67 views

Original Title: Calculus Course 2

Uploaded by Abhijit Kar Gupta

- MrJacksonMaths Higher Non Calculator Paper J
- Calculus Course 1
- Calculus Course 3
- Calculus Course 4
- A Short Course on PROBABILITY and SAMPLING
- Solving Mechanics Problems: some tricks
- A short course on Statistics, Probability and Applications
- Covariance: a little introduction
- Matlab tutorial
- 11
- Maths 1A - Chapter Wise Important Questions
- FUN WITH DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
- Trignometric Formule of Class 10
- Applications WallIs
- Mathcity.org
- The Problem: Prove Sin(U-V)=Sin(u)Cos(v)-Cos(u)Sin(v)
- Chap1 ECL301L Lab Manual Pascual
- Simple Curve.pdf
- Section3_3
- (www.entrance-exam.net)-XAT Data Interpretation and Quantitative Ability Sample Paper 3

You are on page 1of 3

com

Introduction to Calculus

Course-2

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Limit of Trigonometric Functions:

We know how sin x and cos x vary with x in the range between 0 and 2π (=360 0 ):

π = 180 o .

0o 30 0 45 o 60 o 90 o

sin 0 1 1 3 1

2 2 2

cos 1 3 1 1 0

2 2 2

cosec ∞ 2 2 2 1

3

sec 1 2 2 2 ∞

3

tan 0 1 1 3 ∞

3

cot ∞ 3 1 1 0

3

.

To obtain the above table, take 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 corresponding to 0 o , 30 o , 45 o , 60 o and

90 o respectively, divide each by 4 and then take square roots. Thus you get the values of

sine-function for different angles. To obtain the values of cosine, take the reverse order.

Lim sin x = 0

x →0

Lim cos x = 1

x →0

The following Limit can be shown to be (this is not proved here):

sin x

Lim =1

x →0 x

#1. Lim = Lim ⋅ k = Lim . Lim k

x →0 x x →0 kx x →0 kx x →0

1

By Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta E-mail; kg.abhi@gmail.com

sin y

= Lim ⋅ k [Assume y = kx . As x → 0 , y → 0 ]

y →0 y

= 1. k = k.

#2. Lim = Lim . = Lim . Lim = 1. =1.

x →0 x x → 0 x cos x x → 0 x x → 0 cos x 1

sin αx α

#1. Lim , where α and β are constants Ans.

x →0 sin β x β

1 − cos x

#2. Lim Ans. 0

x →0 x

1

1

1 + = 2

1

2

1

1 + = (1.5) = 2.25

2

2

3

1

1 + = (1.33...) ≅ 2.35.. (approximate value)

3

3

4

1

1 + = (1.25) = 2.44140625.

4

4

n

1

In this way, if we go on calculating 1 + for the higher and higher values of n starting

n

from 1, 2, 3, 4…..to any number, we see that the value of the above expression is

something between the numbers 2 and 3.

n

1

Therefore, we can say that the value of the expression 1 + , as n → ∞ , has a limiting

n

value between the numbers 2 and 3. It is seen that this ‘limiting value’ is an irrational

number, we call it e .

e = 2.7182818284 ....

2

By Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta E-mail; kg.abhi@gmail.com

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note:

Irrational numbers are those which can not be expressed as ratio of two integer numbers.

22

Example: 5 , π etc. ( π is only approximated as a rational number = .)

7

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

n

1

We have now Lim1 + = e

n →∞

n

In place of the integer number n we can also take any variable x and show that

x

1

Lim1 + = e .

x →∞

x

1

Also suppose, y = . Then as x → ∞ we have y → 0 . Therefore, we can now write

x

1

Lim(1 + y ) y = e

y →0

n +5 n 5 n 5

1 1 1 1 1

#1. Lim 1 + = Lim 1 + 1 + = Lim 1 + Lim 1 + = e .1 = e .

n →∞

n n →∞

n n n →∞

n n →∞ n

3x

1

#1. Lim 1 + Ans. e 3

x →∞

x

x

2

#2. Lim 1 + Ans. e 2

x →∞

x

x +3

x + 3

#3. Lim Ans. e 4

x →∞

x −1

x

x 1

#4. Lim Ans.

x →∞

1+ x e

Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Statistics, Engineering, everywhere….

- MrJacksonMaths Higher Non Calculator Paper JUploaded byRussell Jackson
- Calculus Course 1Uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Calculus Course 3Uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Calculus Course 4Uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- A Short Course on PROBABILITY and SAMPLINGUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Solving Mechanics Problems: some tricksUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- A short course on Statistics, Probability and ApplicationsUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Covariance: a little introductionUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Matlab tutorialUploaded byBenjamin Koh
- 11Uploaded byHudzaifi
- Maths 1A - Chapter Wise Important QuestionsUploaded byShiva Aeronautical Engr
- FUN WITH DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONSUploaded byVeeraragavan Subramaniam
- Trignometric Formule of Class 10Uploaded byADWAITH LALU
- Applications WallIsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Mathcity.orgUploaded byyasir wyne
- The Problem: Prove Sin(U-V)=Sin(u)Cos(v)-Cos(u)Sin(v)Uploaded byCCSMATH
- Chap1 ECL301L Lab Manual PascualUploaded bypascionladion
- Simple Curve.pdfUploaded byIvan Villanueva
- Section3_3Uploaded bysonti11
- (www.entrance-exam.net)-XAT Data Interpretation and Quantitative Ability Sample Paper 3Uploaded byHiren Heliya
- 2014hehUploaded bymiaow
- 18_032006L06Uploaded byIgor Campos
- MMUploaded byΘανάσης Δρούγας
- Trigonometry 2Uploaded byJehan B Kothari
- FPL_1487ocrUploaded bySasa Rankovic
- M251WEBUploaded bywill b
- calg t5 2Uploaded byapi-261379705
- JRProg-Yr11-3u-2010Uploaded byJohn
- the unit circleUploaded byapi-285179261
- ME 570 - Dynamics of Aerospace Vehicles - Rotational Equations of MotionUploaded byOğuzhan Köksal

- Lect-III Vector SpaceUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Python for Data Science and Scientific ComputationUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Python 3.pdfUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Karnaugh Map (K-Map) and all thatUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Tower of Hanoi: Fortran CodeUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Vector Space - a Set of LecturesUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Path Analysis for Linear Multiple RegressionUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- From Pick's to PythagorasUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Statistical Mechanics TEST QuestionsUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Lect-IV Vector SpaceUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- CorrelationUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- A Lecture on Teachers' DayUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Lecture in Theoretical Mechanics - 5Uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- From Equations of Motions to Mathematical IdentitiesUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Bangla ChhoraUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- How can you create a SUDOKU puzzle?Uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Failure of Democracy in India?Uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Lectures on Theoretical Mechanics - 8 [Rigid body Rotation]Uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Covariance: a little introductionUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Properties of Bulk MatterUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Lectures on Theoretical Mechanics - 6Uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Lectures on Theoretical Mechanics - 7 [Rotating Coordinate System: Coriolis force etc.]Uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Solution to Question Paper IV, V.U. 2013Uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Lect-II Vector SpaceUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Lect-V Vector SpaceUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Lect-VI Vector SpaceUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Oscillation and Decay - a pictorial tour through Computer ProgramsUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Lecture - I Vector SpaceUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta

- as2Uploaded byASDFJGHFDSD
- Quasilinear PDEUploaded byAnnie Todd
- Lec41 (Constrained Optimization)Uploaded byJohn Pinto
- Midterm Practice QuestionsUploaded bybrsbyrm
- Graphic Designing With Transformed Functions TeacherUploaded byEli Troen
- ST7201-Finite Element MethodUploaded byVishal Ranganathan
- Ramanujam Made Substantial Contributions to the Analytical Theory of Numbers AndUploaded bypreetamdas
- -Control theory pdf-Uploaded byapi-3755845
- Finite-Length Discrete TransformsUploaded byThiruselvan Manian
- The Ηypothesis of RiemannUploaded byNikos Mantzakouras
- Tourism Research Methods SyllabusUploaded byBabu George
- MATH685_Sp10_lec10Uploaded byprasad
- ODE Q&AUploaded byJohn
- cremeans lp 11 4 11 10 full scheduleUploaded byapi-420628029
- Statistical Process ControlUploaded byAhamed Shareef S A
- Zero d Ha ScannersUploaded byd_narnolia
- MTE-10Uploaded byVipin
- NumericalIntegration.pdfUploaded byAshok Kumar K
- 012 - Advanced Mathematical Analysis.pdfUploaded byVishakh Kumar
- Econometrics LectureUploaded bySharif Jan
- GraphPad Prism SlidesUploaded byVasincuAlexandru
- Analytics Reading ListUploaded byshivnair
- Method validationUploaded byAnonymous RrGVQj
- Linear Reg With Multiple VariableUploaded byNickKr
- Linear ProgrammingUploaded byDuma Dumai
- Trace ElementUploaded bybahrul.hidayah@yahoo.com
- Shape of a Dew DropUploaded byFahd Shariff
- analisefuncionalexerciciosUploaded byJean Cerqueira Berni
- Probability Theory: Coupling - W.th.F. Den HollanderUploaded bydarioo84
- Differential Equations GATE MCQUploaded byJhasper Managyo