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Bicycle Traffic Planning and Design

May 25, 2012, Warszawa, Poland


Wim van der Wijk
Royal Haskoning
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Bicycle Traffic Planning and Design
Dutch design manual
Content:
Basic principles
Main requirements
Network
Routes
Sections
Junctions / crossings
Bicycle parking
Additional subjects
Basic principles
Human being as measure of things
design from cyclists point of view
Differences:
age
gender
physical capacities
reason for cycling
Basic principles
Human being as measure of things
design from cyclists point of view
Design speed:
commuter cyclist
Crossing time, gradient:
elderly
Eye level, red light discipline:
youth
Basic principles
Characteristics:
Different types of bicycles
Basic principles
Characteristics: main dimensions
Length: 150 220 cm
Height: 40 120 cm
Handle bar width: 45 70 cm
Wheel size: 51 72 cm
Tyre thickness: 2.5 5.0 cm
Basic principles
Characteristics:
Different bicycles
Different cyclists
Basic principles
Characteristics:
1. Muscle power minimumenergyloss
2. Unstable wind, bumps, low speed
3. No crumple zone vulnerable, space
4. Hardly suspension smooth surface
5. Open air shelter, attractive surroundings
6. Social activity side by side, escort
7. Key factor: peoplephysical limitations
Basic principles
Characteristics: muscle power resistance
Basic principles
Characteristics: muscle power resistance
E-bikes
Basic principles
Characteristics: muscle power
gradient
Basic principles
Characteristics: balance
zigzagging, free space
Basic principles
Characteristics: stability
curves and speed
visibility at crossings
Minimum stable speed: 10 12 km/h
Minimum stable radius: 4 meter
Basic principles
Characteristics:
Different bicycles
Different cyclists
Different use of bicycle
Basic principles
Integral design:
All kind of activities
Research and inventory
Analysis and design
Consultation and decisions
All stages planning& design
Initial phase
Bicycle structure plan
Bottle neck phase
Programme of facilities
Implementation phase
Basic principles
Function, form and use
in balance, from road safety
point of view:
Sustainable Safety
function: use of the road as intended by the road authority
design: the physical design and layout properties of the infrastructure
use: actual use of the infrastructure and behaviour of the road user
Function
of road
Design
of road
Use
of road
Main requirements
Safety
Attractiveness
Directness
Cohesion
Comfort
5 main
requirements
Cohesive whole
(network / route)
From origin to destination
availability
ease
quality
freedom
Cohesion
Main requirements
Cohesion
Complete network:
parallel routes
Complete routes:
centres / main destinations
high potential main routes
Recognisability:
route as such is clearly ongoing
Main requirements
Directness
As direct as possible
(route)
From origin to destination
Minimumtravel time
traffic flow speed
delays (number and length)
detours (distance)
Main requirements
Directness
Distance:
minimal detours
minimal bending and winding
avoid illegal movements
Time:
minimal number of stops or delay
Main requirements
Attractiveness
Cycling has to be pleasant
(journey)
Varies per person and per motif;
Psychological: perception
e.g.:
quiet
smooth
safe
beauty (nature / buildings)
Also: social safety
Main requirements
Attractiveness
Social safety:
social control at busy routes
safe alternative
visibility (surroundings)
public lighting
maintenance
Traffic nuisance:
separation with busy traffic (motor vehicles)
related to surroundings
Main requirements
Vulnerability
(mass / speed / no technical provisions)
Save conditions:
Separation in time or space
big residential areas
avoid dangerous routes
short journeys
shortest = safest
ease
avoid conflicts
reduce speed
Safety
Main requirements
Safety
Crossing traffic conflicts:
minimal number of meetings
Vehicle separation:
in case of major speed differences
Speed reduction:
at level crossings main traffic routes
Road categories:
recognizable, uniform solutions
Sufficient visibility (day and night)
Avoid obstacles
Main requirements
Comfort
Minimumnuisance and delay
(journey)
Avoid additional physical effort
smoothness of pavement
hilliness
chance of stopping
weather
traffic
Main requirements
Comfort
Traffic nuisance:
minimize number of meetings, noise, pollution
Flow:
minimize probability of speed reduction, waiting
and delay
Smoothness:
surface, preferably asphalt or concrete
Comprehensibility:
mental map, signposting
Gradient and weather nuisance
Main requirements
Essential basis for bicycle friendly climate
Provides opportunity to use bicycle for
various purposes
Distinguishes functions of routes
Allows design related to function
Network based on expected use:
Define main origins and destinations
Link origins and destinations
(Multi modal) traffic modelling
Main requirements: network
Providing physical link between origin and destination
Level of quality related to function and (expected) use
Main requirements: routes
Design choices and decisions
Function, form and use:
Bicycle volume
Motor vehicle speed
Motor vehicle volume
Design requirements:
Cohesion not applicable
Main requirements: sections
Function
of road
Design
of road
Use
of road
Design choices and decisions
Function, form and use:
Comprehensible
Minimumnumber of conflict points
Low traffic speed
Design requirements:
Cohesion not applicable
Main requirements: junctions / crossings
Function
of road
Design
of road
Use
of road
competitive position
attractiveness
comfort (road surface)
comfort (nuisance)
directness
written policy
bicyclists satisfaction
urban density
road safety
bicycle usage
norm small cities
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Evaluation
Additional subjects
Bicycle Traffic Design
Thank you for your attention