 0eree No. 1CC5!
other*%#e 5no*n a# the ;o-ern$ent Aud%t%n) Code of
the 2h%(%&&%ne#.@

6e are not &er#uaded by the fore)o%n) ar)u$ent#. The Re#&ondent Off%e
of the O$bud#$an orret(y aorded redene and *e%)ht to the o$&(a%nt f%(ed
by Re#&ondent Co$$%##%on on Aud%t. 2et%t%onerO# (a%$ %# rendered doubtfu( by
her tendeny to deny &art%u(ar(y eah and a(( a((e)at%on# $ade by Re#&ondent
COA. /or %n#tane! dur%n) the %n-e#t%)at%on before the Re#&ondent Off%e of the
O$bud#$an! 2et%t%oner den%ed ha-%n) %##ued the ree%&t#. ,o*e-er! 2et%t%oner
thereu&on $ade a o$&(ete turnabout and a5no*(ed)ed that #he d%d %##ue #o$e
$%#e((aneou# ree%&t# dur%n) bu#y day#. The Re)%ona( Ca#h%er of the LTO
(%5e*%#e &o#%t%-e(y and o$&etent(y te#t%f%ed about the #a%d %##uane of the
$%#e((aneou# ree%&t# by the 2et%t%oner.

Suh a5no*(ed)$ent by 2et%t%oner of ha-%n) %##ued M%#e((aneou#
Ree%&t# dur%n) bu#y day# and the further te#t%$ony of the LTO Re)%ona( Off%e
AII Ca#h%er to that effet on(y be(%e 2et%t%onerO# (a%$ that #he *a# not a##%)ned %n
the Ca#h%er Set%on of the O&erat%on# 0%-%#%on of the LTO Re)%ona( Off%e No.
AII and ne-er #%)ned any $%#e((aneou# ree%&t fro$ the &er%od be)%nn%n)
on No-e$ber 18! 1""" u& to Se&te$ber >0! 2000.

Moreo-er! the %##uane of the M%#e((aneou# Ree%&t# by the 2et%t%oner
*a# du(y &ro-en dur%n) the %n-e#t%)at%on onduted by the Re#&ondent Off%e of
the O$bud#$an. A# te#t%f%ed to by the eEa$%n%n) aud%tor! there are ob-%ou#
#%$%(ar%t%e# bet*een the 2et%t%onerO# #%)nature %n her Cert%f%ate of A&&o%nt$ent a#
C(er5 II of the LTO and her #%)nature# on the M%#e((aneou# Ree%&t# be%n)
%##ued. In the a#e Court (dministrator vs. "illanueva, the Su&re$e Court he(d
that e-%dene re#&et%n) hand*r%t%n) $ay be )%-en by a o$&ar%#on $ade by the
Court *%th *r%t%n)# ad$%tted or treated a# )enu%ne by the &arty a)a%n#t *ho$ the
e-%dene %# offered.

:nder the %ru$#tane#! *e f%nd ade'uate ba#%# of the f%nd%n)# of the
Re#&ondent Off%e of the O$bud#$an. Indeed! %t a&&ear# that the ontent%on# of
the 2et%t%oner are de-o%d of $er%t. 2et%t%onerO# on(y defen#e %# one of den%a(. The
ru(e %# that the den%a(! %f not #ub#tant%ated by (ear and on-%n%n) e-%dene! %#
ne)at%-e and #e(f.#er-%n) e-%dene! *h%h ha# no *e%)ht %n (a* and annot be
)%-en )reater e-%dent%ary -a(ue o-er the te#t%$ony of red%b(e *%tne##e# *ho
te#t%f%ed on aff%r$at%-e $atter#.
F11G



Indeed! the Court ha# ado&ted a &o(%y of non.%nterferene %n the eEer%#e of
the O$bud#$anO# on#t%tut%ona((y $andated &o*er# of a(%brat%n) the e-%dene of
the &art%e#. Th%# Court %# not a tr%er of fat#D the O$bud#$an %#.
F12G
Moreo-er!
ab#ent a (ear #ho*%n) of )ra-e abu#e of d%#ret%on! the f%nd%n)# of fat of the CA!
aff%r$%n) the f%nd%n)# of the O$bud#$an! are f%na( and on(u#%-e on th%# Court.
F1>G
In th%# a#e! there %# no #ho*%n) that the O$bud#$an had abu#ed h%#
d%#ret%on.

IN LIGHT O% ALL THE %OREGOING, the &et%t%on %# GRANTED. The
f%nd%n) of the Court of A&&ea(# %n CA.;.R. S2 No. 8>>5? that there %# #uff%%ent
e-%dene of re#&ondent /ar%da T. LueroO# )u%(t for d%#hone#ty
%# A%%IRMED. ,o*e-er! the a&&e((ate ourtO# de(arat%on that the O$bud#$an
ha# no &o*er to order her re$o-a( or d%#$%##a( fro$ off%e %# SET ASIDE.
Con#e'uent(y! the de%#%on of the O$bud#$an d%#$%##%n) re#&ondent Luero
%# A%%IRMED.

SO ORDERED.
3#A'C.SCO #A/OS4
Petition
er,




. versus .




A55/. (O'C.A'O 6.
7E#'A'DEZ4
Re#&ondent.
G.R. No. 168328

Present:

7NARES.SANTIA;O! J.,
Cha%r&er#on!
AQ*43BA.2A34B9IR,
+>B+).9ARA3B),
9A+>Q3A, and
3ISI*,
T
JJ,

Promulgated:

August 27, 2==F
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .8

# E S O 8 U 5 . O '


+>B+).9ARA3B), J,:

9efore :# %# a Mot%on for Reon#%derat%on dated 1? Marh 200B f%(ed by
re#&ondent Atty. 2on%ano ;. ,ernandeP! #ee5%n) a $od%f%at%on of the 0e%#%on
dated 12 /ebruary 200B.

4#e dispositive portion of t#e Deision states:

97E#E3O#E t#e +ourt 3esolves t#at:

1, 3espondent is guilty of violation of t#e attorney@s oat#
and of serious professional misondut and s#all
!e SUS(E'DED from t#e pratie of law for si8 /;6
mont#s and 9A#'ED t#at repetition of t#e same or
similar oAense will !e dealt wit# more severely;

2, 3espondent is entitled to attorney@s fees in t#e
amount e5uivalent to 57.#5/:3.VE (E#CE'5
&;<=+ of t#e total amount awarded
O1P
to petitioner in
+ivil +ase 9o, *2.9<1; and

3, 3espondent is to ret!rn t#e amount of 4wo >undred
9inety 4#ousand )ne >undred 9ine Pesos and 4wenty.
)ne +entavos /P29=,1=9,216,
O2P
w#i# #e retained in
e8ess of w#at we #erein delared as fair and
reasona!le attorney@s fees, plus legal interest from
date of fnality of t#is ?udgment until full payment
t#ereof,

Get opies of t#is Deision !e entered in t#e
personal reord of respondent as mem!er of t#e 0ar and
furnis#ed t#e )"e of t#e 0ar +onfdant, t#e B0P, and t#e
+ourt Administrator for irulation to all ourts of t#e
ountry,


Re#&ondent ree%-ed a o&y of the 0e%#%on on 5 Marh 200B. ,ene! the
Mot%on for Reon#%derat%on *a# f%(ed *%th%n the re)(e$entary &er%od &ro-%ded
under the Ru(e#.

Re#&ondent be)# the o$&a##%onate under#tand%n) and $a)nan%$%ty of the
,onorab(e Court for #o$e (en%eny re)ard%n) h%# un%ntent%ona( tran#)re##%on and
&ray# that the &ena(ty of #u#&en#%on of #%E $onth# %$&o#ed u&on h%$ be redued to
a f%ne! %n-o5%n) h%# a($o#t 15 year# of &at%ent! de-oted! o$&(ete and #ue##fu(
&rofe##%ona( #er-%e# rendered to &et%t%onerD for the bad fa%th of the (atter %n
d%#$%##%n) h%$ a# oun#e( *%thout +u#t%f%ab(e au#eD and h%# )ood fa%th %n reta%n%n)
the $oney ont%n)ent(y@ *%th the -%e* of *%nn%n) &et%t%onerO# au#e.

In (%)ht of re#&ondentO# #%nere &(ea for o$&a##%on fro$ the Court! *e ta5e
a #eond (oo5 at the &ena(ty %$&o#ed.

In #e-era( ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e#! the Court ha# refra%ned fro$ %$&o#%n) the
atua( &ena(t%e# %n the &re#ene of $%t%)at%n) fator#. /ator# #uh a# the
re#&ondentO# (en)th of #er-%e! the re#&ondentO# a5no*(ed)e$ent of h%# or her
%nfrat%on# and fee(%n) of re$or#e! fa$%(y %ru$#tane#! hu$an%tar%an and
e'u%tab(e on#%derat%on#! re#&ondentO# ad-aned a)e! a$on) other th%n)#! ha-e had
-ary%n) #%)n%f%ane %n the CourtO# deter$%nat%on of the %$&o#ab(e &ena(ty.
F>G

A&&(y%n) the rat%ona(e %n the afore#a%d atena of a#e#! %t %# a&&ro&r%ate for
th%# Court! %n the a#e at bar! to on#%der the fo((o*%n) %ru$#tane#! to *%t8

a4 re#&ondent had #&ent 15 year# %n defend%n) &et%t%onerO# au#e fro$ the
tr%a( ourt to the Su&re$e CourtD

b4 h%# effort# at defend%n) the%r au#e *ere &a(&ab(y rea(! o$&(ete! and
tota(! *%th ut$o#t de-ot%on and Pea(ou#ne##D

4 re#&ondentO# ad-aned a)eD

d4 th%# %# the f%r#t t%$e that re#&ondent ha# been found ad$%n%#trat%-e(y
(%ab(e &er a-a%(ab(e reordD and

e4 re#&ondentO# )ood fa%th %n reta%n%n) *hat he #%nere(y be(%e-ed to be
h%# ont%n)ent fee. A# an be )(eaned fro$ the fat#! &et%t%oner and re#&ondent
entered %nto a ont%n)ent fee arran)e$ent *hereby the (atter! a# oun#e(! *%(( be
&a%d for the (e)a( #er-%e# on(y %f he #eure# a +ud)$ent fa-orab(e for h%#
(%ent. 6hen re#&ondent reta%ned the a$ount of 255B!"?1.21 and 215"!120.00 out
of the 21!21"!"20.00! he d%d #o be(%e-%n) %n )ood fa%th that %t *a# a rea#onab(e
&ay$ent for the ont%n)ent fee# *h%h he *a# ent%t(ed to reta%n. It annot be
%)nored that re#&ondent %ndeed #ue##fu((y defended &et%t%onerO# a#e %n C%-%(
Ca#e No. SM."51.

6e are &er#uaded to eEh%b%t a de)ree of (en%eny to*ard# the
re#&ondent. 6e! thu#! $a%nta%n a $ore o$&a##%onate a&&roah.

4HERE%ORE! the re#&ondentO# Mot%on for Reon#%derat%on %#
&art(y GRANTED. The 0e%#%on dated 12 /ebruary 200B %# MODI%IED %n that
the #u#&en#%on of #%E $onth# %# DELETED! and %n (%eu thereof a f%ne
of 220!000.00 %# IMPOSED! effet%-e fro$ date of ree%&t of here%n Re#o(ut%on!
*%th *arn%n) that re&et%t%on of the #a$e or #%$%(ar at# *%(( be dea(t *%th $ore
#e-ere(y. The #a%d 0e%#%on %# A%%IRMED %n a(( other re#&et#.

SO O#DE#ED.

THE SANGGUNIANG
BARANGAY O% BARANGAY
DON MARIANO MARCOS,
MUNICIPALITY O%
BAYOMBONG PRO5INCE O%
NUE5A 5ISCAYA '!'!+!n(!d ;9
BARANGAY ?AGA4AD -OSE
CENEN SANTOS, MARIO
BACUD, 4ALTER %RANCISCO,
G.R. No. 123626


2re#ent8


7NARES.SANTIA;O! J.,
Cha%r&er#on!
A:STRIA.MARTINEH!
ROSITA SEBASTIAN, LAURETA
CABAUATAN, CECILIA
ALINDAYU and MELY
SIMANGAN,
2et%t%oner#!

. versus .

PUNONG BARANGAY
SE5ERINO MARTINEZ,
Re#&ondent.
C,ICO.NAHARIO!
NAC,:RA! and
RE7ES! JJ.


2ro$u()ated8




Marh >! 2008
E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E


0 E C I S I O N


C,ICO.NAHARIO! J.8


Th%# %# a 2et%t%on for Re-%e* on Certiorari under Ru(e C5 of the Ru(e# of
Court! a##a%(%n) the Order# dated 20 Otober 2005
F1G
and >0 No-e$ber 2005
F2G
of
the Re)%ona( Tr%a( Court 3tr%a( ourt4! 9ranh 2B! of 9ayo$bon)! Nue-a A%Paya!
%n S&e%a( C%-%( At%on No. ?B2B. In %t# a##a%(ed Order#! the tr%a( ourt ru(ed that
the San))un%an) 9ayan of9ayo$bon)! Neu-a A%Paya 3San))un%an) 9ayan4!
eEeeded %t# +ur%#d%t%on *hen %t %$&o#ed u&on re#&ondent Se-er%no Mart%neP the
ad$%n%#trat%-e &ena(ty of re$o-a( fro$ off%e.

2et%t%oner San))un%an) 9aran)ay %# the (e)%#(at%-e body of 9aran)ay 0on
Mar%ano Maro#! 9ayo$bon)! Nue-a A%Paya! a (oa( )o-ern$ent un%t reated!
or)an%Ped and eE%#t%n) a# #uh under &ert%nent (a*# of the Re&ub(% of
the 2h%(%&&%ne#. Re#&ondent Mart%neP %# the %nu$bent 2unon) 9aran)ay of the
#a%d (oa( )o-ern$ent un%t.
F>G

On 5 No-e$ber 200C! Mart%neP *a# ad$%n%#trat%-e(y har)ed *%th
0%#hone#ty and ;raft and Corru&t%on by &et%t%oner throu)h the f%(%n) of a -er%f%ed
o$&(a%nt before theSan))un%an) 9ayan a# the d%#%&(%n%n) author%ty o-er
e(et%-e barangay off%%a(# &ur#uant to Set%on ?1
FCG
of Re&. At No. B1?0!
other*%#e 5no*n a# the Loa( ;o-ern$ent Code. 2et%t%oner f%(ed *%th
the San))un%an) 9ayan an A$ended Ad$%n%#trat%-e Co$&(a%nt
a)a%n#t Mart%neP on ? 0ee$ber 200C for 0%#hone#ty! M%#ondut %n Off%e and
A%o(at%on of the Ant%.;raft and Corru&t 2rat%e# At.
F5G
2et%t%oner a((e)ed
that Mart%neP o$$%tted the fo((o*%n) at#8

1. /a%(ure to #ub$%t and fu((y re$%t to the 9aran)ay Trea#urer the
%no$e of the%r #o(%d *a#te $ana)e$ent &ro+et #%ne 2001 &art%u(ar(y
the #a(e of fert%(%Per der%-ed fro$ o$&o#t%n).

2. /a%(ure to #ub$%t=re$%t to the baran)ay trea#urer the #a(e of
rey(ab(e $ater%a(# ta5en fro$ )arba)e o((et%on.

>. :#%n) the )arba)e tru5 for other &ur&o#e# (%5e hau(%n) #and
and )ra-e( for &r%-ate &er#on# *%thout $onetary benef%t to
the baran)ay beau#e no %no$e fro$ th%# #oure a&&ear# %n the year end
re&ort e-en %f &ay$ent# *ere o((eted E E E.

C. :#%n)=#&end%n) baran)ay fund# for re&a%r! )a#o(%ne! (ubr%ant#!
*hee(# and other #&are &art# of the )arba)e tru5 %n#tead of u#%n) the
$oney or %no$e of #a%d tru5 fro$ the )arba)e fee# o((eted a# %no$e
fro$ %t# So(d 6a#te Mana)e$ent 2ro+et. E E E.

5. :n(%'u%dated tra-e(%n) eE&en#e# for Se$%nar=La5bay.Ara( %n
200> beau#e a(thou)h a a#h ad-ane *a# $ade by the re#&ondent for
the #a%d &ur&o#e! he! ho*e-er! d%d not attend #a%d #e$%nar beau#e on the
date# *hen he *a# #u&&o#ed to be on #e$%nar they #a* h%$ %n
the baran)ay. E E E.

?. That #e-era( atte$&t# to d%#u## #a%d &rob(e$ dur%n) #e##%on#
*ere a(( %n -a%n beau#e re#&ondent de(%ned to d%#u## %t and *ou(d
ad+ourn the #e##%on.E E E.
F?G


:&on h%# fa%(ure to f%(e an An#*er to the A$ended Ad$%n%#trat%-e Co$&(a%nt
dated ? 0ee$ber 200C! Mart%neP *a# de(ared by the San))un%an) 9ayan a# %n
defau(t. 2end%n) the ad$%n%#trat%-e &roeed%n)#! Mart%neP *a# &(aed under
&re-ent%-e #u#&en#%on for ?0 day# or unt%( 8 Au)u#t 2005.
FBG


On 28 Ku(y 2005! the San))un%an) 9ayan rendered %t# 0e%#%on *h%h
%$&o#ed u&on Mart%neP the &ena(ty of re$o-a( fro$ off%e.
F8G

The 0e%#%on dated 28 Ku(y 2005 *a# on-eyed to the Mun%%&a( Mayor
of 9ayo$bon)! Nue-a E%+a! Se-er%no 9a)a#ao! for %t# %$&(e$entat%on. On >
Au)u#t 2005!Mun%%a( Mayor 9a)a#ao %##ued a Me$orandu$! *here%n he #tated
that the San))una%n) 9ayan %# not e$&o*ered to order Mart%nePO# re$o-a( fro$
#er-%e. ,o*e-er! the 0e%#%on re$a%n# -a(%d unt%( re-er#ed and $u#t be eEeuted
by h%$. /or the $eant%$e! he ordered the %ndef%n%te #u#&en#%on of Mart%neP #%ne
the &er%od of a&&ea( had not yet (a&#ed.
F"G
The d%#&o#%t%-e &ort%on of the #a%d
Me$orandu$ #tate# that8
F10G

The /ORE;OIN; on#%dered o$e A:;:ST 8! 2005!
re#&ondent SEAERINO 0. MARTINEH %# hereby d%reted NOT to
ASS:ME and 0ISC,AR;E the funt%on# of the Off%e of
the2unon) 9aran)ay of 9aran)ay 0on Mar%ano
Maro#! 9ayo$bon)! Nue-a A%Paya and for o$&(a%nant KOSE
CENEN SANTOS to CONTIN:E a##u$%n) and d%#har)%n) the
funt%on# of the #a%d off%e %n ACTIN; CA2ACIT7 &ur#uant to the
&ro-%#%on# of Set%on# ?B and ?8 of Re&ub(% At No. B1?0.


On 2? Au)u#t 2005! Mart%neP f%(ed a S&e%a( C%-%( At%on for Certiorari *%th
a &rayer for Te$&orary Re#tra%n%n) Order and 2re(%$%nary In+unt%on before the
tr%a( ourt a)a%n#t &et%t%oner! the San))un%an) 9ayan and
Mayor 9a)a#ao 'ue#t%on%n) the -a(%d%ty of the 0e%#%on dated 28 Ku(y 2005 of
the San))un%an) 9ayan. Th%# a#e *a# do5eted a# S&e%a( C%-%( At%on No. ?B2B!
*h%h *a# %n%t%a((y heard by 9ranh 28! but (ater raff(ed to 9ranh 2B of the tr%a(
ourt.
F11G

On 20 Otober 2005! the tr%a( ourt %##ued an Order de(ar%n) the 0e%#%on
of the San))un%an) 9ayan and the Me$orandu$ of Mayor 9a)a#ao -o%d. It
$a%nta%ned that the &ro&er ourt#! and not the &et%t%oner! are e$&o*ered to re$o-e
an e(et%-e (oa( off%%a( fro$ off%e! %n aordane *%th Set%on ?0 of the Loa(
;o-ern$ent Code. Thu#! the Order of
the San))un%an) 9ayan re$o-%n) Mart%neP fro$ #er-%e %# -o%d. A# a
on#e'uene! Mayor 9a)a#ao annot &re-ent Mart%neP fro$ a##u$%n) h%# off%e on
the ba#%# of a -o%d order. The tr%a( ourt further ru(ed that Mart%neP &ro&er(y
a-a%(ed h%$#e(f of the re$edy of S&e%a( C%-%( At%on! *here the order a##a%(ed *a#
a &atent nu((%ty.
F12G

On 10 No-e$ber 2005! &et%t%oner f%(ed a Mot%on for Reon#%derat%on
F1>G
of
the tr%a( ourtO# Order dated 10 Otober 2005. The tr%a( ourt den%ed the #a%d
$ot%on %n another Order dated >0 No-e$ber 2005.
F1CG

,ene! the &re#ent &et%t%on *a# f%(ed.

A(thou)h Mart%nePO# ter$ a# 2unon) 9aran))ay eE&%red u&on the ho(d%n) of
the 2" Otober 200B Synhron%Ped 9aran)ay and San))un%an) Mabataan e(et%on#
and! thu#! render%n) th%# &et%t%on $oot and aade$%! the Court *%(( ne-erthe(e##
#ett(e a (e)a( 'ue#t%on that %# a&ab(e of re&et%t%on yet e-ad%n) re-%e*.
F15G

The &%-ota( %##ue %n th%# a#e %# *hether or not the San))un%an) 9ayan $ay
re$o-e Mart%neP! an e(et%-e (oa( off%%a(! fro$ off%e. The &ert%nent (e)a(
&ro-%#%on# and a#e# de%ded by th%# Court f%r$(y e#tab(%#h that
the San))una%n) 9ayan %# not e$&o*ered to do #o.

Set%on ?0 of the Loa( ;o-ern$ent Code onferred u&on the ourt# the
&o*er to re$o-e e(et%-e (oa( off%%a(# fro$ off%e8

Set%on ?0. ;round# for 0%#%&(%nary At%on#.UAn e(et%-e (oa(
off%%a( $ay be d%#%&(%ned! #u#&ended! or re$o-ed fro$ off%e on any of
the fo((o*%n) )round#8

E E E E.

An e(et%-e (oa( off%%a( $ay be re$o-ed fro$ off%e on the
)round# enu$erated abo-e by order of ()! 'o!' "o&'(. 3E$&ha#%#
&ro-%ded.4


0ur%n) the de(%berat%on# of the Senate on the Loa( ;o-ern$ent Code!
F1?G
the
(e)%#(at%-e %ntent to onf%ne to the ourt#! i.e.! re)%ona( tr%a( ourt#!
the Sand%)anbayan and the a&&e((ate ourt#! +ur%#d%t%on o-er a#e# %n-o(-%n) the
re$o-a( of e(et%-e (oa( off%%a(# *a# e-%dent8

Senator 2%$ente(. Th%# ha# been re#er-ed! Mr. 2re#%dent!
%n(ud%n) the %##ue of *hether or not the 0e&art$ent Seretary or the
Off%e of the 2re#%dent an #u#&end or re$o-e an e(et%-e off%%a(.

Senator Sa)u%#a). /or a# (on) a# that %# o&en for #o$e (ater
d%#&o#%t%on! $ay I +u#t add the fo((o*%n) thou)ht8 I( +!!:+ (o :! ()a(
#n+(!ad o0 #d!n(#09#n/ on$9 ()! 'o!' '!/#ona$ ('#a$ "o&'( o'
()! Sand#/an;a9an, and +#n"! <! @no< ()a( #n ()! "a+! o0 a '!/#ona$
('#a$ "o&'(, a'(#"&$a'$9, a "a+! :a9 ;! a!a$!d o' :a9 ;! ()!
+&;=!"( o0 an #n=&n"(#on, #n ()! 0'a:#n/ o0 ()#+ $a(!' on, I <o&$d $#@!
(o +&//!+( ()a( <! "on+#d!' '!$a"#n/ ()! )'a+! APROPER
REGIONAL TRIAL COURT OR THE SANDIGANBAYANB +#:$9
;9 ACOURTS.B 7asi po, maaaring sabihinnila na mali iyong regional
trial court o ang Sandiganbayan.

Senator 2%$ente(. OR T,E 2RO2ER CO:RT.@

Senator Sa)u%#a). OR T,E 2RO2ER CO:RT.@

Senator 2%$ente(. Than5 you. 6e are *%((%n) to ae&t that no*!
Mr. 2re#%dent.

Senator Sa)u%#a). It %# to be %nor&orated %n the &hra#eo(o)y that
*e *%(( raft to a&ture the other %dea# that ha-e been e(e-ated.
3E$&ha#%# &ro-%ded.4


In Salalima v. 8uingona, Jr.!
F1BG
the Court en banc ate)or%a((y ru(ed that the
Off%e of the 2re#%dent %# *%thout any &o*er to re$o-e e(eted off%%a(#! #%ne the
&o*er %# eE(u#%-e(y -e#ted %n the &ro&er ourt# a# eE&re##(y &ro-%ded for %n the
(a#t &ara)ra&h of Set%on ?0 of the Loa( ;o-ern$ent Code. It further %n-a(%dated
Art%(e 125! Ru(e <I< of the Ru(e# and Re)u(at%on# I$&(e$ent%n) the Loa(
;o-ern$ent Code of 1""1! *h%h &ro-%ded that8

Art%(e 125. 8rounds or $isciplinary (ctions. E E E.

E E E E.

3b4 An e(et%-e (oa( off%%a( $ay be re$o-ed fro$ off%e on the
)round# enu$erated %n &ara)ra&h 3a4 of th%# Art%(e by order of the
&ro&er ourt or the d%#%&(%n%n) author%ty *h%he-er f%r#t a'u%re#
+ur%#d%t%on to the eE(u#%on of the other.


The Court nu((%f%ed the afore'uoted ru(e #%ne the O-er#%)ht Co$$%ttee that
&re&ared the Ru(e# and Re)u(at%on# of the Loa( ;o-ern$ent Code eEeeded %t#
author%ty *hen %t )ranted to the d%#%&(%n%n) author%ty@ the &o*er to re$o-e
e(et%-e off%%a(#! a &o*er *h%h the (a* %t#e(f )ranted on(y to the &ro&er
ourt#. Thu#! %t %# (ear that under the (a*! theSan))un%an) 9ayan %# not -e#ted
*%th the &o*er to re$o-e Mart%neP.

2et%t%oner ontend# that ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e# %n-o(-%n)
e(et%-e barangay off%%a(# $ay be f%(ed *%th! heard and de%ded by
the San))un%an) 2an(un)#od or San))un%an)9ayan onerned! *h%h an!
thereafter! %$&o#e a &ena(ty of re$o-a( fro$ off%e. It further (a%$# that the ourt#
are $ere(y ta#5ed *%th %##u%n) the order of re$o-a(! after
theSan))un%an) 2an(un)#od or San))un%an) 9ayan f%nd# that a &ena(ty of re$o-a(
%# *arranted.
F18G


The afore$ent%oned &o#%t%on &ut for*ard by the &et%t%oner *ou(d run
ounter to the rat%ona(e for $a5%n) the re$o-a( of e(et%-e off%%a(# an eE(u#%-e
+ud%%a( &rero)at%-e. InPablico v. "illapando!
F1"G
the ourt de(ared that8

It %# beyond a-%(! therefore! that the &o*er to re$o-e err%n)
e(et%-e (oa( off%%a(# fro$ #er-%e %# (od)ed eE(u#%-e(y *%th the
ourt#. ,ene! Art%(e 12C 3#% 1254
F20G
3b4! Ru(e <I<! of the Ru(e# and
Re)u(at%on# I$&(e$ent%n) the Loa( ;o-ern$ent Code! %n#ofar a# %t
-e#t# &o*er on the d%#%&(%n%n) author%ty@ to re$o-e fro$ off%e err%n)
e(et%-e (oa( off%%a(#! %# -o%d for be%n) re&u)nant to the (a#t &ara)ra&h
of Set%on ?0 of the Loa( ;o-ern$ent Code of 1""1. The (a* on
#u#&en#%on or re$o-a( of e(et%-e &ub(% off%%a(# $u#t be #tr%t(y
on#trued and a&&(%ed! and the author%ty %n *ho$ #uh &o*er of
#u#&en#%on or re$o-a( %# -e#ted $u#t eEer%#e %t *%th ut$o#t )ood fa%th!
for *hat %# %n-o(-ed %# not +u#t an ord%nary &ub(% off%%a( but one ho#en
by the &eo&(e throu)h the eEer%#e of the%r on#t%tut%ona( r%)ht of
#uffra)e. T)!#' <#$$ :&+( no( ;! &( (o na&/)( ;9 ()! "a'#"! o'
a'(#+an+)# o0 ()! d#+"#$#n#n/ a&()o'#(9. 6here the d%#%&(%n%n)
author%ty %# )%-en on(y the &o*er to #u#&end and not the &o*er to
re$o-e! %t #hou(d not be &er$%tted to $an%&u(ate the (a* by u#ur&%n) the
&o*er to re$o-e. 3E$&ha#%# #u&&(%ed.4


The ru(e *h%h onfer# to the &ro&er ourt# the &o*er to re$o-e an e(et%-e (oa(
off%%a( fro$ off%e %# %ntended a# a he5 a)a%n#t any a&r%%ou#ne## or &art%#an
at%-%ty by the d%#%&(%n%n) author%ty. Ae#t%n) the (oa( (e)%#(at%-e body *%th the
&o*er to de%de *hether or not a (oa( h%ef eEeut%-e $ay be re$o-ed fro$
off%e! and on(y re(e)at%n) to the ourt# a $andatory duty to %$&(e$ent the
de%#%on! *ou(d #t%(( not free the re#o(ut%on of the a#e fro$ the a&r%%ou#ne## or
&art%#an#h%& of the d%#%&(%n%n) author%ty. Thu#! the &et%t%onerO# %nter&retat%on
*ou(d defeat the (ear %ntent of the (a*.

Moreo-er! #uh an arran)e$ent (ear(y de$ote# the ourt# to noth%n) $ore
than an %$&(e$ent%n) ar$ of the San))un%an) 2an(un)#od!
or San))un%an) 9ayan. Th%# *ou(d be an un$%#ta5ab(e breah of the dotr%ne on
#e&arat%on of &o*er#! thu# &(a%n) the ourt# under the order# of the (e)%#(at%-e
bod%e# of (oa( )o-ern$ent#. The ourt# *ou(d be #tr%&&ed of the%r &o*er of
re-%e*! and the%r d%#ret%on %n %$&o#%n) the eEtre$e &ena(ty of re$o-a( fro$ off%e
%# thu# (eft to be eEer%#ed by &o(%t%a( fat%on# *h%h #tand to benef%t fro$ the
re$o-a( fro$ off%e of the (oa( e(et%-e off%%a( onerned! the -ery e-%( *h%h
Con)re## #ou)ht to a-o%d *hen %t enated Set%on ?0 of the Loa( ;o-ern$ent
Code.

Con)re## (ear(y $eant that the re$o-a( of an e(et%-e (oa( off%%a( be done
on(y after a tr%a( before the a&&ro&r%ate ourt! *here ourt ru(e# of &roedure and
e-%dene an en#ure %$&art%a(%ty and fa%rne## and &rotet a)a%n#t &o(%t%a(
$aneu-er%n)#. E(e-at%n) the re$o-a( of an e(et%-e (oa( off%%a( fro$ off%e fro$
an ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e to a ourt a#e $ay be +u#t%f%ed by the fat that #uh re$o-a(
not on(y &un%#he# the off%%a( onerned but a(#o! %n effet! de&r%-e# the e(etorate
of the #er-%e# of the off%%a( for *ho$ they -oted.

A# the (a* #tand#! Set%on ?1 of the Loa( ;o-ern$ent Code &ro-%de# for
the &roedure for the f%(%n) of an ad$%n%#trat%-e a#e a)a%n#t an err%n)
e(et%-e barangay off%%a( before
the San))un%an) 2an(un)#od or San))un%an) 9ayan. ,o*e-er!
the San))un%an) 2an(un)#od or San))un%an) 9ayan annot order the re$o-a( of
an err%n) e(et%-ebarangay off%%a( fro$ off%e! a# the ourt# are eE(u#%-e(y -e#ted
*%th th%# &o*er under Set%on ?0 of the Loa( ;o-ern$ent Code. Thu#! %f the at#
a((e)ed(y o$$%tted by thebarangay off%%a( are of a )ra-e nature and! %f found
)u%(ty! *ou(d $er%t the &ena(ty of re$o-a( fro$ off%e! the a#e #hou(d be f%(ed
*%th the re)%ona( tr%a( ourt. One the ourt a##u$e# +ur%#d%t%on! %t reta%n#
+ur%#d%t%on o-er the a#e e-en %f %t *ou(d be #ub#e'uent(y a&&arent dur%n) the tr%a(
that a &ena(ty (e## than re$o-a( fro$ off%e %# a&&ro&r%ate. On the other hand! the
$o#t eEtre$e &ena(ty that
the San))un%an) 2an(un)#od or San))un%an) 9ayan $ay %$&o#e on the err%n)
e(et%-e barangay off%%a( %# #u#&en#%onD %f %t dee$# that the re$o-a( of the off%%a(
fro$ #er-%e %# *arranted! then %t an re#o(-e that the &ro&er har)e# be f%(ed %n
ourt.

2et%t%oner a((e)ed that an %nter&retat%on *h%h )%-e# the +ud%%ary the &o*er
to re$o-e (oa( e(et%-e off%%a(# -%o(ate# the dotr%ne of #e&arat%on of
&o*er#. Th%# a((e)at%on run# ontrary to the 1"8B Con#t%tut%on %t#e(f! a# *e(( a#
+ur%#&rudene.

The 1"8B Con#t%tut%on %# eE&(%%t %n def%n%n) the #o&e of +ud%%a( &o*er. It
e#tab(%#he# the author%ty of the ourt# to deter$%ne %n an a&&ro&r%ate at%on the
-a(%d%ty of at# of the &o(%t%a( de&art$ent#. It #&ea5# of +ud%%a( &rero)at%-e %n
ter$# of duty.
F21G
2ara)ra&h 2! Set%on 1! Art%(e AIII of the 1"8B Con#t%tut%on!
&ro-%de# that8

Kud%%a( &o*er %n(ude# the duty of the ourt# of +u#t%e to #ett(e
atua( ontro-er#%e# %n-o(-%n) r%)ht# *h%h are (e)a((y de$andab(e and
enforeab(e! and (o d!(!':#n! <)!()!' o' no( ()!'! )a+ ;!!n a /'a*!
a;&+! o0 d#+"'!(#on a:o&n(#n/ (o $a"@ o' !C"!++ o0 =&'#+d#"(#on on ()!
a'( o0 an9 ;'an") o' #n+('&:!n(a$#(9 o0 ()! Go*!'n:!n(. 3E$&ha#%#
&ro-%ded.4


The dotr%ne of #e&arat%on of &o*er# %# not ab#o(ute %n %t# a&&(%at%onD rather!
%t #hou(d be a&&(%ed %n aordane *%th the &r%n%&(e of he5# and ba(ane#. The
re$o-a( fro$ off%e of e(et%-e off%%a(# $u#t not be ta%nted *%th &art%#an &o(%t%#
and u#ed to defeat the *%(( of the -ot%n) &ub(%. Con)re## %t#e(f #a* %t f%t to -e#t
that &o*er %n a $ore %$&art%a( tr%buna(! the ourt. /urther$ore! the (oa(
)o-ern$ent un%t# are not de&r%-ed of the r%)ht to d%#%&(%ne (oa( e(et%-e off%%a(#D
rather! they are &re-ented fro$ %$&o#%n) the eEtre$e &ena(ty of d%#$%##a(.

2et%t%oner 'ue#t%on# the 0e%#%on dated 20 Otober 2005 of the tr%a( ourt for
a((o*%n) the &et%t%on f%(ed before %t a# an eEe&t%on to the dotr%ne of eEhau#t%on of
ad$%n%#trat%-e re$ed%e#. If! %ndeed! the San))un%an) 9ayan had no &o*er to
re$o-e Mart%neP fro$ off%e! then Mart%neP #hou(d ha-e #ou)ht reour#e fro$
the San))un%an)2an(a(a*%)an. Th%# Court u&ho(d# the ru(%n) of the tr%a( ourt.

The dotr%ne of eEhau#t%on of ad$%n%#trat%-e re$ed%e# a((# for re#ort f%r#t to
the a&&ro&r%ate ad$%n%#trat%-e author%t%e# %n the re#o(ut%on of a ontro-er#y fa((%n)
under the%r +ur%#d%t%on before the #a$e $ay be e(e-ated to the ourt# of +u#t%e for
re-%e*. Non.ob#er-ane of the dotr%ne re#u(t# %n (a5 of a au#e of at%on! *h%h
%# one of the )round# a((o*ed by the Ru(e# of Court for the d%#$%##a( of the
o$&(a%nt.
F22G

The dotr%ne of eEhau#t%on of ad$%n%#trat%-e re$ed%e#! *h%h %# ba#ed on
#ound &ub(% &o(%y and &rat%a( on#%derat%on! %# not %nf(eE%b(e. There are
%n#tane# *hen %t $ay be d%#&en#ed *%th and +ud%%a( at%on $ay be -a(%d(y
re#orted to %$$ed%ate(y. A$on) the#e eEe&t%on# are8 14 *here there
%# estoppel on the &art of the &arty %n-o5%n) the dotr%neD 24 <)!'! ()! ")a$$!n/!d
ad:#n#+('a(#*! a"( #+ a(!n($9 #$$!/a$, a:o&n(#n/ (o $a"@ o0 =&'#+d#"(#onD >4
*here there %# unrea#onab(e de(ay or off%%a( %nat%on that *%(( %rretr%e-ab(y
&re+ud%e the o$&(a%nantD C4 *here the a$ount %n-o(-ed %# re(at%-e(y #$a(( a# to
$a5e the ru(e %$&rat%a( and o&&re##%-eD 7, <)!'! ()! E&!+(#on 'a#+!d #+ &'!$9
$!/a$ and <#$$ &$(#:a(!$9 )a*! (o ;! d!"#d!d ;9 ()! "o&'(+ o0 =&+(#"!D ?4 *here
+ud%%a( %nter-ent%on %# ur)entD B4 *here %t# a&&(%at%on $ay au#e )reat and
%rre&arab(e da$a)eD 84 *here theontro-erted at# -%o(ate due &roe##D "4 *hen the
%##ue of non.eEhau#t%on of ad$%n%#trat%-e re$ed%e# ha# been rendered $ootD 104
*here there %# no other &(a%n! #&eedy and ade'uate re$edyD 114 *hen #tron) &ub(%
%ntere#t %# %n-o(-edD and 1>4 %n 1uo -arranto &roeed%n)#.
F2>G

A# a )enera( ru(e! no reour#e to ourt# an be had unt%( a(( ad$%n%#trat%-e
re$ed%e# ha-e been eEhau#ted. ,o*e-er! th%# ru(e %# not a&&(%ab(e *here the
ha((en)ed ad$%n%#trat%-e at %# &atent(y %((e)a(! a$ount%n) to (a5 of +ur%#d%t%on
and *here the 'ue#t%on or 'ue#t%on# %n-o(-ed are e##ent%a((y +ud%%a(.

In th%# a#e! %t %# a&&arent that the San))un%an) 9ayan ated beyond %t#
+ur%#d%t%on *hen %t %##ued the a##a%(ed Order dated 28 Ku(y
2005 re$o-%n) Mart%neP fro$ off%e. Suh at *a# &atent(y %((e)a( and!
therefore! Mart%neP *a# no (on)er re'u%red to a-a%( h%$#e(f of an ad$%n%#trat%-e
a&&ea( %n order to annu( the #a%d Order of the San))un%an) 9ayan.
F2CG
Thu#! h%#
d%ret reour#e to re)u(ar ourt# of +u#t%e *a# +u#t%f%ed.

In add%t%on! th%# Court %n Castro v. 8loria
F25G
de(ared that *here the a#e
%n-o(-e# on(y (e)a( 'ue#t%on#! the (%t%)ant need not eEhau#t a(( ad$%n%#trat%-e
re$ed%e# before #uh +ud%%a( re(%ef an be #ou)ht. The rea#on beh%nd &ro-%d%n) an
eEe&t%on to the ru(e on eEhau#t%on of ad$%n%#trat%-e re$ed%e# %# that %##ue# of (a*
annot be re#o(-ed *%th f%na(%ty by the ad$%n%#trat%-e off%er. A&&ea( to the
ad$%n%#trat%-e off%er *ou(d on(y be an eEer%#e %n fut%(%ty. A (e)a( 'ue#t%on %#
&ro&er(y addre##ed to a re)u(ar ourt of +u#t%e rather than to an ad$%n%#trat%-e
body.
F2?G

In the &re#ent a#e! Mart%neP ra%#ed before the tr%a( ourt the #o(e %##ue of
*hether the San))un%an) 9ayan ha# +ur%#d%t%on o-er a a#e %n-o(-%n) the re$o-a(
of a (oa( e(et%-e off%%a( fro$ off%e.
F2BG
In Mart%nePO# &et%t%on before the tr%a(
ourt! on(y a (e)a( 'ue#t%on *a# ra%#ed! one that *%(( u(t%$ate(y be re#o(-ed by the
ourt#. ,ene! a&&ea( to the ad$%n%#trat%-e off%er onerned *ou(d on(y be
%ru%tou# and! therefore! #hou(d no (on)er be re'u%red before +ud%%a( re(%ef an be
#ou)ht.

IN 5IE4 O% THE %OREGOING! the %n#tant 2et%t%on %# DENIED and the
a##a%(ed 0e%#%on of the 9ayo$bon) RTC %n S&e%a( C%-%( At%on No. ?B2B
%# A%%IRMED.

SO ORDERED.