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# By Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta E-mail; kg.abhi@gmail.

com

Introduction to Calculus

Course-2
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Limit of Trigonometric Functions:

We know how sin x and cos x vary with x in the range between 0 and 2π (=360 0 ):
π = 180 o .

0o 30 0 45 o 60 o 90 o
sin 0 1 1 3 1
2 2 2
cos 1 3 1 1 0
2 2 2
cosec ∞ 2 2 2 1
3
sec 1 2 2 2 ∞
3
tan 0 1 1 3 ∞
3
cot ∞ 3 1 1 0
3
.
To obtain the above table, take 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 corresponding to 0 o , 30 o , 45 o , 60 o and
90 o respectively, divide each by 4 and then take square roots. Thus you get the values of
sine-function for different angles. To obtain the values of cosine, take the reverse order.

## From the above table we find that

Lim sin x = 0
x →0

Lim cos x = 1
x →0
The following Limit can be shown to be (this is not proved here):

sin x
Lim =1
x →0 x

## sin kx sin kx sin kx

#1. Lim = Lim ⋅ k = Lim . Lim k
x →0 x x →0 kx x →0 kx x →0

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By Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta E-mail; kg.abhi@gmail.com

sin y
= Lim ⋅ k [Assume y = kx . As x → 0 , y → 0 ]
y →0 y
= 1. k = k.

## tan x sin x 1 sin x 1 1

#2. Lim = Lim . = Lim . Lim = 1. =1.
x →0 x x → 0 x cos x x → 0 x x → 0 cos x 1

## Find out the limits:

sin αx α
#1. Lim , where α and β are constants Ans.
x →0 sin β x β
1 − cos x
#2. Lim Ans. 0
x →0 x

## Suppose we try to calculate the following combination of numbers in a systematic way:

1
 1
1 +  = 2
 1
2
 1
1 +  = (1.5) = 2.25
2

 2 
3
 1
1 +  = (1.33...) ≅ 2.35.. (approximate value)
3

 3
4
 1
1 +  = (1.25) = 2.44140625.
4

 4
n
 1
In this way, if we go on calculating 1 +  for the higher and higher values of n starting
 n
from 1, 2, 3, 4…..to any number, we see that the value of the above expression is
something between the numbers 2 and 3.
n
 1
Therefore, we can say that the value of the expression 1 +  , as n → ∞ , has a limiting
 n
value between the numbers 2 and 3. It is seen that this ‘limiting value’ is an irrational
number, we call it e .

e = 2.7182818284 ....

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By Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta E-mail; kg.abhi@gmail.com

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Note:
Irrational numbers are those which can not be expressed as ratio of two integer numbers.
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Example: 5 , π etc. ( π is only approximated as a rational number = .)
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n
 1
We have now Lim1 +  = e
n →∞
 n

In place of the integer number n we can also take any variable x and show that
x
 1
Lim1 +  = e .
x →∞
 x
1
Also suppose, y = . Then as x → ∞ we have y → 0 . Therefore, we can now write
x

1
Lim(1 + y ) y = e
y →0

## Examples where we use the above formula:

n +5 n 5 n 5
 1  1  1  1  1
#1. Lim 1 +  = Lim 1 +  1 +  = Lim 1 +  Lim 1 +  = e .1 = e .
n →∞
 n n →∞
 n  n n →∞
 n  n →∞  n 

## Find out the limits:

3x
 1
#1. Lim 1 +  Ans. e 3
x →∞
 x
x
 2
#2. Lim 1 +  Ans. e 2
x →∞
 x
x +3
 x + 3
#3. Lim   Ans. e 4
x →∞
 x −1 
x
 x  1
#4. Lim   Ans.
x →∞
1+ x  e

## ⇒ e x is called Exponential function. This is a very important function. This is used in

Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Statistics, Engineering, everywhere….