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SCIENCE FORM 4 CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 3: HEREDITY AND VARIATION


3.1 Cell Division
1. In a cell nucleus, there are threadlike structures called _____________,
which carry genetic information determining our characteristics.
2. Each chromosome contains a molecule of a _____________________.
3. A _____________ is a small segment of DNA molecule. It carries genetic
information which determines a erson!s traits assed from on from one of
his arents.
". #uman has __________ chromosomes.
$. ____________________ is a rocess which in%ol%es the di%ision of
nucleus and cytolasm to roduce new cells and to ass on genetic
materials.
&. 'here are two tyes of cell di%ision
a) Mitosis
( takes lace only in somatic cells )*ody cells+
Brie !es"ri#tion Mitosis in an ani$al "ell
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%) Meiosis
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I$#ortan"e
o $itosis
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SCIENCE FORM 4 CHAPTER 3
& Descrition of meiosis rocess
1.
'.
3.
(.
).
*.
+.
,.
,. Imortance of meiosis
-- .roduces gametes for se/ual reroduction
-- 0i%e rise of %ariation due to1
-- 2aintain the num*er of chromosomes in an organism from one
generation to the ne/t generation.
3. 4omarison *etween mitosis and meiosis
a+ 5imilarity
--
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SCIENCE FORM 4 CHAPTER 3
--
--
--
Mitosis Dieren"e Meiosis
6ccurs during
Num*er of cell di%ision
Num*er of daughter
)new+ cells roduced
0enetic content of
daughter cells
4rossing o%er
7ariations
Imortance
3.' Prin"i#les an! Me"-anis$ o In-eritan"e
1. ________ are hereditary unit which determine the different traits of an
organism.
2. A _____________ gene is a gene which shows its effect whene%er it is
resent.
3. A gege whose effect masked *y a dominant gene is known as __________
gene ) which e/resses itself only when there are two of the same kind+
". 'he ____________ of an indi%idual refers to the genetic constitution of an
indi%idual.
$. 'he ____________ refers to the traits ) or characteristics+ e/ressed
outwardly *y an indi%idual.
&. E/amles of dominant and recessi%e traits1
Traits Do$inant Re"essive
'ongue rolling 8oller Non(roller
7ision Normal 4olour *lind
#air te/ture 4urly 5traight
Ear lo*e 9ree Attached
Men!el.s E/#eri$ent o In-eritan"e

1. 9igure *elow is an e/eriment carried out *y 0eorge 2endel where he
cross(ollinated ure*red garden ea lants, a yellow ea with the green ea.
.arent generation1
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0ametes1
91 generation1
0enotye ratio1
.henotye ratio1
91 : 91
0ametes1
92 generation1
0enotye ratio1
.henotye ratio1
2. 4onclusion1
Dominant trait1 _____________
8ecessi%e trait1 _____________
3.3 0e/ Deter$ination an! 1or$ation o T2ins
1. 6ut of "& chromosomes that humans ha%e, there are 22 matching airs
called ____________ and a air chromosomes do not match, which called the
_________________ chromosomes.
2. 'he se/ chromosomes determine whether a *a*y will de%elo into *oy or
girl.
3. 4ells of a *oy ha%e a : chromosomes and a ; chromosome )"" < :;+,
whereas a girl will ha%e two : chromosome )""< ::+.
". 9igure *elow shows the ossi*le of getting a male child )$=>+ and a female
child )$=>+.
O""3rren"e o t2ins
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SCIENCE FORM 4 CHAPTER 3
1. Each month, one of the o%aries of a normal female releases and o%um.
?hen the o%um is fertili@ed *y a serm, a @ygote is formed which de%elos
into an em*ryo and then a foetus.
I!enti"al t2ins
1. 'he woman roduces one o%um that will *e fertilised *y a serm to form a
___________.
2. 'he @ygote di%ides into two searate em*ryos, that will de%elo into foetus.
3. 'he two foetus share the same lacenta.
". Identical twins are two normal genetically identical indi%iduals and ha%e the
same se/.
Non&i!enti"al t2ins
1. 'he woman roduces two different o%a that will *e fertili@ed *y two different
serms at the same time. As a result, two @ygotes are formed, which results in
non(identical twins.
2. 'he two foetus ha%e their own lacenta.
3. 'he non(identical twins are genetically different and may *e of the same
se/ or of the different se/.
0ia$ese t2ins
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1. A secial case of identical twins is the
5iamese twins. 'hey are attached one to
another *ecause during their de%eloment,
the two em*ryos do not searate comletely
0i$ilarities an! !ieren"es %et2een i!enti"al an! non&i!enti"al t2ins
5imilarities
Differences
I!enti"al T2ins In ter$s o Non&i!enti"al t2ins
Num*er of o%a in%ol%ed
Num*er of serm in%ol%ed
Num*er of lacenta formed
Num*er of @ygotes formed
0enetic information of twins
4haracteristics
5e/
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~ The twins are formed at the same time
~ Fertilasation occurs in Fallopian tube.
~ Each oum is fertili!ed b" one sperm.
~ #oth t"pes of twins deelop in the uterus