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DESIGN, SELECTION & CHARACTERISATION OF

ENGINEERING MATERIALS (MY-407)


FALL TERM: 2014

BOOKS TO BE CONSULT:

ASM Handbook volume 20: Materials Selection and Design.
ASM Handbook volume 10: Materials Characterisation

EVALUATION:

1. Popup Quizzes (approx. 4):10 Marks
2. Test & VIVA: 10 Marks
3. Assignment: 10 Marks

SYNOPSIS OF COURSE:

The specific objectives for the course are:

1. Describe, both conceptually and analytically, how system components work using
scientific engineering principles.

2. To gain experience in the selection of materials and optimization of behavior by
using a systematic methodology which combines materials properties with the
engineering function of the process or product design.

3. To acquire knowledge about different Characterization techniques.

REMEMBER!!!!

The true art of memory is the art of attention

Samuel Johnson!
WHAT QUALITIES IN A GOOD ENGINEER?

A sharp mind.
Refined knowledge
Superb observational
capabilities
Great listening power
Reflexivity
Attitude
Communication Skills
MINIMUM COMPUTER SKILLS?

BASIC COMPUTER OPERATIONS
MS OFFICE
WORD
POWER POINT
EXCEL
PUBLISHER


AUTOCAD, PRO-E
PREZI
FEA, SOLID CAST etc.
MS PROJECT , MATLAB
C++ Language


JOB TITLE(s):
Design Engineer (Metallurgy),
Trainee Design Engineer.

The ENGI NEER is the key figure in the material progress of the world.
It is his engineering that makes a reality of the potential value of science
by translating scientific knowledge into tools, resources, energy and labor
to bring them into the service of man ... To make contributions of this kind
the engineer requires the I MAGI NATI ON to visualize the needs of society
and to appreciate what is possible as well as the technological and broad
social age understanding to bring his vision to reality

Sir Eric Ashby!
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THE FOUR Cs OF DESIGN

1. CREATIVITY
Requires creation of something that has not existed before or has not existed in
the designers mind before
2. COMPLEXITY
Requires decisions on many variables and parameters
3. CHOICE
Requires making choices between many possible solutions at all levels, from
basic concepts to the smallest detail of shape
4. COMPROMISE
Requires balancing multiple and sometimes conflicting requirements

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
AND THE DESIGN METHOD












WAYS TO THINK ABOUT THE ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS:
1-A SIMPLIFIED ITERATION MODEL
2-A PROBLEM-SOLVING METHODOLOGY

1-A SIMPLIFIED ITERATION MODEL
ITERATION is the process of doing something again and again, usually to improve it. OR An
amount that you get when you use a mathematical rule several times.
Different writers or designers have outlined the design process in as few as five steps or as
many as 25. One of the first to write about design was Morris Asimow. He viewed the heart of
the design process as consisting of the elements shown in Fig.
As portrayed in fig, design is a sequential process consisting of many design operations.
Examples of the operations might be
(1) Exploring the alternative concepts that could satisfy the specified need.
(2) Formulating a mathematical model of the best system concept.
(3) Specifying specific parts to construct a subsystem. And
(4) Selecting a material from which to manufacture a part.
Each operation requires information (General, technical and business information
expected from the trained professional).
Acquisition of information is a vital and often very difficult step in the design process,
but fortunately it is a step that usually becomes easier with time. (We call this process
EXPERIENCE.)
2-A PROBLEM-SOLVING METHODOLOGY

Designing can be approached as a problem to be solved. A problem-solving methodology that is
useful in design consists of the following steps.

Definition of the problem
Gathering of information
Generation of alternative solutions
Evaluation of alternatives & decision making

















Fig: Note how the design depends on the viewpoint of the individual who defines the
problem, illustrates how the final design can differ greatly depending upon how the
problem is defined.
Problem definition often is
called needs analysis.
It is the nature of the
design process that new
needs are established as
the design process
proceeds because new
problems arise as the
design evolves
Design is problem
solving only when all
needs and potential issues
with alternatives are
known.
If these additional needs
require reworking those
parts of the design that
have been completed, then
penalties are incurred in
terms of cost and project
schedule.
Experience is one of the
best remedies for this
aspect of designing, but
modern computer-based
design tools help
ameliorate the effects of
inexperience.
While many consider that the engineering design process ends with detail design, there are
many issues that must be resolved before a product can be shipped to the customer. These
additional phases of design are often folded into what is called the product development
process.
Phase IV: Planning for manufacture design of tooling and fixtures, designing the process
sheet and the production line, planning the work schedules, the quality assurance system, and
the system of information flow.
Phase V: Planning for distribution planning for packaging, shipping, warehousing, and
distribution of the product to the customer.
Phase VI: Planning for use The decisions made in phases I through III will determine such
important factors as ease of use, ease of maintenance, reliability, product safety, aesthetic
appeal, economy of operation, and product durability.
Phase VII: Planning for product retirementAgain, decisions made in phases I through III
must provide for safe disposal of the product when it reaches its useful life, or recycling of its
materials or reuse or remanufacture.
(Phase I)
(Phase III)
(Phase II)
STEPS IN THE DESIGN PROCESS













Fig. The design paradox between design knowledge and design freedom.








The goal of design:
To create products that perform their function effectively, safely, at
acceptable cost.. What do we need to know about materials to do this?
More than just test data.

INTERACTION B/W MATERIAL, ITS FUNCTION, SHAPE,
AND PROCESS
The selection of material is tied in with process and shape.
To make a shape, the material is subjected to processes that, collectively,
are called manufacture: these include primary forming processes (e.g.,
casting and forging), material removal processes (machining, drilling),
joining processes (e.g., welding) and finishing processes (e.g., painting or
electroplating).
Function influences material choice.
Material choice influences processes through the materials ability to be
cast or molded or welded or heat-treated.
Process determines shape, size, precision and cost.
These interactions are two-way: specification of shape restricts the
choice of material and process; but equally the specification of process
limits the material choice and the accessible shapes. The more
sophisticated the design, the tighter the specifications and the greater the
interactions.
The interaction between function, material, shape, and process lies at the
heart of the MATERIAL SELECTION PROCESS

MATERIALS SELECTION METHODOLOGY

Translate the design
requirements into materials
specifications. It should take
into consideration the design
objectives, constraints and
free variables.
Screening out of materials
that fail the design
constraints.
Ranking the materials by
their ability to meet the
objectives. (Material
Indices).
Search for supporting
information for the material
candidates.

MATERIAL ATTRIBUTES
CHOOSING A MATERIAL:Design requirements are first expressed as constraints and
objectives. The constraints are used for screening. The survivors are ranked by the
objective, expressed as a material index.










DEFINING THE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
Free variables: What is the designer free to change?
* It is sometimes useful to distinguish between hard and soft constraints. Stiffness and
strength might be absolute requirements (hard constraints); cost might be negotiable (soft
constraint).