MD/AY20142015 1
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GANDHINAGAR
Discipline of Mechanical Engineering
ME605: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
COMPUTATIONAL LABORATORY 1
NUMERICAL SCHEMES FOR PARABOLIC SYSTEMS
Due Date: Any time between 2331 Aug 2014
Late submissions will attract diminishing returns!
Focus: The focus of this computational laboratory session is on flow problems which are parabolic in nature.
This exercise covers formulation of the flow problems in the framework of finite difference and finite volume
discretization methods and the implementation of efficient and stable solution methods to salvage accurate and
meaningful numerical solutions. You will use these problems to explore basic issues of numerical simulation
such as convergence, error control, stability and so on covered in the associated lectures.
Sample Code
A Matlab code implementing the FTCS (Forward Time Central Space) scheme for the 1D parabolic PDE
discussed in the lectures to model and simulate the onedimensional heat equation is provided for you to use and
modify accordingly to solve unsteady flow problems dominated by viscous diffusion. You will be required to use
this code to test a Neumann boundary condition which you will develop in CA2..
1. Brief Description of the Flow Problem
The unsteady motion of the fluid due to an impulsive acceleration of an infinite flat plate in a viscous
incompressible fluid can be described by
2
2
u u
t y
v
c c
=
c c
(1)
which exemplifies a parabolic equation where v is the
kinematic viscosity, u is the velocity in the xdirection.
This equation implies that events propagate into the
future, and a monotone convergence to steady state is
expected.
Figure 1: Stokes 1
st
Problem
This is Stokess first problem, a fundamental solution in fluid dynamics, which represents one of the few exact
solutions to the NavierStokes equations. It describes the evolution of the velocity field in the vicinity of an
infinite plate which is impulsively set in motion with constant velocity, U, parallel to the xaxis in an infinite
fluid medium, as shown in Fig. 1. Of primary interest are the rate of penetration, ( ) t o of the velocity field into
the fluid and the shear stress at the surface of the plate,
w
t .
Equation (1) is solved subject to the following initial and boundary conditions:
( ) Initial Condition: 0 , 0 0
Boundary Conditions
0 (0, )
( , ) 0
t u y
y u t U
y u y t
= =
= =
=
The exact solution for this problem is
1
2 2
u y y
erf erfc
U t t v v
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
(2a)
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where erf(.) is the error function and erfc(.) is the complimentary error function.
The corresponding shear stress on the wall is
w
w
u U
y t
t
tu
c
= =
c
(2b)
If Eqn(1) is solved numerically, then the boundary condition at infinity must be imposed at a finite distance
from the plate and the applicable initial and boundary conditions will be
( ) Initial Condition: 0 , 0 0
Boundary Conditions
0 (0, )
( , ) 0
t u y
y u t U
y h u h t
= =
= =
= =
The exact analytical solution for this problem for longer times
can be shown to be as follows:
2 2
2
1
sin
1 2
n t
h
n
n y
u y h
e
U h n
t u
t
t
=
 

 
\ .
=

\ .
(3a)
and this corresponds to an impulsively started Couette flow in
which the flow is confined within the space between two
infinitely long plates and the flow is set in motion by moving
the lower plate (y=0) at a constant velocity U relative to the
upper plate (y=h).
Figure 2: Impulsively Started Couette Flow
The corresponding shear stress on the wall can be shown to be
2 2
2
1
1 2
n t
h
w
n
w
u U
e
y h
t u
t
=
 
c
 = = +

c
\ .
(3b)
For very short times, the velocity field has not penetrated far enough into the fluid to reach the upper stationary
wall. Hence for very short times following the impulsive start, the behavior can be represented by the solution to
Stokes first problem and the exact solution for this problem for early times can also be shown to be as follows:
2
2 2 4 4
.....
4
where = and
u
erfc erfc erfc erfc erfc
U
y t
h h
t t t t t
v
t
+ +  
= + +

\ .
=
(3c)
and this corresponds to Couette flow in which the flow is confined within the space between two infinitely long
plates and the flow is set in motion by moving the lower plate (y=0) at a constant velocity U relative to the
upper plate (y=h).
From equation 3(a), in the limit as t Eqn(1) reduces to
2
2
0
u
y
c
=
c
(4a)
the steady state result
1
u y
U h
 
=

\ .
(4b)
which corresponds to steady Couette flow with zero pressure gradient will be reached.
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2 Assigned Computational Tasks
(a) Warm Up Exercise: (You are required to complete this task by the end of todays lab session)
The Matlab code FTCS1DP.m simulates the 1D heat conduction problem used as an example in the
lectures using the explicit FTCS method. Modify the code to use the following 5point symmetric
scheme for the approximation of the second derivative term in the equation at the interior points i.e.
2
2 1 1 2
2 2
1 1 2 3
max 2
16 30 16
12
11 20 6 4
For 2 use and the equivalent formula for 1
12
i i i i i
i i i i i
T T T T T T
x x
T T T T T
i i i
x
+ +
+ + +
+ + c
~
c A
+ +
= =
A
How does the solution compare with that of the FTCS scheme?
(b) Modify the Matlab code FTCS1DP.m to numerically model the impulsively started Couette Flow
problem defined by Eqn (1) and subject to the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Assume that
the kinematic viscosity of the fluid v is 0.000217 m
2
/s, U=40 m/s and h = 40 mm. Execute the explicit
FTCS method using 0.001 y m A = , 0.002 t s A = and 0.00232 t s A = by marching in time for 540 time
steps. Is h=40 mm an adequate choice? Plot the variation of u as a function of y and t and the wall shear
stress as a function of time and comment on the results for the two choices of the time steps. Repeat the
same for the modification based on the 5point symmetric scheme for the second derivative at the
interior points as defined in part(a).
(c) Modify the given code to implement the implicit CrankNicholson scheme and the fully implicit
Laasonen scheme to obtain the solution using time step 0.002 t A = to march for 540 time steps and
0.01 t A = to march for 108 time steps. Comment on the results predicted by the two methods. Plot the
variation of u as a function of y and t and the wall shear stress as a function of time for both these
methods and comment on your observation.
(d) (i) Since analytical solutions to this problem are available as defined by Eqns (2ab) and (3ac), then
the RMS value of the error can be defined as
( )
max
2
1
max
j J
j
RMS
AV CV
J
c
=
=
 

 =


\ .