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Not Autistic or Hyperactive. Just Seeing Double at
Times
Dr. Atul Gawande on Paying for a Health Care
Overhaul
December 8, 2009, 10:31 AM
By LAURA NOVAK
Published: September 11, 2007
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As an infant, Raea Gragg was withdrawn and could not make eye
contact. By preschool she needed to smell and squeeze every object
she saw.
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“She touched faces and would bring
everything to mouth,” said her
mother, Kara Gragg, of Lafayette,
Calif. “She would go up to people,
sniff them and touch their cheeks.”
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Specialists conducted a battery of
Thor Swift for The New York Times
Raea Gragg, 9, needed therapy to
help her eyes work together.
tests. The possible diagnoses
mounted: autism spectrum disorder, neurofibromatosis,
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorder.
A behavioral pediatrician prescribed three drugs for attention deficit and depression.
The only constant was that Raea, now 9, did anything she could to avoid reading and
writing.
Though she had already had two eye exams, finding her vision was 20/20, this year a
school reading specialist suggested another. And this time the optometrist did what no
one else had: he put his finger on Raea’s nose and moved it in and out. Her eyes jumped
all over the place.
Within minutes he had the diagnosis: convergence insufficiency, in which the patient
sees double because the eyes cannot work together at close range.
Experts estimate that 5 percent of school-age children have convergence insufficiency.
They can suffer headaches, dizziness and nausea, which can lead to irritability, low self-
esteem and inability to concentrate.
Doctors and teachers often attribute the behavior to attention disorders or seek other
medical explanations. Mrs. Gragg said her pediatrician had never heard of convergence
insufficiency.
Dr. David Granet, a professor of ophthalmology and pediatrics at the University of
California, San Diego, said: “Everyone is familiar with A.D.H.D. and A.D.D., but not with

Not Autistic or Hyperactive. Just Seeing Double at Times - New York Times

12/8/09 1:20 PM

eye problems, especially not with convergence insufficiency. But we don’t want to send kids for remedial reading and education efforts if they have an eye problem. This should be part of the protocol for eye doctors.”

In 2005, Dr. Granet studied 266 patients with convergence insufficiency. Nearly 10 percent also had diagnoses of attention deficit or hyperactivity — three times that of the general population. The reverse also proved true: examining the hospital records of 1,700 children with A.D.H.D., Dr. Granet and colleagues found that 16 percent also had convergence insufficiency, three times the normal rate.

“When five of the symptoms of A.D.H.D. overlap with C.I.,” he said, “how can you not step back and say, Wait a minute?”

Dr. Eric Borsting, an optometrist and professor at the Southern California College of Optometry who has also studied the links between vision and attention problems, agreed. “We know that kids with C.I. are more likely to have problems like loss of concentration when reading and trouble remembering what they read,” he said. “Doctors should look at it when there’s a history of poor school performance.”

Dr. Stuart Dankner, a pediatric ophthalmologist in Baltimore and an assistant clinical professor at Johns Hopkins, said that children should be tested for convergence difficulty, but cautioned that it was not the cause of most attention and reading problems.

Dr. Dankner recommended an overall assessment by a psychologist or education specialist. “An eye exam should be done as an adjunct,” he said, “because even if the child has convergence difficulty, they will usually also have other problems that need to be addressed.”

Doctors recommend a dilated eye exam and a check of eye teaming and focusing skills. Testing includes using a pen or finger to test for the “near point of convergence,” as well as a phoropter, which uses lenses and prisms to test the eyes’ ability to work together.

There is no consensus on how to treat convergence insufficiency. Next spring, the National Eye Institute will announce the results of a $6 million randomized clinical trial measuring the benefits of vision therapy in a doctor’s office versus home-based therapy.

For Raea Gragg, the treatment was relatively simple. For nine months she wore special glasses that use prisms to help the eyes converge inward. She then had three months of vision therapy. She has just entered fourth grade and is reading at grade level.

“Raea didn’t know how to describe it because that’s all she’s ever known,” her mother said. “She felt like she had been telling us all along that she couldn’t see, but nobody listened.”

Correction: October 4, 2007

An article in Science Times on Sept. 11 about convergence insufficiency, in which a patient sees double because the eyes cannot work together at close range, misidentified

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Not Autistic or Hyperactive. Just Seeing Double at Times - New York Times

12/8/09 1:20 PM

the specialty of the doctor who diagnosed and treated the problem in Raea Gragg. The
the specialty of the doctor who diagnosed and treated the problem in Raea Gragg. The
doctor, Carl Hirsch, who was not identified in the article, is an optometrist, not an
ophthalmologist.
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Past Coverage
Not Autistic or Hyperactive. Just Seeing Double at Times (September 11, 2007)
REALLY? (July 4, 2006)
Assemblyman Takes Aim At City Rules on 3rd Graders (April 20, 2004)
Video-Game Killing Builds Visual Skills, Researchers Report (May 29, 2003)
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