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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning



Analysis and Design

Sixth Edition


Faye C. McQuiston

J erald D. Parker

J effrey D. Spitler


J ohn Wiley & Sons

2004
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PREFACE
This manual consists of solutions for the text problems, Chapters 1
through 15. Many of the problems with a design orientation have more
than one acceptable solution. Therefore, when an acceptable solution
may be quite variable or closely follows an example, the solution may be
omitted or only general guidelines given.

The degree of difficulty and length of the problems vary
considerably. In many cases the problem statement should be discussed
in class prior to assignment. This manual should be helpful in this
respect.

The use of computer software is strongly encouraged. Many
problems can be solved by hand or computer calculations. Most of these
problems are in Chapters 3, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14. A number of problems
are designed for solution using the software distributed with the website.

A great effort has been made to eliminate errors in the solutions;
however, some probably still exist. Please see the addendum to this
manual for assumptions used in problems 6-10, 7-9, 7-14, 8-25, and 8-26.
The authors would appreciate notification of any errors discovered.

Faye C. McQuiston
J erald D. Parker
J effrey D. Spitler
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CONTENTS
Chapter 1 Introduction 1-6
Chapter 2 Air-Conditioning Systems 7
Chapter 3 Moist Air Properties and Conditioning 8-65
Processes
Chapter 4 Comfort and Health Indoor Environmental 66-78
Quality
Chapter 5 Heat Transmission in Building Structures 79-92
Chapter 6 Space Heat Load 93-105
Chapter 7 Solar Radiation 106-129
Chapter 8 The Cooling Load 130-183
Chapter 9 Energy Calculations and Building Simulation 184-188
Chapter 10 Flow, Pumps, and Piping Design 189-210
Chapter 11 Space Air Diffusion 211-219
Chapter 12 Fans and Building Air Distribution 220-259
Chapter 13 Direct Contact Heat and Mass Transfer 260-265
Chapter 14 Extended Surface Heat Exchangers 266-298
Chapter 15 Refrigeration 299-310
Addendum 311-312

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testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been
adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or
108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permission Department,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030.

PREFACE
This manual consists of solutions for the text problems, Chapters 1
through 15. Many of the problems with a design orientation have more
than one acceptable solution. Therefore, when an acceptable solution
may be quite variable or closely follows an example, the solution may be
omitted or only general guidelines given.

The degree of difficulty and length of the problems vary
considerably. In many cases the problem statement should be discussed
in class prior to assignment. This manual should be helpful in this
respect.

The use of computer software is strongly encouraged. Many
problems can be solved by hand or computer calculations. Most of these
problems are in Chapters 3, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14. A number of problems
are designed for solution using the software distributed with the website.

A great effort has been made to eliminate errors in the solutions;
however, some probably still exist. Please see the addendum to this
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Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
manual for assumptions used in problems 6-10, 7-9, 7-14, 8-25, and 8-26.
The authors would appreciate notification of any errors discovered.

Faye C. McQuiston
J erald D. Parker
J effrey D. Spitler



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311
ADDENDUM
to
Solutions Manual for McQuiston, HVAC 6e

Problem 6-10

For the floor, it is unclear what 2 in. vertical edge insulation means (whether 2 in. is the
thickness of insulation or the depth of the edge insulated).
The solution assumes that the insulation has R-value of 5.4 hr-ft-F/Btu and the
depth of the edge is 2 ft.

For the door, Table 5-8 in the 6
th
edition does not have U-value for the wood storm door
and there are three types of the wood door with 1 in. thickness.
The solution assumes that the doors are panel doors with metal storm door; hence,
its U-value is 0.28 But/hr-ft-F.

Problem 7-9

The standard time zone for Ottawa, Ontario is Eastern Standard Time instead of Central
Standard Time.
The solution uses Eastern Standard Time.

Problem 7-14

For the specified location, the sunset occurs before 9:00 p.m. CDST on J une 21.
The solution uses 8:00 p.m. CDST instead of 9:00 p.m.


Problems 8-25 and 8-26

Both problems do not specify the window orientation.
The solutions assume the west-facing window for both problems.


Table 8-20

Recommended radiative and convective fractions for solar heat gains should be revised
since the 6
th
edition uses the SHGC values in the calculation of the (combined) solar heat
gain for the RTS method.

Example 8-16

The example actually uses 90%/10% of radiative/convective split of the combined solar
heat gain. However, the text (page 270) says 100%/0% for the transmitted solar heat gain
and 63%/37% for the absorbed solar heat gain.

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312
Problems 8-25 and 8-26

The solutions for both problems use 90%/10% for the combined solar heat gain.

Example 9-1

The calculation for this example should be

606 , 122
) 1000 )( 0 70 )( 55 . 0 (
) 66 . 0 )( 000 , 80 )( 3725 )( 24 (
=

= F
.

(Changing 13 to 24 and 122790 to 122606).
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testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been
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Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030.

Chapter 1


1-1 (a) 98 Btu/(hr-ft-F) x1.7307 =170 W/(m-K)

(b) 0.24 Btu/(Ibm-F) x4186.8=1.0 kJ /kg-K

(c)
0.04 Ibm/(ft-hr)
3600 sec/hr
x1.488 =16.5
2
Ns
m



(d) 1050
Btu
Ibm
x
4
1
9.48x10


J
Btu
x
2.20462Ibm
kg
=2.44
MJ
kg


(e) 12,000
Btu
Ibm
x
1
3.412
=3.52 kW

(f) 14.7
2
Ibf
in
x 6894.76 =101 kPa

1-2 (a) 120 kPa x
2
lbf /in
6.89476kPa
=17.4 lbf/in
2

(b) 100
W
m K
x 0.5778 =57.8 Btu/hr-ft-F

(c) 0.8
2
W
m K
x 0.1761 =0.14 Btu/hr-ft
2
-F

(d) 10
-6
N-s/m
2
x
1
1.488
=6.7 x 10
-7

lbm
ft sec


(e) 1200 kW x 3412 =4.1 x 10
-6
Btu/hr
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2

(f) 1000
kJ
kg
x
1 Btu
1.055 kJ
x
1 kg
2.2046 lbm
=430
Btu
lbm


1-3 Hp =50 (ft) x 0.3048 (
m
ft
) =15.2 m
P =
15.2 m
1000 Pa/kPa
x
9.807
1
(
N
kg
) x 1000 (kg/m
3
) =149 kPa

1-4 P =
4
12
(ft) x 0.3048 (
m
ft
) x
9.807
1
(
N
kg
) x 1000 (
3
kg
m
)

P =996 Pa 1.0 kPa

1-5

TOTAL BILL =ENERGY CHARGE +DEMAND CHARGE

+METER CHARGE

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
96,000 kw - hrs 0.045 $/kw hr + 624 kw 11 50 $/kw

+$68 =$4,320 +$7,176 +$68 =$11,564


1-6 7 AM to 6 PM 11 hrs/day, 5 days/wk


hrs days
(11) (22) 242hrs/month
day months
=

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3

( )
( )
( )
624 kw
ratio = 1.57
96,000 kw hr
242 hr
=





1-7 This is a trial and error solution since eq. 1-1 cannot be solved
explicitly for i.
Answer converges at just over 4.2% using eq. 1-1
1-8 Determine present worth of savings using eq. 1-1


( )
( )( ) 12 12
0.012
$1000 1- 1+
12
P =
0.012
12
P $134,000










=




1-9 (a) Q VA =

=2 x 3.08 x 10
-3
=6.16 x 10
-3
m
3
/s

m 6.16 x 10 Q =

=
-3
x 998 =6.15 kg/s

(b) A=
4

(0.3)
2
=7.07 x 10
-2
m
2

Q 7.07x10 =

-2
x 4 =0.283 m
3
/ s; = 1.255 kq/m
3

m=1.225 x 0.283 =0.347 kg/s



1-10 V =3x10x20 =600m
3

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4
=600 x
i
Q

1
4
x
1
3600
=4.17 x 10
-2
m
3
/s


1-11

p p
3
q =mc T c =4.183 kJ /(kg-K)
=983.2 kg/m





1-11 (contd)

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
c
3
m kg kJ
q = 1 983.2 4.183 5 20,564
s kg K
m
q =20,564 kw
=

kJ
s


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1-12 =
wat
q

air
q


11,200(1)(10) =


=
2
5000x60x14.7x144x0.24(t 50)
(53.35x510)




11,200 =5601.5 (t
2
-50); t
2
=(11,200/5601.5) +50 =70 F


1-13 Diagram as in 1-12 above.

q

wat
=-q

air

1.5 (4186)(90-t
2
) =2.4 (1.225)(1.0)(30-20)(1000)

6279(90-t
2
) =29,400

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5
t
2
=90 -
29,400
6279
=85.3 C


1-14 q hA(t =

s
- ) t


A= (1/12) x 10 =2.618 ft
2


s
t
=t
sur
212 F

=10x2.618x(212-50) =4241 Btu/hr q


1-15 A= x 0.25x4 =3.14 16 m
2

hA(t q=

s
- ) t

h=
s
q
A(t -t )

=
1250
3.1416(100 10)
; h =4.42 W/(m
2
C)


1-16 (t
p
q mc =

2
-t
1
) ; m Q x =



= P/RT =14.7x144/53.35(76+460)

=0.074 lbm/ft
3

m=5000x0.074x60 =22,208 lbm/hr


=0.24 Btu/lbm-F
p
c

q=22,208x0.24(58-76) =-95,939 Btu/hr


Negative sign indicates cooling


1-17 (t
1 p
mc

3
-t
1
) +
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6
(t
2 p2
mc

3
-t
2
) =0

=
p1
c
p2
c

t
3
=
11 2 2
1 2
(mt m t )
(m m )
+
+





1 2
m Q
1
=

=1000x
14.7x144
53.35(460 50) +
=73.5 lbm/min



1-17 (contd)


2 2
m Q
2
=

=600x
14.7x144
53.35(460 50) +
=46.7 lbm/min


3
(73.5x80) (46.7 x 50)
t 68.3 F
(73.5 46.7)
+
= =
+






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7
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Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030.

Chapter 2


2-1 through 2-20

Solutions are not furnished since many acceptable responses exist
for each problem. It is not expected that the beginning student can handle
these questions easily. The objective is to make the student think about
the complete design problem and the various functions of the system.
These problems are also intended for use in class discussions to enlarge
the text material.
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adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108
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Chapter 3

3-1 (a) P
v
= =
s r
P 0.45(3.17)kPa = 1.43 kPa or 0.45(0.435) = 0.196 psia

P
a
= 101 1.43 = 99.57 kPa or 14.696-0.196 = 14.5 psia

(b)
=
v
v
P

R
v
T or
= = =
3
v
v v
v
P 1430
; 0.0104 kg/m
R T 462.5(297)

or =
0.196(144)
0.00062
85.78(535)
lbv/ft
3

(c) W =
0.6219 (1.43)
(99.57)
= 0.00893 kgv/kga

or
0.6219(0.196)
0.00854 lbv/lba
14.5
=

3-2 (a) English Units t = 80F; P = 14.696 psia;

P
v
= 0.507 psia Table A-1a

W = 0.6219
a
v
P
P
=
0.6219 (0.507)
(14.696 0.507)
= 0.0222 lbv/lba

i = 0.24t + W(1062.2 + 0.444t)

i = 0.24 (80) + 0.0222[1061.2 + 0.444(80)] = 43.55 Btu/lbm

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8
v =
a
a
R T 53.35(460 80)
P (14.696 0.507)144
+
=

= 13.61 ft
3
/lbm

(b) English Units 32F, 14.696 psia

P
v
= 0.089 psia (Table A-1)


3-2 (contd)
W =
0.6219(0.089) lbmv
0.00379
(14.696 0.089) lbma
=



i = 0.24(32) + 0.00379 [1061.2 + 0.444(32)] = 11.76 Btu/lbma

v =
53.35(492)
(14.696 0.089)144
= 12.48 ft
3
/lbma

3-2 (a) SI Units 27C; 101.325 kPa

P
v
= 3.60 kPa, Table A-1b

W = 0.6219
v
a
P 0.6219(3.6) kgv
0.0229
P (101.325 3.6) kga
= =



i = 1.0t + W(2501.3 + 1.86t) kJ/kga

i = 27 + 0.0229(2501.3 + 1.86 x 27) = 85.43 kJ / kga

v =
3
a
a
R T 0.287(300)
= =0.88 m /kga
P (101.325 - 3.6)


(b) SI Units 0.0C; 101.325 kPa

P
v
= 0.61 kPa, Table A-1b

W =
0.6219(0.61)
=0.00377 kgv/kga
(101.325 - 0.61)

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9

i = 0.0 + 0.00377 (2501.3 1.86 x 0.0) = 9.42 kJ/kga

v =
3
0.287(273)
0.778 m /kga
(101.325 - 0.61)
=





3-3 (a) English Units 5000 ft elevation, P = 12.24 psia = 24.92 in.Hg

t = 80 F; P
v
= 0.507 psia (Table A-1a)

W = 0.6219
v
a
P 0.6219(0.507)
=
P (12.24 - 0.507)
= 0.0269 lbv/lba

i = 0.24(80) + 0.0269 [1061.2 + 0.444(80)] = 48.7 Btu/lbma

v =
a
a
R T 53.35(540)
=
P (12.24 - 0.507) 144
= 17.05 ft
3
/ lbma

(b) English Units t = 32 F, P
v
= 0.089 psia ( Table A-1a)

W =
0.6219(0.089)
(12.24 0.089)
= 0.00456 lbmv/lbma

i = 0.24(32) + 0.00456 [1061.2 + 0.444(32)] =12.58 Btu/lbma

v =
53.35(492)
(12.24 0.089)144
= 15.00 ft
3
/lbma

3-3 (a) SI Units -27 C, 1500 m elevation

P = 99.436 + 1500(-0.01) = 84.436 kPa

P
v
= 3.60 kPa, Table A-1b

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10
W =
0.6219x3.60
0.0277 kgv/kga
(84.436 3.60)
=



i = 27 + 0.0277 (2501.3 + 1.86 x 27) = 97.68 kJ/kga




3-3 (contd)
v =
3
0.287x300
1.065 m / kga
(84.436 - 3.60)
=


(b) SI Units 0.0C; 1500m or 84.436 kPa

P
v
= 0.61 kPa; Table A-1b

W =
0.6219 x 0.61
0.00453 kgv / kga
(84.436 - 0.61)
=

i = 0.0 + 0.00453 (2501.3 0.0 x 1.86) = 11.33 kJ / kga

v =
0.287 x 273
(84.436 - 0.61)
= 0.935 m
3
/ kga


3-4 (a) English Units 70F, P
v
= 0.363 psia

P
v
= P
g
= 0.75(0.363) = 0.272 psia

W =
0.6219 (0.272)
0.0117 lbmv / lbma
(14.696 - 0.272)
=


i = 0.24 (70) + 0.0117 [1061.2 + 0.444 (70)] 29.58 Btu / lbma =

(b) P
v
= 0.75 (0.363) = 0.272 psia; P = 12.24 psia

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11
W =
0.6219 (0.272)
(12.24 - 0.272)
= 0.0141 lbmv / lbma

i = 0.24(70) + 0.0141 [1061.2 + 0.444 (70)] 32.20 Btu/ lbma =

3-4 SI Units

(a) 20C, 75% RH, Sea Level

3-4 (contd)

P
s
= 2.34 kPa; P
v
= 0.75 x 2.34 = 1.755 kPa


0.6219 x 1.755
W = =
(101.325 - 1.755)
0.0110 kgv / kga

i = 1.0 t + W(2501.3 + 1.86t)

i = 20 + 0.0110(2501.3 + 1.86 x 20) = 47.92 kJ / kga

(b) 20C, 75% RH, 1525m

P = 99.436 0.01 x 1525 = 84.186 kPa

P
s
= 2.34 KPa; P
v
= 0.75 x 2.34 = 1.755 kPa

W =
0.6219 x 1.755
(84.186 - 1.755)
= 0.0132 kgv / kga

i = 20 + 0.0132(2501.3 + 1.86 x 20) = 53.51 kJ / kga

3-5 English Units

t = 72 Fdb; psia 14.696 P %; 50 = =


s v
s
v
P P or
P
P
= = ; P
v
= 0.5(0.3918) = 0. 196 psia

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12
Air dewpoint = saturated temp. at 0.196 psia = 52.6 F

Moisture will condense because the glass temp.

40 F is below the dew point temp.

3-5 SI Units t = 22C ; 50% ; P = 100 kPa
P
v
=

Ps ; P
v
= 0.5(2.34) = 1.17 kPa

3-5 (contd)

Air dewpoint = sat.temp. at 1.17 kPa = 9.17 C

Glass temp. of 4 C is below the dewpoint of 9.17 C, therefore,

moisture will ccondense on the glass



3-6 English Units -

(a) At 55F, 80% RH, va = 13.12 ft
3
/ lba and
a
= 0.0752 lbma / ft
3

= 22,860 lbma / hr
a
m 5000 (0.0762) 381 lbma / min = =


(b) Using PSYCH
a
= 0.0610 lbma / ft
3
or v
a
= 16.4 ft
3
/ lba

= 5000 (0.061) = 305 lbma / min
a
m

18,300 lbma / hr =

3-6 SI Units

(a) t = 13 C and relative humidity 80%

then v
a
0.820 m
3
/ kga;
a
m 2.36 / 0.82 2.88 kga / s = =



(b) Assuming same conditions

;
3
a
v 0.985 m / kga =
a
m 2.36 / 0.985 2.40 kga / s = =


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M
1
6
F
M
R
13


3-7 English Units t = 80F, 60% RH

(a)
v s
P P 0.6 (0.507) 0.304 psia = = =

= 64.5 F
dp sat v
t (t @ P = )

(b) Same as (a) above

3-7 SI Units

(a) 27 C, 60% RH, Sea Level

P
s
= 3.57 kPa; P
v
= 0.6 x 3.57 = 2.14 kPa


dp sat v
t =(t at P ) 18.4 C

(b) Same as (a) above


3-8
dp
t 9C (48F)

42%
; W 0.0071 kgv / kga (lbv / lba)

Chart 1a & 1b
Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
14
10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
5
0
5
5
55
6
0
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
3
0
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
40
40
45
45
50
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
dp Room
Problem 3-8
W=0.0071
72 (22) 48 (9)
42 %
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
. 1
0
.2
0
. 3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

3-9 (a,b,d) Using the Properties option of PSYCH:

Relative Humidity = 0.59 or 59%

Enthalpy = 30.4 Btu/lbma

Humidity Ratio = 0.0114 lbu/lba

(c) Again using the Properties option

At W=0.0114 lbv/lba; RH = 1.00 or 100%

The dew point = t
db
or t
wb
= 59.9 F
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1
6
F
M
R
15

3-9 (contd)

(e) Using the Density of Dry Air option:

Mass Density = 0.070 lba/ft
3


3-10 Using program PSYCH

(a) t
db
= 102.6; t
wb
= 81.1F



75 F
db
; 65 f
wb
; 14.2 psia

(b) m 58.7

lbm/hr

Q

2
= 1027 cfm


3-11 t
1
= 80 / 67 F; t
2
= 55 F and sat.; assume std. barometer

(a) W
1
W
2
= 0.0112 0.0092 = 0.002 lbv / lba

(b)
l
q 31.5 - 29.3 2.2 Btu / lba = =

(c) q
s
= 29.3 23.2 = 6.1 Btu / lba

(d) q =
l s
q q 8.3 Btu / lba + =



3-12 (a)
*
2
0.6219 (0.3095)
W 0.0134 kgv / kga
(14.696 0.3095)
= =




1
0.24 (65 - 80) ( 0.0134 x 1056.5)
W 0.00993 lbv / lba
(1096 - 33)
+
= =

also W
1
= 0.6219 P
v1
/ (P P
v1
)

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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
16
P
v1
= (0.00993 x 14.696) / ( 0.6219 + 0.00993) = 0.231 psia

3-12 (contd)


1
0.231
0.46 or 46%
0.507
= =

(b) P = 29.42 (0.0009 x 5000) = 24.92 in.Hg. or P = 12.24 psia


*
2
0.6219 x (0.3095)
W 0.01613
(12.24 - 0.3095)
= = lbv/lba

W
1
=
0.24(65 80) (0.01613 x 1056.5)
0.01265 lbv / lba
( 1096 - 33)
+
=
or kgv / kga

P
v1
= 0.01265 x 12.24 / ( 0.6219 + 0.01265) = 0.244 psia


1
0.244
0.48 or 48%
0.507
= =


3-13 (a) Sea Level

Dry
Bulb, F
Wet
Bulb, F
Dew
point
F
Humid.
Ratio, lba/lbv
Enthalpy
Btu/lba
Rel.
Humid., %
Mass
Density
lba/ft
3
85 60 40.6 0.0053 26.6 21 0.072
75 59.6 49.2 0.0074 26.1 40 0.073
74.6 65.1 60.1 0.0111 30 60 0.073
88.6 70 60.9 0.01143 33.8 40 0.071
100 85.8 81.7 0.0235 50 56 0.068






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M
1
6
F
M
R
17
(a) 5000 ft.

Dry
Bulb, F
Wet
Bulb, F
Dew
point
F
Humid.
Ratio, lba/lbv
Enthalpy
Btu/lba
Rel.
Humid., %
Mass
Density
lba/ft
3
85 60 45.1 0.0076 28.7 25 0.060
75 58.6 49.2 0.0089 27.7 40 0.061
71.2 61.6 56.7 0.0118 30 60 0.061
102.7 70 55.8 0.01143 37.3 22 0.058
100 81.3 76.1 0.0235 50 47 0.057

(c) Note effect of barometric pressure.



























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M
1
6
F
M
R
18
3-14
10 1
5
2
0
2
5
30
35
4
0
4
5
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
40
40
45
45 5
0
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
dp Room
Problem 3-14
72 (22) 52 (11)
Max RH=49.6 %
W=0.0083
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
. 3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
. 1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHAL PY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

3-15 Use Chart 1b, SI

(a) t
d
= 10 C; SHF = 0.62

(b)
1 2
2.4
q m (i i ) (57.1 - 34)
0.867
= =

= 63.95 kJ / s = 63.95 k W


s
q 63.95 (0.62) 39.65 kW = =


3-15 Use Chart 1a, IP

(a) t
d
= 52 F; SHF = 0.63


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M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
19
3-15 (contd)

(b)
5000(60)
q = (32 - 22.6)= 203,317. Btu/hr
13.87



10 15 20 25
3
0
3
5
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
1
5
2
0
25
3
0
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
40
40
4
5
45
50
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
ADP
2
Problem 3-15
80 (27) 55 (13) 52 (10)
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2. 0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
. 1
0
.2
0
.3
0. 4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W
s
q 203,317 (0.63) 128,089. Btu/hr = =



3-16 (a) i
1
= 30 Btu / lba; v
1
= 13.78 ft
3
/ lba; W = 0.0103
lba
lbv
; 50%
1
=

(b) i
1
= 51.6 kJ / kga

v
1
= 0.86 m
3
/ kga
Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
20

3-16 (contd)

W
1
=
kga
kgv
0103 . 0
50%
1
=


3-17 Use the Heat Transfer option of program PSYCH:


q = 148,239 Btu/hr



s
q 102,235 Btu/hr =


SHF = 0.69


3-18 Use the Heat Transfer option of program PSYCH for sensible heat

transfer only:

s
q 178,911 Btu/hr =



Negative sign indicates heating.


3-19 Use the program PSYC to compute the various

properties at 85/68 F; sea level and

6000 ft elevation.

Elevation
ft
Enthalpy
Btu/lbm
Rel. Hum
percent
Hum. Ratio
lbv/lba
Density
lba/ft
3
0 32.2 42 0.0107 0.072
6000 36.3 45 0.0144 0.058

At sea level:
a
m 5000 x 0.072 x 60 21,600 lba/hr = =


Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
21
3-19 (contd)

At 6000 feet::
a
m 5000 x 0.057 x 60 17,100 lba/hr = =


Percent Decrease at 6000 ft:


(21,600 17,100)100
PD 20.8%
21,600

= =

3-20 Use the program PSYC to compute the heat transfer

rates at 1000 and 6000 feet elevation:

(a) at 1000 ft, q 200,534 Btu/hr =


(b) at 6000 ft, q 190,224 Btu/hr =


(c) PD =
(200,534 190,224)100
5.1 %
200,543

=

3-21 (a) English Units

; = 0 in.Hg. 29.92 P
B
=

q

w
i
i 180.2 0.8 (970.2)
W

= = +




i
w
= 956.4 Btu / lbv

From chart 1a; t
2
= 91.5 F

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
22
10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
40
40
45
45 50
50 55
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T B
U
LB
TE
M
P
E
R
AT
U
R
E
- F
85
90
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
2
Problem 3-21
98 (38) 91.5 (32)
60 %
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
. 4
-0
. 3 -0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0. 6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHAL PY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

3-21 (a) SI Units

P
B
= 101.325 kPa


w
i
i 419.04 (0.8 x 2257)
W

= = +



i
W
= 2224.6 kJ / kg
From chart 1b; t
2
= 32 C

(b) Use Humidification (adiabatic) option to obtain 91.5 F db.


3-22 P
B
= 29.92 in.Hg.; 0 q =



(a) Using chart 1a
Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
23

3-22 (contd)

w
i
i 1090 Btu / lbm
W

= =



From table A-1


f
fg
i-i 1090 - 196.1
x =
i 960.
=
1


x = 0.931 or about 93 %

(b) x will be the same


Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
40
40
4
5
45
50
50 55
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
85 W
E
T
B
U
L
B T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
a
b Problem 3-22
80
60
1090
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8. 0 -4.0
-2. 0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
. 3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0. 4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
24

3-23 Assume P
B
= 101.325 kPa; 0 q =




w
i 272.1
i kJ / kg
W 1000
= =

i
w
= 0.272 (on scale)

t
2
= 22.6 C
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
50
6
0
7
0
8
0
90
100
11
0
11
0
12
0
1
2
0
ENTHALPY - KJ PER KI LOGRAM OF DRY AIR
10
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
80
9
0
100
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
-
K
J
P
E
R
K
IL
O
G
R
A
M

O
F

D
R
Y
A
I
R
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

C
51
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
C
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
5
0
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
5
5
10
10
1
5
15
2
0
20
2
5
25
3
0
W
E
T
B
U
LB
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- C
30
0
.7
8
0
.8
0
0
.8
2
0
.
8
4
0
.8
6
V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
B
IC
M
E
T
E
R
P
E
R
k
g
D
R
Y
A
IR
0
.8
8
0
.9
0
0
.9
2
0
.9
4
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
G
R
A
M
S
M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

K
I
L
O
G
R
A
M
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
2
Problem 3-23
38 22.6
20
80 %
0.272
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 101.325 kPa
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

1.5
2.0
4.0
-4.0
-2
.0
-1
.0
-0
.5
-0
.2
0
.1
0
.2
0
. 3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0. 7
0.8
-5.0
-2.0
0.0
1
.0
2
.0
2
. 5
3
. 0
4 . 0
5 . 0
1 0 . 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-24 For adia. humidification

(a)
w
i
= i 1131 Btu / lbw
W
=
Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
25

3-24 (contd)


c a 2
q = m (i - i )

1


a
m 2000 x 60 / 13.14 =




a
m 9132 lba / hr =



1 2
i 18.1 Btu / lba ; i 29.7 Btu / hr = =


c
q 9132 (29.7 - 18.1) 105,931 Btu / hr = =



w a 3 2 3 2
m m (W - W ) ; W = 0.0167; W 0.0032 lbv/lba = =



w
m 9132 (0.01 67 - 0.0032) 123.3 lbw / hr = =


Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
26

10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
40
40
45
45 50
50 55
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
80
80
85 W
E
T B
U
LB TE
M
P
E
R
AT
U
R
E - F
85
90
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
2
3
Problem 3-24
1131
30 %
110 (43) 60 (16)
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2. 0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
. 4
-0
.3 -0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


(b) Solution similar to (a)


3-25 English Units

See diagram for construction on chart 1a.


1
3
Q 32 2000 2
=
3000 3 Q 12
= =



Layout 2L/3 on the chart and read:

W
3
= 0.007 lbv/lba

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
27
I
3
= 22.2 Btu/lba

10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
40
40
45
45 50
50 55
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
80
80
85 W
E
T B
U
LB TE
M
P
E
R
AT
U
R
E - F
85
90
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
2
3
Problem 3-25
40 (4) 100 (38) 58.4 (15)
35
77
52
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2. 0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
. 4
-0
.3 -0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-25 SI Units Same procedure as above, read:


3
i 34 kJ / kga =


3
W 0.007 kgv / kga =


3-26 English Units

Layout the given data on Chart 1a as shown for problem 3-25.


a1
m 2000(60) 12.66 9, 479lba hr = =



Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
28
3-26 (contd)


a2
m 1000(60) 14.44 4,155lba hr = =




a1
a1 a2
m 32 9479
= 0.695
m +m 9479 4155 12
= =
+





Layout distance 32 on line from 1 to 2 to locate point 3 for the
mixture.

Read: i
3
= 21.5 Btu/lbm

W
3
= 0.0067 lbu/lba

For W, % Error =
(0.007 0.0067)100
4.5
0.0067

=

For I, % Error =
(22.2 21.5)100
3.3
21.5

=


3-27
250,000
SHF 0.8
200,000
= =

or SHF =
59
.81
73
=

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
29
10 1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
5
5
6
0
6
0
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
1
5
2
0
25
3
0
35
4
0
4
5
5
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
4
5
45
5
0
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
I
S
T
U
R
E

P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
2
Problem 3-27
75 (24)
50 %
53 (12)
0.8
21.5
28.2
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8. 0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
. 4
-0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
. 1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0. 6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIB LE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

3-28 Refer to diagram for 3-27

(a)
a 1 2 1 2
q = m (i - i ); i 28.2; i 21.5 = =




a
m 250,000 / (28.2 - 21.5) 37,313 lba / hr = =




3
a 2
Q = m v 37,313 x 13.09 / 60 8,140 ft / min = =



(b) similar procedure;
3
Q 3.85 m / s =





Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
30
3-29 (a) Use the AirQuantity option of program PSYCH, iterating on the

relative humidity and setting the minimum outdoor Air Quantity to

0.01, NOT ZERO.

Use the properties option to find the entering wet bulb

temperature of 62.6F. Then

= 0.852 (iterated)

t
s
= 56F

= 9,360 cfm
s
Q


(b) Proceed as above

= 0.882

t
s
= 56F

= 10,014 cfm
s
Q


3-30 Proceed as in 3-29 above.

= 0.92

t
s
= 56.1 56 F


= 11,303 cfm
s
Q


3-31 (a) 91 . 0
000 , 550
000 , 500
SHF = =


Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
31

3-31 (contd)

(b)
a 2 1
q = m (i -i )


or
a 2
m = q/(i -i )

1


a
550,000
m
(34.3 22.8)
=




a
m =47,826lba hr




a 2
2
m v 47,826
Q = = x 14.62=11,654 cfm
60 60

or 5.5 m
3
/s
Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
32
10 15 20 25
3
0
35
40
4
5
5
0
55
5
5
6
0
6
0
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
2
0
25
3
0
35
4
0
4
5
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
4
0
40
45
45
5
0
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
I
R
1
2
Problem 3-31
0.91
115 (46)
72 (22)
30 %
22.8
34.3
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
. 4
-0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
. 1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-32
a 2 1
q = m (i -i )


2
a
q
i = +i
m

1



a
1400 x 60
m 5,915.5
14.2
=




2
-5 x 12,000
i = +38.5
5,915.5


Btu/lba
2
i 28.3 = 6

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
33
Then from Chart 1a, t
2
= 67F
10 1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
50
55
5
5
6
0
6
0
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
3
0
35
4
0
4
5
5
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
4
5
45
5
0
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
2
ADP
Problem 3-32
90
75
67
28.4
55
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
.3
-0
. 2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-33 Use Adiabatic Mixing option of PSYCH with the Properties option to

enter requested data. Assume volume flow rates of 3 to 1 to obtain.

T
mix,db
= 84.2 F

T
mix,wb
= 71.3 F

3-34 Use Program PSYCH at Sea Level elevation
Iteration on the supply volume flow rate is required. This is the same as the
leaving air quantity for the coil.
Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
34
3-34 (contd)
(a) Supply air quantity is 9,384 cfm.
(b) The outdoor air quantity is 938 cfm.
(c) Air enters the coil at 74.6 F db, 60.5 F wb at a rate of 9,740 cfm
(d) The coil capacity is 248,256 Btu/hr.
The amount of air returned is: (9,740 939) =8,802 cfm.

3-35 Use Program PSYCH at 5,000 ft elevation
Iteration on the supply volume flow rate is required. This is the same as the
leaving air quantity for the coil.
(a) Supply air quantity is 11,267 cfm.
(b) The outdoor air quantity is 1,127 cfm.
(c) Air enters the coil at 74.6 F db, 62.1 F wb at a rate of 11,697 cfm
(d) The coil capacity is 334,143 Btu/hr.
The amount of air returned is: (11,697 1,127) =10,570 cfm.


3-36 cfm 1000 Q
0
=


(a) From Chart 1a


s
t =120/ 74 F


s
s r
q 200,000
m =
(i -i ) (37.2 22.8)
=


Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
35

= 13,889 lb/hr =
1
m



3
s s s s
Q = m v = m (14.78)/60 = 3,421 ft / min



(b)
o o o
m = Q /v 1000 x 60 / 12.61 4758 lb/hr = =



r
1
m 13,889 4758
0.66;
m 13,889

= =


1
From Chart 1a t 61/ 47 F =


3 1
t - t (119 61) =

(c)
w s s 2
m = m (W -W ) 13,889 (0.0075 - 0.0036) =

= 54.2 lbm/hr

(d)
f 1 3 1
q = m (i -i ) =13,889 (32.8 18.6) 197,224 Btu/hr =








Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
36
10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50 55
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
8
0
80
85 W
E
T B
U
L
B TE
M
P
E
R
AT
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
r
s
0
1
3 1 3
Problem 3-36
120
72
30 %
40 61
47
0.8
1150
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
. 4
-0
. 3 -0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0. 6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHAL PY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-37 (a)
s
t 120 / 71.4 F Use Chart 1Ha =


s 1
m 200,000/(38.7 24.0) 13,605 lba/hr m = =

=


s
Q 13,605 x 17.85 / 60 4048 cfm = =


(b) lba/hr 3947 60 x ) 2 . 15 / 1000 ( m
0
= =




r
1
1
m 13,605 3947
0.71; t 62.8/ 47 F
m 13,605

= = =




3 1
t -t (119.5 62.8) =

(c)
w s s 1
m =m (w -W ) 13,605 (0.0088 - 0.0046) 57.14 lbw/hr = =

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
37
(d)
f
q 13,605 (33.8 - 20.2) 185,028 Btu/hr = =



3-38 Assume fan power and

heat gain are load on the space


s
9384
m x 60 = 42,915 lbm/hr; Prob 3-34
13.12
=




fan duct s s c
W q m (i i + =


)

= (4 x 2545) + 1000 = 11,180 Btu / hr


c
11,180
i 20.8 20.54 Btu/lbm
42,915
= =

State c is required condition leaving coil

Part a, b, and c are same as prob. 3-34;

(d)
coil 1 1 c
q =m (i -i ) 42,915 (26.8 - 20.54) 268,648 Btu/hr = =


Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
38
10 1
5
2
0
2
5
30
35
4
0
45
5
0
55
55
6
0
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
3
0
35
4
0
4
5
5
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
-
B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
4
5
45 5
0
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
80
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
s
r
0
1
c
1
Problem 3-38
100 72 55
20.54
50 %
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
. 3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
. 1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHAL PY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-39 ) i i ( m W ); i i ( m q
c s s fan s r s r
= =



(a)
c r
i 28 Btu/lbm; i 33.7 Btu/lbm = =

Using Chart 1Ha


r
q 1,320,000 Btu/hr =



fan
W 30 x 2545 76350 Btu/hr = =



fan a s c
W 30 x 2545 76,350 = m (i -i ) = =



Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
39

s a
q = 1,320,000 = m
r s
(i -i )



10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
6
0
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
2
0
2
5
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F

D
R
Y

A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATIVE HUMIDI TY
20%
30%
40%
5
0
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
45
45 5
0
50
5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
70
70
75
75
80
W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
80
8
5
1
5
.5
1
6
.0
1
6
.5
V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R
L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
7
.0
1
7
.5
1
8
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
I S
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D

D
R
Y

A
IR r
0
c
ss
Problem 3-39
90 (32)
80 (27)
50 %
59 (15)
62.5 (17)
0.8
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.4
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 24.896 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
5000 FEET
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1
. 0
-0
.5
-0
.4 -
0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
. 2
0
. 3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

Two unknowns & two equations


Solve simultaneous:


fan s a r c
a
a
W +q = m (i -i )
1,320,00+76,350
m =
(33.7-28)
m =244,974lba/hr



Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
40

s r s a
i = i - ( q m )




s
1,320,000
i = 33.7 - =28.3
244,974
Btu/lba

Locate points on the condition line on Chart 1 Ha and point c is on

cooler process line horz. to left of points.

Read t
s
= 62.5 F, t
c
= 61.6F.

(a)
s
244,974
Q = x16.2 = 66,143cfm
60



(b)
3
s
Q 31.2 m =

s
H



3-40 English Units Tucson, Arizona, Elevation 2,556 ft.

;
min 0
i =i =31.1 Btu/lba and sat. air
min
t =64.5 F; PSYCH

Shreveport, Louisiana, Elevation 259 ft.

;
min 0
i =i = 42.5 Btu/lba and sat. air
min
t 76.8 F; PSYC =

SI Units Tucson, Arizona

;
min 0
i =i 51.5 kJ/kga =
min
t =18.1 C; Chart 1b

Shreveport, Louisiana

;
min 0
i =i =75.5 kJ/kga
min
t =24.8 C; Chart 1b

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
41
10 1
5
2
0
2
5
30
3
5
4
0
45
5
0
55
55
6
0
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
4
5
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F

D
R
Y

A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
I
O
N

T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMI DITY
20%
30%
40%
5
0
%
6
0%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
4
0
40
4
5
45
50
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
3
.0
1
3
.
5
1
4
.
0

V
O
L
U
M
E
-

C
U
.F
T
.
P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y

A
I
R
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
SL
TLO
Problem 3-40
Shreveport, LA
95 76.8
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.4
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.642 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
259 FEET
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4. 0
-2.0
-1
.0
-0
.5 -0
.4
-
0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0
. 3
0. 4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
42
10 1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
35
4
0
45
50
55
55
60
6
0
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
5
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
-
B
T
U

P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D

O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATIVE HUMIDI TY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
4
5
45 5
0
50
55
55
6
0
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
80
8
5
85
1
4
.0
1
4
.
5
1
5
.
0

V
O
L
U
M
E
-

C
U
.F
T
.
P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y

A
I
R
1
5
.5
1
6
.0
1
6
.
5
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
TA
TLO
Problem 3-40
Tucson, Arizona
102 64.6
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.4
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 27.259 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
2556 FEET
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4. 0
-2.0
-1
.0
-0
.5
-0
.4 -
0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

3-41 ) i i ( m q
s r s
=


(a) = 1,319 lba/hr ton
s
m 12,000/(28.2 19.1) =




s
1319 x 15.6
Q 343 cfm/ton
60
= =




o
s
m r1 13
= 0.55 or 55%
m 23.5 r0
= =



(b)
3
s
Q 0.046 m / s - kW



0 s
m /m 55%

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
43
10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F

D
R
Y

A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATIVE HUMIDI TY
20%
30%
40%
5
0
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
40
40
45
45 5
0
50
5
5
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
80
W
E
T
B
U
L
B
TE
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
80
8
5
1
5
.5
1
6
.0
1
6
.5
V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R
L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
7
.0
1
7
.5
1
8
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D

D
R
Y

A
IR
r
s
0
1
Problem 3-41
100 (38) 75 (24) 50 (10)
10 %
40 %
0.7
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.4
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 24.896 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
5000 FEET
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1
.0
-0
.5 -0
.4 -
0
. 3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-42
2 2 3 2
500,000
q m (i i ); m
(41.1 21.9)
= =



lba/hr 042 , 26 m
2
=


= 6315 cfm 14.55/60 x 26042 Q
2
=


lba/hr 6511 26,042 x 25 . 0 m
0
= =


F 5 . 49 / 5 . 67 t ; 25 . 0 m / m
mix 3 0
= =





Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
44
3-42 (contd)

Preheat Coil:


ph 0 p 4 0
q = m c (t -t ) 6511 x 0.24 (60-6) 84,383 Btu/hr = =




Heat Coil:


h 2 5 1
q = m (i -i ) 26,042 (28.4 - 20) 218,753 Btu/hr = =


Humidifier:


w 2 2 5
m = m (W -W ) 26,042 (0.0144 - 0.0035) =



283.9 lbw/hr =

(b)
3
2 ph h
Q 2.98 m / s; q 24.7 kW; q 64.1 kW; = = =



kg/s 036 . 0 m
w
=

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
45
10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50%
6
0
%
7
0%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
40
40
45
45 50
50 55
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
80
80
85 W
E
T B
U
LB TE
M
P
E
R
AT
U
R
E - F
85
90
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
3
2
4
1
5
2
Problem 3-42
1153
70 (21)
30 %
105 (40) 60 (16)
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
.3 -0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
. 2
0.3
0. 4
0.5
0. 6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIB LE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-43 Use Chart 1a;
d a r
q m (i i
s
) =



or ) i i /( q m
s r d a
=


(a) m

a
= 150 x 12,000 / (28.4-22) = 28,125 lbm/hr


d
Q 28,125 x 13.25/60 61,211 cfm = =



m d
Q 0.20 Q 1,242 cf = =

m


m m
m = 1,242 x 60/13.5 5,521 lbm/hr [v assumed] =




m r m
i =i 1.8 x 12,000/5,521 24.5 Btu/lbm; t 62/ 57 F = =

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
46
(b)
3 3
d m m
Q = 2.93 m /s; Q = .59 m /s; t = 17/14 C


10 1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
35
4
0
45
5
0
55
5
5
6
0
6
0
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
1
5
2
0
25
30
35
4
0
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
4
5
45 5
0
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
r
m
s
Problem 3-43
0.8
0.6
75 (24) 60 (16)
62 (17)
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
. 1
0
.2
0
. 3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-44 (a)
a
15.0 x 12,000
m 29,508 lba/hr
(31.2 - 25.1)
= =




d m
Q 29,508 x 16.0/60 7,869 cfm; Q = 0.2 x Q = =

s


1,574 cfm =


m m
m =1,574 x 60/16.2 5,829 lba/hr (v assumed) =




m
i 35.7 1.8 x 12,000/5,829 27.5 Btu/lba; = =
Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
47

m
t 62.5/ 58 F =

(b)
3 3
s m m
Q =3.7 m / s; Q 0.74 m /s; t 17 / 14.4 C = =


3-45 Use Chart 1a;
r
1
m 10
0.8
m 0r
= =



[Both design and min. load condition]

i
s
= i
r
- /
m
q

s
m



s r
d
s
i i
Q
m

=
22.3) - (29.35
12,000 x 50


conditions all for constant is m lba/hr; 106 , 85 m
s s

=

Btu/lba 25.83 106 12,000/85, x 25 35 . 29 i
' s
= =

(a) From Chart 1a; F 64 t
' s
=

(b)
s' b c ' 1 b s s
i ) m m ( i m i m

+ = +

271 . 0
7 . 31 8 . 25
8 . 25 2 . 24
) i i (
) i i (
m
m
' 1 ' s
' s s
c
b
=



(b) From chart 1a; cases both for F 49 t
d
=
Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
48
10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
40
40
45
45 50
50 5
5
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
80
80
85 W
E
T
B
U
LB
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
r
s
0
1
s
0'
1'
s
s'
Problem 3-45
0.9
95 (35) 85 (29) 77 (25) 64 (18) 55 (13)
50 %
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8. 0 -4.0
-2. 0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
. 3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0. 4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W



3-46 Refer to problem 3-45. Results are similar.

3-47 (a) It is probably impossible to cool the air from 1 to 2 in one

process. The extension of line 12 does not intersect the

saturation curve.

(b) Cool the air to state 1' and then heat to state 2.




Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
49
10 15 20 25
30
3
5
40
4
5
5
0
5
5
55
6
0
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
3
0
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
40
40
4
5
45
5
0
50 55
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
2
1'
2
Problem 3-47
80 (27) 60 (16) 52 (11)
67
54
90 %
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
. 3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHAL PY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

3-48 (a)
c
s
m sh
= =.83
m ch

7



h
s
m cs
= 0.16
m ch
=

3



c
h
m 0.837
5.14
m 0.163
= =




s r s
q m (i i =

)


s
50 x 12,000
m 93,750 lba/hr
(28.2-21.8)
= =

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
50


s
Q 93,750 x 13.2/60 20,625 cfm = =


(b)
3
s
Q 9.7 m / =

s

10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
40
40
45
45 50
50 55
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
80
80
85 W
E
T B
U
LB
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
r
c
h
s
Problem 3-48
90 (32) 75 (24) 52 (11)
90 %
0.65
20 %
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
. 4
-0
.3 -0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIB LE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-49 See diagram of problem 3-48

(a)
c h
s s
m m 36 10.1
0.9; 0.10
m 46.3 m 46.3
= = = =


;
c
h
m 0.9
9.0
m 0.10
= =




s
50 x 12,000
m 83,333 lba/hr
(30.1 - 22.9)
= =




s
Q =83,333 x 15.67/60 21,763 cfm =

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
51

(b)
3
s
Q =10.3 m /s


3-50 (a) See diagram for problem 3-48


c
c c r c c s
s
m
= 0.837; q = m (i -i ); m 0.714 x m 0.837 x 93,750
m
= =



;
c
m 78, 469 lba/hr =

c
Q 78, 469 x 13.04/60 17,054 cfm = =



c
q 78,469 (28.2-20.6) 596,364 Btu/hr = =


(b)
3
c c
Q =8.1 m /s; q 175 kW =




3-51 SI Units

(a) On the basis of volume flow rate using Chart 1b:



2 3
13
Q = Q 0.69 x 1.18 0.815
12
= =

m
3
/s

and m
1 3 2
Q = Q - Q = 1.18 0.815 0.365 =

3
/s


(b)

3
34 a3 4 3 4 3
3
34
Q
q = m (i -i ) = (i -i )
v
1.18
q = (47.8-41.0) = 9.6 kW
0.835







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students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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M
1
6
F
M
R
52
10 20 30 40 50
60
70
80
90
100
110
110
120
120
ENTHALPY - KJ PER KI LOGRAM OF DRY AIR
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- K
J
P
E
R
K
IL
O
G
R
A
M
O
F
D
R
Y
A
I R
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
C
51
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
C
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
5
0
%
60
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
5
5
10
10
15
15
2
0
20
25
25
3
0 W
E
T
BU
LB
T
E
M
PE
R
A
T
U
R
E
- C
30
0
.7
8
0
.8
0
0
.8
2
0
.
8
4
0
.8
6
V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
B
IC
M
E
T
E
R
P
E
R
k
g
D
R
Y
A
IR
0
.8
8
0
.9
0
0
.9
2
0
.9
4
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
G
R
A
M
S
M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

K
I
L
O
G
R
A
M
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
2
3 4
Problem 3-51
Problem 3-51
29 24 17.2 12
50 %
11
14.7
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 101.325 kPa
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

1.5
2. 0
4.0
-4.0
-2
.0
-1.0
-0
.5
-0
. 2
0
.1
0
. 2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
-5.0
-2.0
0. 0
1
.0
2
. 0
2
. 5
3
. 0
4 . 0
5 . 0
1 0 . 0
-

SENSIB LE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

English Units


(a)
1 34
Q = 640 cfm; q = 33,684 Btu/hr




3-52 (a),(b)

From Chart 1b, states 1.4 and ADP are known. Based on approx.

11.8 C db, 11.2 C wb, and 90% RH locate state 2.

Then for full load design condition air is cooled from 1 to 2 and the

room process proceeds from 2 to 4.

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1
6
F
M
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53
For the high latent load condition, the air at 2 is reheated to state 3

where it enters the space and the process proceeds to state 4.

(c)
2
24 a 4 2 4 2
2
Q
q = m (i -i ) = (i -i )
v




2
Q =35 x 0.817 (47.7-32)

; m
2
Q 1.8 =

2
3
/s


12 a 1 2
12
1.82
q = m (i -i ) = (60.6-32)
0.817
q = 63.7 kW




34 a 4 3
34
23 24 34
1.82
q = m (i -i )= (47.7-39.4)
0.817
q = 18.5 kW
q = q - q = 35-18.5=16.5 kW



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students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
54
10 20 30 40 50
60
70
80
90
100
110
110
120
120
ENTHALPY - KJ PER KI LOGRAM OF DRY AIR
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- K
J
P
E
R
K
IL
O
G
R
A
M
O
F
D
R
Y
A
I R
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
C
51
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
C
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
5
0
%
60
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
5
5
10
10
1
5
15
2
0
20
25
25
3
0 W
E
T
BU
LB
TE
M
P
E
R
A
TU
R
E
- C
30
0
.7
8
0
.8
0
0
.8
2
0
.
8
4
0
.8
6
V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
B
IC
M
E
T
E
R
P
E
R
k
g
D
R
Y
A
IR
0
.8
8
0
.9
0
0
.9
2
0
.9
4
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
G
R
A
M
S
M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

K
I
L
O
G
R
A
M
D
R
Y
A
IR 1
ADP
2 3
4
3
Problem 3-52
Problem 3-52
21
27 23
17
19
14
11.8
11
9
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 101.325 kPa
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

1.5
2.0
4.0
-4.0
-2
.0
-1.0
-0
.5
-0
.2
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
-5.0
-2.0
0. 0
1
.0
2
. 0
2
. 5
3
. 0
4 . 0
5 . 0
1 0 . 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-52 English Units

(a),(b) See above

(c) Btu/hr
2
Q = 4103cfm ;

12
q =221,243


Btu/hr;
34
q 67, 49 =

8 2
23
q 52,50 =

Btu/hr


3-53 English Units

(a)
s r s s
q=m (i -i ); m 5000 x 60/13.2 22,727 lba/hr = =



(specific volume value of 13.2 ft
3
/lbm is assumed.)

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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M
1
6
F
M
R
55

s r s
i = i - q /m =28.2 10 x 12,000 / 22,727 22.9 Btu/lba =



s o s o
t = t = 57.5 F; W =W 0.0083 lbv/lba =

(b)
r r
m s
m m 0m
= = 0.462
m m 0r





r
m =0.462 x 22,727 10,500 lba/hr =




o
m 22,727 10,500 12,227 lba/hr = =



r
Q 10,500 x 13.68/60 2,394 cfm = =



o
Q 12,227 x 12.11/60 2,468 cfm = =


(c)
r
m'
m 0'm'
= =0.578
m 0'r




r o
m =0.578 x 22,727 13,131 lba/hr; m 9,596 lba/hr = =

'



r o'
Q =13,131 x 13.68/60 2,994 cfm; Q 9,596 x 13.48/60 = =


= 2,156 cfm

(d)
c s m' s
q = m (i -i ) 22,727 (28.4 - 22.8) 127,271 Btu/hr = =



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students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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M
1
6
F
M
R
56
10 15 20 25
30
3
5
40
4
5
5
0
5
5
55
6
0
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
3
0
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

- B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
40
40
4
5
45
5
0
50 55
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
r
0
m
s
0'
r
m'
ADP
Problem 3-53
0.8
1150
75 (24)
70 (21)
65 (18) 57.5 (14)
40 (4)
43 (6)
90 %
50 %
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
. 3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
. 1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHAL PY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-53 SI Units

(a) t
s
= 14.2C; W
s
= 0.0083 kgv/kga

(b)
3
r
Q =1.13m s

;
3
o
Q =1.17m s



(c)
3
r
Q =1.41m s

;
3
o'
Q =1.02m s



(d)
c
q = 37.3 kW


3-54 (a) Any combination that will yield

an enthalpy less than 57.0 kJ/kga or 33 Btu/lba
Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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1
6
F
M
R
57

(b)
r s
m kga/s 95 . 5 84 . 0 / 5 m

= = =


o
r
m mr
= =0.36
m 0r




o
m 0.36 x 5.95 2.14 kga/s = =



3
o
Q = 2.14 x 0.852 = 1.82 m /s = 3,857cfm


(c)
ad
t 15.4 C or 60F =

(d) (Essentially, no difference)
o n m s r s
q /q = (i -i )/(i -i ) = 1.0


10 20 30 40 50
60
70
80
90
10
0
110
110
120
120
ENTHALPY - KJ PER KI LOGRAM OF DRY AIR
10
2
0
30
4
0
50
60
70
80
90
100
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- K
J
P
E
R
K
IL
O
G
R
A
M
O
F
D
R
Y
A
I
R
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
C
51
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
C
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
5
0
%
60
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
5
5
10
10
1
5
15
2
0
20
2
5
25
3
0 W
E
T
B
U
LB
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- C
30
0
.7
8
0
.8
0
0
.8
2
0
.
8
4
0
.8
6
V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
B
IC
M
E
T
E
R
P
E
R
k
g
D
R
Y
A
IR
0
.8
8
0
.9
0
0
.9
2
0
.9
4
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
G
R
A
M
S
M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

K
I
L
O
G
R
A
M
D
R
Y
A
IR
r
s
0
m
s
Problem 3-54
25 (77) 18 (64)
20 (68)
0.6
57
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 101.325 kPa
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

1.5
2.0
4.0
-4.0
-2
.0
-1.0
-0
.5
-0
. 2
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0. 6
0.7
0.8
-5.0
-2.0
0.0
1
.0
2
. 0
2
. 5
3
. 0
4 . 0
5 . 0
1 0 . 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHAL PY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
58
3-55
424,000
SHF
530,000 424,000

= -4

Construct condition line on

Chart 1a with preheat and

mixing processes.

(a)
sen s p r s
q = -424,000 = m c (t -t )



s
424,000
m 88,333 lba/hr
0.24 (75 95)

= =




3
s
Q =88,333 x 14.07/60 20,714 cfm or 9.8 m /s =


(b)
r
r
m
m hm
= =0.33; m 0.33 x 88,333 lba/hr
m hr
=





r r
m =29,150 lba/hr; Q 29,150 x 13.68/60 =

3
6,646 cfm or 3.14 m /s =


h
h
m
m
=1 0.33 0.67; m 0.67 x 88,333
m
= =




h h
m 59,183 lba/hr; Q 59,183 x 13.1/60 = =



3
h
Q 12,922 cfm or 6.1 m /s (at heated condition) =


(c)
ph h p h o
q =m c (t -t ) = 59,183 x 0.24 (60-35)


q= 355,098 Btu/hr or 104 kW


(d)
m
q =88,333 x 0.24 (95 - 65) 635,998 Btu/hr or 186 kW =



Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
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M
1
6
F
M
R
59

10 1
5
2
0
2
5
30
3
5
4
0
45
5
0
55
55
6
0
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
1
5
20
25
3
0
35
40
45
5
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
4
0
40
4
5
45
50
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
r
0 h
m
ss
Problem 3-55
-4
95 (35)
75 (24)
50 %
60 (16)
35 (2)
20 %
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
. 1
0
.2
0
.3
0. 4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-56 Refer to chart 1a.

(a)

34 a3 4 3 3 4 3
3
34 3
3
4 3
3
3
60
q = m (i -i ) = Q x (i -i )
v
q v (1750 x 13.23)
Q x =
60(i -i ) 60(28.1-23)
Q = 75.7 or 76 cfm = 0.040 m /s




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F
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60
(b) t
3db
= 58.5 F and 80% RH or 15 C

(c)
3
2 3
31
Q = ; Q = 0.754 x 75.7 = 57 cfm or 0.028 m /s
12




3
1
Q = 76 - 57 = 19 cfm or 0.012 m /s


10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

- B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
40
40
45
45
5
0
50 55
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
80
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
2
3
4
Problem 3-56
84
70
75
62
58.5
50
90 %
50 %
0.8
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8. 0 -4.0
-2. 0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
. 3 -0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0. 4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


3-57 (a) Refer to Chart 1

A reheat system is required. Process 1-2 is for the coil. Process 3-4
is defined by the SHF = 0.5

Process 2-3 represents the required heat.

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State 3 is defined by the intersection of the reheat and space

condition lines.



(b)

3
34 a3 4 3 4 3
3
34 3
3
4 3
3
3
Q x 60
q = m (i -i ) = (i -i )
v
q v 100,000 x 13.4
Q = =
60(i -i ) 60(28.2-23.9)
Q = 5,194 cfm or 2.5 m /s




(c)

12 a 1 2
12
23
23
5,194 x 60
q = m (i -i ) = (34.2-20.2)
13.4
q = 325,594 Btu/hr or 95.4 kW
5,194 x 60
q = (23.9-20.2)
13.4
q =86,050 Btu/hr or 25.2 kW


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62
10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
60
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
- B
T
U
P
E
R
P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
35
35
40
40
45
45 50
50 55
55
60
60
65
65
7
0
70
75
75
80
80
85 W
E
T B
U
L
B T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
90
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
IS
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
2 3
4
ADP
Problem 3-57
85
70
75
62
66
56
51 45
50 %
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1.0
-0
.5 -
0
. 4
-0
.3 -0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

3-58 Assume room temperature humidity of 50%

and layout the state &

processes on

required from point c to s.


Supply Air:

=
sen
q 120,000 x 0.5 60,000 Btu/hr = =

s p s r
m c (t -t )



s
60,000
m 53,192 lba/hr
0.24 (75-70.3)
= =


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63


3
s
Q =53,192 x 16.33/60 14,477 cfm or 6.8 m /s =


Mixed Air:


o
m 53,192 x 0.333 17,703 lba/hr = =



3
o
Q 17,713 x 17.2/60 5,078 cfm or 2.4 m /s = =



r
m 53,192 17,713 35, 479 lba/hr = =



3
r
Q =35, 479 x 16.5/60 9,757 cfm or 4.6 m /s =


Reheat:


rh c p s c
q = m c (t -t ) 53,192 x 0.24 (70.3-55.2) =


192,768 Btu/hr or 56.5 kW =

Coil:



c m m c
q =m (i -i ) 53,192 (34.4 - 24.2) =

542,558 Btu/hr or 159 kW =


= % 1 . 5
412 , 200
100 ) 109 , 190 412 , 200 (
=



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64
10 15 20 25
30
35
40
45
50
55
55
6
0
60
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
15
2
0
2
5
30
35
40
45
50
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F

D
R
Y

A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATIVE HUMIDI TY
20%
30%
40%
5
0
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
45
45 5
0
50
5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
70
70
75
75
80
W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
80
8
5
1
5
.5
1
6
.0
1
6
.5
V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R
L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
7
.0
1
7
.5
1
8
.0
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO
-
P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
I S
T
U
R
E
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D

D
R
Y

A
IR
r
0
m
c ss
Problem 3-58
90 (32)
75
75 (24)
50 %
70 (21)
55 (13)
90 %
0.6
0.5
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.4
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 24.896 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
5000 FEET
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4.0
-2.0
-1
. 0
-0
.5
-0
.4 -
0
.3
-0
.2
-0
.1
0
.1
0
. 2
0
. 3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
00
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

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Chapter 4

4-1 (a) comfortable
(b) too warm
(c) comfortable
(d) too dry

4-2 (a) comfortable
(b) too warm
(c) comfortable
(d) too dry

4-3 (a) Assume sedentary dry bulb of 78 F, clo =o.5, met. =1.8;
using equation 4-4a, t
o,act.
=75 5.4(1 +0.5)(1.8 1.2) =71 F
Relative humidity should be less than 50%
(b) Should wear a sweater or light jacket and slacks.
(clo =0.8)

4-4 Use fig 4-1

(a) Summer, t
o
=76 F or 24 C; Winter, t
o
=72 F or 22 C

(b) Use equation 4-4a as a guide, with clo =0.2,

met =3.0,
db
t 76 = F

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o
t 76 5.4 (1 0.2)(3-1.2) 64 F [winter or Summer] = + =

4-5 From fig 4-3 temperature can rise about 3.2 F.(1.8 C)
t =68 +3.2 =71.2 F or t =20 +1.8 =21.8 C

4-6 From fig 4-3 @200 fpm, temp rise 5.3 F (2.9 C)
with t
mr
t =9 F (5 C), temp rise 6.5 F (3.6 C)

4-7 , then using Eq. 4-1
o a mr
t (t t )/ = + 2


1/ 2
4
mrt g a
4
T T CV (T T
g
= + )
F
F
=
4 9 1/ 2
(538) (0.103 x 10 ) (40) (78 74) +


mrt
t 82 F or 27.8 C =


o
t (74 82)/ 2 78 F or 25.6 C = + =


4-8 Compute the operative temperature,
o
t


4 4 9 1/ 2
mrt
T (540) (0.103 x 10 )(30) (80 76) 83.5 F or 28.6 C = + =


o
t (84 76)/2 79.8 F or 26.5 C = + =

From Fig 4-1, and 50 % R.H. is out of the comfort
o
t 79.8 =

zone. Recommend lowering to about 77 F or 25 C.
o
t


a
t 72

4-9 Use Eq. 4-4 to estimate a value of the operative temperature

, active, assuming for sedentary activities is 78 F (25.6 C)
o
t
o
t

with met =2.0. , active =78 5.4 (1 +0.5) (2 1.2) =71.5 F, (22C)
o
t
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As an approximation

1/ 2
4 4
mrt o a mrt g g a
T 2T T and T T CV (T T ) Eq. (4-1) = = +

eliminating
mrt
T between the 2 equations


1/ 2
4 4
o a g g a
2(T T ) T CV (T T ) = +

where all temperatures are absolute

Solve by trial and error with
g
T 72 460 532 R = + =

and
9
0
T (71.5 460) 531.5 R, C 0.103 x 10 , V 30 = + = = =


a
t 85 F (30C) =

Cold surroundings require high ambient air temperature

for comfort, even with high activity level.

4-10 (a) Most occupants will be uncomfortable because the relative

humidity is more than 60%, even with
mrt a
t t =

(b) The lightest weight possible. Short sleeves, shorts,

open neck, etc.

(c) Lower relative humidity if possible by adjusting the cooling

system to remove more moisture. Could also increase the

relative air motion to highest values, perhaps use fans.

4-11 (a) Even if the suit was heavy weight, many executives would be

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cool if sedentary.

(b) Would definitely be cold, especially hands and feet.

(c) Probably would be comfortable in typical work clothes

(d) Probably would be comfortable since they would keep

their coats on and would be walking around.

(e) Cold to very cold

4-12 Determine relative temperatures difference between inside and outside.

68 45 23

74 45 29

Costs are 79% of that for increased setting, or




74 45 29

68 45 23

Costs are increased by 26% if thermostat is raised.




4-13 Too much air motion in the cold winter months tends to cause drafts and
make people uncomfortable. Air velocity just sufficient to prevent large
temperature gradients from floor to ceiling is best for winter. The opposite
is true for hot summer months. Higher air velocity tends to compensate
for high temperature and humidity.

4-14 (a) Raising the chilled water temperature will cause the cooling coil to
operate with a higher surface temperature and the relative humidity in
the space will tend to rise if the latent heat gain is significant such as
would be the case with many occupants, this could lead to
uncomfortable conditions.

(b) Yes, during the unoccupied hours the space load may be almost totally
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sensible heat gain and the load is much less than the design value. In
this case the chilled water temperature may be increased.



4-15 These fans may bring air down in the summer, increasing the
velocity of air in the occupied zone and providing improved comfort.
In the winter, air may be drawn upward, pushing the warm air at the
ceiling downward where it can increase the temperature in the
occupied zone without increasing significantly the air motion below
the fan.

4-16 (a) Table 4-2 gives a minimum required amount of ventilation air
of per occupant. this is the minimum amount of
3
15 ft /min
outdoor air that should be used under any circumstances.
Therefore, (Q

o
)
min
=15(30) =450 ft
3
/min
(b) On the basis of floor area, the occupancy would be 25 and the
minimum ventilation requirement would be
It would be better to design for
3
v
Q 15 (25) 375 ft /min. = =

floor area if lowest air flow is desired. With 30 actual student air
flow is such a case would be insufficient.

4-17 Use Eq. 4-5, Solving for
s
C


s t e t e t
C (Q C N)/Q C (N/Q = + = +

)


=(200/10
6
+(0.25/900)

=
-6
478 x 10 478 ppm =
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71

or using SI Units


6
s
C (200 / 10 ) (0.118 / 0.472 x 900) = +


6 6
(200 / 10 ) (278 / 10 ) 478 ppm = + =

4-18 n =number of people to occupy a room

N n (5.0 ml/s) =


Solving Eq. 4-5 for N



t s e
N Q (C C ) n (5.0) ml/s-person = =



t s e
n Q (C C ) / (5.0) =


2.8 (1000-280) / 5.0 =

n =403 persons or
3
0.0069 m /s person

For English Units:


-6
n 6000 (1000 - 280 x 10 ) / 0.0107 =

=404 persons or 14.8 cfm/person

4-19 Use the M-100 media of fig. 4-8. From table 4-3, select a

12 x 24 x 8 unit; 650 cfm, P =0.4 in. wg

At P =0.25 in. wg. each unit will handle


1/2
1
Q Q [0.25 / 0.40] =

1/2
650 [0.25 / 0.40] =

Then the number of units 514 cfm/unit. =
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72

is N=(2000 / 514) =3.89 or 4. This is a satisfactory number.


4-20 Use the M-100 media from Table 4-3 select a 0.3 x 0.6 x 0.2 unit.
This is rated at 0.3 m
3
/s with 100 Pa pressure drop.
At the allowable flow rate for each unit would be P =60 pa

1/2 3
Q = (0.3) (60/100) = 0.23 m /s

1.00 m
3
/s would require 1.00/0.23 =4.34 units. This requires at
least 5 filter units, but since this is an odd number, recommend
using six units.
Trying the 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.2 filter the allowable flow per unit would be
This would require more than two
units of this size. Economies would determine the best choice.
1/2
Q = (0.62) (60/100) = 0.48


4-21 Solving Eq. 4-10 for Q



1/ 2 1/2
r r
Q Q [ P / P ] 900 [0.1 / 0.15] 735 cfm/module = = =


N 5500/735 7.48 [must be integer] Use 8 modules = =

(5500)
Vel = Q/A = = 344 fpm = 5.7 fps
(2)(8)



4-22 Solving Eq. 4-10 for Q



1/ 2 1/2
r r
Q Q [ P / P ] (0.42) [24 / 37.4] 0.336 = = =


m =(2.8)/0.336 =8.3

Use 9 modules, a 3 x 3 arrangement.

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73
Velocity =
3
2
Q (2.8)m / s
1.73m/ s
FACE AREA
(0.3)(0.6)(9)m
= =




4-23
3
M 200; 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.2; 0.40m / s/module

Use Eq. 4-10


2 2
r r
P P [Q / Q ] 100 [ 0.40/0.42] 90.7 Pa = = =


Velocity =
Q 0.4
2.22m/ s
A (0.3)(0.6)
= =




4-24 No solution exists due to the fixed air quantity for the unit. This
part of the problem is intended to show the student that typical
direct expansion equipment cannot be used in this way. It also
shows that the load due to outdoor air is very large.

4-25












1 on psychrometric Chart at 82.4 F db and
0 s
m 0.25 m; Locate point =


66.8 F wb


3
1 1
i 31.4 Btu / lbm and v 13.9 ft /lbm = =
78 66
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74


1s 1 1 s 1 1 1 s
q m (i i ) Q / V (60) (i i ) = =




1 1s 1
Q 350 / 12,000 q ; (350 / 12,000) (60 / v ) (i i ) = =


1 s



s
12,000 (13.9)
i 31.4 23.46 Btu / lbm
60 (350)
= =

Locate on psychrometric Chart:
s
t 65.6 F db, 55.5 F wb =


sr s r s r
q m (i i ) 36,000; i 27.6 Btu / lbm = = =



s 1
36,000
m m 8695.7 lb / hr
(27.6 23.46)
= = =





s s s
8695.7
Q m (v ) (13.4) 1940 cfm
60
= = =





1s
q 8695.7 (31.4 - 23.46) 69,000 Btu / hr 5.75 tons = = =



1
Q 5.75 (350) 2014 cfm = =


(c) Design filters for 2014 cfm, use M-200 media of fig 4-8.

Try the 24x24x8 units of table 4-3. 920 cfm @ 0.4 in. wg.

For max. P of 0.125 in.wat.

1/2
Q 920 [0.125 / 0.40] 514 cfm / module; = =



n =2014 / 514 =3.92, use 4 modules


4-26 Use the M-15 media, =93 % from fig. 4-3.

From table 4-2, 60 cfm / person is required, outdoor air.

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75
A fresh air balance on the filter gives
r f 0 s
Q E Q Q + =

s


r 0
where Q is recirculated air, Q is outdoor air and



s
Q is supply air.



r s
Q (60 - 20) / 0.93 43.0; Q 43.0 20 63.0 cfm / person = = = + =


or the total amount of air supplied is


T
Q 63.0 x 55 3465 cfm; Try the 12x24x8 unit of table 4-3 = =



1/2
Q / unit 900 [0.1 / 0.35] 481 cfm; n 4755 / 481 = = =


=7.2 modules

Use 8 modules [Note: The M-2A media could also be used]


4-27
r
Q (25 - 15) / 0.8 12.5 cfm / person = =



s
Q 15 12.5 27.5 cfm / person = + =



4-28 Filter location is B, figure 4-9

Use Eq. 4-12, solve for
r
RQ since



r 0 v s f 0 v f
RQ {-Q E [C (1 E )C ] N}/ (E E C ) = +



r
RQ { 200 x 0.85 [180- (1 - 0.8) 0.0] (10 x 150 x 35.32)}/ = +


(0.85 x 0.8 x 180)
0
where C 0.0 =


3
r
RQ 185 ft / min or cfm =

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76


0 s
Q 200 cfm; Q (185 200) 385 cfm = = + =


4-29 Solve Eq. 4-11 for
r
RQ



r o v s v f
RQ ( Q )(E )(C ) N / E E C = +

s


3 3
r
RQ [ (-20) (0.65) (220) (125) (35.32 ft /m )]
(0.65)(0.7)(220)
= +




r
2860 +4415
RQ =15.53 cfm/person
(0.65)(0.7)(220)




4-30 For filter location A, use Eq. 4-11, solving for
r
RQ



r o v s v f
RQ ( Q E C N) / (E E C ) = +

s

/
3 3
r
RQ [ (-200 (0.85) 180) (10 x 120 x 35.32 ft /m )] = +


(0.85 x 0.8 x 180 )


r o s
RQ 183 cfm; Q 200 cfm; Q 383 cfm = = =



4-31 (a) This type of space will require a high ventilation (supply air)
rate to handle the load, air cleanliness is not the main criterion.
Therefore, a low efficiency filter with low pressure drop is
acceptable. From table 4-2, assume occupancy will be about 30
persons / 1000 ft
2
. So the total design occupancy is 90
persons. The design will be based on this occupancy although
the cooling requirements may dictate a larger supply air rate.
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sis for testing or instructional purposes only to
this work beyond that permitted
on of the copyright owner is unlawful.
students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permissi
f
Q Q ) / E =

(20 15) / 0.5 10 cfm / person recirculation rate = =

25 x 90 2250 cfm total supply rate

A "fresh air" balance on the filter gives Q (


r s o

Q
r

4-31 (continued)


s
Q 10 15 25 cfm / person supply rate = + =


Q = =
T

Net face area,
2
f
A 2250 / 350 6.43 ft = =

(b) A higher efficiency would reduce the total amount of air and

reduce the required face area. However this is not desirable in

this case. First the filter system would have to be enlarged to

handle the greater amount of air. A lower filter efficiency could

be used and still maintain the required air quality.

For example, suppose the load dictates 4000 cfm instead of

2250 cfm, then for 90 people


s
Q 4000 / 90 44.4 cfm / person = =


Using a minimum of 15 cfm / person of outdoor air.

Q =
r
44.4 15 29.4 cfm / person =

s


r f
Q 29.4 (20 - 15) / E = =


f
E 5 / 29.4 0.17 or 17% required = =

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4-32 (a)
s r
q (Q / v) 60 (i i ) =

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78


3
v 13 ft / lba


s
Q (125,000 x 13) / =

[ 60 x ( 28 - 19.4 )]




s
Q 3,149 cfm =


(b)
s o
Q Q 15 x 22 = =

5
3,375 cfm =


Q
s









(c) must be 3,375 cfm, find new supply air condition
s
Q


125,000 =(3,375 / 13) 60 (28 - i
s
)

i
s
=28 ( 125,000 x 13 ) / ( 3,375 x 60) =20 Btu / lba

Locate new condition on chart as shown. Coil must cool ODA

down to this new condition.
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adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108
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Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030.

Chapter 5

5-1 (a)
2
k C x 0.2 x 4 0.8 (Btu - in) / ( hr - ft F) = = =
(b) k =1.14 x 0.1 =0.114 W / (m-C)

5-2 (a)
2
C k / x 0.30 / 5.5 0.055 Btu / (ft -hr - F) = = =
(b) C =0.043 / 0.14 =.307 W / (m
2
C)

5-3 (a) R =1/C =1 / 0.055 =18.3 (ft
2
hr F) / Btu
R' =R / A =1 / CA =18.3 / 100 =0.183 ( hr F) / Btu
(b) R =1 / .307 =3.26 (m
2
C) / W
R' =3.26 / 9.3 =0.35 C / W

5-4
i gyp
R R ; R 1/C 1/3.1 0.32 = = = =

bld air
R 10.33 3.03;R 0.68 = = =
R =0.68 +0.32 +3.03 +0.32 +0.68
R =5.03 (hr- ft
2
F) / Btu

5-5
3 2
2 1
i p
r r
ln ln
r r
R'
2 kL 2 k L
= +
Assume L =1 ft

2 2
i p
k 0.2 Btu - in. / (ft hr F); k 314 Btu-in / (ft hr F) = =
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80

1 2 3 2
r 3.905in.; r 4.125in.; r r 1.5 in.=5.625 = = = +

2
o 3
A 2 r L 2 (5.625) (1) 35.34 in = = = ;
2
i 1
A 2 rL 24.54 in = =


5.625 4.125
ln ln
4.125 3.905
R'
0.2 314
2 2
12 12

= + =2.96 (hr-F)/Btu

5-6
blk 5-4 blk
R 10.57 1.77; R=R 3.03 R = = +

2
R =5.03-3.03+1.77 =3.77 (hr-ft F) Btu

5-7
2
R 5.03 0.68 0.17 4.91(hr-ft -F) Btu = + =
U 1R=14.91=0.204 =

5-8
o o
o o i i o o
1 1 1
R' ; Base U on A
U A hA h A
= + +


o
1 35.34 1
(35.34 x 2.96) 105.28
U 650 x 24.54 1.5
= + + =

2
o o
U 0.0095 Btu / (hr - ft F); Based on A =
5-9
Layer R - (m
2
C) / W
Outside Surface 0.029
Brick Venur (100 mm) 0.112
Air Space (20 mm) 0.180
Concrete Block (200 mm) 0.183
Gypsum Plaster (13 mm) 0.057
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81
Inside Surface (7 m/s ) 0.120
Overall Thermal Resis. = 0.652
2
mC/ W


5-10 Between Frame At Framing
Outside Surface 0.17 0.17
4 in. Face Brick 0.65 0.65
Sheathing 1.32 1.32
Insulation 11.0 --
2x4 stud -- 4.27
Gypsum board 0.32 0.32
Inside surface 0.68 0.68
Total 14.14 7.41


i i f f i i f f
UA UA U A ; U UA / A U A / A = + = +
i f
A A 14.5 1.5 1
and and U
A 16 A 16 R
= = =
( )
2
14.5 1 1.5 1
U x x 0.077 Btu / hr - ft F
16 14.14 16 7.41

= + =




5-11 An ordinary wall with 0.9 = has a unit resistance of 0.68. A
highly reflective wall, 0.05, = has a unit resistance of 1.70.
Assume radiation heat transfer is zero for reflective wall. Then
the resistance due to convection alone is approximately

c c c c r
R 1.7; h 1 / R 0.59; h 1 / 0.68 1.47
+
= = = = =
Frac. Conv. =
a c r
h / h 0.59 / 1.47 0.4
+
= =

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82
5-12 Assume 15 mph wind. R
1
(2 x 6) R
2
(2 x 4)


1. Outside surface, 15 mph 0.17 0.17
2. Siding 0.79 0.79
3. Sheathing 1.32 1.32
4. Insulation, 19.0 11.0
2 x 4 --- 4.27
2 x 6 6.7 ---
5. Gypsum wall board 0.32 0.32
6. Inside surface 0.68 0.68
Total 28.98 18.55

2
1
U 0.035 Btu / (hr - ft F) =

2
2
U 0.054 Btu / (hr - ft F) =

0.054 0.035
% Difference (100)
0.054

=


=35.2
5-13 Air space will be near the indoor temperature with small
t across the air space.

mean
Use t 50 F and t 10 F and read = =

( )
2 2
R 1.02 hr ft F / Btu [Table 5-3a] or 0.18 mC/ W =

5-14
mean
Assume t 50 F; t 10 F = =

2 2
R 3.55 (hr - ft F) / Btu or 0.62 (m C/ W) [Table 5-3a] =
5-15
c c
q / A U =

t
Find U for highly reflective surfaces because radiation will be
minimal. This will give a good approximation for the convection
component. From Table 5-2a, Horz., heat flow down
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R
83
c
U 1 / R 1 / (2 x 4.55) 0.11 = = =
2
c
q / A 0.11 ( 145 - 110) 3.85 Btu/(hr ft ) = =


or
2
c c
1
U 0.625; q / A 0.625(63 43) 12.5 W/m
(2x0.8)
= = = =


4 4
1 2
r
T T
q/ A '
100 100



=


;
1 2
for 0.9, E 0.82, ' 0.1713 = = = =
4 4
2
r
2
W
(q/ A) 0.1713 x 0.82 [6.05 5.7 ] 39.9 Btu / (hr - ft ) or 129
m
= =


Radiation heat transfer is about 10 times greater.


5-16
2
w
U 0.07 Btu / (hr - ft F) =
U
2
d
0.40 Btu / (hr - ft F) =
0.81 Btu / (hr - ft F) =

U
2
win

2 2
d win
A 17.78 ft ; A 25.0 ft ; = =

2
w
A 117.2 ft =
U A U A U A = + +

Parallel heat flow paths
UA
w w d d win win

(0.07 x 117.2) (0.4 x 17.78) (0.81 x 25.0)
U
117.2
+ +
=


=
2 2
0.30 Btu /(hr - ft F) or about 1.72 W/(m C)

5-17
i o
q / A U (t t ) =

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F
M
R
84
From Table 5-4b, construction 2, R =8.90 (hr ft
2
F) / Btu
Assume insulation does not fill the airspace.
Remove R for metal bath and plaster of 0.47
( )
2
hr ft F /Btu and
add R for acoustical tile and insulation.
Ceiling, R
c
=1 / 0.8; insulation, R=11.00;
R
total
=20.68;
2
U 1/R 0.048 Btu / (hr - ft F) = =

2
q/ A 0.048 ( 72 - 5) 3.22 BTU / (hr - ft ) = =


5-18 From Table 5-4a, Construction 1

( )
2
W
0.171
U 0.971 W/ m
0.1761
= = C

( )
( )
2
d
2
win
U 2.27 W/ m C ; Table 5-8
U 4.62W/ m C ; Table 5-5b
=
=


2 2
w win d
2
A 35m ; A 8m ; A 2m = = =

w w d d win win
UA U A U A U A = + + +

( )
2
(0.971x35) (2.27x2) (4.62x8)
U 2
35
+ +
= = .16 W/ m C
5-19
2
U 0.14 Btu / (hr - ft F)Table5 4a, Construction No. 2 =
; =6.69 R 1/0.14 7.14 = =
n
R 7.14 (1 / 0.44) ( 1 / 0.55) = +
U
n
=0.15 Btu/(hr - ft
2
- F) or about 0.85 W / (m
2
-C)

5-20 Assume Hardwood, k =1.25 (Btu-in) / (hr - ft
2
- F)
Summer Winter
R
i
=0.68 R
i
=0.68
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M
1
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F
M
R
85
R
d
=1.375 / 1.25 R
d
=1.375 / 1.25
R
o
=0.25 R
o
=0.17
R
s
=2.03 R
w
=1.95

2
s
U 0.49 Btu / (hr - ft F) =
2
w
U 0.51 Btu / (hr-ft F) =
Both values are greater than the value given in
Table 5-8 of 0.39 Btu / (hr ft
2
F), but acceptable.

5-21 Computed: R
i
=0.68; R
g
=0.03 (estimate); R
o
=0.25
R
i
+R
g
+R
o
=0.96 =R

( )
2 2
U 1.04 Btu / (hr - ft F); or 5.92 W/ m C computed =

2
tab
U 1.04 Btu / (hr - ft F); Table 5-5a =

( )
2
or 5.91 W/ m C ; Table 5-5b ; Same result

5-22 (a) From Table 5-5 U=1.08 Btu /
2
(hr - ft F)

(b)
mean
Assume t 50 F; t 10 F = =


( )
2
ag
R 1.01 hr - ft F / Btu =

n ag
1 1
R R 1.01 1.94
U 1.08
= + = + = ; Un =0.52 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)

5-23 (a)
( )
2 2
w
U 0.089 Btu /(hr - ft F) or 0.51 W/ m C Table 5-9 =

( )
2 2
fl
U 0.029 Btu / (hr - ft F) or 0.16 W/ m C Table 5-10 =
(b)
i g g avg
q UA (t t ); t t A = =

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86

avg
t 35.8 F (2.44 C) Table 5-11
Chicago,Illinois
A 22 F (12 C) Figure 5-7
=

5-23 (continued)

g i
t 35.8 - 22 13.8; t 72 F (22 C) = = =

w
q 0.089 (4 x 20 x 7) (72 - 13.8) 2,900 Btu / hr or 0.85 kW = =


fl
q 0.029 (20 x 20) (72 - 13.8) 675 Btu /hr or 0.2 kW = =


5-24
e fl fl
R R ; U 0.029 Table 5-10 = =

fin
R 1 / 0.48 Table 5-1a (Fibrous Pad) =
e
1
R 2.08
0.029
= + = 36.6
( )
2 2
e
U 0.027 Btu / (hr - ft F) or 0.16 W/ m C =
5-25 (a)
w
1
R 11 (1 / 3.1) 22.6
0.089
+ + =
U
w
=0.044 Btu/(hr-ft
3
-F) or 0.25 W/(m
2
-C)
fl
1
R (1 / 0.48) 36.6
0.029
= + =
( )
2 2
fl
U 0.027 Btu/(hr - ft F) or 0.155 W/ m C =
(b) Refer to problem solution 5-23
w
q 0.044 (4 x 20 x 7) (72 - 13.8) 1434 Btu / hr or 0.42 kW = =



fl
q 0.027 (20 x 20) (72 - 13.8) 629 Btu / hr or 0.18 kW = =


5-26
( )
2
ins
1.5
R 4.17 hr ft F / Btu
0.36
= =
( )
2 2
C =0.24 Btu/(hr ft F) or 1.36 W/ m C
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87
Then from Fig. 5-8,
' 2
U 0.85Btu/(hr ft F) or 1.47 W(m C) =

i o
q U'P (t t ) 0.85 x 300 [72 -10] = =

15,810Btu/hr or 4.63kW =

5-27 t
i
=72 F (22 C) Assumed
2
c b fin b
R R R ; U 0.052 Btu / (hr -ft F) Table 5-9 = + =

fin i vb qyp
R R R R (5.0) 0.0 (1 / 2.22) 7.22 = + + = + + =

e
1
R 7.22 26.5
0.052
= + =

( )
2 2
e
U 0.038 Btu / (hr -ft F) or 0.22 W/ m C =
5-28
b
U 1.14 from Table 5-9 =
2
n
1
R 0.7 (1 / 12.6) 1.66 (m -c)/W
1.14
= + + = ; U
n
=0.60 W/(m
2
-
C)
or
2
n
U 0.106 Btu / (hr -ft F) =
This does not account for the walls above grade.

5-29 U =0.16 Table 5-10 (no finish)

2
n
1
R (1 / 6.9) (1 / 4.6) 6.61(m -C) / W
0.16
= + + =

2 2
n
U 0.15 W/(m -C) or 0.027 Btu / (hr -ft F) =

5-30
n i g i 1 1 1 2 2
q/ A U (t t ) (t t ) / R (t t ) / R = = =


1 gyp ins i 1
R R R R ; R (1 / 12.6) 0.7 0.12 0.90 = + + = + + =

1 i n 1 i g
t t U R (t t ) 20 - [1.05 x 0.9 (20 - 10)] = =
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88
t
1
14.6 C or 58F =

2 gyp i
R R R (1 / 12.6) 0.12 .20 = + = + =

2
t 20 [0.60 x 0.2 (20-10)] 18.8 C or 65.8 F = =

5-31
n i g i 1 1 1 i c
q / A U (t t ) (t t ) / R ; R R R = = = +

0.12 (1 / 4.6) 0.34 = + =



1
t 20 (0.15) (0.34) (20-10) 19.5 C or 67 F = =

5-32 C =0.2 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F); Figure 5-8
U
i o
q U'P (t t ); =

i
=0.81 Btu/ (hr-ft-F) or 1.4 W/(m-C)

ni
U' 1.37 Btu / (hr - ft -F) =
(a) q/P 0.81 (70 - 5) 52.7 Btu / (hr - ft) or 50.7 W/m = =

(b) q/P 1.37 (70 - 5) 89.1 Btu / (hr - ft) or 85.6 W/m = =


5-33 q t / R' ; Eq. 5-25; L Z: L 100ft = >> =


2L ln (L/2Z)
ln 1
D ln (2L /D)
R'
2 kL







=

=
200 x 12 ln(12 x 100 / 2 x 30)
ln 1
4 ln (200 x 12 / 4)
(2 x 8 x 100/12)









-3
R' 8.12 x 10 (hr - F) / Btu Which neglects the resistance =
of pipe wall.
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89

-3
70 42
q 3,448 Btu / hr; q / L 34.48 Btu / (hr -ft)
8.12 x 10
q
or q =1.01 kW; =33.1 W/m
L

= = =



5-34
t
q / R =

'

-3
g
100
ln
2 x 100 2 x 1
ln 1
200 0.05
ln
0.05
R' 4.98 x 10 C / W
2 (1.4) 100














= =

Neglect resistance of the inside film and the tube wall.

-3
60 5
q 11.04kW
4.98 x 10

= =



5-35 Moisture will move toward the inside. Locate the vapor
retardent on the outer side of the insulation.
The insulation will become wet if the retardent is placed on the
inside or left out entirely and the plywood would probably warp
and rot.

5-36 (a)
o i o i 1 1 i 2 2
q / A U (t t ) (t t ) / R (t t ) / R = = =


o
R 0.68 0.45 11 1.0 0.8 0.17 14.1 = + + + + + =

2
o
U 0.071 Btu /( hr - ft F) =

2
1
R 0.68 0.45 1.13( hr - ft F) / Btu = + =

2
2
R 0.68 0.45 11 12.13( hr - ft F) / Btu = + + =

1 i 1 o i o
t t R U (t t ) 70 (1.13 x 0.071) (70-10) 65.2 F = = =
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90

2
t 70 (12.13 x 0.071) (70-10) 18.3 F = =
(b) At 70 F
db
, 30% R.H. and possible leakage of air to surfaces 1
or 2.

dp
t 37 F 65 F ~no condensation expected = <
(c) Since t
2
=18.3 F is much less than the dewpoint, condensation
would occur.
Place vapor retardent at the location of interface 1.

5-37 Assume infiltration is negligible

f f i c w w c o c o p c o
U A (t t ) U A (t t ) U'P(t t ) mc (t t = + =

)

f f i w w p o
c
f f w w p
U A t (U A U'P mc )t
t
(U A U A U'P mc )
+ + +
=
+ + +

; t
i
=72 F; t
0
=10 F
Assume 1.5 in. of wood floor, Pine; R
wood
=1.5/0.8 =1.88

f f f
f
1
U ;R 0.92 1.88 0.92 3.72;U 0.27
R
= = + + = =
U
f
A
f
=0.27 x 30 x 60 =484 Btu/(hr-F)

w w w
w
1
U ;R 0.68 (6/15) 0.17 1.25;U 0.80
R
= = + + = =
U
w
A
w
=0.80 x 2(30 +60)2 =288 Btu/(hr-F)
UP =1.8 x (30 +60)2 =324

p
mc 20 x 0.075 x 60 x 0.24 21.6 Btu/(hr-F) = =


c
484 x 72 +(288 +324 +21.6)10
t 36.85F
484 +288 +324 +21.6
= =

5-38 (a)
i o 1 o 1
q / A U (t t ) (t t ) /R ; = =

U
2
=0.112; R
1
=0.17 +0.33 +4.17 +2.22 =6.89 (construction 2)
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91

1
t (6.89 x 0.112) (72-0) 55.6 F = =

(b) U 0.211 (construction 1) =

1
R 0.17 0.33 2.22 2.72 = + + =

i o 1 i o
t t R U (t t ) 0 (2.72 x 0.211) ( 72 - 0) 41.3 F = + = + =

(c) If room air leaks into the air space for the case of no roof deck
insulation (b) there could be some condensation since t
dp
=50
F at 72 F and 45% RH. With the insulation, no condensation
would be expected.

5-39
i o s i 1
(t t ) / R (t t ) / R =
1
;
2
s
R 4.5 or 0.79 (m -C)/W = Table 5-4a (Const. No.1)

2 2
1
R 0.68 0.45 0.94 2.07 (hr-ft -F)/Btu or 0.365 (m -C)/W = + + =
Between Furring and block

1
1 i i o
s
R .365
t t (t t ) 22 (22 17) 3.98 C or 39 F
R 0.79
= = + =

dp
t 9.5C, Assuming room air can diffuse into the air space, =
condensation likely will form on the concrete block surface.
Therefore, place vapor retardant on inside surface of gypsum
board. Use foil backed retardent. Retardent must not touch
concrete blocks!


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92
5-40
1 1 i n 4 4 i n 3 3 n o 2 2 n o
U A (t -t ) +U A (t -t ) =2U A (t -t ) +U A (t -t )
1 1 2 2 i 3 3 o 2 2 o
n
3 3 2 2 1 1 4 4
(U A U A )t +2U A t +U A t
t
2U A U A +U A +U A
+
=
+

1 1 3 3
2 2 4 4
0.09 x 3 x 8
U A 0.09 x 8 x 20 =14.4; U A =1.08
2
U A 0.09 x 8.54 x 20 =15.4; U A 0.09 x 3 x 20 =5.4
= =
= =


n
(14.4 15.4)70 (2 x 0.8 x 0) +(15.4 x 0)
t 55.8F
(2 x 1.08) +15.4 +14.4 +5.4
+ +
= =


Place water pipes in this space with some caution.


5-41 ; t
f f i b w w bf f b g
U A (t -t ) =(U A +U A )(t -t )
i
=72 F

t
g
=t
avg
A =37.6 23 =14.6 F or 8 C


f f
f
1
U ;R (2 x 0.92) +(1.5/0.8) +2.1 =5.82
R
= =
Carpet and Fibrous pad assumed; U
f
=0.172 Btu/ (hr - ft
2
- F)

U
w
=.164 Table 5 9; U
bf
=0.029 Table 5 10

f f i w w bf f g
b
f f w w bf f
U A t +( U A +U A )t
t
U A U A +U A
=
+


b
(0.172 x 400 x 72) +(.164 x 80 x 7 +0.029 x 400)14.6
t
68.8 +91.8 +11.6
=

b
t 30.3 F or -0.95 C =
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adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or
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Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030.

CHAPTER 6


6-1

Refer to Table B-1. The computer program PSYC may be used to find the
humidity ratio from t
db
and assumed 100% RH.


City

t
db
, F
Wind
Speed,
mph
Wind
Direction, deg.
CCW from N
Humidity
Ratio,
lbv/lba
(a) Pendleton, OR 11 6 140 0.0
(b) Milwaukee, WI -2 13 290 0.0
(c) Anchorage, AL -9 4 10 0.0
(d) Norfolk, VA 24 12 340 0.003
(e) Albuquerque, NM 18 8 360 0.0
(f) Charleston, SC 28 7 20 0.003

6-2

Design relative humidity is determined by possible condensation on inside
of glass. Find glass surface temperature (which is the maximum dew-
point temperature of the inside air allowed).

/A =U(t q

i
t
o
) =C
1
(t
1
t
o
)
t
i
=72F; t
1
=glass surface temperature
U =0.65 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F). Table 5-5a

1 i
1 1 1
C U h
= ; h
i
=1.46 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
C
1
=1.172 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
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t
1
=
( )
i o 1
1
Ut t C U
C
+



City
Indoor
T
db
, F
Outdoor
T
db
, F
t
1
=
t
dp
, F
Design or
Max.
RH ~%
(a) Caribou, ME 72 -10
35.5 26.2
(b) Birmingham, AL 72 23
50.2 46.1
(c) Cleveland, OH 72 6
42.6 34.6
(d) Denver, CO 72 3
41.3 32.9
(e) San Francisco, CA 72 39
57.3 59.9*
(g) Boise, ID 72 -16
32.8 23.6
Rapid City 72 9
44.0 36.5
* RH =60 % would probably be uncomfortable
RH =40 to 50% would be more realistic

6-3

Assume that the weather strip does not change the convective heat loss.
From Figure 6-2, C
p
=0.3. Using Eq. (6-7b) with the air density of 0 F,
the pressure difference due to wind is

=
/
.
1924 . 0

17 . 32 2
/
467 . 1 * 15

086 . 0 3 . 0
2
ft lbf
wg in
s lbf
ft lbm
mph
s ft
mph
ft
lbm
P
w



wg in P
w
. 037 . 0 =

Assuming slight stack effect, P 0.04 in. water

Using Table 6-1 and Fig. 6-1,
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Loose fit with non-weather-stripped, K =6; /L =0.75 cfm/ft
Q

Loose fit with weather-stripped, K =2; /L =0.24 cfm/ft


Q


Total length of crack, L =[(3 x 3) +(2 x 5)] x 9 =171 ft
Using L/2 for calculation, then
Q

1
=0.75 x 171/2 =64.1 cfm,
Q

2
=0.24 x 171/2 =20.5 cfm

Now
q

i
=
m
c

p
(t
i
t
o
) =
Q
v

c
p
(t
i
t
o
)

1 . 64
5 . 20 1 . 64
1
2 1
1
2 1

=

Q
Q Q
q
q q
i
i i


=0.68

or a reduction of 68% in sensible heat loss.

Also, (K
1
K
2
)/K
1
=(6-2)/6 =0.67 or 67% Reduction.

6-4

From Fig. 6-2, Cp =0.52 for windward wind.
Assuming standard sea level air density, the pressure difference due to
the wind speed of 13 m/s is


Pa
s N
m kg
s
m
m
kg
P
w
6 . 53

0 . 1 2
13

22 . 1 52 . 0
2
=

=


(a) From Table 6-2, K =1 for tight-fitting.
Then, from Fig. 6-1, /L =0.60 L/m-s Q

=0.60 x (0.9 +2.0) x 2 =3.48 L/s



Assuming that the wind speed and wind direction are the same as the
given conditions for the bank at Rapid City, SD, the heating load (at -20.6
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C outdoor temp. and 72 C indoor temp.) due to the door infiltration can
be calculating using Eq. (6-2b) as:

( ) W C
C kg
J
m
kg
s
m
q
s
1 . 393 ) 6 . 20 ( 72 1000

22 . 1

001 . 0 * 48 . 3 =

=


(b) From Table 6-2, K =2 for average-fitting.
Then, from Fig. 6-1, /L =1.25 L/m-s Q

=1.25 x (0.9 +2.0) x 2 =7.25 L/s


( ) W C
C kg
J
m
kg
s
m
q
s
0 . 819 ) 6 . 20 ( 72 1000

22 . 1

001 . 0 * 25 . 7 =

=


(c) From Table 6-2, K =6 for average-fitting.
Then, from Fig. 6-1, /L =3.40 L/m-s Q

=3.40 x (0.9 +2.0) x 2 =19.72 L/s


( ) W C
C kg
J
m
kg
s
m
q
s
6 . 2227 ) 6 . 20 ( 72 1000

22 . 1

001 . 0 * 72 . 19 =

=



6-5

From Figure 6-2, C
p
=0.52. Using Eq. (6-7b) with the standard air density,
the pressure difference due to wind is

=
/
.
1924 . 0

17 . 32 2
/
467 . 1 * 23

0765 . 0 52 . 0
2
ft lbf
wg in
s lbf
ft lbm
mph
s ft
mph
ft
lbm
P
w



wg in P
w
. 135 . 0 =

Neglecting stack effect and pressurization, P 0.135 in. water
From Table 6-1, K =2 for average-fitting with non-weather-stripped.
From Fig. 6-1, /L =0.60 cfm/ft. Q

L
c
=[(3 x 2.5) +(2 x 4)]x3 =46.5 ft
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Q

=0.60 x 46.5 =27.9 cfm.









6-6

(a) The wind effect is assumed to be independent of height and pressure
differences due to wind are the same as those given in Ex. 6-1.

3
rd
Floor: P
s
/C
d
=0.037; P
s
=0.037 x 0.8 =0.03 in. water
Orientation P
s
P
w
P
T
Windward 0.03 0.066 0.096
Sides 0.03 -0.066 -0.036
Leeward 0.03 -0.033 -0.003

9
th
Floor: P
s
/C
d
=-0.100; P
s
=-0.100 x 0.8 =-0.08 in. water
Orientation P
s
P
w
P
T
Windward -0.08 0.066 -0.014
Sides -0.08 -0.066 -0.146
Leeward -0.08 -0.033 -0.113

(b) For Billings, MT, design conditions are t
o
=-7F, t
i
=72F,
i
=28%.
From Table 6-3, K =0.66 for conventional curtain wall.

Air will infiltrate on windward side only on 3
rd
floor.
Windward 3
rd
floor
/A =0.15 cfm/ft Q

2
; Q =0.15(120 x 10) =180 cfm

Then q

s
=(180 x 60/12.4)(0.24)(72 (-7)) =16,514 Btu/hr
q

=(180 x 60/12.4)(0.005 0.000)1060 =4,616 Btu/hr


q

t
=q

s
+q

=21,130 Btu/hr [3
rd
Floor]

9
th
Floor All exfiltration on this floor.
q

t
=0.0 Btu/hr [9
th
Floor]
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6-7

(a) Windward Doors: Double vestibule type
P
T
=0.146 in. water, assume 1/8 in. cracks
/L =16 cfm/ft [Fig. 6-7], L =32 ft [Ex. 6-2] Q

=16 x 32 x 0.7 =358 cfm Q

(Assume 30% reduction for vestibule doors)



6-7 (Cont.)

Side Doors: Double vestibule type
P
T
=-0.052 in. water, 1/8 in. cracks
=0.0 (negative pres. diff.) Q


(b) Windward: P
T
=0.146 in. water, K =0.66 [Table 6-3]
/A =0.20 cfm/ft Q

2
[Fig. 6-6]
A =120 x 10 =1200 ft
2

=0.29(1200) =240 cfm Q


Sides: P
T
=-0.052 in. water, K =0.66 [Table 6-2]
=0.0 (negative pres. diff.) Q


UULeeward: P
T
=0.047 in. water, K =0.66 [Fig. 6-6]
/A =0.100 cfm/ft Q

2
, A =1200 ft
2
=0.100(1200) =120 cfm; Q


Total infiltration for the walls is
Q

w
=240 +0.0 +120 =360 cfm

(c) Total infiltration is sum for doors and walls.
From Ex. 6-2, for leeward door, =179 cfm. Q

Then the total door filtration is


Q

D
=358 +179 =537 cfm (neglect infil. due to traffic).
And the total wall infiltration is 360 cfm, then Q

T
=897 cfm

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For Charleston, WV: t
o
=11F, t
i
=70F
q

s
=(897 x 60/11.72)(0.24)(70-11) =65,025 Btu/hr
q

=(897 x 60/11.72)(1060)(0.005 0.000) =24,338 Btu/hr


= q

s
+q

=89,363 Btu/hr





6-8

(a) Assuming standard sea level air density, the pressure difference due
to the wind speed of 20 m/s is

/
.
1924 . 0

17 . 32 2
/
467 . 1 * 20

0765 . 0
2
ft lbf
wg in
s lbf
ft lbm
mph
s ft
mph
ft
lbm
C
P
p
w
=0.197 in. water

UUWindward: P
w
=0.197 x 0.25 =0.049 in. water

Leeward: P
w
=0.197 x (-0.5) =-0.099 in. water

Assumptions:
1) temperature difference, t
i
t
o
, =40F
2) the neutral pressure level is at floor 9,
3) the floor height is 12 ft., and
4) C
d
=0.80.

Then, from Fig. 6-5,

Floor 1: h =108 ft., P
s
/C
d
=0.13, and P
s
=0.13 x 0.80 =0.104 in. water
Floor 5: h =60 ft., P
s
=0.065 x 0.80 =0.052 in. water
Floor 15: h =72 ft., P
s
=-0.085 x 0.80 =-0.068 in. water
Floor 20: h =132 ft., P
s
=-0.160 x 0.80 =-0.128 in. water

Windward Leeward
}
C
p
assumed
Equal for both
L and W walls
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Floor P
w
P
s
P
T
P
w
P
s
P
T
1
0.049 0.104 0.153 -0.099 0.104 0.005
5
0.049 0.052 0.101 -0.099 0.052 -0.047
15
0.049 -0.068 -0.019 -0.099 -0.068 -0.167
20
0.049 -0.128 -0.079 -0.099 -0.128 -0.227

(b)


6-8 (Cont.)



Infiltration Windward Sides, from 1
st
to 13
th
Floor
Leeward Sides, 1
st
Floor only

Exfiltration Windward Sides, from 14
th
to 20
th
Floor
Leeward Sides, from 2
nd
to 20
th
Floor

(c) 1
st
floor, Infiltration on all sides through doors, walls and fixed
windows

Windward Walls: from Table 6-3, K =0.22 for tight fitting.
From Fig. 6-6, /A =0.08 cfm/ft Q

2
.
A =(100 +60)12 =1920 ft
2
Q

=0.08 x 1920 =154 cfm



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Leeward Walls: from Table 6-3, K =0.22 for tight fitting.
From Fig. 6-6, /A =0.005 cfm/ft Q

2
.
A =(100 +60)12 =1920 ft
2
Q

=0.005 x 1920 =10 cfm



Windward Doors: from Fig. 6-7, Q/L =17 cfm/ft for 1/8 in. crack.

6-8 (Cont.)

For vestibule doors, assume a 35% reduction.
Q

/L =17 x 0.65 =11.05 cfm/ft


L =(3 x 6.75) +(2 x 6) =32.25 ft
Q

=11.05 x 32.25 =356 cfm



Leeward Doors: from Fig. 6-7, Q/L =1.5 cfm/ft for 1/8 in. crack.

For vestibule doors, assume a 35% reduction.


Q

/L =1.5 x 0.65 =0.975 cfm/ft


Q

=0.975 x 32.25 =31 cfm



Then, total infiltration (neglecting traffic effect) is
Q

tot
=154 +10 +356 +31 =551 cfm.

(d) and (e) Infiltration rate is zero due to negative pressure differentials for
the 15
th
and 20
th
floors.

6-9

For Minneapolis, MN: t
o
=-11F, t
i
=70F.
[Note: t =70 (-11) =81F is inconsistent with Problem 6-8 where
t =40F was used; however, an error is assumed to be minor]

(a) From Prob. 6-8, Q

T
=551 cfm for 1
st
floor.
q

s
=(551 x 60/12.15)(0.24)(70 (-11)) =52,896 Btu/hr
q

l
=(551 x 60/12.15)(1060)(0.004 0.000) =11,537 Btu/hr
q

t
=q

s
+q

=64,433 Btu/hr

(b) and (c) q

t
=0.0 due to zero infiltration
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6-10

For Des Moines, IA: t
o
=-4F, t
i
=70F.

Transmission heat loss (neglecting infiltration) through windows, doors,
walls, and roofs can be determined by Eq. 5-19 as:
q =UA(t

i
t
o
)

Windows: A =(3 x 4)12 =144 ft
2
;
From Table 5-5a, U =0.55 Btu/(hr ft
2
F);
q =0.55(144)(70 (-4)) =5,861 Btu/hr


Doors: A =(3 x 6.75)12 =243 ft
2
;
From Table 5-8, U =0.28 Btu/(hr ft
2
F);
(assume panel with metal storm door)
q =0.28 (243)(70 (-4)) =5,035 Btu/hr


Walls: A =8[(36 +64)2] 144 60.75 =1395.25 ft
2
;
From Table 5-4a, U =0.14 Btu/(hr ft
2
F);
q =0.14(1395.25)(70 (-4)) =14,455 Btu/hr


Roof/Ceiling: A =36 x 64 =2304 ft
2
;
From Example 5-3, U =0.83 Btu/(hr ft
2
F);
q =0.083(2304)(70 (-4)) =14,151 Btu/hr


Transmission heat loss through the slat-on-grade floor can be determined
by Eq. 5-23 as:
q =U'P(t

i
t
o
)

Floor: P =(36 +64)2 =200 ft;
U' =0.80 Btu/(hr ft F), from Fig. 5-8 (assume insulation R-value
of 5.4 (hr ft
2
F)/ Btu and d =2ft).
q =0.8(200)(70 (-4)) =11,840 Btu/hr


Finally, total transmission heat loss is the sum of all heat losses;

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q

t
=51,342 Btu/hr

6-11

From Figure 6-2, C
p
=0.52. Using Eq. (6-7b) with the standard air density,
the pressure difference due to the wind of 15 mph is

=
/
.
1924 . 0

17 . 32 2
/
467 . 1 * 15

0765 . 0 ) 52 . 0 (
2
ft lbf
wg in
s lbf
ft lbm
mph
s ft
mph
ft
lbm
P
w

P
w
=0.058 in. water

For a low-rise building, neglect stack effect and pressurization, thus
P
t
0.058 in. water

From Tables 6-1 and 6-2, K =1 for tight-fitting windows and doors.
From Fig. 6-1, /L =0.13 cfm/ft. Q

L
c
=[(3 x 3) +(2 x 4)]x3 +(3+6.75)x2x3 =109.5 ft
Q

=0.13 x 109.5 =14.2 cfm.



q

s
=(14.2 x 60/12.15)(0.24)(70 (-4)) =1,245 Btu/hr
q

l
=(14.2 x 60/12.15)(1060)(0.005 0.000) =372 Btu/hr
q

t
=q

s
+q

=1,617 Btu/hr

6-12

For Halifax, Nova Scotia: t
o
=2F, t
i
=70F.

Refer to Problem 6-10 for other data.

Windows: =0.55(144)(70 2) =5,386 Btu/hr q

Doors: =0.28 (243)(70 2) =4,627 Btu/hr q

Walls: =0.14(1395.25)(70 2) =13,283 Btu/hr q

Roof/Ceiling: q =0.083(2304)(70 2) =13,004 Btu/hr

Floor: =0.8(200)(70 2) =10,880 Btu/hr q

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Total: q

t
=47,180 Btu/hr

6-13

Memphis, TN; t
o
=21 F; t
i
=70F
R
w
=0.92 +1.55 +0.99 +1.77 +0.17 =5.4 (Tables 5-1a, 5-2a)
U
w
=1/5.4 =0.185 Btu/(hr ft
2
- F)
U
g
=0.81 Btu/(hr ft
2
F) (Table 5-5a)
A
g
=6x3x3 =54 ft
2
A
w
=(40x10)-54 =346 ft
2

q

w
=0.185 x 346 x (70 21) =3,136 Btu/hr
q

g
=0.81 x 54 x (70 21) =2,143 Btu/hr
q

total
=5,279 Btu/hr


6-14

Concord, NH; t
o
=-2F; t
i
=70F
R
w
=5.4 0.99 +3.0 =7.41
U
w
=0.135 Btu/(hr ft
2
F)
U
g
=0.81 Btu/(hr ft
2
F) (From problem 6-13)
q

w
=0.135 x 346 x [70 (-2)] =3,363 Btu/hr
q

g
=0.81 x 54 x (72) =3,149 Btu/hr
q

total
=6,512 Btu/hr


6-15

Instructor supplies solution.


6-16

(a) = q

s
s
Q
v

(i
s
i
v
)
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Q

s
=
60 ) 8 . 21 7 . 32 (
) 6 . 14 )( 000 , 280 (

v s
s
i i
v q
=6,251 cfm

(b) = c q

p
(t
s
t
r
) =
s
s
Q
v

c
p
(t
s
t
r
)
Q

s
=
( ) 60 ) 70 115 )( 24 . 0 (
) 6 . 14 )( 000 , 250 (

r s p
s
t t c
v q
=5,633 cfm







6-17

SHF =q
s
/(q

+q
s
) =
100,000
(133,000 100,000)

=-3.03
Locate states, and condition line and heating process on psychometric
chart.
q

s
=mc

p
(t
r
t
s
) or m

s
=q

s
/c
p
(t
r
t
s
)
m

s
=100,000/(0.24 x 20) =20,833 lbm/hr
Q

s
=m

s
x v
s
/60 =20,833 x 14.05/60
Q

s
=4,878 cfm or about 4,900 cfm

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106
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Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030.

Chapter 7


7-1
First, find longitude from Table B-1a

Then, convert Daylight Saving Time to Local Standard Time using Eq. 7-5

Next, determine the equation of time from Table 7-2
Finally, determine Local Solar Time using Eq. 7-6
The following table summarizes the solutions of the problem.

Location
Longitude,
W
Standard
Meridian,
W
Daylight
Savings
Time
Local
Standard
Time
Equation
of Time
Local Solar
Time
Norfolk, VA 76.2 75 9:00:00 AM 8:00:00 AM -2.41 min 7:52:47 AM
Lincoln, NE 96.75 90 1:00:00 PM 12:00:00 PM -2.41 min 11:30:35 AM
Casper, WY 106.47 105 10:00:00 AM 9:00:00 AM -2.41 min 8:51:43 AM
Pendleton, OR 118.85 120 3:00:00 PM 2:00:00 PM -2.41 min 2:02:11 PM
London, UK 0.45 0 7:00:00 PM 6:00:00 PM -2.41 min 5:55:47 PM


7-2
Hour angle (negative for morning and positive for afternoon) can be
determined by


) 12 ( * 15 = LST h

(a) h =15*(8:19 - 12:00) =15*(-3.683) =-55.25 deg.

(b) h =15*(10:03 - 12:00) =15*(-1.950) =-29.25 deg.

(c) h =15*(15:46 - 12:00) =15*(3.767) =56.50 deg.

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(d) h =15*(12:01 - 12:00) =15*(0.017) =0.25 deg.




7-3 At sunset and sunrise,
= 0
;
0 ) sin( =


From Eq. 7-8;
) sin( ) sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( = l h l


) tan( ) tan( ) cos( ) cos( = = l h h
sr ss


The following table summarizes the solutions of the problem.

Location Latitude, N
Declination
Angle,
Cos(h)
Hour
Angle,
Sunrise,
(LST)
Sunset,
(LST)
Billings, MT 45.8 20.6 -0.3865 112.7 4:29 AM 7:30 AM
Orlando, FL 28.43 20.6 -0.2035 101.7 5:13 AM 6:46 AM
Anchorage, AL 61.17 20.6 -0.6829 133.1 3:07 AM 8:52 AM
Honolulu, HI 21.35 20.6 -0.1469 98.4 5:26 AM 6:33 AM

Note earlier sunrise at greater latitudes

7-4
l =33.0 deg. N

h =15*(9-12) =-45.0 deg.

On Sep 21, =0.0 deg.

From Eq. 7-8;
) sin( ) sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) sin( + = l h l
=0.593

=36.37 deg.

From Eq. 7-11;
sin cos cos sin cos
cos
cos
l l h

=
=-0.478

=118.57 deg. (clockwise from north)

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108


7-5
At sunrise,
= 0
;
0 ) sin( =


From Eq. 7-8;
) sin( ) sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( = l h l


) tan( ) tan( ) cos( = l h
sr


(a) J une 21: =23.45 deg; l =58 deg.

cos h =-0.6942; h =-133.96 deg. or -8.93 hours

Sunrise is at 3:04 AM (Solar Time)

From Eq. 7-11;
sin cos cos sin cos
cos
cos
l l h

=
=0.751

=41.33 deg. (clockwise from north)

(b) Dec 21: =-23.45 deg; l =58 deg.

cos h =0.6942; h =-46.04 deg. or -3.07 hours

Sunrise is at 8:55 AM (Solar Time)

From Eq. 7-11;
sin cos cos sin cos
cos
cos
l l h

=
=-0.751

=138.67 deg. (clockwise from north)



7-6

Maximum solar altitude angle, will occur at solar noon, h 0 =

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From Eq. 7-10,
( ) = l Min 90
max


From Table 7-2, |
max
| =23.45

(a) Denver, CO: l =39.75 deg. N.

For north latitude, l is positive and greater than |
max
| so we need largest
positive value of .

From Table 7-2,
max
=23.45 deg. and hence
max
=73.70 deg.

Therefore, maximum solar altitude angle occurs at solar noon on J une 21.

(b) Lansing, MI: l =42.77 deg. N.

For north latitude, l is positive and greater than |
max
| so we need largest
positive value of .

From Table 7-2,
max
=23.45 deg. and hence
max
=70.68 deg.

Therefore, maximum solar altitude angle occurs at solar noon on J une 21.

(c) Sydney, Australia: l =33.95 deg. S.

For south latitude, l is negative and |l| is greater than |
max
| so we need
largest negative value of .

From Table 7-2,
max
=-23.45 deg. and hence
max
=79.50 deg.

Therefore, maximum solar altitude angle occurs at solar noon on Dec 21.


7-7
Longitude: L
L
=100 deg. W

Local Standard Time: LCT =3:30 pm

On Nov 21, EOT =13.8 min

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110
Using Eq. 7-6, LST =15.50 (100-90)*4 /60+13.8/60 =15.063 Hr or 3:04
pm.

Latitude: l =37.5 deg. N

Hour angle: h =15*(15.063-12) =45.95 deg.

On Nov 21, =-19.8 deg.

Using Eq. 7-8 to calculate solar altitude, =21.36 deg.

Then using Eq. 7-11 to calculate solar azimuth; =226.56 deg. (clockwise
from north)

Surface azimuth; =12+180 =192 deg. (clockwise from north)

Finally, using Eq. 7-12 to calculate wall-solar azimuth

=|226.56-192| =34.56 deg.


7-8

Using Eq. 7-13b to calculate angle of incidence for a vertical surface

=39.92 deg.

Using Eq. 7-13a to calculate angle of incidence for an inclined surface

For surface tilt =70, =32.30 deg.


7-9

For Ottawa, Ontario on J uly 21,

Longitude: L
L
=75.67 deg. W

Latitude: l =45.32 deg. N
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111

Equation of Time: EOT =-6.2 min

Declination: =20.6 deg.

(a) Eastern Daylight Savings Time: EDST =4:00 pm

Using Eq. 7-6, LST =14.852 Hr or 2:51 pm.

Hour angle: h =15*(14.852-12) =42.78 deg.

Using Eq. 7-8 to calculate solar altitude, =47.16 deg.

Using Eq. 7-13c to calculate angle of incidence for a horizontal surface,

=cos
-1
(sin(47.16)) =42.84 deg.

(b) At sunset, 0 and sin 0 = =

) tan( ) tan( ) cos( = l h


Hour angle: h =112.34 deg.

Solar time at sunset: LST =12 +h/15 =19.49 hr or 7:29 pm.

Eastern Daylight Savings Time can be calculated by

1 ) deg min/ 4 )( ( + + = EOT W EST L LST EDST
L


EDST =19.49 +(75.67-75)*(4/60)-(-6.2/60)+1 =20.638 hr or 8:38 pm.


7-10
For Philadelphia, PA on J uly 21,
Longitude: L
L
=75.25 deg. W
Latitude: l =39.88 deg. N
Equation of Time: EOT =-6.2 min
Declination: =20.6 deg.
Eastern Daylight Savings Time: EDST =10:30 am
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112

Using Eq. 7-6, LST =15.852 Hr or 3:51 pm.

Hour angle: h =15*(15.852-12) =57.78 deg.

Using Eq. 7-8 to calculate solar altitude, =49.42 deg.

Using Eq. 7-11 to find solar azimuth; =114.30 deg. (clockwise from north)

(a) Using Eq. 7-13c to calculate angle of incidence for a horizontal surface,

=cos
-1
(sin(49.42)) =40.58 deg.

(b) For vertical surface facing southeast, Surface Tilt; =90 deg., and
Surface azimuth; =135 deg. (clockwise from north).

Using Eq. 7-12 to calculate wall-solar azimuth, =|114.3-135| =20.7 deg.

Using Eq. 7-13b to calculate angle of incidence for a vertical surface,

=cos
-1
(cos(49.42)cos(20.70)) =52.52 deg.

(c) For inclined surface facing south, Surface Tilt; =(90-40) =50 deg.,
and Surface azimuth; =180 deg. (clockwise from north).

Using Eq. 7-12 to calculate wall-solar azimuth, =|114.3-180| =65.7 deg.

Using Eq. 7-13a to calculate angle of incidence for an inclined surface,

=cos
-1
(cos(49.42)cos(65.70)sin(50)+sin(49.42)cos(50)) =46.11 deg.

7-11


7-12


7-13
For Calibou, MA on J uly 21,
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113
Longitude: L
L
=46.87 deg. W
Latitude: l =68.02 deg. N
Equation of Time: EOT =-6.2 min
Declination: =20.6 deg.
Solar Parameters; A =346.4 Btu/hr-ft or 1093 W/m, B =0.186,
and C =0.138
Eastern Daylight Savings Time: EDST =2:00 pm
Surface Tilt; =60 deg.
Surface azimuth, SW; =225 deg. (clockwise from north)

Using Eq. 7-6, LST =14.72 Hr

Hour angle: h =15*(14.72-12) =41.58 deg.

Using Eq. 7-8 to calculate solar altitude, =36.04 deg.

Using Eq. 7-11 to find solar azimuth; =230.2 deg. (clockwise from north)

Using Eq. 7-12 to calculate wall-solar azimuth, =5.2 deg.

Using Eq. 7-13a to calculate angle of incidence, =7.45 deg.

Using Eq. 7-15 and clearness number of 1, G
ND
=252.51 Btu/hr-ft or
796.75 W/m

Using Eq. 7-16a, G
D
=250.28 Btu/hr-ft or 790.03 W/m

Using Eqs. 7-18 and 7-20, G
d
=26.13 Btu/hr-ft or 82.46 W/m

Therefore, total clear sky irradiation is 276.51 Btu/hr-ft or 872.49 W/m


7-14
Given Information:
Date: J une 21
Longitude: L
L
=96.0 deg. W
Latitude: l =36.0 deg. N
Equation of Time: EOT =-1.4 min
Declination: =23.45 deg.
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114
Solar Parameters; A =346.1 Btu/hr-ft or 1092 W/m, B =0.185,
and C =0.137
Central Daylight Savings Time: CDST =8:00 pm
Surface Tilt; =90 deg.
Surface azimuth, SW; =225 deg. (clockwise from north)
Reflectance from water;
g
=0.25

Using Eq. 7-6, LST =18.58 Hr

Hour angle: h =15*(18.58-12) =98.65 deg.

Using Eq. 7-8 to calculate solar altitude, =7.02 deg.

Using Eq. 7-15, G
ND
=76.24 Btu/hr-ft or 240.5 W/m

Irradiation reflected from the ground can be determined by

ND wg g R
G C F G ) (sin + =


where F
wg
can be determined from Eq. 7-24.

Therefore, G
R
=2.47 Btu/hr-ft or 7.8 W/m


7-15
Given Information:
Date: Mar 21
Latitude: l =56.0 deg. N
Equation of Time: EOT =-7.5 min
Declination: =0.0 deg.
Solar Parameters; A =368.9 Btu/hr-ft or 1164 W/m, B =0.149,
and C =0.109
Local Solar Time: LST =12:00 pm
Surface Tilt; =90 deg.
Surface Azimuth, S; =180 deg. (clockwise from north)
Clearness number; CN =0.95
Diffuse Reflectance from snow;
g
=0.7

Hour angle: h =0.0 deg.
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115

Using Eq. 7-8 to calculate solar altitude, =34.0 deg.

Using Eq. 7-11 to find solar azimuth; =180.0 deg. (clockwise from north)

Using Eq. 7-12 to calculate wall-solar azimuth, =0.0 deg.

Using Eq. 7-13b to calculate angle of incidence, =34.0 deg.

Using Eq. 7-15, G
ND
=268.5 Btu/hr-ft or 847.1 W/m

Using Eq. 7-16a, G
D
=222.6 Btu/hr-ft or 702.3 W/m

Using Eqs. 7-21 and 7-22, G
d
=33.0 Btu/hr-ft or 104.1 W/m

Irradiation reflected from the ground can be determined by

ND wg g R
G C F G ) (sin + =


where F
wg
can be determined from Eq. 7-24.

Therefore, G
R
=62.8 Btu/hr-ft or 198.1 W/m

7-16
Given Information:
Date: Aug 21
Latitude: l =32.0 deg. N
Equation of Time: EOT =-2.4 min
Declination: =12.3 deg.
Solar Parameters; A =350.9 Btu/hr-ft or 1107 W/m, B =0.182,
and C =0.134
Local Solar Time: LST =10:00 am
Surface Tilt; =45 deg.
Surface azimuth, SW; =225 deg. (clockwise from north)
Diffuse Reflectance from ground;
g
=0.3

Hour angle: h =-30.0 deg.

Using Eq. 7-8 to calculate solar altitude, =56.1 deg.
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116

Using Eq. 7-11 to find solar azimuth; =118.7 deg. (clockwise from north)

Using Eq. 7-12 to calculate wall-solar azimuth, =106.3 deg.

Using Eq. 7-13b to calculate angle of incidence, =61.5 deg.

Using Eq. 7-15, G
ND
=281.8 Btu/hr-ft or 889.1 W/m

Using Eq. 7-16a, G
D
=134.4 Btu/hr-ft or 424.0 W/m

Using Eqs. 7-18 and 7-20, G
d
=32.2 Btu/hr-ft or 101.7 W/m

Using Eqs. 7-23 and 7-24, G
R
=11.9 Btu/hr-ft or 37.7 W/m

Using Eqs. 7-25, G
t
=(134.4 +32.2 +11.9) =178.6 Btu/hr-ft or
=(424.0 +101.7 +37.7) =889.1 W/m



7-17
The following results are determined from a computer program employing
equations in the book from Eqs. 7-6 to 7-26.

Following tables summarize input and output data calculated for southwest-
facing vertical window at 32 deg. N latitude, 90 deg. W longitude, for all
daylight hours of a clear day on J uly 21 with ground reflectance of 0.2 and
clearness number of 1.

Input Data
Longitude 90 deg
Standard Meridian 90 deg
EOT -6.2 min
Latitude 32 deg
Declination 20.6 deg
Surf Azimuth 225 deg
Surf Tilt 90 deg
A 346.4 Btu/hr-ft2
B 0.186
C 0.138
CN 1
RHOG 0.2
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Output Data
CDST LST h, , , , , G
ND
* G
D
* G
d
* G
R
* G
t
*
7.00 5.90 -91.55 9.50 71.57 153.43 151.90 112.19 0.00 6.97 3.40 10.37
8.00 6.90 -76.55 21.78 78.63 146.37 140.64 209.84 0.00 13.03 10.68 23.71
9.00 7.90 -61.55 34.38 85.69 139.31 128.74 249.18 0.00 15.47 17.51 32.98
10.00 8.90 -46.55 47.09 93.60 131.40 116.76 268.71 0.00 16.69 23.39 40.07
11.00 9.90 -31.55 59.65 104.24 120.76 104.98 279.23 0.00 17.34 27.95 45.29
12.00 10.90 -16.55 71.33 123.59 101.41 93.63 284.65 0.00 20.57 30.90 51.46
13.00 11.90 -1.55 78.52 172.69 52.31 83.01 286.52 34.88 24.03 32.03 90.94
14.00 12.90 13.45 73.44 229.79 4.79 73.49 285.30 81.05 27.54 31.28 139.87
15.00 13.90 28.45 62.18 252.83 27.83 65.62 280.70 115.85 30.36 28.70 174.91
16.00 14.90 43.45 49.71 264.52 39.52 60.08 271.44 135.41 31.69 24.45 191.54
17.00 15.90 58.45 37.00 272.79 47.79 57.55 254.30 136.46 30.69 18.81 185.97
18.00 16.90 73.45 24.37 279.93 54.93 58.44 220.69 115.51 26.33 12.15 153.99
19.00 17.90 88.45 12.00 286.94 61.94 62.60 141.60 65.16 15.97 4.90 86.03
*Unit of Irradiation is Btu/hr-ft


7-18
Using the developed program, following tables summarize input and output
data calculated for south-facing surface tilted at 45 deg. on Apr 21 in
Louisville, KY.

Input Data
Longitude 85.73 deg
Standard Meridian 90 deg
EOT 1.1 min
Latitude 38.18 deg
Declination 11.6 deg
Surf Azimuth 180 deg
Surf Tilt 45 deg
A 358.2 Btu/hr-ft2
B 0.164
C 0.12
CN 1
RHOG 0.2

Output Data
LST h, , , , , G
ND
* G
D
* G
d
* G
R
* G
t
*
1.0 -165.0 -38.3 18.8 161.2 164.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2.0 -150.0 -32.9 35.7 144.3 150.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
3.0 -135.0 -24.8 49.8 130.2 135.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
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4.0 -120.0 -15.1 61.5 118.5 120.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5.0 -105.0 -4.3 71.6 108.4 106.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6.0 -90.0 7.1 80.8 99.2 91.4 95.7 0.0 9.8 0.7 10.5
7.0 -75.0 18.9 89.9 90.1 76.8 215.8 49.2 22.1 2.8 74.1
8.0 -60.0 30.6 99.7 80.3 62.5 259.6 120.0 26.6 4.8 151.4
9.0 -45.0 42.0 111.3 68.7 48.4 280.3 186.1 28.7 6.5 221.3
10.0 -30.0 52.3 126.8 53.2 35.1 291.1 238.3 29.8 7.8 275.9
11.0 -15.0 60.2 149.3 30.7 23.7 296.5 271.5 30.4 8.6 310.5
12.0 0.0 63.4 180.0 0.0 18.4 298.2 282.9 30.5 8.9 322.3
13.0 15.0 60.2 210.7 30.7 23.7 296.5 271.5 30.4 8.6 310.5
14.0 30.0 52.3 233.2 53.2 35.1 291.1 238.3 29.8 7.8 275.9
15.0 45.0 42.0 248.7 68.7 48.4 280.3 186.1 28.7 6.5 221.3
16.0 60.0 30.6 260.3 80.3 62.5 259.6 120.0 26.6 4.8 151.4
17.0 75.0 18.9 270.1 90.1 76.8 215.8 49.2 22.1 2.8 74.1
18.0 90.0 7.1 279.2 99.2 91.4 95.7 0.0 9.8 0.7 10.5
19.0 105.0 -4.3 288.4 108.4 106.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
20.0 120.0 -15.1 298.5 118.5 120.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
21.0 135.0 -24.8 310.2 130.2 135.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
22.0 150.0 -32.9 324.3 144.3 150.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
23.0 165.0 -38.3 341.2 161.2 164.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
24.0 180.0 -40.2 360.0 180.0 175.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
*Unit of Irradiation is Btu/hr-ft


7-19
Using the developed program, following tables summarize input and output
data calculated for an east-facing window, 3 ft. wide by 5 ft. high, with no
set back on a clear J ul 21 day in Boise, ID.

Input Data
Longitude 116.22 deg
Standard Meridian 120 deg
EOT -6.2 min
Latitude 43.57 deg
Declination 20.6 deg
Surf Azimuth 90 deg
Surf Tilt 90 deg
A 346.4 Btu/hr-ft2
B 0.186
C 0.138
CN 1
RHOG 0.2

Output Data
LST h, , , , , G
ND
* G
D
* G
d
* G
R
* G
t
* E
#
5.0 -105.0 3.8 65.0 25.0 25.3 21.5 19.5 3.6 0.4 23.5 352.4
6.0 -90.0 14.0 74.8 15.2 20.6 160.9 150.6 27.4 6.1 184.1 2761.3
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7.0 -75.0 24.7 84.4 5.6 25.3 222.0 200.7 36.8 12.3 249.9 3747.9
8.0 -60.0 35.6 94.8 4.8 35.8 251.6 203.9 38.5 18.1 260.6 3908.9
9.0 -45.0 46.2 106.9 16.9 48.6 267.7 177.2 36.1 23.0 236.3 3544.7
10.0 -30.0 56.1 123.0 33.0 62.1 276.8 129.6 31.4 26.8 187.8 2817.2
11.0 -15.0 63.8 146.7 56.7 76.0 281.6 68.2 26.2 29.2 123.6 1853.6
12.0 0.0 67.0 180.0 90.0 90.0 283.0 0.0 21.5 30.0 51.4 771.7
13.0 15.0 63.8 213.3 123.3 104.0 281.6 0.0 17.5 29.2 46.6 699.7
14.0 30.0 56.1 237.0 147.0 117.9 276.8 0.0 17.2 26.8 44.0 659.8
15.0 45.0 46.2 253.1 163.1 131.4 267.7 0.0 16.6 23.0 39.7 594.8
16.0 60.0 35.6 265.2 175.2 144.2 251.6 0.0 15.6 18.1 33.7 505.9
17.0 75.0 24.7 275.6 185.6 154.7 222.0 0.0 13.8 12.3 26.1 391.9
18.0 90.0 14.0 285.2 195.2 159.4 160.9 0.0 10.0 6.1 16.1 241.6
19.0 105.0 3.8 295.0 205.0 154.7 21.5 0.0 1.3 0.4 1.8 26.7
*Unit of Irradiation is Btu/hr-ft
#
E is the rate at which solar energy strike the window in Btu/hr


7-20
Given Information:
Latitude: l =32.47 deg. N
Surface azimuth, S; =180 deg. (clockwise from north)
Window width; W =4 ft.
Window height; H =6 ft.
Setback distance; b =1 ft.

(a) On April 21
Declination: =12.3 deg.
Local Solar Time: LST =9:00 am

Hour angle: h =15*(9-12) =-45.0 deg.

Using Eq. 7-8 to calculate solar altitude, =43.82 deg.

Using Eq. 7-11 to find solar azimuth; =106.27 deg. (clockwise from north)

Using Eq. 7-12 to calculate wall-solar azimuth, =73.73 deg.

Using Eqs. 7-28 to 7-30 to calculate shaded dimensions,

x =(1 ft.)*tan(73.73) =3.43 ft.
y =(1 ft.)*tan(43.82)/cos(73.73) =3.42 ft.

Shaded area can be calculated by
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120

) ( * ) ( * y H x W H W A
sh
=
=22.52 ft

7-20 (Cont.)

Therefore, the percentage of the window that is shaded is 93.8%.

(b) On J uly 21
Declination: =20.6 deg.
Local Solar Time: LST =12:00 pm

Hour angle: h =15*(12-12) =0.0 deg.

Using Eq. 7-8 to calculate solar altitude, =78.13 deg.

Using Eq. 7-11 to find solar azimuth; =180.0 deg. (clockwise from north)

Using Eq. 7-12 to calculate wall-solar azimuth, =0.0 deg.

Using Eqs. 7-28 to 7-30 to calculate shaded dimensions,

x =(1 ft.)*tan(0.0) =0.0 ft.
y =(1 ft.)*tan(78.13)/cos(0.0) =4.76 ft.

Shaded area can be calculated by

) ( * ) ( * y H x W H W A
sh
=
=19.03 ft

Therefore, the percentage of the window that is shaded is 79.3%.

(c) On Sep 21
Declination: =0.0 deg.
Local Solar Time: LST =5:00 9m

Hour angle: h =15*(17-12) =75.0 deg.

Using Eq. 7-8 to calculate solar altitude, =12.61 deg.

Using Eq. 7-11 to find solar azimuth; =261.81 deg. (clockwise from north)
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121

Using Eq. 7-12 to calculate wall-solar azimuth, =81.81 deg.

7-20 (Cont.)

Using Eq. 7-28 to calculate the horizontally shaded dimension, x,

x =(1 ft.)*tan(81.81) =6.95 ft.

Since x is greater than W, the window is completely shaded.

Therefore, the percentage of the window that is shaded is 100%.


7-21
Given: Problem 7-20 with a long 2 ft overhang located 2 ft above the top of
the window.

For this problem, b
o
for overhang is the sum of the overhang depth and the
setback; hence, b
o
=2+1 =3 ft.

(a) The vertically shaded dimension on the window due to the overhang
can be calculated by:

w o
y b y

= cos / tan
0 0


where y
o-w
is the distance of the overhang above the window. Therefore,

y
o
=(3 ft.)*tan(43.82)/cos(73.73) - 2 =8.27 ft.

Since y
o
is greater than H, the window is completely shaded.

Therefore, the percentage of the window that is shaded is 100%.

(b) Similarly, y
o
=(3 ft.)* tan(78.13)/cos(0.0) 2 =12.27 ft.

Since y
o
is greater than H, the window is completely shaded.

Therefore, the percentage of the window that is shaded is 100%.
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(c) Since the window is completely shaded due to the setback, there is no
need to calculate y
o
.


7-22
Given: Problem 7-20 with 6 in. setback instead of 1 ft. setback.

(a) Using Eqs. 7-28 to 7-30 to calculate shaded dimensions,

x =(0.5 ft.)*tan(73.73) =1.71 ft.
y =(0.5 ft.)*tan(43.82)/cos(73.73) =1.71 ft.

Shaded area can be calculated by

) ( * ) ( * y H x W H W A
sh
=
=14.19 ft

Therefore, the percentage of the window that is shaded is 59.1%.

(b) Using Eqs. 7-28 to 7-30 to calculate shaded dimensions,

x =(0.5 ft.)*tan(0.0) =0.0 ft.
y =(0.5 ft.)*tan(78.13)/cos(0.0) =2.38 ft.

Shaded area can be calculated by

) ( * ) ( * y H x W H W A
sh
=
=9.52 ft

Therefore, the percentage of the window that is shaded is 39.7%.

(c) Using Eqs. 7-28 to 7-30 to calculate shaded dimensions,

x =(0.5 ft.)*tan(81.81) =3.48 ft.
y =(0.5 ft.)*tan(12.61)/cos(81.81) =0.79 ft.

Shaded area can be calculated by

) ( * ) ( * y H x W H W A
sh
=
=21.27 ft

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Therefore, the percentage of the window that is shaded is 88.6%.



7-23
On December 21, Declination: =-23.45 deg. Using the same procedure
as described in Problem 7-20, the following table summarizes the
calculated data.

Local
Solar
Time,
hr
Hour
Angle,

Solar
Altitude,

Solar
Azimuth,

Surface-
Solar
Azimuth,
Horizontally
Shaded
Dimension
(x), ft
Vertically
Shaded
Dimension
(y), ft
Shaded
Area, ft
%Shaded
Area
8.00 -60.00 9.98 126.22 53.78 1.37 0.30 8.98 37.4
9.00 -45.00 19.49 136.52 43.48 0.95 0.49 7.18 29.9
10.00 -30.00 27.17 148.96 31.04 0.60 0.60 5.65 23.5
11.00 -15.00 32.27 163.69 16.31 0.29 0.66 4.20 17.5
12.00 0.00 34.08 180.00 0.00 0.00 0.68 2.71 11.3
13.00 15.00 32.27 196.31 16.31 0.29 0.66 4.20 17.5
14.00 30.00 27.17 211.04 31.04 0.60 0.60 5.65 23.5
15.00 45.00 19.49 223.48 43.48 0.95 0.49 7.18 29.9
16.00 60.00 9.98 233.78 53.78 1.37 0.30 8.98 37.4



7-24
This problem is similar to Problem 7-21 but the overhang depth is 3 ft
instead of 2 ft. Since the window in Problem 7-21 is completely shaded in
all cases. The window in this problem is also completely shaded in all
cases since the overhang depth is greater in this problem.


7-25



7-26


7-27
First, we need to know angle of incidence and solar irradiation. Using Eqs.
7-8 to 7-26 (or a computer program developed for previous problem),
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124
incidence angle and solar irradiation on a southwest-facing window for
Boise, ID on a clear J uly 21 day at 3:00 pm solar time are

Angle of Incidence: =52.4 deg.,
Direct Solar Irradiation: G
D
=163.4 Btu/hr-ft,
Diffuse Solar Irradiation: G
d
+G
R
=34.5 +23.0 =57.3 Btu/hr-ft, and
Total Solar Irradiation: G
t
=163.4 +57.3 =220.9 Btu/hr-ft.

Then, the area of the glazing and of the frame is calculated to be 12.44 ft
and 2.56 ft, respectively.

From Table 7-3, solar heat gain coefficients for the glazing system ID 21c
are

SHGG
gD
(52.4) =0.548 and SHGG
gd
=0.52.

From Table 5-2, the outside surface conductance may be estimated to be
4.0 Btu/hr-ft-F.

From Table 5-6, the U-value for the fixed, double glazed window having
aluminum frame with thermal break utilizing metal spacers is 1.13 Btu/hr-
ft-F.

From Table 7-1, solar absorptance of the aluminum frame (assuming the
window is not a new one) is 0.8.

Assuming the window with no setback (A
frame
=A
surf
), the SHGC for the
frame can be calculated using Eq. 7-31 as:

SHGG
f
=0.8*(1.13/4.0) =0.226.

Then, using Eq. 7-32, the total solar heat gain is

SHG
q
=(0.548*12.44 +0.226*2.56)*163.4
+(0.52*12.44 +0.226*2.56)*57.5 =1613.68 Btu/hr.

7-28
From Table 7-3, the glazing transmittance and absorptances for the glazing
system ID 21c are
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7-28 (Cont.)

T
D
(52.4) =0.4156, A
f
1D
(52.4) =0.140, A
f
2D
(52.4) =0.1524,
T
d
=0.40, A
f
1d
=0.13, and A
f
2d
=0.15.

Using Eq. 7-35, total transmitted solar heat gain is

g TSHG
q
,

=(0.4156*163.4 +0.40*57.5)*12.44 =1130.91 Btu/hr.



Using Eq. 7-36, total solar heat gain absorbed by the glazing is

g ASHG
q
,

=[163.4*(0.14+0.1524) +57.5*(0.13+0.15)]*12.44
=794.64 Btu/hr.

From Table 5-5a, the U-value for the center of glass is 0.42 Btu/hr-ft-F.

Similar to the previous problem, the outside surface conductance may be
estimated to be 4.0 Btu/hr-ft-F.

Then, the inward flowing fraction for glazing layer 1 can be calculated by:

N
1
=0.42 / 4.0 =0.105


From Table 5-2a, the inside surface conductance may be estimated to be
1.46 Btu/hr-ft-F.

The conductance from the inner pane to the outdoor air can be calculated
by:

46 . 1
1
42 . 0
1
1
1 1
1
2 ,

=
i
o
h U
h
=0.59 Btu/hr-ft-F

Then, the inward flowing fraction for glazing layer 2 can be calculated by:

N
2
=0.42 / 0.59 =0.71

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7-28 (Cont.)

Using Eq. 7-38, the inward flowing fraction of the glazing system is

N =[163.4*(0.105*0.14+0.71*0.1524) +
57.5*(0.105*0.13+0.71*0.15)] / 220.9
= 0.122

Using Eq. 7-39 and the SHGG
f
calculated from the previous problem, the
solar irradiation absorbed by the frame is

f ASHG
q
,

=(163.4 +57.5)*2.56*0.226 =127.80 Btu/hr.



Using Eq. 7-40, the total absorbed solar heat gain of the fenestration
system is

gf ASHG
q
,

=794.64*0.122 +127.80 =224.75 Btu/hr.



The total solar heat gain is then

SHG
q
=1130.91 +224.75 =1355.66 Btu/hr.

7-29
From Table 7-4, IAC for a lighted-color Venetian blind installed on a
residential double-pane window is 0.66.

Using Eq. 7-41, the total solar heat gain is

SHG
q
=(0.226*2.56*220.9)
+[0.548*12.44*163.4 +0.52*12.44*57.5]*0.66
=1108.48 Btu/hr.

7-30
From Table 7-6, for a lighted-color Venetian blind, shade transmittance,
reflectance, and absorptance are 0.05, 0.55, and 0.40, respectively.

Using Eq. 7-42, the transmitted solar heat gain is

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127
7-30 (Cont.)
TSHG
q
=0.05*1130.91 =56.55 Btu/hr.

Using Eq. 7-43, the absorbed solar heat gain is

ASHG
q
=224.75 +0.40*1130.91
+0.55*1130.91*0.122*(0.13+0.15)
=698.36 Btu/hr.

7-31
From Table 7-3, solar heat gain coefficients for the glazing system ID 5b
are

SHGG
gD
(52.4) =0.6256 and SHGG
gd
=0.60.

Similar to Problem 7-27, SHGG
f
=0.226.

Then, using Eq. 7-32, the total solar heat gain is

SHG
q
=(0.6256*12.44 +0.226*2.56)*163.4
+(0.60*12.44 +0.226*2.56)*57.5 =1828.64 Btu/hr.


7-32
From Table 7-3, the glazing transmittance and absorptances for the glazing
system ID 5b are

T
D
(52.4) =0.5332, A
f
1D
(52.4) =0.1924, A
f
2D
(52.4) =0.12,
T
d
=0.51, A
f
1d
=0.19, and A
f
2d
=0.11.

Using Eq. 7-35, total transmitted solar heat gain is

g TSHG
q
,

=(0.5332*163.4 +0.51*57.5)*12.44 =1448.64 Btu/hr.



Using Eq. 7-36, total solar heat gain absorbed by the glazing is

g ASHG
q
,

=[163.4*(0.1924+0.12) +57.5*(0.19+0.11)]*12.44
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7-32 (Cont.)

=849.60 Btu/hr.

From Table 5-5a, the U-value for the center of glass is 0.55 Btu/hr-ft-F.

Similar to the previous problem, the outside surface conductance may be
estimated to be 4.0 Btu/hr-ft-F.

Then, the inward flowing fraction for glazing layer 1 can be calculated by:

N
1
=0.55 / 4.0 =0.1375

Similar to the previous problem, the inside surface conductance may be
estimated to be 1.46 Btu/hr-ft-F.

The conductance from the inner pane to the outdoor air can be calculated
by:

46 . 1
1
55 . 0
1
1
1 1
1
2 ,

=
i
o
h U
h
=0.88 Btu/hr-ft-F

Then, the inward flowing fraction for glazing layer 2 can be calculated by:

N
2
=0.55 / 0.88 =0.625

Using Eq. 7-38, the inward flowing fraction of the glazing system is

N =[163.4*(0.1375*0.1924+0.625*0.12) +
57.5*(0.1375*0.19+0.625*0.11)] / 220.9
= 0.100

The solar irradiation absorbed by the frame is the same as the previous
problem, and is equal to 127.80 Btu/hr.

Using Eq. 7-40, the total absorbed solar heat gain of the fenestration
system is

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129
7-32 (Cont.)
gf ASHG
q
,

=849.60*0.100 +127.80 =212.76 Btu/hr.



The total solar heat gain is then

SHG
q
=1448.64 +212.76 =1661.4 Btu/hr.
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Chapter 8

8-1

a) The heat gain is generally greater than the cooling load during the
morning hours when sunlight first strikes a building and the internal
loads first begin. Heat is being stored in the building structure,
furnishings, etc.
b) Late at night when occupants are not present, lights and equipment are
off and solar radiation is zero, the building gives up stored heat to the
air, which the equipment removes as cooling load. The heat gain may
be quite small, zero, or negative.
c) At some time during the day, probably early evening, as heat gain is
decreasing, and equilibrium condition can be established when heat
gain and cooling load are equal. Or, some interior zones, where the
cooling load is driven only by internal heat gains may reach equilibrium if
the heat gain remains constant for a number of hours.


8-2

Multiple design conditions should be checked, including peak dry bulb
along with mean coincident wet bulb, and peak wet bulb along with mean
coincident dry bulb temperature.


8-3

ASHRAE 90.1 specified the 2.5% design conditions, which roughly
corresponds to the 1% design conditions in the current Handbook of
Fundamentals and the textbook.

Location Outdoor
DB, F
Outdoor
WB, F
Indoor
DB, F
Indoor
RH, %
Elevation, ft Latitude,
N
Norfolk, VA 91 76 75 50 30 36.90
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Pendleton, OR 93 63 75 50 1496 45.68
Casper, WY 89 58 75 50 5289 52.92
Shreveport, LA 95 77 75 50 259 32.47



8-4

Select materials; some may need to be entered into the layer library. The
resulting wall construction appears as shown here. (Note that not
everything is specified exactly, so that a student using a density of 120
lb/ft
3
for brick will get a different set of CTF coefficients.)



After running the HvacLoadExplorer program in execute for room mode, we
obtain the llow oeff his

B B Bt

fo ing CTF c icients for t wall.


n
X
n
,
tu/h-ft
2
-F
Y
n
,
tu/h-ft
2
-F
Z
n
,
u/h-ft
2
-F
n
0 4.276507 0.000445 0.642344
1 -5.36497 0.011581 -0.98287 0.638772
2 1.141149 0.011845 0.376555 -0.02179
3 -0.02759 0.001134 -0.01101
4 -7.7E-05 0.000017 -5E-06


8-5

This problem is solved in the same way as Problem 8-4, except that the R-
13 insulation is changed to 5.5 thick R-19 insulation.
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132



The following CTF coefficients are obtained:

B B B
n
X
n
,
tu/h-ft
2
-F
Y
n
,
tu/h-ft
2
-F
Z
n
,
tu/h-ft
2
-F
n
0 4.277384 0.000071 0.644513
1 -5.95084 0.004622 -1.08666 0.779066
2 1.847897 0.008936 0.510931 -0.10021
3 -0.16027 0 0.001435 .001835 -0.05401
4 0.001331 0.00004 0.000734



8-6
ivity chosen
match the overall conductance. (k=thickness*conductance)


Again, this problem follows the procedure of the last two problems. The
thickness of the roll roofing must be estimated, and the conduct
to


The following CTF coefficients are obtained:
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133

n
X
n
,
Btu/h-ft
2
-F
Y
n
,
Btu/h-ft
2
-F
Z
n
,
Btu/h-ft
2
-F

n
0 1.014657 0.006092 0.644513
1 -1.09939 0.029838 -0.6816 0.150594
2 0.126521 0.006044 0.079104
3 0.000256 0.000071 0.00003


8-7

In this case, a reasonable value for the resistance of the air-space must be
selected. For the air-space, an R-value of 1 is chosen; thus conductivity is
set to 12 Btu-in/hr- ft
2
- F, and the thickness is set to 12 in. Density and Cp
are set to zero and 0.24, respectively.



The following CTF coefficients are obtained:

n
X
n
,
Btu/h-ft
2
-F
Y
n
,
Btu/h-ft
2
-F
Z
n
,
Btu/h-ft
2
-F

n
0 1.014651 0.00468 0.654471
1 -1.12785 0.027234 -0.71129 0.178159
2 0.151609 0.00674 0.095526
3 0.000351 0.000106 0.000053



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134

8-8

Again, reasonable values must be assumed for the density of the
acoustical tile and the specific heat of the limestone concrete.



The following CTF coefficients are obtained:

n
X
n
,
Btu/h-ft
2
-F
Y
n
,
Btu/h-ft
2
-F
Z
n
,
Btu/h-ft
2
-F

n
0 3.162792 0.002232 0.285116
1 -3.76069 0.01895 -0.38995 0.710366
2 0.633425 0.007779 0.137459 -0.01912
3 -0.00642 0.000149 -0.00352

8-9
irst, apply the exterior convective heat transfer correlation, Equation 8-
ce,
-ft -F).
y temperature as 10.8 R below the outdoor ambient
mperature =546.87 R. Then estimate the effective sky temperature for a
vertic

=cos (90/2)t
sky
+(1-cos(90/2))t
o
=550.0 R

F
18a, to determine h
c
. Assume the 15 mph wind is windward on the surfa
which results in h
c
=2.3 Btu/(h
2

Estimate the sk
te
al surface from Equation 8-25
t
sky,

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135
Make an initial guess at the surface temperature, say 120 F =579.67 R,

oefficients from Eqns. 8-22 and 8-23:
r,sky
=0.556 Btu/(h-ft
2
-F) h
r,grd
=0.568 Btu/(h-ft
2
-F)
hen, use Equation 8-29 to determine a new and better estimate of the
=146.96 F
Then repeat the calculation of the radiation coefficients and surface
temperature.
r,sky
=0.596 Btu/(h-ft -F) h
r,grd
=0.607 Btu/(h-ft -F) t
os
=145.62 F

A

h
r,sky
= Btu/( ) =0.608 Btu/(h-ft
2
-F) t
os
=145.61 F

At which point, we may consider the solution essentially converged. The
cond heat

q
conduc
U(t
os
-t
is
1*(1 5.61-72)=7.36 Btu/(h-ft
2
)

8-10

This problem follows the same solution approach as Problem 8-9, except
th ir e ir i s e ine r e h an
s d m e r for h . so
ir ti e e th lut or le -1

Input Data
on 6.6 de
S rd ia 05 de
E 6.2 m
a .0 de
and determine the surface-to-sky and surface-to-ground radiation
c

h

T
exterior surface temperature:

t
os


h
r,sky
=0.598 Btu/(h-ft
2
-F) h
r,grd
=0.610 Btu/(h-ft
2
-F) t
os
=145.54 F

And again:

2 2
h
nd again:
0.596 h-ft
2
-F h
r,grd
uc n tio flux is then:
tion
= ) =0. 4
at, f st, th solar radiaton mu t be d term d fo ach our, d
econ , the heat balance ust b perfo med eac hour The lar
radia on is obtained in th sam manner as e so ion f Prob m 7 7.
L gitude 10 2 g
tanda Merid n 1 g
OT - in
L titude 35 5 g
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Dec 0. d
f h 70 d
u 90 d
46 /
.18
.13
1
0.2
t
80 28.82 241.18 114.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
4.00 2.79 -138.17 -21.65 42.20 227.80 128.63 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00
0.00
9.93
23.08
2.24
9.29
107.55 162.45 120.81 277.85 0.00 17.25 27.27 44.53
12.00 10.79 -18.17 68.46 127.34 142.66 106.97 283.62 0.00 17.61 30.29 47.91
13.00 11.79 -3.17 68.24 101.76 92.97 285.80 0.00 20.83 31.59 52.42
14.00 12.79 11.83 72.19 218.87 51. 284.93 54.68 25.38 31.06 111.11
62.36 245.60 24.40 280.80 118.63 30.63 28.75 178.01
50.63 259.78 10.22 1.37 272.32 170.01 35.51 24.81 230.32
6.83 38.41 269.56 0.44 8.42 256.78 201.20 38.43 19.50 259.13
71.83 26 277.71 7.71 .20 227.20 202.07 37.19 13.16 252.42
14 285.45 15.45 .83 161.85 151.27 27.51 6.19 184.97
20.00 18.79 101.83 2. 293.49 23.49 .63 5.53 5.07 0.93 0.10 6.10
6.83 -8 302.43 32.43 5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
22.00 20.79 131.83 -18.00 312.83 42.83 45.77 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
23.00 21.79 146.83 -26.06 325.24 .19 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
24.00 22.79 161.83 -31.74 339.93 .03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
*Unit of Irradiation is Btu/hr-ft
h i H
the hour nearest to the local solar time has been used to determine the
re sp sh is to in so . on
m he s y p ng alc ed e
os
back into the
e at o .
D
lination 2 6 eg
Sur Azimut 2 eg
S rf Tilt eg
A 3 .4 Btu hr-ft2
B 0 6
C 0 8
CN
RHOG
Outpu Data
MDST LST h, , , , , G
ND
* G
D
* G
d
* G
R
* G
t
*
1.00 23.79 176.83 -34.27 356.41 86.41 87.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2.00 0.79 -168.17 -33.23 13.26 256.74 101.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.00 1.79 -153.17 -28.
5.00 3.79 -123.17 -12.54 53.39 216.61 141.58 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
6.00 4.79 -108.17 -2.11 62.87 207.13 152.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
7.00 5.79 -93.17 9.19 71.22 198.78 159.17 108.07 0.00 6.71 3.22
8.00 6.79 -78.17 21.05 79.02 190.98 156.37 206.38 0.00 12.82 10.26
9.00 7.79 -63.17 33.22 86.89 183.11 146.65 246.69 0.00 15.32 16.92 3
10.00 8.79 -48.17 45.49 95.77 174.23 134.23 266.87 0.00 16.57 22.71 3
11.00 9.79 -33.17 57.51
75.28 1
13 78.94
5.01 15.00 13.79 26.83
16.00 14.79 41.83
6
5
17.00 15.79 5 3
18.00 16.79
19.00 17.79 86.83
.17 27
.15 20
58 23
21.00 19.79 11 .27 33.3
55.24 59
69.93 73

The ourly dry-bulb temperature is calculated using Equaton 8-2. ere,
temperatu . A read eet used obta the lution Iterati is
acco plis d by impl asti the c ulat valu s of T
T
os
, stim ed c lumn

Input ata
U-Value 0.1 Btu/ ) (h-ft
2
-F
Solar a tivi 0. bsorp ty 8
Therma siv 0. l emis ity 9
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1
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137
Tis 72.0 F
Peak te atu 96 mper re .0 F
Daily Range 25.4 F
Mean Wind Spe 10 ed .0 mph

Output Data
Clock
Time
Local
Solar
Time
Outdoor
Dry-bulb
Temp.
Temp.
E
Temp.
estimated (Btu/(h- (
-
(Btu/(h-
calculated
from 8-24
q
(Btu/(h-
(F)
Sky
(F)
ffective
Sky
(F)
T
os
,
(F)
h
c

ft
2
-F))
h
rsky
Btu/(h
ft
2
-F))
h
rgrd
ft
2
-F))
T
os
,
(F)
conduction
ft
2)
)
1.00 23.79 75.2 64.4 67.5 74.60 1.58 0.46 0.47 73.14 0.11
2.00 0.79 73.9 63.1 66.3 73.15 1.58 0.46 0.47 71.93 -0.01
3.00 1.79 72.6 61.8 65.0 71.94 1.58 0.45 0.46 70.72 -0.13
4.00 2.79 71.6 60.8 64.0 70.72 1.58 0.45 0.46 69.75 -0.23
5.00 3.79 70.9 60.1 63.2 69.75 1.58 0.45 0.46 69.02 -0.30
6.00 4.79 70.6 59.8 63.0 69.03 1.58 0.45 0.46 68.78 -0.32
7.00 5.79 71.1 60.3 63.5 69.18 1.58 0.45 0.46 72.34 0.03
8.00 6.79 72.4 61.6 64.7 74.55 1.58 0.46 0.47 77.55 0.56
9.00 7.79 74.7 63.9 67.0 78.99 1.58 0.47 0.48 82.47 1.05
10.00 8.79 78.0 67.2 70.3 83.53 1.58 0.48 0.49 87.66 1.57
11.00 9.79 .0 74.1 88.42 1.59 0.49 0.50 92.76 2.08 81.8 71
12.00 78.5 93.24 1.59 0.50 0.51 97.77 2.58 10.79 86.1 75.3
1 82.5 98.33 1.59 0.51 0.52 102.84 3.08 3.00 11.79 90.2 79.4
1 85.6 109.05 1.59 0.53 0.54 122.43 5.04 4.00 1 93.2 2.79 82.4
15.00 95.2 87.6 131.23 1.61 0.57 0.58 142.11 7.01 13.79 84.4
16.00 6.0 88.4 148.77 1.62 0.60 0.61 155.98 8.40 14.79 9 85.2
17.0 .2 87.6 159.92 1.62 0.62 0.63 162.15 9.02 0 15.79 95 84.4
18.00 85.8 162.49 1.62 0.62 0.63 158.51 8.65 93.5 16.79 82.7
19.00 17.79 90.7 153.00 1.62 0.60 0.61 138.39 6.64 79.9 83.0
20.00 18.79 87.4 79.7 118.72 1.60 0.54 0.55 86.48 1.45 76.6
21.00 19.79 84.1 76.4 84.81 1.58 0.49 0.50 81.63 0.96 73.3
22.00 20.79 81.3 5 73.6 81.65 1.58 0.48 0.49 78.96 0.70 70.
23.00 78.7 71.1 78.97 1.58 0.47 0.48 76.54 0.45 21.79 67.9
24.00 22.79 76.7 65.9 69.1 76.5 0.47 0.48 74.60 0.26 5 1.58


8-11

This problem uses the same solution procedure as Problem 8-10.

Input Data
on .2 de
S rd ia 05 de
E 6.2 m
a .5 de
c 0. d
L gitude 116 2 g
tanda Merid n 1 g
OT - in
L titude 43 7 g
De lination 2 6 eg
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Surf h 80 d
u 90 d
46 /
.18
.13
1
0.2
t
91 17.66 162.34 150.59 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
4.00 2.15 -147.77 -19.34 31.94 148.06 143.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
5.00 3.15 -132.77 -12.59 44.76 135.24 133.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
6.00 4.15 -117.77 -4.21 56.15 123.85 123.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
7.00 5.15 -102.77 113.53 113.42 46.47 0.00 2.89 1.07 3.96
8.00 6.15 -87.77 15.60 76.20 103 173.45 0.00 10.77 7.06 17.83
26.32 85.92 94.08 3.66 227.72 0.00 16.45 13.24 29.69
7.77 37.17 96.42 83.58 4.88 254.61 22.70 20.78 18.90 62.38
11.00 9.15 -42.77 47.76 108.99 71.01 .37 269.45 58.92 24.56 23.67 107.15
57 125.92 54.08 .58 277.79 87.76 27.57 27.24 142.58
64 151.07 28.93 .02 281.98 105.54 29.47 29.38 164.39
2.23 66 185.34 5.34 283.00 110.30 29.99 29.95 170.24
62 217.50 37.50 281.09 101.56 29.04 28.90 159.50
16.00 14.15 32.23 54.71 239.78 59.78 73.09 275.81 80.22 26.78 26.32 133.31
17.00 15.15 47.23 44.67 255.07 .44 265.88 48.70 23.50 22.36 94.57
18.00 16.15 62.23 33.95 266.84 86.84 87.38 248.28 11.34 19.55 17.29 48.18
19.00 5 . 1 97.01 0.00 15.02 11.44
8 6. 6 9 4.28
5 3 8 . 9 0.32
22.00 5 .23 .85 7.11 126.80 0.00 0.00
5 23 .79 .90 90 6 0 0 0.00 0.00
5 23 .95 .16 16 7 0 0 0.00 0.00
o iati tu/
D
Azimut 1 eg
S rf Tilt eg
A 3 .4 Btu hr-ft2
B 0 6
C 0 8
CN
RHOG
Outpu Data
MDST LST h, , , , , G
ND
* G
D
* G
d
* G
R
* G
t
*
1.00 23.15 167.23 -24.77 346.83 166.83 152.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2.00 0.15 -177.77 -25.80 2.32 177.68 154.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.00 1.15 -162.77 -23.
5.31 66.47
.80 103.29
9.00 7.15 -72.77 9
10.00 8.15 -5 8
77
12.00 10.15 -27.77
13.00 11.15 -12.77
.42 71
.68 68
14.00 12.15
15.00 13.15 17.23
.95
.91
67.06
68.82
75.07 79
17.1
18.1
19.1
20.1
77.23
5 92.23
107.2
122
23
12.4
2.3
-6
10 277.0
28
296
30
96.45 215.64
106.2
116.4
26.46
5.19 1
0.07
20.00
21.00
67 106.67
51 116.51
127.11
146.4
3.97
0.00 0.00
0.00
0.00
9.10
0.25
0.00
23.00 21.1
1
137. -14 318 138. 136.7 0.0 0.0 0.00
24.00
*Unit
22.
f Irrad
152.
on is B
-20
hr-ft
332 152. 145.6 0.0 0.0 0.00


Input ata
U- 0.1 tu/ ) Value B (h-ft
2
-F
Solar a tivi 0.9 bsorp ty
T a siv 0.9 herm l emis ity
Tis 72.0 F
Peak temperatu 96. re 0 F
Daily Range 30.3 F
Mean Wind Spee 11. m d 0 ph

Output Data
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Clock
Time
Local
Solar
Time
Outdoor
Dry-bulb
Temp.
Temp.
E
Temp.
estimated (Btu/(h- (
-
(Btu/(h-
calculated
from 8-24
q
(Btu/(h-
(F)
Sky
(F)
ffective
Sky
(F)
T
os
,
(F)
h
c

ft -F))
2
h
rsky
Btu/(h
2
ft -F))
h
rgrd
ft -F))
2
T
os
,
(F)
conduction
ft )
2)
1.00 23.15 73.0 62.2 65.3 71.15 1.72 0.45 0.46 71.15 -0.09
2.00 0.15 71.2 60.4 63.5 69.41 1.72 0.45 0.46 69.41 -0.26
3.00 1.15 69.6 58.8 62.0 67.96 1.72 0.45 0.46 67.96 -0.40
4.00 2.15 68.1 57.3 60.5 66.51 1.72 0.44 0.45 66.51 -0.55
5.00 3.15 66.9 56.1 59.3 65.35 1.72 0.44 0.45 65.35 -0.67
6.00 4.15 66.0 55.2 58.4 64.48 1.72 0.44 0.45 64.48 -0.75
7.00 5.15 65.7 54.9 58.1 64.19 1.72 0.44 0.45 65.51 -0.65
8.00 6.15 66.3 55.5 58.7 68.60 1.72 0.44 0.45 70.67 -0.13
9.00 7.15 67.8 57.0 60.2 74.15 1.72 0.45 0.46 75.96 0.40
10.00 8.15 70.5 59.7 62.9 81.31 1.73 0.46 0.47 89.08 1.71
11.00 9.15 74.5 63.7 66.9 99.67 1.74 0.49 0.50 106.51 3.45
12.00 10.15 79.0 68.2 71.4 116.02 1.74 0.52 0.53 121.05 4.90
13 .15 129.01 1.75 0.55 0.56 131.75 5.97 .00 11 84.2 73.4 76.5
14.0 12.15 137.21 1.75 0.57 0.58 137.47 6.55 0 89.0 78.2 81.4
15.0 13.15 139.67 1.75 0.58 0.59 137.47 6.55 0 92.7 81.9 85.0
16.0 14.15 136.52 1.75 0.58 0.59 132.07 6.01 0 95.1 84.3 87.5
17.0 15.15 127.91 1.74 0.57 0.58 121.67 4.97 0 96.0 85.2 88.4
18.0 16.15 114.37 1.73 0.54 0.55 107.09 3.51 0 95.1 84.3 87.5
19.0 17.15 100.24 1.73 0.52 0.53 98.57 2.66 0 93.0 82.2 85.3
20.0 18.15 93.64 1.72 0.51 0.52 91.61 1.96 0 89.6 78.8 82.0
21.0 19.15 85.63 1.72 0.49 0.50 83.43 1.14 0 85.7 74.9 78.1
22.0 20.15 79.56 1.72 0.48 0.49 79.56 0.76 0 81.8 71.0 74.1
23.0 1.15 76.37 1.72 0.47 0.48 76.37 0.44 0 2 78.4 67.6 70.8
24.0 2.15 73.47 1.72 0.46 0.47 73.47 0.15 0 2 75.4 64.6 67.8


8-12

This problem is solved in the same manner as Example 8-2. The results
(conduction heat fluxes for each hour in Btu/(hr-ft
2
)) may be summarized in
tabular form as:

Hour
5 0.454 0.561 0.561
6 0.410 0.475 0.475
7 0.387 0.426 0.426
8 0.402 0.426 0.426
9 0.473 0.487 0.487
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
1 0.312 1.126 1.126
2 0.463 0.954 0.954
3 0.508 0.804 0.804
4 0.494 0.673 0.673
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10 0.612 0.620 0.620
11 0.820 0.825 0.825
12 1.089 1.092 1.092
13 1.399 1.401 1.401
14 1.715 1.716 1.716
15 1.998 1.999 1.999

Because the wall is lightweight, the results converge rapidly.

8-13

This problem is solved in the same way as the previous problem. Note that
the additional insulation substantially reduces the conduction heat flux, as
expected. The results (conduction heat fluxes for each hour in Btu/(hr-ft
2
))
may be summarized in tabular form as:

Hour
4 0.380 0.554 0.554
5 0.356 0.464 0.464
6 0.323 0.390 0.390
7 0.298 0.340 0.340
1.559
1.692
1
20 1.685 1.685 1.685
21 1.562 1.562 1.562
22 1.406 1.406 1.406
16 2.223 2.223 2.223
17 2.362 2.362 2.362
18 2.405 2.405 2.405
19 2.352 2.353 2.353
20 2.215 2.215 2.215
21 2.016 2.016 2.016
22 1.786 1.786 1.786
23 1.551 1.551 1.551
24 1.327 1.327 1.327
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
1 0.203 0.915 0.915
2 0.329 0.778 0.778
3 0.379 0.659 0.659
8 0.296 0.322 0.322
9 0.328 0.344 0.344
10 0.407 0.417 0.417
11 0.535 0.542 0.542
12 0.711 0.715 0.715
13 0.925 0.927 0.927
14 1.154 1.156 1.156
15 1.373 1.374 1.374
16 1.559 1.559
17 1.691 1.692
8 1.757 1.758 1.758
19 1.754 1.754 1.754
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23 1.237 1.237 1.237
8-14
he solution to this problem is similar to that of Problem 8-9, except that to
ssumed to be adiabatic, and U is then zero. Also, the surface-to-ground
radiation coefficient is zero, and no correction is necessary for the sky
mperature, as the surface is assumed to be horizontal. Assume the wind
is win verged answer for the
urface temperature is:
=1.361 Btu/(h-ft
2
-F) t =201.0 F
8-15
rom Table 8-2, heat gain for occupants that are Seated, very light work
have 245 Btu/hr (72 W) sensible heat gain, and 155 Btu/hr (45 W) latent
eat gain. The sensible portion is assumed to be 70% radiative/ 30%
conve

The convective portion is 0.3 x 2160 =648 W.

The latent heat gain from people is 45 W/person x 30 people =1350 W.

The sensible heat gain from lighting is 1.5 W/ft
2
x 4000 sq. ft. =6000 W;
0 W which
assumed to be 59% radiative / 41% convective.

The radiative portion is 0.59 x 4800 =2832 W.

The convective portion is 0.41 x 4800 =1968 W.
he sensible heat gain from equipment is 1 W/ft
2
x 4000 sq. ft. =4000 W,
which is assumed to be 20% radiative / 80% convective. (Note this
24 1.070 1.070 1.070


T
estimate the maximum possible surface temperature, the surface may be
a
te
dward, h
c
=1.3 Btu/(h-ft
2
-F). Then, the final con
s

h
r,sky os


F
h
ctive.

The sensible heat gain from people is 72 W/person x 30 people =2160 W.

The radiative portion is 0.7 x 2160 =1512 W.

20% is assumed to enter the plenum space directly, leaving 480
is

T
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142
assumption is based on the assumption that most of the equipment is fan-
The convective portion is 0.8 x 4000 =3200 W.
he total sensible heat gain is 2160 +4800 +4000 =10960 W.

The radiative portion is 1512 +2832 +800 =5144 W.

The convective portion is 648 +1968 +3200 =5816 W.
he total latent heat gain is 1350 W.
8-16
rom Table 8-2, heat gain for occupants that are involved in Sedentary
work is 275 Btu/hr (81 W) sensible heat gain, and 275 Btu/hr (81 W) latent
eat gain. The sensible portion is assumed to be 70% radiative/ 30%
conve
The convective portion is 0.3 x 2835 =850.5 W.

The latent heat gain from people is 81 W/person x 35 people =2835 W.

0 W; 50%
assumed to enter the plenum space directly, leaving 5625 W that is
assum
5625 =2306 W.
he sensible heat gain from office equipment is 7000 W, which is assumed
to be 20% radiative / 80% convective. (Note this assumption is based on
cooled. Students are likely to make varying assumptions.)

The radiative portion is 0.2 x 4000 =800 W.


T

T


F
h
ctive.

The sensible heat gain from people is 81 W/person x 35 people =2835 W.

The radiative portion is 0.7 x 2835 =1984.5 W.

The sensible heat gain from lighting is 15 W/m
2
x 750 m
2
=1125
is
ed to be 59% radiative / 41% convective.

The radiative portion is 0.59 x 5625 =3319 W.

The convective portion is 0.41 x

T
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143
the assumption that most of the equipment is fan-cooled. Students are
The radiative portion is 0.2 x 7000 =1400 W.
ective portion is 0.8 x 7000 =5600 W.

319 +1400 =6703.5 W.
8-17
eat gain to the space =0.8 x 6000 W =4800 W


Problem 8-18

heat gain =245 Btu/hr/person x 70 people =17150 Btu/hr.
Latent heat gain =200 Btu/hr/person x 70 people =14000 Btu/hr.

At 6:00 p.m., no one is present; sensible and latent heat gains are 0 Btu/hr.





8-19
likely to make varying assumptions.)

The conv
The total sensible heat gain is 2835 +5625 +7000 =15460 W.

The radiative portion is 1984.5 +3

The convective portion is 850.5 +2306 +5600 =8756.5 W.

The total latent heat gain is 2835 W.



H
At 4:00 p.m., 70 people are present. Assuming seated, light office work,
the sensible heat gain per person is 245 Btu/hr (72 W) and the latent heat
gain per person is 200 Btu/hr (59 W).

Sensible




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144
First, compute the properties of the corresponding fictitious surfaces, u
Eqns 8-35, 8-36, 8-37. Results are shown in the shaded table entries,
below.

2
sing
Surface Area (ft ) A- T(F) A- -T A
f

f
T
fv
(F)
1 North roof 639.7 0.9 575.8 122 70241.8 1983.7 0.9 110.6
2 S 639.7 575.8 14 23 outh roof 0.9 3 8 32.6 1983.7 0.9 103.9
3 West wall 84.0 0.9 75.6 1 71 02 7 1.2 2539.4 0.9 113.8
4 East wall 84.0 0.9 75.6 9 9 2 6 55.2 2539.4 0.9 114.1
5 Attic floor 1176.0 0.9 1058.4 9 0 5 10 548.0 1447.4 0.9 128.4

Then, compute the radiant interchange factor and radiation heat transfer
o ffic in ns 8 a -3 s . , the
diative heat flux from each surface (q
rad
), then determine the radiative
rad
). Then, compute the total radiative
eat transfer from all surfaces =-69,769.5 Btu/hr. Divide by the total
e
rad
ach surface (Q
rad
/bal). Check to see that they now sum to zero.
Surface F T
avg
(R) h
ri
q
rad
(Btu/
t
2
)
Q
rad

(Btu/hr)
q
rad
/bal
(Btu/
r-ft
2
))
Q
rad
/bal
(Btu/hr)
c e ient us g Eq . 8-3 nd 8 9. U ing Eqn 8-40 estimate
ra
heat transfer from each surface (Q
h
surface area, 2623.4 ft
2
, to get the balancing factor, -26.6 Btu/(hr-ft
2
), which
must be subtracted from the previously calculated heat flux from each
surface to determine the balanced radiation heat flux from each surfac
/bal). Multiply by the area to determine the radiation heat transfer from (q
e

if
(hr-f ) (h
1 North 0.872 5 6.0 roof 7 11.4 129.7 82950.9 156.3 99964.1
2 South roof 0.872 583.1 3.7 4. .3 363 11.9 46 29662 7 490 31 7.9
3 West wall 0.897 567.6 0. .0 11.2 -132.6 -1114 0 -106 -8906.1
4 East wall 0.897 562.7 0 -242.5 68. .9 813 11. -203 1 -215 -1 4.2
5 Attic floor 0.832 571.4 6 5.3 37 .7 656 10. -35 -4178 .0 -328 -38 1.8


8-20
g
(m)

First, compute the properties of the corresponding fictitious surfaces, usin
Eqns 8-35, 8-36, 8-37. Results are shown in the shaded table entries,
below.




Surface
Area
2 A- T(C) A- -T A
f

f
T
f
(C)
1 N 120.7 108.7 43 46 orth roof 0.9 72.9 372.7 0.9 38.3
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145
2 South roof 120.7 0.9 108.7 433.6 50 5 372.7 0.9 36.0
3 West wall 18.0 0.9 16.2 3 58 6 3.2 475.5 0.9 39.6
4 East wall 18.0 0.9 16.2 3 61 8 5.6 475.5 0.9 39.5
5 Attic floor 216.0 0.9 194.4 3 22 2 6 0.8 277.5 0.9 45.3

n, te ra inte an c r i transfer
oefficient using Eqns. 8-38 and 8-39. Using Eqn. 8-40, estimate the
diative heat flux from each surface (q
rad
), then determine the radiative
e
usly calculated heat flux from each surface to
e erm e ce rad ion t f om ach s rfac /bal).
Multiply by the area to determine the radiation heat transfer from each
su a h to th e s z .

K)
ra
m
a
2
rad
/
(W
T
c
he compu the diant rch ge fa tor and adiaton heat
ra
heat transfer from each surface (Q
rad
). Then, compute the total radiativ
heat transfer from all surfaces =-3027.9 W. Divide by the total surface
area, 493.5 m
2
, to get the balancing factor, -6.1 W/m
2
, which must be
ubtracted from the previo s
d t ine th balan d iat hea lux fr e u e (q
rad
rf ce (Q
rad
/bal). C eck see at th y now um to ero
Surface F
if
T
avg
( h
ri
q
(W/
d
2
)
Q
rad
(W)
q
rad
/b
(W/m
l
)
Q bal
)
1 North roof 0.872 313.8 6.1 28.6 3459.0 34.8 4199.9
2 South roof 0.872 316.2 6.3 87.2 10534.5 93.4 11275.4
3 West wall 0.897 310.9 6.1 -22.0 -395.4 -15.8 -285.0
4 East wall 0.897 311.9 6.2 -9.4 -168.4 -3.2 -58.0
5 Attic floor 0.835 311.8 5.7 -76.2 -16457.6 -70.1 -15132.3

8-21

The solution procedure is identical to that of Problem 8-19, except the
emissivities for surfaces 1 and 2 are 0.1. Fictitious surface properties are
sh w i ble

Area A- T(
o n in the f rst ta .
(ft
2
) Surface F) A- A -T
f

f
T
fv
(F)
1 North roof 639.7 0.1 64.0 122 7804.6 1983.7 0.6 97.6
2 South roof 639.7 0.1 64.0 143 9148.1 1983.7 0.6 96.6
3 West wall 84.0 0.9 75.6 102 7711.2 2539.4 0.5 98.6
4 East wall 84.0 0.9 75.6 92 6955.2 2539.4 0.5 99.2
5 Attic floor 1176.0 0.9 1058.4 95 100548.0 1447.4 0.2 113.3

The total radiative heat transfer from all surfaces =-3476.1 Btu/hr. The
alancing factor is -1. 3 Btu/(hr-ft
2
).

Surface F
if
T
avg
(R) h
ri
q
rad
(Btu/
Q
rad

(Btu/hr)
q
rad
/bal
(Btu/
Q
rad
/bal
(Btu/hr)
b


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146
(hr-ft
2
)) (hr-ft
2
))
1 North roof 0.098 569.5 1.2 30.3 19378.4 31.6 20226.0
2 South roof 0.098 579.5 1.3 60.8 38903.3 62.1 39751.0
3 West wall 0.874 560.0 10.5 35.5 2984.3 36.9 3095.6
4 East wall 0.874 555.3 10.3 -74.1 -6220.9 -72.7 -6109.6
5 Attic floor 563.8 2.7 -49.8 -58521.2 -48.4 -56963.0 0.222

Note that the radiative heat fluxes from surfaces 1 and 2, and to surface 5
are significantly lower. (The heat flux incident on surface 5 has been
reduced by 85%.) The catch is that in real life, everything else does not
re ai m icu he p e ld an
8-22

The solution procedure is identical to that of Problem 8-20, except the
emissivities for surfaces 1 and 2 are 0.1. Fictitious surface properties are
sh w fi ble

Surface
Area
(m
2
)
A- T(C) A- -T
m n the sa e. In part lar, t tem eratur s wou ch ge
significantly.


o n in the rst ta .
A
f

f
T
f
(C)
1 North roof 120.7 0.1 12.1 43 519.2 372.7 0.6 33.6
2 South roof 120.7 0.1 12.1 50 603.7 372.7 0.6 33.2
3 West wall 18.0 0.9 16.2 36 583.2 475.5 0.5 33.9
4 East wall 18.0 0.9 16.2 38 615.6 475.5 0.5 33.8
5 Attic floor 216.0 0.9 194.4 32 6220.8 277.5 0.2 41.1

The total radiative heat transfer from all surfaces =-341.5 W. The
balancing factor is -0.7 W/m
2
.

Surface F
if
T
avg
(K) h
ri
q
rad
2 Q
(W/m)
rad
/bal
(W/m
2
)
Q
rad
/bal
(W)
rad
(W)
q
1 North roof 7 8.7 0.098 311.4 0.7 6.3 65.2 7.0 84
2 South r 8 14 oof 0.09 314.8 0.7 11.7 07.1 12.3 1490.7
3 West 5 21 wall 0.870 308.1 .8 12.1 7.6 12.8 230.0
4 East 4 3 1 wall 0.870 309.0 5.8 24.6 43.7 25. 456.
5 Attic floor 1.6 31 .0 .6 0.241 309.7 -14.7 - 75.0 -14 -3025



8-23


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147
Convective heat transfer coefficients are determined from Table 8-8.
oefficients for the pitched roof surfaces are based on the Sloping 45
ve
of
w
h
c
(Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F))
q"
convection
(Btu/(hr-ft
2
))
C
degrees surface position. A more sophisticated approach would invol
interpolation. The results are summarized below.

Surface Area (ft
2
) T(F)
Surface
Position
Direction
Heat Flo
1 North
Sloping -
45 degrees
0 2 roof 639.7 122 Downward .4 15.54
2 South roof 639.7 1 43
Sloping -
45 degrees
Downward 0.42 24.36
3 West wall 84.0 102 Horizontal 0.56 9.52 Vertical
4 East wall 84.0 92 Vertical Horizontal 0.56 3.92
5 Attic floor 1 176.0 95 Horizontal Downward 0.18 1.80


8-24
onvective heat transfer coefficients are determined from Table 8-8.
oefficients for the pitched roof surfaces are based on the Sloping 45
egrees surface position. A more sophisticated approach would involve
terpolation. The results are summarized below.
Surface Area (m
2
) T(C)
Surface
Position
Direction of
Heat Flow
h
c
(W/m
2
-K)
q"
convection
(W/m
2
)


C
C
d
in

1 North roof 120.7 43
Sloping -
45 degrees
Downward 2.39 33.46
2 South roof 120.7 50
Sloping -
45 degrees
Downward 2.39 50.19
3 West wall 18.0 36 Vertical Horizontal 3.18 22.26
4 East wall 18.0 38 Vertical Horizontal 3.18 28.62
5 Attic floor 216.0 32 Horizontal Downward 1.02 3.06









8-25

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148
First, the solar irradiation on the window is obtained in the same manner as
the solution for Problem 7-17. The following tables show results for the
west-facing window.

Input Data
Latitude 35.23
De
Su
Surf Tilt
G 0.2
CDST L
R
* G
t
*
16.75 69.25 229.59 40.41 74.35 283.92 76.59 27.06 30.47 134.12
he layer absorptances of the double-pane window with 1/8 in. sheet glass
D5a) can be found from Table 7-3 as:

Direct,outer
=A
f
1
(74 deg) =0.13
diffuse,outer
=A
f
1,diffuse
=0.11

Direct,inner
=A
f
2
(74 deg) =0.06
diffuse,inner
=A
f
2,diffuse
=0.07
q
it ,

j,

=0.13(76.59) +0.11(57.53) =16.29 Btu/(hr-ft


2
)
bsorbed
=0.06(76.59) +0.07(57.53) =8.62 Btu/(hr-ft
2
)







8-26

Longitude 101.7 deg
Standard Meridian 90 deg
EOT -6.2 min
deg
clination 20.6 deg
rf Azimuth 270 deg
90 deg
A 346.4 Btu/hr-ft2
B 0.186
C 0.138
CN 1
RHO
Output Data
ST h, , , , , G
ND
* G
D
* G
d
* G
15.00 13.12

T
(I




Then, the solar radiation absorbed by each pane of the double-pane
window may be determined by (neglecting incident solar radiation from the
inside):

absorbed,outer
q
it a ,inner,

j,


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149
First, the solar irradiation on the window is obtained in the same manner as
the solution for Problem 7-17. The following tables show results for the
west-facing window.

Input Data
Latitude 45.8
De
Su
Surf Tilt
G 0.2
MDST
R
* G
t
*
24.92 57.57 227.35 42.65 66.77 277.89 109.60 29.57 27.29 166.46
he layer absorptances of the double-pane window with 1/8 in. sheet glass
27
diffuse,outer
=A
f
1,diffuse
=0.11

Direct,inner
=A
f
2
(67 deg) =0.073
diffuse,inner
=A
f
2,diffuse
=0.07
,inner,

j,


=0.073(109.6) +0.07(56.86) =11.98 Btu/(hr-ft
2
)
8-27

RESULTS BY THE HB METHOD USING THE HVACEXPLORER
PROBRMA ARE HIGHER THAN RESULTS BY THE RTS METHOD
USING THE SPREADSHEET.

8-28

Longitude 108.53 deg
Standard Meridian 105 deg
EOT -6.2 min
deg
clination 20.6 deg
rf Azimuth 270 deg
90 deg
A 346.4 Btu/hr-ft2
B 0.186
C 0.138
CN 1
RHO
Output Data
LST h, , , , , G
ND
* G
D
* G
d
* G
15.00 13.66

T
(ID5a) can be found from Table 7-3 as:


Direct,outer
=A
f
1
(67 deg) =0.1


Then, the solar radiation absorbed by each pane of the double-pane
window may be determined by (neglecting incident solar radiation from the
inside):

q
it absorbed,outer,

j,

=0.127(109.6) +0.11(56.86) =20.17 Btu/(hr-ft


2
)
q
it absorbed


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150
The RTS method is used to obtain the cooling load results for this problem.
The following table shows total cooling loads and cooling loads due to
window heat gains for both low-e and regular double-pane windows. All
cooling loads due to other heat gains are the same as those shown in
Example 8-16.

Low-E Windows
(from E 8-16
Regular Windows
xample )
Hour W
Co on
(Btu/hr)
W
(Btu/hr)
W
Co on
(Btu/hr)
W
(Btu/hr)
indow
nducti
indow
SHG
Total
(Btu/hr)
indow
nducti
indow
SHG
Total
(Btu/hr)
1 186 364 4418 228 420 4516
2 146 299 3843 179 345 3921
3 110 246 3352 135 284 3414
4 79 203 2940 97 234 2989
5 58 167 2623 72 193 2662
6 52 138 2419 63 159 2452
7 61 254 2465 75 293 2518
8 92 465 2737 112 537 2829
9 145 710 8190 178 820 8333
10 215 978 9562 263 1129 9761
11 300 1247 10883 368 1437 11141
12 389 1492 12143 477 1720 12458
13 469 1694 13275 574 1951 13637
14 533 1833 14250 654 2111 14648
15 577 1897 15007 707 2185 15425
16 593 1881 15486 726 2167 15905
17 585 1787 15701 717 2060 16105
18 553 1624 10635 677 1873 11008
19 503 1391 9550 616 1604 9877
20 444 1089 8460 544 1256 8727
21 386 839 7477 472 968 7692
22 327 674 6588 401 777 6765
23 274 546 5777 336 629 5922
24 228 445 5057 279 513 5176

As shown in the above table, using the regular window would result in
slightly higher cooling loads than using the low-e window. The following
figure illustrates the increase in cooling loads due to changing the type of
window from the low-e window to the regular window.
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Cooling Load Comparison
3000
6000
9000
12000
C
o
o
l
i
n
g

L
o
a
d
,

B
t
u
/
h
r
0
1
15000
18000
4 7 3 1 19 22
, Hou
Low-E
Regular
10 1 6
Time r



8-29

Sol to be vide an in ctor.

8-30

First, the solar irradiation must be determined and is the same as that
shown for Problem 8-10. Then, the hourly dry bulb temperature is
calculated using Equation 8-2. Here, the hour nearest to the local solar
time has been used to determine the temperature. Finally, the sol-air
temperature is calculated using Equation 8-63 with the thermal radiation
correction term being zero for a vertical surface.

Clock Time
In n
(Btu/h-
Outdoor
Drybulb
Temp (F)
Sol-air
1.00 23.79 0.00 75.2 75.2
2.00 0.79 0.00 73.9 73.9
3.00 1.79 0.00 72.6 72.6
ution pro d by stru
Local
Solar
Time
solatio
ft2)
Temp
(F)
4.00 2.79 0.00 71.6 71.6
5.00 3.79 0.00 70.9 70.9
6.00 4.79 0.00 70.6 70.6
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7.00 5.79 9.93 71.1 73.1
8.00 6.79 23.08 77.0

44.53
47.91
52.42 100.6
111.11 115.4
178.01 130.8
230.32 142.1
259.13 147.1
252.42 143.9
184.97 127.7



8-31

This problem uses the same solution procedure as Problem 8-30. Note
that the solar irradiation is the same as that shown for Problem 8-11.

Ins n
(Btu/h-ft2)
Outdoor
Drybulb
Temp (F)
Sol-air
Temp (F)
1.00 23.15 0.00 73.0 73.0
2.00 0.15 0.00 71.2 71.2
3.00 1.15 0.00 69.6 69.6
9.00 7.15 29.69 67.8 72.3
10 .38 70.5 79.9
.15 74.5 90.6
2.58 79.0 100.4
13.0 11.15 4.39 84.2 108.8
14 .15 0.24 89.0 114.6
1 .15 9.50 92.7 116.6
16.00 14.15 95.1 115.1
17.0 15.15 .5 110.2
18.00 16.15 .1 102.3
19.00 17.15 .46 93.0 96.9
20.00 18.15 .28 89.6 91.8
21.0 19.15 0.32 85.7 85.7
22.0 20.15 0.00 81.8 81.8
72.4
74.7
78.0
9.00
10.00
7.79
8.79
32.24
39.29
81.1
85.8
11.00 9.79 81.8 90.7
12.00 10.79 86.1 95.7
13.00 11.79 90.2
14.00 12.79 93.2
15.00 13.79 95.2
16.00 14.79 96.0
17.00 15.79 95.2
18.00 16.79 93.5
19.00 17.79 90.7
20.00 18.79 6.10 87.4 88.6
21.00 19.79 0.00 84.1 84.1
22.00 20.79 0.00 81.3 81.3
23.00 21.79 0.00 78.7 78.7
24.00 22.79 0.00 76.7 76.7
Clock
Time
Local
Solar
Time
olatio
4.00 2.15 0.00 68.1 68.1
5.00 3.15 0.00 66.9 66.9
6.00 4.15 0.00 66.0 66.0
7.00 5.15 3.96 65.7 66.3
8.00 6.15 17.83 66.3 69.0
.00 8.15 62
07 11.00 9.15
12.00 10.15
1
14
0 16
.00 12 17
15

5.00 13
133.31
0 94 7 96.0
8 95.1 48


26
14
0
0
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23.00 21.15 0.00 78.4
24.00 22.15 0.00 75.4

8-32

This problem uses the similar solution procedure as Problem 8-30. First,
th la a r e oo ng pr u
described in Chapter 7. The results are shown below.

Input Data
on 06 d
ar id 10 d
E -6
a 5.
20
f h 0
0
46 tu
.1
.1
1
R 0.2
t
27 356.41 356.41 124.27 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2.00 0.79 -168.17 -33.23 13.26 13.26 123.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00
0.00
00 0.00
6.00 4.79 -108.17 -2.11 62.87 62.87 92.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
7.00 5.79 1 22 108.07 17.26 14.91 0.00 32.17
8.00 6.79 9 02 206.38 74.12 28.48 0.00 102.60
33.22 86 9 246.69 135.17 34.04 0.00 169.21
10. 8.79 45.49 95.77 5.77 266.87 190.31 36.83 0.00 227.14
11.00 9.79 57.51 107.5 7.55 277.85 234.37 38.34 0.00 272.71
12.00 10.79 68.46 127.3 7.34 283.62 263.81 39.14 0.00 302.95
13.00 11.79 75.28 168.2 8.24 285.80 276.42 39.44 0.00 315.86
14.00 12.79 72.19 218.8 8.87 284.93 271.28 39.32 0.00 310.60
15.00 13.79 62.36 245.6 5.60 280.80 248.75 38.75 0.00 287.50
16.00 14.79 50.63 259.7 9.78 272.32 210.52 37.58 0.00 248.10
17.00 15.79 269.5 9.56 256.78 159.55 35.44 0.00 194.98
18.00 16.79 277.7 7.71 227.20 100.20 31.35 0.00 131.56
19.00 17.79 285.4 5.45 161.85 39.56 22.33 0.00 61.90
20.00 18.79 3 293.4 3.49 5.53 0.25 0.76 0.00 1.01
21 9.79 302.4 2.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
22 0.79 312.8 2.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
23.00 21.79 146.83 -26.06 325.24 325.24 116.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
78.4
75.4
e so r irr diation is dete mined for th flat r f usi the oced re
L gitude 1 .62 eg
Stand d Mer ian 5 eg
OT .2 min
L titude 3 05 deg
Declination .6 deg
Sur Azimut deg
Surf Tilt deg
Apar 3 .4 B /hr-ft2
Bpar 0 86
Cpar 0 38
CN
HOG
Outpu Data
MDST LST h, , , , , G *
ND
G *
D
G *
d
G *
R
G*
t
1.00 23.79 176.83 -34.
3.00 1.79 -153.17 -28.80 28.82 28.82 118.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
4.00 2.79 -138.17 -21.65 42.20 42.20 111.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
5.00 3.79 -123.17 -12.54 53.39 53.39 102.54 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.
-93.17
-78.17
-63.17
9.19 7
21.05 7
.22 71.
.02 79.
.89 86.8
80.81
68.95
56.78 9.00 7.79
00 -48.17 9 44.51
-33.17 5 10 32.49
-18.17 4 12 21.54
-3.17 4 16 14.72
11.83 7 21 17.81
26.83 0 24 27.64
41.83 8 25 39.37
56.83 38.41 6 26 51.59
71.83 26.17 1 27 63.83
86.83 14.15 5 28 75.85
101.8 2.58 9 29 87.42
.00 1 116.83 -8.27 3 30 98.27
.00 2 131.83 -18.00 3 31 108.00
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24 2.79 339.9 9.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
*Un adiatio /hr-

Then, the sol-air temperature is determined using Equation 8-63 with the
thermal radiation correction term being 7 F for a horizontal surface.

Clock Time
In n
(Btu/h-
Outdoor
Drybulb
Temp (F)
Sol-air
2.00 0.79 0.00 73.9 66.9
3.00 1.79 0.00 72.6 65.6
4.00 2.79 0.00 71.6 64.6
5.00 3.79 0.00 70.9 63.9
6.00 4.79 0.00 70.6 63.6
8.00 6.79 102.60 72.4 85.9
9.00
11.00 129.3
12.00 10.79 302.95 86.1 139.7
13.00 90.2 146.3
14.00 93.2 148.3
15.00 13.79 287.50 95.2 145.7
16.00 14.79 248.10 96.0 138.6
17.00 15.79 194.98 95.2 127.2
18.00 16.79 131.56 93.5 112.8
19.00 17.79 61.90 90.7 96.0
22.00 20.79 0.00 81.3 74.3
23.00 21.79 0.00 78.7 71.7
0 79 0.00 76.7 69.7


8-33

For hour 15, Equation 8-64 is used to find the conduction heat flux.

q
conduction
=.0052 x (151.2-74) +.00144 x (138.1-74) +
645 120 )
.89 tu/(



.00 2 161.83 -31.74 3 33 121.74
it of Irr n is Btu ft
Local
Solar
Time
solatio
ft2)
Temp
(F)
1.00 23.79 0.00 75.2 68.2
7.00 5.79 32.17 71.1 70.5
7.79 169.21 74.7 101.5
10.00 8.79 227.14 78.0 116.4
9.79 272.71 81.8
11.79 315.86
12.79 310.60
20.00 18.79 1.01 87.4 80.6
21.00 19.79 0.00 84.1 77.1
24.0 22.
.00 x ( .3-74

=2 7 B hr-ft
2
)
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8-34
quation 8-64 is used to find the conduction heat flux for each hour.

q" q"

E
Hour (Btu/(hr-
ft2))
Hour (Btu/(hr-
ft2))
1 1.835 13 0.828
2 1.824 14 0.798
3 1.772 15 0.791
4 1.693 16 0.810
5 1.595 17 0.861
6 1.486 18 0.948
7 1.372 19 1.071
8 1.259 20 1.225
9 1.149 21 1.396
10 1.047 22 1.563
11 0.956 23 1.704
12 0.882 24 1.797


8-35

For hour 12, Equation 8-64 is used to find the conduction heat flux.

q
conduction
061 x (1 72) +0.044510 x (134.3-72) +
473 x (1 -72)
.02 tu/(

8-36
Equation 8-64 is used to find the conduction heat flux for each hour.
=0.0 92 43.9-
0.0 21 21.4

=7 8 B hr-ft
2
)


Hour
q"
(Btu/(hr-
ft2)) Hour
q"
(Btu/(hr-
ft2))
1 0.674 13 1.050
2 14 0.401 1.544
3 0.199 15 2.012
4 0.051 16 2.409
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5 -0.058 17 2.694
6 -0.138 18 2.841
7 -0.197 19 2.834
8 -0.232 20 2.671
9 -0.209 21 2.361
10 -0.075 22 1.936
11 0.194 23 1.466
12 0.583 24 1.031

8-37

quation 8-64 is used to find the conduction heat flux for each hour with
sol-air temperatures calculated in Problem 8-31.
E

Hour
q"
(Btu/(hr-
ft2)) Hour
q"
(Btu/(hr-
ft2))
1 3.492 13 -0.055
2 3.147 14 0.165
3 2.758 15 0.563
4 2.348 16 1.112
5 1.937 17 1.754
6 1.536 18 2.417
7 1.154 19 3.026
8 0.796 20 3.510
9 0.472 21 3.823
10 0.199 22 3.958
11 0.000 23 3.931
12 -0.098 24 3.765

8-38
f
rst, we need to know angle of incidence and solar
ar
Direct Solar Irradiation: G
D
=118.6 Btu/hr-ft,

Using the simplified approach, the solution procedure is the same as that o
Problem 7-27. Fi
irradiation. Assuming a west-facing window, the incidence angle and sol
irradiation for Albuquerque, NM on a clear J uly 21 day at 3:00 pm solar
time are (see solution in Problem 8-10 for reference)

Angle of Incidence: =65.0 deg.,
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157
Diffuse Solar Irradiation: G
d
+G
R
=30.6 +28.9 =59.4 Btu/hr-ft

Then, the area of the glazing and of the frame is calculated to be 27.2 ft
and 4.8
SHGG
gD
(65) =0.515 and SHGG
gd
=0.60.

From Table 5-2, the outside surface conductance may be estimated to be
.0 Btu r-ft
luminum-clad wood/vinyl frame with insulated spacers is 0.48 Btu/hr-ft-F.
frame surf
Eq. 7-31 as:

For an unshaded window, the total solar heat gain is calculated using Eq.
=(0.515*27.2 +0.031*4.8)*118.6

8-39
ssuming a south-facing window, the incidence angle and solar irradiation

tu/hr-ft,
Diffuse Solar Irradiation: G
d
+G
R
=29.0 +28.9 =57.9 Btu/hr-ft, and
ft, respectively.

From Table 7-3, solar heat gain coefficients for the glazing system ID 5b
are
4 /h -F.

From Table 5-6, the U-value for the fixed, double glazed window having
a

From Table 7-1, solar absorptance of the vinyl frame painted white is 0.26.

Assuming the window with no setback (A =A ), the SHGC for the
ame can be calculated using fr

SHGG
f
=0.26*(0.48/4.0) =0.031.
7-32 as:

SHG
q
+(0.60*27.2 +0.031*4.8)*59.4 =2657.2 Btu/hr.


This problem uses the same solution procedure as the previous problem.
A
for Boise, ID on a clear J uly 21 day at 3:00 pm solar time are (see solution
in Problem 8-11 for reference)

Angle of Incidence: =68.8 deg.,
Direct Solar Irradiation: G
D
=101.6 B
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158

The area of the glazing and of the frame is the same as that calculated in
rom Table 7-3, solar heat gain coefficients for the glazing system ID 29a
are
G
gD
(6
rom Table 5-6, the U-value for the fixed, triple glazed window having
luminum-clad wood/vinyl frame with insulated spacers is 0.44 Btu/hr-ft-F.
he outside surface conductance and solar absorptance of the frame are
4 . .6
+(0.57*27.2 +0.029*4.8)*57.9 =2047.4 Btu/hr.





8-40

First, determine conduction heat gain by multiplying fluxes from Problem 8-
33 the e ar 0 f en Ta 20, select the
radiative/convective split to be 63%/37%. Apply the split to determine the
convective and radiative heat gains. Then, apply Equation 8-67 to the
radiative heat gains to determine the radiative cooling load. Sum the
radiative cooling load and the convective heat gain to get the cooling load.

Problem 8-38.

F
SH G 8.8) =0.408 and SHGG
gd
=0.57.

F
a

T
assumed to be the same as those in Problem 8-38.

Assuming the window with no setback (A
frame
=A
surf
), the SHGC for the
frame can be calculated using Eq. 7-31 as:

SHGG
f
=0.26*(0.44/4.0) =0.029.

For an unshaded window, the total solar heat gain is calculated using Eq.
-32 as: 7

q
SHG
=(0. 08*27.2 +0.029*4 8)*101

by surfac ea, 80 t . Th
2
, from ble 8-
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159
Hour
C n
Heat Gain
Convective Radiative
Radiative onductio
(Btu/hr)
HG HG
Cooling
Load
Cooling
Load
1 5462.3 2021.0 3441.2 2903.7 4924.7
2 4899.6 1812.8 3086.7 2813.1 4625.9
3 4334.5 1603.8 2730.7 2702.9 4306.7
4 3796.4 1404.7 2391.7 2583.0 3987.7
5 3300.5 1221.2 2079.3 2460.2 3681.4
6 2854.1 1056.0 1798.1 2339.0 3395.0
7 2460.6 910.4 1550.2 2222.4 3132.9
8 2123.8 785.8 1338.0 2113.0 2898.9
9 1854.2 686.1 1168.2 2014.0 2700.1
10 1673.6 619.2 1054.4 1930.6 2549.9
11 1598.0 591.3 1006.7 1868.0 2459.2
12 1629.0 602.7 1026.3 1829.3 2432.1
13 1759.4 651.0 1108.4 1815.8 2466.8
14 1983.0 733.7 1249.3 1827.8 2561.5
15 2318.0 857.6 1460.3 1868.9 2726.6
16 2803.7 1037.4 1766.3 1947.4 2984.8
17 3450.5 1276.7 2173.8 2068.9 3345.5
18 4215.9 1559.9 2656.0 2230.3 3790.2
19 5016.0 1855.9 3160.1 2419.2 4275.2
20 5741.3 2124.3 3617.0 2614.7 4739.0
21 6266.5 2318.6 3947.9 2789.4 5108.0
22 6473.8 2395.3 4078.5 2913.3 5308.6
23 6345.1 2347.7 3997.4 2969.4 5317.1
24 5971.2 2209.4 3761.9 2961.2 5170.6

Cooling Loa He s
0.0
00.0
00.0
00.0
00.0
00.0
000.0
000.0
7 13 19
ur
L
o
a
d

&

H
e
a
t

G
a
i
n

(
B
t
u
/
h
r
)
ds and at Gain
10
20
30
40
50
6
7
1 3 5 9 11 15 17 21 23
Ho
Con
(Btu
duction Heat Gain
/hr)
Cooling Load

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160

8-41

First, determine conduction heat gain by multiplying fluxes from Problem 8-
35 by the surface area, 1000 ft
2
. Then, from Table 8-20, select the
radiative/convective split to be 84%/16%. Apply the split to determine the
convective and radiative heat gains. Then, apply Equation 8-67 to the
radiative heat gains to determine the radiative cooling load. Sum the
radiative cooling load and the convective heat gain to get the cooling load.


Hour
Conduction
Heat Gain
(Btu/hr)
Convective
HG
Radiative
HG
Radiative
Cooling
Load
Cooling
Load

1 2227.2 356.4 1870.8 4864.4 5220.7
2 1338.2 214.1 1124.1 4530.5 4744.6
3 627.7 100.4 527.3 4222.8 4323.2
4 57.3 9.2 48.2 3938.6 3947.7
5 -397.4 -63.6 -333.8 3676.2 3612.7
6 -746.0 -119.4 -626.7 3436.0 3316.7
7 -935.8 -149.7 -786.0 3228.9 3079.2
8 -610.8 -97.7 -513.1 3120.5 3022.8
9 507.2 81.2 426.1 3179.7 3260.8
10 2313.5 370.2 1943.3 3417.1 3787.2
11 4567.1 730.7 3836.3 3808.3 4539.0
12 7028.4 1124.5 5903.8 4316.0 5440.6
13 9455.0 1512.8 7942.2 4893.4 6406.2
14 11609.7 1857.6 9752.2 5486.8 7344.4
15 13293.3 2126.9 11166.3 6042.8 8169.7
16 14350.1 2296.0 12054.1 6511.5 8807.6
17 14672.7 2347.6 12325.1 6849.5 9197.1
18 14222.5 2275.6 11946.9 7024.8 9300.4
19 13018.3 2082.9 10935.4 9101.0 7018.0
20 11142.9 1782.9 9360.0 6824.5 8607.3
21 8809.6 1409.5 7 6 7877.0 400.1 467.5
22 6593.1 1054.9 5538.2 6042.8 7097.7
23 4782.8 765.3 4017.6 5622.2 6387.5
24 3353.1 536.5 2816.6 5228.0 5764.5

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161
Cooling Loa He s
-2000.0
0.0
2000.0
000.0
000.0
000.0
000.0
000.0
000.0
000.0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
L
o
a
d

&

H
e
a
t

G
a
i
n

(
B
t
u
/
h
r
)
ds and at Gain
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Conduction Heat Gain
/hr) (Btu
Cooling Load

8-42
8-
diative/convective split to be 84%/16%. Apply the split to determine the
convective and radiative heat gains. Then, apply Equation 8-67 to the
radiative heat gains to determine the radiative cooling load. Sum the
radiative cooling load and the convective heat gain to get the cooling load.

Ho
nvectiv
HG
adi ive
HG
Radiative
Cooling
Load
Cooling
Load



First, determine conduction heat gain by multiplying fluxes from Problem
36 by the surface area, 1200 ft
2
. Then, from Table 8-20, select the
ra
ur (Btu/hr)
Conduction
Heat Gain Co e R at
1 809.2 129.5 679.7 1203.0 1332.4
2 481.0 77.0 404.1 1105.3 1182.3
3 238.5 38.2 1018.3 1056.5 200.4
4 61.2 9.8 51.4 941.3 951.1
5 -69.3 -11.1 -58.2 872.8 861.7
6 -166.0 -26.6 811.4 784.9 -139.5
7 -2 99 71 37.0 -37.9 -1 .0 756.2 8.3
8 -278.7 -44.6 -234.1 663.3 707.9
9 -250.9 -40.2 -210.8 .0 633.8 674
10 -90.4 -14.5 -75.9 .9 653.4 667
11 233.3 37.3 196.0 .7 737.1 699
12 700.2 112.0 588.2 .3 883.3 771
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162
13 1260.3 201.6 1058.6 .1 1078.8 877
14 1852.6 296.4 1556.2 .4 1303.8 1007
15 2414.9 386.4 2028.5 .7 1536.1 1149
16 2890.5 462.5 2428.0 .4 1752.9 1290
17 3233.3 517.3 2716.0 .6 1933.9 1416
18 3409.7 545.6 2864.2 .5 2062.0 1516
19 3401.3 544.2 2857.1 .7 2124.9 1580
20 3205.0 512.8 2692.2 .7 2115.5 1602
21 2 453.4 2380.2 .7 2033.0 833.6 1579
22 2 371.7 1951.6 .7 1885.5 323.3 1513
23 1 281.5 1477.9 .5 1699.0 759.4 1417
24 1 198.0 1039.6 .3 1507.3 237.6 1309

Cooling Loads and H ains
3000.0
.0
.0
r
)
eat G
4000
-500.0
0.0
500.0
1000.0
1500.0
2000.0
2500.0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
L
o
a
d

&

H
e
a
t

G
a
i
n

(
B
t
u
/
h
3500
Conduction Heat Gain
(Btu/hr)
Cooling Load



8-43
irst, the hourly solar heat gains are determined using the same solution
rocedure shown in Problem 8-38. The results are shown below. Note
at the solar irradiation on the window is the same as that shown in
Problem 8-10. Also, note that the calculated solar gain at 3:00 p.m. is
slightly different from that shown in Problem 8-38 due to rounding errors.

put Data
Glass Area 27.2
Frame Area 4.8

F
p
th
In
ft
ft
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163
Diffus GC 0.6
0.7
ngular - 40 0.67
ngular - 50 0.64
ngular - 60 0.58
ngular - 70 0.45
ngular - 80 0.23
Frame SHGC 0.03


O ta
Clock
Time
iatio
r-ft
iff I ,
B
r Heat Gain,
Btu/hr
0 0.00
0 0.00
00 0.00
3 .00 0.00
8 .00 0.00
0 .00 0.00
7 .00 163.51
8.00 156.37 23.08 380.04
9.00 146.65 0.00 32.24 530.96
10.00 134.23 0.00 39.29 647.01
11.00 120.81 0.00 44.53 733.28
12.00 106.97 0.00 47.91 788.98
13.00 92.97 0.00 52.42 863.28
14.00 78.94 54.68 56.44 1314.44
15.00 65.01 118.63 59.38 2657.05
16.00 51.37 170.01 60.32 3940.06
17.00 38.42 201.20 57.93 4657.12
18.00 27.20 202.07 50.35 4594.55
19.00 20.83 151.27 33.70 3393.40
20.00 23.63 5.07 1.03 111.74
21.00 33.35 0.00 0.00 0.00
22.00 45.77 0.00 0.00 0.00
23.00 59.19 0.00 0.00 0.00
24.00 73.03 0.00 0.00 0.00

In the original RTS methodology, two types of radiant time factors were
utilized to convert solar heat gains into cooling loads. The Solar-RTS was
used to convert the beam transmitted solar gain while the Nonsolar-RTS
as used to convert all other solar gains. However, to simplify t e
e calculated solar heat gains include both transmitted and absorbed solar
re,
e SH
Angular SHGC - 0
A SHGC
A SHGC
A SHGC
A SHGC
A SHGC
1
utput Da
Inc.
Angle,
Dir Irrad n, D
Btu/h
rradiation
tu/hr-ft
Sola
1.00 87.03 0.0 0.00
2.00 101.06 0.0 0.00
3.00 114.99 0. 0.00
4.00 128.6 0 0.00
5.00 141.5 0 0.00
6.00 152.8 0 0.00
7.00 159.1 0
0.00
9.93
w
calculations, only one RTS (Nonsolar-RTS) is used in this edition. Since
h
th
gains, the recommended radiative and convective splits shown in Table 8-
20 would not be applicable. For this problem, it is assumed that the
radiative fraction of the combined solar heat gain is about 0.9. Therefo
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164
the radiative/convective split is 90%/10%. Then, apply the split to
determine the convective and radiative heat gains and apply Equation 8-67
the radiative heat gains to determine the radiative cooling load. And,
finally, sum the radiative cooling load and the convective heat gain to get
the cooling load.



H
nvec
HG
Radiative
G
Radiative
Cooling
Load
Cooling
Load
to
our
Heat Gain
(Btu/hr)
Co
Solar
tive
H
1 0.0 0.0 .0 141.0 141.0 0
2 0.0 0.0 .0 91.6 91.6 0
3 0.0 0.0 0.0 59.8 59.8
4 0.0 0.0 0.0 39.2 39.2
5 0.0 0.0 0.0 25 25.9 .9
6 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.2 17.2
7 163.5 16.4 147.2 103.9 87.6
8 380.0 38.0 342.0 253.2 215.2
9 531.0 53.1 477.9 392.7 339.6
10 647.0 64.7 582.3 515.2 450.5
11 733.3 73.3 660.0 617.1 543.8
12 789.0 78.9 710.1 694.7 615.8
13 863.3 86.3 777.0 773.6 687.3
14 1 131.4 1183.0 1064.0 314.4 932.5
15 2 265.7 2391.3 1927.5 657.1 1661.8
16 3 394.0 3546.1 2960.6 940.1 2566.6
17 4 465.7 4191.4 3770.4 657.1 3304.7
18 4 459.5 4135.1 4090.3 594.6 3630.8
19 3 339.3 3054.1 3600.4 393.4 3261.0
20 1 11.2 100.6 1635.8 11.7 1624.6
21 0.0 0.0 0.0 912.1 912.1
22 0.0 0.0 0.0 549.4 549.4
23 0.0 0.0 0.0 343.2 343.2
24 0.0 0.0 0.0 218.7 218.7

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165
Cooling Loa nd H s
0.0
00.0
00.0
00.0
00.0
00.0
00.0
00.0
00.0
500.0
000.0
1 5 7 11 13 1 19
Hour
L
o
a
d

&

H
e
a
t

G
a
i
n

(
B
t
u
/
h
r
)
ds a eat Gain
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
4
5
3 9 5 17 21 23
Solar Heat Gain (Btu/hr)
Cooling Load


8-44

his problem uses the same solution procedures as Problem 8-43. Note
at the solar irradiation on the window is the same as that shown in
Problem 8-11. Also, note that the calculated solar gain at 3:00 p.m. is
lightly different from that shown in Problem 8-39 due to rounding errors.
The radiative/convective split of 90%/10% is also used for this problem.

Data
Glass Area .2
Frame Area .8
Diffuse SHGC 57
ngular - 0 68
gular S 40 65
gular S 50 62
gular 60 4
gular 70 9
gular 80 8
Frame SHGC 29

O ta
Clock
Time
Btu

f Irr hr- r Heat Gain,
Btu/hr
0 0.00
0 0.00
0 0.00
T
th
s
Input
27 ft
4 ft
0.
A SHGC 0.
An HGC - 0.
An HGC - 0.
An SHGC - 0.5
An SHGC - 0.3
An SHGC - 0.1
0.0


utput Da
Inc.
Angle,
Dir Irrad,
ft
/hr- Dif ad, Btu/
ft
Sola
1.00 152.14 0.0 0.00
2.00 154.11 0.0 0.00
3.00 150.59 0.0 0.00
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166
4.00 0 0.00
0 0.00
0 0.00
0 61.91
0 17.83 278.89
0 2 464.39
1 70 39.68 680.73
11.00 77.37 58.92 48.23 1139.73
12.00 71.58 87.76 54.81 1721.36
13.00 68.02 105.54 58.85 2140.21
14.00 67.06 110.30 59.94 2255.35
15.00 68.82 101.56 57.95 2046.81
16.00 73.09 80.22 53.10 1551.04
17.00 79.44 48.70 45.86 978.15
18.00 87.38 11.34 36.84 592.46
19.00 96.45 0.00 26.46 413.94
20.00 106.26 0.00 14.28 223.45
21.00 116.49 0.00 0.32 4.97
22.00 126.80 0.00 0.00 0.00
23.00 136.76 0.00 0.00 0.00
24.00 145.67 0.00 0.00 0.00

Hour
Solar
Heat Gain
(Btu/hr)
Convective
HG
Radiative
HG
Radiative
Cooling
Load
Cooling
Load
143.20 0.0 0.00
5.00 133.87 0.0 0.00
6.00 123.75 0.0 0.00
7.00 113.42 0.0 3.96
8.00 103.29 0.0
9.00 93.66 0.0 9.69
0.00 84.88 22.
1 0.0 0.0 0.0 356.3 356.3
2 0.0 0.0 0.0 341.8 341.8
3 0.0 0.0 0.0 328.6 328.6
4 0.0 0.0 0.0 316.4 316.4
5 0.0 0.0 0.0 305.0 305.0
6 0.0 0.0 0.0 294.1 294.1
7 61.9 6.2 55.7 297.0 303.1
8 278.9 27.9 251.0 338.9 366.8
9 464.4 46.4 418.0 391.2 437.6
10 680.7 68.1 612.7 457.1 525.2
11 1139.7 114.0 1025.8 583.2 697.2
12 1 172.1 1 935.1 721.4 549.2 763.0
13 2140.2 214.0 1926.2 935.3 1149.3
14 2255.4 225.5 2029.8 1046.5 1272.0
15 2046.8 204.7 1842.1 1067.8 1272.4
16 1551.0 155.1 1395.9 991.0 1146.1
17 978.1 97.8 880.3 853.6 951.4
18 592.5 59.2 533.2 723.9 783.1
19 413.9 41.4 372.6 633.6 675.0
20 223.4 22.3 201.1 551.8 574.1
21 5.0 0.5 4.5 465.4 465.9
22 0.0 0.0 0.0 421.3 421.3
23 0.0 0.0 0.0 393.5 393.5
24 0.0 0.0 0.0 373.0 373.0
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167

Cooling Lo d H s
0.0
500.0
1000.0
00.0
00.0
00.0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
L
o
a
d

&

H
e
a
t

G
a
i
n

(
B
t
u
/
h
r
)
ads an eat Gain
15
20
25
Solar Heat Gain (Btu/hr)
Cooling Load



-45

Hour
Internal
Heat Gain
(W)
Convective
HG
Radiative
HG
Radiative
Cooling
Load
Cooling
Load
(W)
8
1 200.0 100.0 100.0 125.3 225.3
2 200.0 100.0 100.0 116.6 216.6
3 200.0 100.0 100.0 111.0 211.0
4 200.0 100.0 100.0 107.3 207.3
5 200.0 100.0 100.0 105.0 205.0
6 200.0 100.0 100.0 103.4 203.4
7 200.0 100.0 100.0 102.4 202.4
8 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 566.7 1566.7
9 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 753.8 1753.8
10 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 851.1 1851.1
11 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 906.9 1906.9
12 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 940.8 1940.8
13 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 962.1 1962.1
14 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 975.6 1975.6
15 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 984.3 1984.3
16 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 990.0 1990.0
17 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 993.6 1993.6
18 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 996.0 1996.0
19 200.0 100.0 100.0 532.6 632.6
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168
20 200.0 100.0 100.0 346.2 446.2
21 200.0 100.0 100.0 249.2 349.2
22 200.0 100.0 100.0 193.6 293.6
23 200.0 100.0 100.0 159.9 259.9
24 200.0 100.0 100.0 138.7 238.7



Cool i ng Loads and Heat Gai ns
0.0
500.0
1000.0
1500.0
2000.0
2500.0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
L
o
a
d

&

H
e
a
t

G
a
i
n

(
W
)
Internal Heat Gain (W)
Cooling Load (W)



8-46
Hour
Internal
Heat Gain
(W)
Convective
HG
Radiative
HG
Radiative
Cooling
Load
Cooling
Load
(W)

1 200.0 100.0 100.0 405.1 505.1
2 200.0 100.0 100.0 392.9 492.9
3 200.0 100.0 100.0 381.7 481.7
4 200.0 100.0 100.0 371.2 471.2
5 200.0 100.0 100.0 361.3 461.3
6 200.0 100.0 100.0 352.1 452.1
7 200.0 100.0 100.0 343.3 443.3
8 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 518.9 1518.9
9 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 562.8 1562.8
10 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 590.6 1590.6
11 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 612.3 1612.3
12 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 630.8 1630.8
13 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 647.1 1647.1
14 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 661.9 1661.9
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169
15 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 675.5 1675.5
16 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 688.2 1688.2
17 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 700.0 1700.0
18 2000.0 1000.0 1000.0 711.1 1711.1
19 200.0 100.0 100.0 537.6 637.6
20 200.0 100.0 100.0 495.7 595.7
21 200.0 100.0 100.0 469.9 569.9
22 200.0 100.0 100.0 449.9 549.9
23 200.0 100.0 100.0 433.2 533.2
24 200.0 100.0 4 100.0 418. 518.4




Cool i ng Loads eat G
0.0
000.0
500.0
000.0
500.0
5 9 3 1 19 3
r
L
o
a
d

&

H
e
a
t

G
a
i
n

(
W
)
and H ai ns
500.0
1
1
2
2
1 3 7 11 1 5 17 21 2
Hou
Internal He ain (W) at G
Cooling L ) o W ad (














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170

8-47
Comparison o nd o ponses
0.0
500.0
000.
500.0
00.
00.0
5 11 15 21
H
e
a
t

G
a
i
n
s

a
n
d

C
o
o
l
i
n
g

L
o
a
d
s

(
W
)
f LW a MW 1 Z ne Res
1 0
1
20 0
25
1 3 7 9 13 17 19 23
Hour
Internal Heat Gain (W)
MW1 Zone Clg. Ld. (W)
HW Zone Clg. Ld. (W)


As shown in the figure, there is a significant difference in the response of
e two zones, with the HW zone having substantially more damping and







th
time delay.






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171
8-48

Assumptions applied to each heat gain are discussed in the solution to
Problem 8-15. The equipment heat gain is assumed to be continuous. The
total convective and radiative heat gains are determined in the following
table. The latent cooling loads are equivalent to the latent heat gains
shown in the last column.

Name: People Lighting Equipment Convective People Total
Total
Radiative
Total
Latent
from
Radiative
Fraction: 0.7 0.59 0.2


Hour
Gain
(W) (W)
Heat Gain
Gain (W) Gain (W)
Heat Gain Gain
(W)
Heat Heat
Gain
(W)
Heat Heat
(W)
Heat
1 0 0 4000 4000 800 3200 0
2 0 0 4000 4000 800 3200 0
3 0 0 4000 4000 800 3200 0
4 0 0 4000 4000 800 3200 0
5 0 0 4000 4000 800 3200 0
6 0 0 4000 4000 800 3200 0
7 0 0 4000 4000 800 3200 0
8 2160 4800 4000 10960 5144 5816 1350
9 2160 4800 4000 10960 5144 5816 1350
10 2160 4800 4000 10960 5144 5816 1350
11 2160 4800 4000 10960 5144 5816 1350
12 2160 4800 4000 5816 1350 10960 5144
13 2160 4800 10960 5144 5816 1350 4000
14 2160 4800 4000 10960 5144 5816 1350
15 4800 4000 10960 5144 5816 1350 2160
16 4800 4000 1 5816 1350 2160 0960 5144
17 2160 4800 4000 1 5816 1350 0960 5144
18 4 4000 8800 0 0 800 3632 5168
19 4 4 3200 0 0 0 000 000 800
20 4 4000 800 3200 0 0 0 000
21 4 4 3200 0 0 0 000 000 800
22 0 4 4 3200 0 0 000 000 800
23 4000 4000 3200 0 0 0 800
24 0 0 4 4 3200 0 000 000 800

The sensible loads are then determined from the radiative and convective
heat gains using Equation 8-67 and the radiant time factors from Table 8-
21 sh the tab , as own in next le.
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172

Hour
Heat Gain Convective Radiative
Radiative Internal
(W) HG HG
Cooling
Load
Cooling
Load
(W)
1 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 2218.4 5418.4
2 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 2162.5 5362.5
3 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 2110.6 5310.6
4 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 2062.1 5262.1
5 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 2016.7 5216.7
6 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 1973.8 5173.8
7 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 1933.3 5133.3
8 10960.0 5816.0 5144.0 2782.4 8598.4
9 10960.0 5816.0 5144.0 2996.1 8812.1
10 10960.0 5816.0 5144.0 3131.2 8947.2
11 10960.0 5816.0 5144.0 3237.5 9053.5
12 10960.0 5816.0 5144.0 3328.0 9144.0
13 10960.0 5816.0 5144.0 3408.1 9224.1
14 10960.0 5816.0 5144.0 3480.7 9296.7
15 10960.0 5816.0 5144.0 3547.6 9363.6
16 10960.0 5816.0 5144.0 3609.6 9425.6
17 10960.0 5816.0 5144.0 3667.7 9483.7
18 8800.0 5168.0 3632.0 3413.3 8581.3
19 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 2799.1 5999.1
20 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 2625.5 5825.5
21 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 2512.4 5712.4
22 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 2422.9 5622.9
23 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 2346.8 5546.8
24 4000.0 3200.0 800.0 2279.4 5479.4

Cool i ng Loads and Heat Gai ns
0.0
2000.0
8000.0
10000.0
12000.0
a
i
n

(
W
)
40
o
a
d00
6000.0
3 5 9 11 1 15 19 2
L

&

H
e
a
t

G
.0
1 7 3 17 1 23
Hour
Internal Heat Gain (W)
Cooling Load (W)

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173
8-49

Assumptions applied to each heat gain are discussed in the solution to
Problem 8-16. The equipment heat gain is assumed to be continuous; the
lighting heat gain is assumed to occur from 8 a.m.-6 p.m. The total
convective and radiative heat gains are determined in the following table.
Th ten ng l re le he t heat gains shown in the
las lum

Name: People Lighting Equipment Total
T
Ra
Total
Convective
Latent
from
People
e la t cooli oads a equiva nt to t laten
t co n.
otal
diative
Radiative
Fraction: 0.5 0.2 0.7 9

Hour
Gain
(W)
Gain
(W)
Heat Gain
(W)
Heat
Gain (W)
Heat
Gain (W)
Heat Gain
(W)
Gain
(W)
Heat Heat Heat
1 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
2 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
3 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
4 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
5 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
6 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
7 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
8 2835 5625 7000 15460 6703.25 8756.75 2835
9 2835 5625 7000 15460 6703.25 8756.75 2835
10 2835 5625 7000 15460 6703.25 8756.75 2835
11 2835 5625 7000 15460 6703.25 8756.75 2835
12 2835 5625 7000 15460 6703.25 8756.75 2835
13 2835 5625 7000 15460 6703.25 8756.75 2835
14 2835 5625 7000 15460 6703.25 8756.75 2835
15 2835 5625 7000 15460 6703.25 8756.75 2835
16 2835 5625 7000 15460 6703.25 8756.75 2835
17 2835 5625 7000 15460 6703.25 8756.75 2835
18 0 5625 7000 12625 4718.75 7906.25 0
19 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
20 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
21 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
22 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
23 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0
24 0 0 7000 7000 1400 5600 0

The sensible loads are then determined from the radiative and convective
heat gains using Equat

ion 8-67 and the radiant time factors from Table 8-
1, as shown in the next table. 2
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174

Internal Radia
Hour
Heat Gain
(W)
Convective
HG
Radiative
HG
tive
Cooling
Load
Cooling
Load
(W)
1 7000.0 5600.0 1400.0 2888.2 8488.2
2 7000.0 5600.0 1400.0 2830.6 8430.6
3 7000.0 5600.0 1400.0 2777.5 8377.5
4 7000.0 5600.0 1400.0 2727.8 8327.8
5 7000.0 5600.0 1400.0 2680.7 8280.7
6 7000.0 5600.0 1400.0 2635.8 8235.8
7 7000.0 5600.0 1400.0 2592.7 8192.7
8 15460.0 8756.8 6703.3 3814.6 12571.3
9 15460.0 8756.8 6703.3 4292.6 13049.3
10 15460.0 8756.8 6703.3 4539.8 13296.5
11 1 1 5460.0 8756.8 6703.3 4694.4 3451.2
12 1 8756.8 6703.3 4806.9 13563.6 546 .0 0
13 15460.0 8756.8 6703.3 4897.4 13654.2
14 15460.0 8756.8 6703.3 4975.3 13732.1
15 15460.0 8756.8 6703.3 5045.3 13802.0
16 15460.0 8756.8 6703.3 5109.7 13866.5
17 15460.0 8756.8 6703.3 5170.2 13926.9
18 12625.0 7906.3 4718.8 4754.8 12661.0
19 7000.0 5600.0 1400.0 3825.2 9425.2
2 70 9 0 00.0 5600.0 1400.0 3446.7 046.7
2 70 8 1 00.0 5600.0 1400.0 3246.7 846.7
2 70 3 8 2 00.0 5600.0 1400.0 119.9 719.9
2 70 3 8 3 00.0 5600.0 1400.0 027.2 627.2
2 70 2 8 4 00.0 5600.0 1400.0 952.4 552.4

Cool i ng Loads an a
0.0
2000.0
4000.0
6000.0
000.0
000.0
000.0
000.0
000.0
000.0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
L
o
a
d

&

H
e
a
t

G
a
i
n

(
W
)
d Heat G i ns
8
10
12
14
16
18
Internal He ain (W) at G
Cooling Lo W) ad (

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175
8-50

Heat gain to the space =0.8 x 6000 W =4800 W, assumed 59% radiative,
41% convective, from Table 8-20. The sensible loads are then determined
from the radiative and convective heat gains using Equation 8-67 and the
radiant time factors from Table 8-21, as shown below. There are no latent
cooling loads.

Hour
Internal
Heat Gain
(W)
Convective
HG
Radiative
HG
Radiative
Cooling
Load
Cooling
Load
(W)
1 0.0 0.0 0.0 79.8 79.8
2 0.0 0.0 0.0 52.4 52.4
3 0.0 0.0 0.0 34.7 34.7
4 0.0 0.0 0.0 23.1 23.1
5 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.6 15.6
6 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 1473.9 3441.9
7 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2060.5 4028.5
8 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2365.5 4333.5
9 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2540.5 4508.5
10 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2646.7 4614.7
11 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2713.2 4681.2
12 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2755.6 4723.6
13 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2782.9 4750.9
14 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2800.5 4768.5
15 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2812.0 4780.0
16 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2819.5 4787.5
17 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2824.3 4792.3
18 4800.0 1968.0 2832.0 2827.5 4795.5
19 0.0 0.0 0.0 1366.5 1366.5
20 0.0 0.0 0.0 777.9 777.9
21 0.0 0.0 0.0 471.8 471.8
22 0.0 0.0 0.0 296.0 296.0
23 0.0 0.0 0.0 189.3 189.3
24 0.0 0.0 0.0 122.5 122.5

A plot showing the lighting heat gain and resulting cooling loads follows.








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176
Cool i ng Loads and Heat Gai ns
0.0
1000.0
2000.0
3000.0
4000.0
5000.0
6000.0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
L
o
a
d

&

H
e
a
t

G
a
i
n

(
W
)
Internal Heat Gain (W)
Cooling Load (W)



8-51

The schedule described in problem 8-18 is reduced to the number of
people present per hour in the table below. Assuming seated, light office
work, the sensible heat gain per person is 245 Btu/hr (72 W) and the latent
heat gain per person is 200 Btu/hr (59 W). Internal heat gains from
occupants are assumed to be 70% radiative. The latent cooling loads are
equivalent to the latent heat gains shown in the table.

The sensible loads are then determined from the radiative and convective
heat gains using Equation 8-67 and the radiant time factors from Table 8-
21, as shown below.

As is readily evident from the plot, the heavyweight zone significantly
damps the response to the heat gains.








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177
Hour
People
present
Internal
Heat Gain
(W)
Convective
HG
Radiative
HG
Radiative
Cooling
Load
Cooling
Load
(W)
Latent
heat
gain
(W)
1 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.6 20.6 0
2 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.5 12.5 0
3 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.8 7.8 0
4 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 0
5 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.4 3.4 0
6 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 2.5 0
7 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 2.0 0
8 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 1.6 0
9 40 2880.0 864.0 2016.0 1021.8 1885.8 2360
10 40 2880.0 864.0 2016.0 1484.5 2348.5 2360
11 60 4320.0 1296.0 3024.0 2233.7 3529.7 3540
12 60 4320.0 1296.0 3024.0 2593.8 3889.8 3540
13 60 4320.0 1296.0 3024.0 2784.5 4080.5 3540
14 70 5040.0 1512.0 3528.0 3143.9 4655.9 4130
15 70 5040.0 1512.0 3528.0 3317.9 4829.9 4130
16 70 5040.0 1512.0 3528.0 3410.8 4922.8 4130
17 10 720.0 216.0 504.0 1931.3 2147.3 590
18 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1010.7 1010.7 0
19 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 552.7 552.7 0
20 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 309.2 309.2 0
21 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 175.8 175.8 0
22 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 101.1 101.1 0
23 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 58.8 58.8 0
24 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 34.6 34.6 0

Cool i ng Loads and Heat Gai ns
0.0
1000.0
2000.0
3000.0
4000.0
5000.0
6000.0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
L
o
a
d

&

H
e
a
t

G
a
i
n

(
W
)
Internal Heat Gain (W)
Cooling Load (W)


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178
8-52

Solution to be provided by an instructor.


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Wiley & Sons, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030.

CHAPTER 9

9-1

From Table 9-1, the number of average degree day is 6283.
From Fig. 9-1, C
D
=0.60
Using Eq. 9-2,

) / 1000 )( 12 70 )( 8 . 0 (
) 60 . 0 )( / 000 , 225 )( 6283 )( / 24 (
stdft Btu F
hr Btu day F day hr
F


=
=438,727 std ft
3
Or F =438.7 mcf of natural gas


9-2

) / 3412 )( 12 70 )( 0 . 1 (
) 60 . 0 )( / 000 , 225 )( 6283 )( / 24 (
hr kW Btu F
hr Btu day F day hr
F


=
=102,867 kW-hr

$Elec =102,867(0.10) =$10,287
$Gas =438.7(4.5) =$1,974

1974
1974 10287
$
$ $
=

Gas
Gas Elec
=4.2

or the electric cost is about 5.2 times as much.

Source energy using elec. =
) / 1000 )( / 1000 )( 33 . 0 (
) / 3412 )( 867 , 102 (
mcf stdft stdft Btu
hr kW Btu hr kW

=1063.6 mcf
Source energy using gas =438.7 mcf
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185
So,
7 . 438
7 . 438 6 . 1063
=

ESG
ESG ESE
=1.42
That is elec. heat uses 242% more source energy.

9-3

The following are information for Washington, DC.
From Table 9-1, the number of average degree day is 4224.
From Fig. 9-1, C
D
=0.62.
From Table B-1a, the outdoor temperature is 20 F.
For energy efficient furnace, assume 85% efficiency factor.
Using Eq. 9-2,

) / 1000 )( 20 70 )( 85 . 0 (
) 62 . 0 )( / 000 , 120 )( 4224 )( / 24 (
stdft Btu F
hr Btu day F day hr
F


=
=177,468 std ft
3
Or F =177.5 mcf of natural gas



9-4
Load Profiles
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
140000
160000
180000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Outdoor Temp, F
H
e
a
t
i
n
g

L
o
a
d
s
,

B
t
u
/
h
r
Unoccupied Occupied

q

uoc
=at
o
+b
120,000 =a(20) +b
0 =a(60) +b
120,000 =(20 60)a
a =-3000; b =180,000
q

uoc
=180,000 3,000 t
o




9-5

q

oc
=q

un
q

int
=180,000 3,000 t
o
20,000
q

oc
=160,000 3,000 t
o


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186


9-6

1 4 8 10 12 16 20 24
I
II III IV V VI
Shift 2 Shift 1
Hour
Group
Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday

Assumes Sunday and Saturday in shift 2

See Table 9-2

Group
Shift 1
hrs in
ea. gp
Shift 1
Days in
ea. gp.
Total
Shift 1
hrs ea. gp
Total
hrs in
ea. gp.
Frac. of
Shift 1
hrs ea. gp
Frac. of
hrs in
ea. gp.
I 0 0 0 28 0.0 1.0
II 0 0 0 28 0.0 1.0
III 2 5 10 28 0.36 0.64
IV 4 5 20 28 0.71 0.29
V 4 5 20 28 0.71 0.29
VI 4 5 20 28 0.71 0.29






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187


9-6 (Cont.)

Bin. Shift 1 hrs in each Group Shift 1 Shift 2
Temp. I II III IV V VI hrs hrs
62 0 0 34 96 68 69 267 375
57 0 0 38 77 82 58 255 346
52 0 0 49 67 94 86 296 388
47 0 0 36 47 62 87 232 337
42 0 0 35 48 65 99 247 420
37 0 0 32 38 54 75 199 422
32 0 0 27 28 36 66 157 347
27 0 0 10 17 17 28 72 157
22 0 0 8 12 16 22 58 113
17 0 0 6 1 4 11 22 73
12 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 16
Total: 1807 2994

9-7

The procedure is the same as Problem 9-6. Use appropriate bin data from
App. B in last step as per Table 9-3.

9-8

Refer to Example 9-2, insert shift hours of Problem 9-6 in column 2 and 3
of Table 9-5 and recalculate.

9-9

Reconstruct Table-9-3 for the appropriate city to obtain Shift A and Shift B
hours. Insert the hours in columns 2 and 3 of Table 9-5 and recalculate.


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188


9-10

Reconstruct Table 9-3 using the shift hour fractions from Problem 9-6 and
bin hours and temperatures for the appropriate city. Insert the shift hours
in column 2 and 3 of Table 9-5 and bin temperatures in column 1 and
recalculate.


9-11

Solution furnished by an instructor.
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John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030.

CHAPTER 10



10-1. (a) P
1
+
2
1
V
2
+Z
1
=P
2
+
2
2
V
2
+Z
2
+w
p
+
f
; V
1
=V
2
; Z
1
=Z
2
neglect (
f
)
12
; w
p
=-H
p
g/g/
c
=-80 (ft lbf)/lbm

P
2
=P
1
+w
p
=20 +62.4(80)/144 =54.7 psig

P
3
=P
2
- Z
3
(
f
)
23
=54.7 (62.4 x 50)/144 (20 x 62.4/144)

P
3
=54.7 30.3 =24.4 psig
P
4
=P
2
- Z
4
(
f
)
23
(
f
)
34
=54.7
62.4
x 25
144


62.4
144

(20 +15) =
28.7 psig

(b) Neglecting the pump, the pressure or head required for this pipe is:

P =28.7 - 20 psi or P =8.7 psi

H 20.1 ft.










10-2. H
1
=H
2
+H
p
+
f
+Z
2
=(8 x 2.31) 250 +30 +300 =
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190
H
1
=98.5 ft of water

2
1
2
0

x

1
2

=

2
4
0
'
P
1
=42.6 psig 294 kPa







10-3. H
1
H
2
=H
p
+
f
+Z
2
=0

H
p
=-
f
Z
2
=-25 300 =-325 ft; H
p
=325 ft of head
970 kPa




10-4.











10-5. (a) H
1
=a
1Q1

+Z
1
H
2
=a
2Q2

+Z
2

Series Connection
Q

1
=Q

2
; Sum H H =H
1
+
H
H
2
Z
2
H
1
0
2
1
h
e
a
d
-
f
t
Z
1
Q
.
Q
.
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191

1 2
2 1 2 1 2
H =H +H
H =Q (a +a ) +(z +z )



(b) Parallel Connection
H
1
=H
2
; Z
1
=Z
2
or Z =0
Sum Q

1
=
1
H Z
a

; Q

2
=
2
H Z
a


= Q

1
+Q

2
=
( )
1 2
H Z 1/a 1/a +
H
H
2
1
Q
1
.
Q
.
Q
2
.
Z
H =
( )
2
1 2
Q
1/a 1/a +

+Z


10-6.
f
=f
2
L V
D 2g
; V =6. 3 ft/sec, L =300 ft, D =
4.026
12


Referring to Figures 10-2a and 10-2b

Re =
VD 62.4(1.04)6.30(4.026/12)
(2.7/1490)

= =75,696

=0.00015 ft; Table 10-1

/d =0.00015 x
12
4.026


/D =0.00045; f =0.022 Fig. 10-1


f
=0.022
2
(300) (6.30)
(4.026/12) 2(32.17)
=12.1 ft of 30% E.G.sol.
=12.6 ft of water 38 kPa


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192


10-7. (a)












(b) Q

A
=48 gpm; Q

B
=24 gpm; Q

C
=32 gpm;

(c) 28 ft

(d) Q

A
=60 gpm
Q

B
=32 gpm Q

= 125 gpm
Q

C
=41 gpm


10-8. Refer to Problem 10-7; Z
1
=Z
2
=0
(a) H
A
=a
A
2
A
Q

; a
A
=
A
2 2
A
H 20
Q 50
=

=0.0080
H
B
=a
B
2
B
Q

; a
B
=
B
2
B
H 25
Q 30
=

2
=0.0278
H
C
=a
C
2
C
Q

; a
C
=
C
2
C
H 30
Q 45
=

2
=0.0148
H =
( )
2 2
2
Q Q
645.06
1/0.008 1/0.278 1/0.0148
=
+ +

=0.00155Q
2


(b) Q =100 gpm; H =0.00155 x (100)

2
=15.5 ft
}
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193
H
A
=H
B
=H
C
=15.5 ft

Q

A
=
A A
H /a 15.5/0.008 = =44 gpm

Q

B
= 15.5/0.0278 =23.6 gpm

Q

C
= 15.5/0.0148 =32.4 gpm

(c) From (a) above: H =0.00155(125)
2
=24.2 ft

Q

A
= 24.2/0.008 =55 gpm

Q

B
= 24.2/0.0278 =29.5 gpm

Q

C
= 24.2/0.0148 =40.4 gpm

Q 125 gpm


10-9. =C Q

d
A
2

( )
1/ 2
c 1 2
2g P P




;
2
1
D 84.8
D 154.1
= =0.55

assume C
d
=0.638 using Fig. 10-9;
A
2
=
4

(0.0848)
2
=0.00565 m
2

1
P P
2

=0.098(13.55)9.8 =13.013 J /kg


=0.638(0.00565)[2(13.013)] Q

1/2
=0.0184 m
3
/s 292 gpm

V
2
=3.26 m/s; Re =
3
999(3.26)(0.085)
1.4x10

=1.98 x 10
5

C
d
0.638 From Fig. 10-9.

Therefore the original assumption is satisfactory.

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194

10-10. (a) V
CL
=
1/ 2
1/ 2
02 1
c
P P 2 x 32.17 x 0.05 x 144
2g
(0.491 x 144)


=


=3.97 ft/sec

Table A-1a; =59.83 lbm/ft
3


(b) m =VA(0.82) =

2
6.065
59.83 x 3.97 x 0.82
4 12




m =39 lbm/sec or 140,674 lbm/hr




10-11. (a)













(b) Read from Fig. 10-11a at 35 ft and 125 gpm, W
s
=1.6 HP

(c) Q =180 gpm, H

p
=20 ft; 1.8 HP

(d) This is actually out of the operating range of the pump and the
efficiency is very low. In situations like this there is a danger of
overloading the pump motor; however, that does not appear to be
a problem in this case since the motor is probably a 2HP model.

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195



10-12. NPSHR =NPSHA =20 ft (Figure 10-11b)
NPSHA =
bar c
P g
g

- Z
s
- l
f

v c
P g
g





20 =
29 13.55x62.4
x
12 62.2
- Z
s
2
0.507x144
62.2





Z
s
=32.85 20 2 1.17 =9.68 ft; (Z
s
)
max
=9.68 ft


10-13. (a) 231 gpm;
p
=73.4%
W

s
=12
+
HP

(b) 225 gpm
p
=73.3%
W

s
=12
-
HP






10-14. (a)
p
=73.3%; W

s
=11. 5 HP


(b) 225 gpm; 185 ft of head

p
=73.5%; W

s
=14 HP

(c)
p
=73%; W

s
=14 HP



10-15 From Problem 10-14b, the original system defined by 225 gpm and 149
ft of head and would operate at 242 gpm, 173 ft of head and require
14.4 HP with the 7in impellor. Then,

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196

n
210
rpm 3500 =3037
242

=





2
n
3037
H =173 =130 ft
3500






3
n
3037
W 14.4 =9.4 HP
3500



The Efficiency would not Change, 74.2%


10-16
n 7
235
D D =7(0.97) =6.8 in.
242

=





2
n 7
6.8
H =H =173 (0.944) =163 ft
7






3
n
6.8
W 14.4 =14.4(0.917) =13.2 HP
7




The Efficiency would not Change, 74.2%


10-17. Uses Fig. 10-20 or program PIPE

(a) 25 gpm; 1 in., V 4 ft/sec, 2 in dia. or less
(b) 40 gpm; 2 in. V 4 ft/sec, 2 in dia. or less
(c) 15 gpm; 1 in ., V 4 ft/sec, 2 in dia. or less
(d) 60 gpm; 2 in., <4 pt/sec; dia >2 in.
'
f

(e) 200 gpm; 3 in., <4 ft/100 pt/sec; dia >2 in.
'
f

(f) 2000 gpm; 8 in., slightly >4 ft/100 ft


'
f




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197
10-18. (a) K =30 f
t
; f
t
=0.019; K =0.57 (Table 10-2; Figure 10-22a)
V =3.82 ft/sec;
f
=0.57(3.82
2
/(32.2x2) =0.13 ft

(b) K =340 f
t
; f
t
=0.017; K =5.78
V =5.0 f
t
/sec;
f
=5.78 x 5.0
2
/(32.2 x 2) =2.24 ft

(c) K =60 f
t
; f
t
=0.018; K =1.08
V =6.5 ft/sec;
f
=1.08 x 6.5
2
/(2 x 32.2) =0.71 ft

10-19.
f
=2.31
2
130
60

=10.8 ft of water or 4.7 psi.



10-20. Assume com. stl. pipe

=0.03 m Q

3
/s =108 m
3
/hr, size pipe for about 4 m/100 m

From Fig. 10-20, use 5 inch pipe, ID =130 mm

=3.25 m/100 m;
'
f
f
=(3.25/100)200 =6.5 m of water or 63.7 kPa

P
C
=35 kPa
For strainer: P
s
=
2
0.03
0.00722



=17.27 kPa
Then for the pump:

P
p
=63.7 +35 +17.3 +3(1000)(9.807)/1000 =145.4 kPa

H
p
=145.4/9.807 =14.8 m

=0.03 m Q

3
/s ~30 L/s

10-21. Size the pipe using Fig. 10-20 or program PIPE. Fitting equivalent
lengths found using Fig. 10-22a; 10-22b and Table 10-2. Program
PIPE could be used to solve the complete problem including fitting
losses. Data for hard calculations are summarized below:

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198




gpm
Sec.
No. size in.
'
f

ft./100 ft.
Le
ft.
f

ft.
Con.
Valve ft.
Coil
ft.
Total
ft.

120
1
3
3.38 45 1.5 --- --- 1.5
70
5
2.5
3.64 15 0.6 --- --- 0.6
40
6
2
3.1 24 0.7 11.4 --- 12.1
40
7
2
3.1 13 0.4 --- 12.0 12.4
90
4
2.5
5.84 27 1.6 --- --- 1.6
120
10
3
3.38 42 1.4 --- --- 1.4
50
2
2
4.7 22 1 10.0 --- 11.0
50
3
2
4.7 26 1.2 --- 10.0 11.2
30
8
1.5
6.3 28 1.8 14.4 --- 16.2
30
9
1.5
6.3 13 0.8 --- 15.0 15.8
Ch 120 20
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199
3
The head losses for the three parallel runs are approximately the
same.

For run (1-5-6-7-4-10), HP =49.6 ft
For run (1-5-8-9-10), HP =55.5 ft
For run (1-2-3-4-10), HP =46.7 ft

Therefore, a pump should be selected to provide about 56 ft of head at
120 gpm.
10-22. 500 gpm, Use 5 inch pipe; =4.17 ft/100 ft
'
f


V =8.0 ft/sec

Length of pipe =160 +30 +12 =202 ft

6-5 in elbows =15 ft (Figure 10-22)

3-5 in gate valve =12 ft

1-5 in globe valve =130 ft; Total equivalent length =419 ft


f
=
4.17(419)
100
=17.5 ft of water
For strainer:
s
=2.31
2
500
250

=9.24 ft of water
For cond.:
co
=20 ft of water

Then H
p
=17.5 +9.24 +20 +(30 12) =64.7 ft at 500 gpm

10-23.Use Eq. 10-33


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200
V
T
=
( )
6
0.016166
600 1 3x6.5x10 110 45
0.016022
14.696 14.696
32.696 69.696



=19.4 gal. 74 L


10-24. Use Eq. 10-34 V
T
=
( )
6
0.016166
600 1 3x6.5x10 110 45
0.016022
32.696
1
69.696




V
T
=8.7 gal 33 L



10-25. Use Eq. 10-33
t
1
=60F, P
2
=50 psig, P1 =20 psig, v1 =0.016053 ft
3
/lbm

v
2
=0.016772 ft
3
/lbm, t
2
=220F

V
T
=
( )
5
0.016772
1500 1 3x9.3x10 160
0.016035
14.696 14.696
36.696 64.696



=11.5 gal. 435 L

10-26
(a) Use Eq. 10-16


1 1 2 2 f
1
c c
gz gz
P + = + w + g
g g
c
g






2
1 2 1
c c
g g
P = (z -z )+ w +
g g
f





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201

62.4 62.4 62.4
= (240) - (60) + (25) =89 psig or 612 kPa
144 144 144


(b)

1 2
1 2
c c
z z
P + g = P + g
g g



2 1 1 2
c
g 62.4(0-240)
P =P + (z -z ) =89.0 +
g 144




2
P =-15 psig =-103 kPa or about 0 absolute

(c) No, makeup water is not available to overcome a pressure of 89
psig. However, the domestic water system probably has a
booster pump.

10-27 (a)
1 2 2 1
c c
g g
f
=P + (z -z ) + w +
g g
P


62.4(240) 62.4(60) 62.4(25)
=5 + - + =5 +104 - 26 +10.8
144 144 144


P
1
=93.8 psig or 647 kPa






(b)
1 2 2 1
c
g 62.4(240)
P =P + (z -z ) =5 + =5 +104 =109 psig
g 144



P
1
=109 psig or 752 kPa

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202
(c) This location is at least workable. However the pressure at the
pump is still very high. The domestic service water
pressure would have to be boosted to a higher pressure at the 20
th

floor.





10-28

( ) ( ) ( )
b s d
b s d
Q x 57 + Q x 40 = Q x 47
Q +Q = Q =100




Solve Simultaneous


b b
b
57Q +(40 x 100) - 40Q =100 x 47
700
Q = =41.2 say 41 gpm
17



(b)
s r
Q =Q =100 - 41 =59 gpm


(c) Size all pipe for 100 gpm

D =3 in. from Fig. 10-20 or PIPE


10-29. (a) Each chiller requires 600 gpm. Since chiller 2 is partially loaded it
must have the full flow of 600 gpm.
Therefore, Q

cp
=1200 750 =450 gpm

(b) (150 60) +(450 x 42) =600 t
B
; t
B
=46.5 F

(c) LR =150/600 =0.25

(d) Main pipe to and from sec. Circuits: D =8 in. com. stl.
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203
D
AB
=D
CD
=6 in. com. stl. (5 in. a little small)

D
cp
=6 in. com. stl.

D
BC
=D
AD
=6 in. com. stl. ( could be 5 in. but easier to make all 6
in.)

(e) Rpm
2
=rpm
1
(750/1200) =3500(750/1200) =2188

(f) W =

3
3
1 2 2 2
1 1 1
W W W rpm 2188
1 1 1
W W rpm 350


= = =





0

=0.756
or 75%


10-30. (a) Q

cp
=1200 750 =450 gpm

(b) Q

1
t
1
+Q

2
t
2
=Q

3
t
3
; t
3
=
(450x42) (750x60)
1200
+
=53.3 F
Both chillers receive the same temp. water
1
2
3
A

(c) Load ratios are the same:
LR =
53. 42
=0.628 or 63%
3
60 42
10-31.

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204


Note: Piping is type L copper
All lengths are total equivalent lengths


Flow rate Lost head ft (m)
Coil gpm (L/s) Coil Con. valve
A 40(2.5) 12(3.7) 10(3)
B 40(2.5) 15(4.6) 12(3.7)
C 50(3.2) 18(5.5) 15(4.6)
10-31. (continued)

Section
No.

gpm
Dia.
in.
'
f

ft/100'
L
e
ft
f
ft
1-2 130 3 3.7 60 2.2
2-3 90 2 4.8 20 1.0
3-4 50 2 5.0 30 1.5
Coil C 18
}
35.5
ft
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205
Con. C 15
4-5 130 3 3.7 40 1.5
Com. pipe 0 3 0.0 39.2 ft (total)
2-6 40 2 3.4 30 1.0
Coil A 12
Con. A 10 23 ft (total)
3-7 40 2 3.4 10 0.5
Coil B 15
Con. B 12
7-8 80 2 3.9 20 0.8 28.3 ft (total)


Circuit 1-2-3-4-5-1 is the path of greatest lost head. From Fig. 10-11 choose at
40 ft of head and 130 gpm the 7 in., 1750 rpm model which produces about 43
ft of head.

10-32.
Notes: Pipe is schedule 40, commercial steel.
All lengths are total equivalent lengths excluding control valves.


Circuit Flow rate
gpm (L/s)
Control valve
head loss ft (m)
A 60(3.8) 40(12)
B 70(4.4) 50(15)
C 70(4.4) 50(15)
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206



Section
No.

gpm
Dia.
in.
'
f

ft/100'
L
e
ft
f
ft
1-2 200 4 2.4 200 4.8
2-3 140 3 4.2 200 8.4
3-4 70 2 3.5 240 8.4
Con. C 50
4-1 200 4 2.4 400 9.6 81.2 ft (total)
2-5 60 2 2.5 240 6
Con. A 40
5-4 140 3 4.2 200 8.4 54.4 ft (total)
3-6 70 2 3.5 40 1.4
Con. B 50 51.4 ft (total)

Circuit 1-2-3-4-1 has the largest head loss of all paths. Select pump for 200
gpm at 81 ft of head. From Fig. 10-11, use: 5 in., 3500 rpm model. Will
operate at 96 ft at 200 gpm.

10-33 (a) q
st
=20 x 12,000 x 2 =480,000 Btu


3
st
p r s
q 480000
Q = = =512.8 ft
c (t -t ) 62.4(1) (60-45)
or Q =3,836 gal



(b) Vol =513 ft
3
or a space 8 ft x 8 ft x 8 ft or a cylindrical tank 8 ft dia. x
10.2 ft

10-33. (continued) Solution SI:

(a) q
st
=(352 280) (2) =144 kW-hr =m (t
p
c
r
-t
s
) =Q
p
c (t
r
-t
s
)


3
st
p r s
q 144 x 3600
Q = = =14 m
c (t -t ) 980(4.184) (16-7)

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207

(b) Vol. =2.4m x 2.4m x 2.4m

10-34. Solutions may/can vary. A typical solution is:

(a) Use 2 chillers of 15 tons total capacity in a reverse return system
similar to figure 10-32. The piping would be routed overhead around
the complex with supply and return running parallel, starting and
returning to the equipment room.

(b) Total flow rate is

Using PIPE or Fig 10-21; Dia. =2 in.
T
Q =16 x 2.25 =36 gpm


(c) Estimated length =225 x 4 x 2 =1800 ft. Total Eq. Length =2 x 1800 =
3600 ft

Assuming an average loss of
about 2.5 ft/100 ft; The pump head required would be:

H
p
=2.5 x 3600/100 =90 ft with flow rate of 36 gpm

10-35 Solutions may vary

(a) Figure 10-34 is a schematic of what the system would be.
However, there would be 3 chillers and the secondary piping would
be routed in a square fashion around the outside of the parking
garage in reverse return.
(b) The primary system would appear as in Figure 10-34 with the
common pipe as shown because of the expected variable and light
load at night.
(c) The tertiary circuits would be as shown in Figure 10-34 and piped in
a reverse return manner.
(d) For each building:
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208

i
T
1500 x 12000
Q = 600gpm
4 x 500(60 - 45)
Q =4 x 600 =2400 gpm
=


(e) Dia. =10 in., Figure 10-20 or PIPE

10-36.
Control valve (Typical)
Air Vent (Typical)
Heating Device (Typical)
Typical Trap
Possible
Vacuum Breaker on each
Heating Device
Steam
Separator
Condensate
tank & pump
Boiler
10-37. Assume boiler pressure of 2.0 psig with P/L =2.0 oz or 0.125 psi/100
ft. (Table 10-4a). Then, P =0.125 x 175/100 =3.5 oz or 0.22 psi P
is about the allowable from Table 10-4a.

Assume boiler pressure of 1.0 psig with P/L = 0.125 psi/100 ft.
(Table 10-4a). Then P =0.125 x 175/100 =0.22 psi which is near
the maximum in Table 10-4a. Either boiler pressure could be used,
but select 2.0 psig to be conservative.
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209

From Figure 10-48a at 850 lb/hr; P/L =0.125 psi/100 ft, and boiler
pressure of 2.0 psig: Pipe diameter =4 in., with steam velocity of
4,000 ft/min at zero psig. Correct velocity to 2.0 psig (Fig. 10-49a)
V =3,800 ft/min


10-38. For each unit at full load:
=283 lb/hr
c
m

Pipe size depends on slope of line, Table 10-5a. For slope of 1/8 to
in./ft, D =1 in. nominal specify slope of in./ft (conservative).


10-39. Refer to Table 10-5a.
The available head is =2 x 100/110 =1.82 ft/100 ft. Then at 850 lb/hr
of condensate flow, D =1 in. nominal is adequate.

10-40 (a)

( )( )
p r s
Q x 60 x 62.4
q =mc (t -t ) = 1 65 42
7.48
1200 x 1200 x 7.48
Q = =1,250 gpm
60 x 62.4(65-42)



(b) Assuming no changes in the temperatures, the total flow rate would
be:
( )
p
900
Q = 1250 =937.5 or 938 gpm
1200



The chillers could share the flow:
i
938
Q = =469 gpm
2



and be above their minimum flow of 70%.

i
min
Q 469
= =0.75 or or 75%
625 Q


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210

This is probably the best way to operate. There would be no bypass
flow and the parallel pumps could operate at:

P
469
RPM = x 3500 =2,626
625


(c) At 60% full load, again assuming no change in temperature, the
total flow rate would be:

p
Q =0.6(1250) =750 gpm

This is too much flow for one chiller and not enough for two chillers
at minimum flow of 875 gpm or 438 gpm each. Therefore, both
chillers will have to operate at least at 438 gpm each and some flow
bypassed equal to:
bp
Q =875 - 750 =125 gpm


The pumps could both be slowed to:
P
875
RPM = (3500) =2,450
1250

(d) At 25% of full capacity, again assuming the temperatures do not
change, the flow rate for the load is:

p
Q =0.25(1250) =313 gpm

which is less than the minimum flow rate for even one chiller.
Therefore, shut down one chiller and operate the other at least its
minimum flow of 438 gpm. The bypass flow would be:

bp
Q =438 - 313 =125 gpm

One pump would be shut down and the speed reduced for the other
pump to:

P
438
RPM = (3500) =2,453
625

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211

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CHAPTER 11


11-1. (a) Using Eq. 11-1b

x =
o
x o
1.13KQ
V A

; A
o
=
300
0.353
850
= ft
2;
Assumed

K =6

x
50
=
1.13 x 6(300)
50 0.353
=68.5 ft; x
100
=34.2 ft; x
150
=22.8ft

(b) Q

x
=CQ

oVo
/V
x
; C =2 ; Eq. 11-2a

(Q

x
)
50
=2(300)850/50 =10,200 ft
3
/min

(Q

x
)
100
=600(850)/100 =5,100 ft
3
/min

(Q

x
)
150
=600(850)/150 =3,400 ft
3
/min


11-2. Using Eq. 11-3

t
x
t
r
=0.8(t
o
t
r
) (V
x
/V
o
); t
x
=0.8(100-75) V
x
/1100

(t
x
)
50
=0.8(28)50/1100 =1.02 F

(t
x
)
100
=2.04 F

(t
x
)
150
=3.06 F


11-3. 50 ft/min throw =24 6 =18 ft
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212

From Eq. 11-1 and Q

o
=V
o
x A
o
; Assume K =6


o o x x
o
o o
Q Q xV xV 18 x50
or
A 1.13K 1.13 x 6
1.13K A A
= = =

=132.7

D
o
Q

o
in. ft.
29 3 0.25
39 4 0.33
49 5 0.417
59 6 0.500
118 12 1.00
Any combination shown would be
acceptable. The size would depend
on the available total volume flow
rate of air and the size of the space.




11-4. Q

x
=Q

o
CV
o
/V
x
; Eq. 11=2a
V
o
=Q

o
/A
o
=125/
2
6
x
4 12








=636 ft/min
V
x
=V
o
(1.13)K
o
A /x ; K =6, x =12 ft
V
x
=636 x 6(1.13)
2
x(0.5)
4

/12 =159 ft/min


Q

x
=125 x 2 x 636/159 =1000 cfm


11-5. A ceiling type diffuser system has the ability to handle large
quantities of air because the air is discharged radially and
diffuses the high velocity jet in a short distance.

11-6. (a) A perimeter type system would be necessary to achieve a
satisfactory heating performance. Any other type of system
would lead to a cold and drafty floor.

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213
(b) An overhead type system would be preferred because of the
greater need for cooling during the summer and less need
for heat during the winter.


11-7. A perimeter type system would be the best choice. This type
system is required to do a good job of heating. A spreading jet
should be used when heating and a nonspreading jet should
be used when cooling.

11-8. Some kind of overhead system would be preferable since
cooling would be the dominant mode of operation. However,
ceiling diffusers with radial discharge would not be required due
to a low volume of circulated air. A high side wall type of system
or ceiling diffusers with discharge in only one or two directions
with a large throw would be preferred. This would give the
maximum air motion with a small amount of circulated air.


11-9. 10 in. round diffuser, Table 11-4; 650 cfm

Interpolation between 600 & 700 cfm is required

NC =0.5 x (21 17) +17 =19

x
50
=0.5(11-10) +10 =10.5 ft
P =0.062
2
650
600

=0.073 in. wg
11-10.

For 150 cfm/ft, P
o
=0.08 x (150/167)
2
=0.065 in. wg.
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214
Throw values are for a 4 ft active length then
x
50
=21 0.6(4) =18.6 ft;
The uncorrected NC for a 10 ft length is NC =23 0.6(5) =20.
For a length of 6 ft the correction is 2.
Corrected: NC =20 2 =18

11-11. Model 28, 4-48 T-Bar; Table 11-6, 270 cfm
Interpolate:

NC =0.7 (36 32) +32 =34.8 or 35

x
50
=0.7(11 10) +10 =10.7 or 11 ft

P =0.11
2
270
245



=0.13 in. wq

11-12. From Table 11-1, L =12 ft. Then from Table 11-2 at



2
50 max
q =40 Btu/(hr-ft ), (X /L)

50

=1.3 and the range is 1.2 - 1.8, and X =1.3 x 12 =15.6 ft

A good solution would be to use the 4 in. size with
150 cfm/ft. with uncorrected throw of 18 ft and NC =19.
The corrected throw is:
X
50
=18 x 0.85 =15.3 ft and NC =19 4 =15
P =0.057
2
150
139



=0.066 in. wq

11-13. (a) Room char. Length =14 ft, Table 11-1
(x
50
/L)
max
=0.8, Table 11-2
Range of x
50
/L =0.5 to 1.5; x
50
=0.8 x 14 =11.2 ft
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215
The best choice would be a 12 in. size with 600 cfm

(b) x
50
=13 +
50
80
(2) = 14.3 ft; x
50
/L =
14.3
14
=1.02 (in the range)
P
o
=0.081
2
600
550



=0.096 in. wg.; NC =22 +
50
80
(4) =24.5

11-14. Room char. Length is 26 ft, Table 11-2
(a) (x
50
/L)
max
=1.6 (Table 11-2); range of (x
50
/L) =1.2 2.3
x
50
=1.6 x 26 =41.6 ft; Q/diff =600/2 =300 cfm

From Table 11-5, the 18 x 4, 14 x 5, or


12 x 6 sizes may be acceptable although the throw is
less than desired. X
50
=31 ft
X
50
/L =31.6/26 =1.2 (barely in the acceptable range)

(b) x
50
=31
+
ft (zero deflection)
NC =22
+
, P
o
= 0.069
2
300
310

=0.065 in. wg.



11-15 It is good practice to keep the core velocity below 500 ft/min. A
solution is the 18 x 12; Table 11-7
P
o
=-0.045
2
600
=-0.057 in. wg
535




NC =21 +
65
135
(7) = 24
Note that static pressure and P
o
are negative.

11-16. Guidelines:
1-Place diffusers under or between double windows.
2-Select throw using the ADPI procedure. Characteristic length
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216
=floor to ceiling.
3-Noise criteria (NC) should usually be less than 30.
4-Be sure that the total pressure required is compatible
with the pressure characteristics of the system. For example,
a small commercial system may have a fan that produces only
about 0.6 in. wg. total pressure while a large commercial system
may operated at 2-5 in. wg. total pressure. The diffuser total
pressure losses should be no more than about 10% of the
fan total pressure.
5- Use data from Table 11-3

11-17. Guidelines:
1-Center diffusers in square or nearly square spaces. Divide
large or irregular spaces into imaginary square spaces and
place a diffuser in each space. Select throw using ADPI procedure.
2-Try to obtain a balance between many small diffusers versus
a few very large diffusers to be cost effective.
3-
4-
} See Problem 11-16
5- Use data from Table 11-4

11-18. Guidelines:
1-Locate diffusers about 12 in. below ceiling on inside walls. Select
throw using ADPI procedure.
2-The jet may be spread with this type diffuser. However, more
than one diffuser should be used where the room width is at
least two times the room depth.
3-
} See Problem 11-16
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217
4-
5- Use data from Table 11-5
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218

11-19. Guidelines:
1-Locate grilles in ceiling near the inside wall.
2-Noise criteria (NC) should be less than 30.
3-The negative static pressure should be held to minimum,
especially for light commercial systems with small fans.
Core velocities of less than 500 ft/min will usually yield a
quiet system with a reasonably low-pressure loss. Higher
velocities and pressure loss may be tolerated with heavy
commercial applications.
4- Use data from Tale 11-7.


11-20. (a)









(b) x
100
=3 ft; L =7 ft; x
100
/L =3/7 =0.43; 0.3 <(x
100
/L) <1.0
89 cfm/diffuser; P
o
=0.06 in. wg.; NC =20
Note: Other acceptable solutions also exist.

11-21. Similar to 11-20
- Diffusers should throw air towards the windows
- Arrange to obtain uniform air motion
- Might use diffusers with short throw around exposed walls with
larger units in the interior.

11-22. L =9 ft; Table 11-1
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219
x
50
/L =0.9; Table 11=2, straight vanes ( Assume light load for a
secondary system)
x
50
=0.9 x 9 =8.1 ft
A solution: 9-4 ft length diffusers with 50 cfm/ft, 2 in. size,
Table 11-3, x =8.5 ft (no correction required); NC =15 4 =11
P
o
=(50/44)
2
x 0.036 =0.047 in. wg.
Place 3 diffusers on each exposed wall



80
78
11-23. Use 4-12 in. size from Table 11-4

650 cfm/diffuser; L =20 ft

Room Load =18
2
Btu
(hr ft )


x
50
/L =0.8; Table 11-2

x =16 ft (desired)

x
actual
=
( )
( )
650 630
705 630

(17 15) +15 =15.5 ft




act
x 15.5
L 2
=
0
=0.78 (in acceptable range)

NC = 27; P
o
=0.105
2
650
630

=

0.112 in. wg.




11-24. Use 14-H-48, Model 28 diffusers from Table 11-6;
229 cfm/dif. as shown. L =20 ft, x
100
/L
=0.3 and acceptable range is 0.3 to 1.0.
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220
Desired throw: x
100
=0.3 x 20 =6 ft.

7 units
each
side
80
78
Actual throw: x
act
=6.5, Table 11-6
x
act
/L =6.5/20 =0.33, O.K.
NC =29, P
o
=0.095 in. wg.



11-25. Refer to Problem 11-23, Q =2600 cfm; refer to Table 11-7.

Assume a lay-in ceiling with 2 ft x 4 ft tiles. To assure a quiet


return, limit NC to about 20. Use 2-24 in. x 24 in. grilles with
1300 cfm each. NC <25, P
o
=-0.048 in. wg.

11-26. Refer to Problem 11-24, 3200 cfm.
Assume a 2 ft x 4 ft lay-in ceiling.
Use 24 in. x 24 in. size from Table 11-7. Using three units,
cfm/grille =3200/3 =1067; NC <20
P
o
=-0.033 +0.006 =-0.027 in. wg.

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John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030.

CHAPTER 12

12-1. (a) W

s
=m(P

1
P
2
)/ Assume standard air
=
( )
1 2
Q P P
2000(1.9)
6350 6350

=0.60 HP 0.45 kW
(b)
t
=
( )
01 02
sh
Q P P
2000(1.9)
6350W 6350(1.1)

=0.54 or 54%
(c) V =2000/0.84 =2,381 ft/min; P
v
=(2381/4005)
2
=0.35 in wg
P
s
=1.9 0.35 =1.55 in wg
W

s
=
2000x1.55
6350
=0.49

s
=W

s
/W

sh
=0.49/1.1 =0.44 or 44%

(d) From (c) above: P
s
=1.55 in wg

12-2. Q

2
=Q

1

2
1
RPM
RPM
=2000
1200
1000

=2400 cfm 1,133 L/s


P
s2
=P
s1

2
2
1
RPM
RPM

=1.55
2
1200
1000

=2.23 in wg 555 Pa
P
02
=P
01

2
2
1
RPM
RPM

=1.9
2
1200
1000

=2.74 in wg 682 Pa
W

2
=W

1

3
2
1
RPM
RPM

=1.1
3
1200
1000

=1.9 HP 1.42 kW
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221

12-3. (a,b) Q

2
=Q (750/900) =0.833 Q

1
P
02
=P
01
(750/900)
2
=0.694 P
01

HP
2
=HP
1
(750/900)
3
=0.579 HP
1

800 RPM 700 RPM
Q


P
o
HP
Q


P
o
HP
6,000 2.3 2.75 5,250 1.76 1.84
10,000 1.87 3.5 8,750 1.43 2.34
14,000 1.15 3.45 12,250 0.88 2.31

12-3










12-4. Since pressure in in. wg. is plotted on the ordinate instead of head the
pressure must be adjusted to reflect the barometric pressure at 5280 ft
elevation.
P
o
=(P
o
)
std
(/
std
) =(P
o
)
std
(P
b
/P
b,std
)
also, W =W

std
(/
std
) =W

std
(P
b
/P
b,std
)
P
b,std
=14.696 psia; P
b
=0.491(29.42 0.0009 x 5280); Eq. 3-4
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222
P
b
=12.112 psia
Then in Denver, CO the new characteristics may be obtained by
computing P
o
and at various volume flow rates from Fig. 12-8. W

P
o
=(P
o
)
std
(12.112/14.696) =0.824(P
o
)
std
and =0.824 W

std
.

Q

cfm
6,000 10,000 14,000
P
o W


P
o W


P
o W


Sea Level 2.3 2.75 1.87 3.5 1.15 3.45
Denver 1.90 2.27 1.54 2.88 0.95 2.84

(b) = W

( )
std
std
W W 100
3.5 2.88
W 3

.5

=18% (decrease) W


12-5. Refer to Problem 12-4 for explanation.
P
b
=(99.436 0.10 x 1618) =83.256 kPa
P
o
=(P
o
)
std
=(83.256/101.325) =0.822(P
o
)
std
= W

std
x 0.822

(a)

Q

m
3
/min
125 155 180
P
o W


P
o W


P
o W


Sea Level 400 1350 320 1600 260 2000
Albuquerque 329 1110 263 1315 214 1644

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223
(b) = W

( ) 1600 1315
1600

100 =17.8% decrease



12-6. (a) This is at the limit of the good selection range. It would be
better to choose a different fan.

(b) A near perfect match with the fan capable of producing about
1.85 in. wg. total pressure at 10,000 cfm.

(c) A bad application and out of the recommended range.
Would probably be unstable.

12-7 [From Fig. 12-9]
(a) No, fan is too small.

(b) No, not a good application, fan is too large.

(c) Yes, near perfect application; moderate fan speed,
high efficiency.

12-8. 150 m
3
/min, 400 Pa [From Fig. 12-10]
The fan would be acceptable and is reasonable.

t
=55%; RPM =850; W

s
=1850 W

12-9. (a) At 1418 cfm 1420 cfm, = V
e
=2000 ft/min
P
v
=
2
2000
4005

=0.25 in. wg.; P


o
=P
s
+P
v
=0.88 in. wg.
P
s
=0.88 0.25 =0.63 in. wg. 5/8 in. wg.
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224

(b) From Table 12-1 in col. For 5/8 in. wg.
The rpm is 1092 and power is 0.39 HP
0.00
0.80
0.88
0.94
0
1240
1420 1560
P
o
,

i
n
.

w
g
.
cfm
1092 rpm

12-10. (a) P
o
=3.0 +0.3 +0.20 =3.50 in. wg.

(b)
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(c) 13,500 to 14,000 cfm

12-11.

0
430
475
0 150 170
P
~
P
a
Q m
3
/min
.
Use fan low:
system, actual
observed
operating
point
design point
system, ducts only
610
1
2
9
0
0
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
2
1
2 1
2
Q RPM P RPM
and
RPM P RPM Q
Q
P P 610
Q
= =

= =

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225

System eff. Factor =610 430 =180 Pa

12-12. D
e
=(4 x 12 x 16/)
1/2
=15.6 in
Assume blast area ratio =0.7, Table 12-3
V
e
=4000(12 x 16/144) =5333 ft/min
One eff. Duct length =5.3 diameters, table 12-2
or L
e
=5.3 x 15.6 =83 in.
% Eff. Duct length =100 x 30/83 =36
Elbow in position C, Fig. 12-13
Elbow loss factor =0.79, Table 12-5
P
o
=0.79(5333/4005)
2
=1.40 in. wg.

12-13. V
i
=4000/ [ x 14
2
/(4 x 144)] =4,276 ft/min
Duct length =28 in.; R/D =10.5/14 =0.75; L/D =28/14 =2.0
Elbow and duct loss factor =1.0, Table 12-6
P
o
=1.0(4276/4005)
2
=1.14 in. wg.

12-14. Blast area ratio =0.7, Table 12-3
D
e
=(4 x 20 x 20/)
1/2
=22.6 in.
V =10,000 x 144/(20 x 20) =3,600 ft/min
L
e
=3.6 dia., Table 12-2
L/L
e
=(10/22.6)/3.6 =0.12
C
o
=0.4, Table 12-4
P
o
=0. 4(3600/4005)
2
=0.32in. wg.

12-15. D
e
=(4 x 12 x 12/)
1/2
=13.5 in.
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226
V
e
=2500/(12 x 12/144) =2500 ft/min
One eff. Duct length =2.5 diameters, Table 12-2
L =2.5 x 13.5 =33.9 or 34 in.

12-16. From Problem 12-15, V
I
=V
e
=2500 ft/min (assumed)
P
o
=C
o
(V
i
/4005)
2
; C
o
=0.16/(2500/4005)
2
=0.41
From Table 12-6, L/H =4.3
Length =4.3 x 12 =51.5 in.

12-17. (a) The design condition and the observed condition are on
nearly the same system characteristic. Therefore, it is
probable that the fan is not running at the desired speed
of about 920 rpm but at a lower speed of about 610 rpm.

(b) The fan is operating near the 920 rpm characteristic
but something related to the duct system has changed.
Possibly a damper is closed, a duct has collapsed or some
other obstruction is present.

(c) Both the system and the fan characteristic have
changed. The duct system has probably
become fouled or slightly damaged is some way while
the fan speed has decreased slightly due to wear and tear.

12-18. W

sh,1
=16 HP; W

sh,2
=
1.5x5000
6350x0.73
=1.62
% Diff = 100
16 1.62
16

=+90% [decrease from 1 to 2]


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227


12-19. (a) Assume 15,000 cfm is an equivalent value for the day.
For full load point 1: W

1
=16 x 0.746 x 24 =286.5 kWh
For part load cond.: W

p
=6.7 x 0.746 x 24 =120.0 kWh
W =

(286.5 120)
286.5

x 100 =58% (decrease)


(b) No, the fan would be forced to operate to the left of the maximum
pressure and would probably be unstable.

12-20. W

1
=28.5 HP; W

2
=17.5 HP (static power used)
= W

(28.5 17.5)
28.5

100 =39% (decrease)



12-21. (a) W

1
=28.5 x 0.746 x 24 =510 kWh
W

p
=27.0 x 0.746 x 24 =483 kWh (vanes assumed open)
W =

(510 483)
510

100 =5.3% (decrease)


(b) W

p
=27 x 0.746 x 24 =483 kWh
W =

(510 483)
510

100 =5.3% (decrease)


(a) and (b) essentially the same.

12-22. The actual inside dimensions are 10 x 8 in. or D
e
=9.8 in., Table 12-7
For duct, unlined, P
o
/L =1.8 in. wg./100 ft (Fig. 12-21)
V =
2000x144
10x8
=3600 ft/min
From Fig. 12-23, roughness corr. Factor =1.51, then for the
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228
lined duct, P
o
/L =1.8(1.51) =2.72 in. wg./100 ft. and
P
o
=50 x 2.72/100 =1.36 in. wg. or about 338 Pa

12-23. P
o
=(P
o
)
s
l
x /
s
l
;
b
s b,
P
P
s

=


P
b
=0.491(29.42 0.0009 x 5000) =12.236 psia
P
o
=1.36(12.236/14.696) =1.13 in. wg. or about 282 Pa

12-24.

1
2
4
3
Q =600 cfm
.
20'
D
2
=D
3
=10 in.; A
2
/A
1
=0.6 =A
3
/A
4
P
d
/L =0.185 in. wg./100 ft; Fig. 12-21
P
23
=0.185 x 20/100 =0.037 in. wg.
For contraction, A
2
/A
1
=0.6, C
02
=0.21
}
Table 12-9A
For expansion, A
4
/A
3
=1.67, C
04
=0.80
V
2
=V
3
=
2
600
10
4 12




=1100 ft/min; V
4
=V
3
x
3
4
A
A
=660 ft/min
P
12
=0.21(1100/4005)
2
=0.016 in. wg.
P
34
=0.80(660/4005)
2
=0.022 in. wg.
P
o
=0.037 +0.016 +0.022 =0.075 in. wg.

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229
12-25. (a) Bellmouth, C
o
=0.2; Abrupt, C
o
=0.5; Table 12-10B & 10A
P
0B
=0.2(1000/4005)
2
=0.0125 in. wg. 3.1 Pa
P
0A
=0.5(1000/4005)
2
=0.0313 in. wg. 7.8 Pa
% Diff. =
(0.0313 0.0125)
0.0125

(100) =150%

(b) P
0B
=0.2(4000/4005)
2
=0.20 in. wg. 50 Pa
P
0A
=0.5(4000/4005)
2
=0.50 in. wg. 124 Pa
% Diff. =
(0.5 0.2)
0.2

(100) =150%

12-26. Table 12-8a, C
o
=0.25
V
o
=1200/[(/4)x(14/12)
2
] =1122.5 ft/min
P
o
=0.25(1122.5/4005)
2
=0.02 in. wg.
also
V
o
=0.6/[(/4)(0.35)
2
] =6.24 m/s
P
o
=0.25(6.24/1.29)
2
=5.8 Pa

12-27. (a) C
o
=0.15, Table 12-8b
V
o
=2500 x 144/(16 x 16) =1406 ft/min
P
o
=0.15(1406/4005)
2
=0.0185 in. wg.
or V
o
=1.2/(0.4 x 0.4) =7.5 m/s
P
o
=0.15(7.5/1.29)
2
=5.1 Pa

(b) C
o
=1.2 Table 12-8C
P
o
=1.2(1406/4005)
2
=0.148 in. wg.
or P
o
=1.2(7.5/1.29)
2
=40.6 Pa
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230

12-28. Q

b
/Q

c
=250/800 =0.3125
A
b
/A
c
=(6/12)
2
=0.25
C
b
=0.345, Table 12-11A
V
b
=250/[(/4)(6/12)
2
] =1273 ft/min
or V
b
=0.12[(/4)(0.15)
2
] =6.8 m/s
P
ob
=0.345(1273/4005)
2
=0.035 in. wg.
or P
ob
=0.345(6.8/1.29)
2
=9.6 Pa
Q

s
/Q

c
=550/800 =0.6875
A
s
/A
c
=(10/12)
2
=0.694
C
s
=0.135, Table 12-11A
V
s
=550/[(/4)(10/12)
2
] =1008 ft/min
or V
s
=0.26/[(/4)(0.25)
2
] =5.3 m/s
P
os
=0.135(1008/4005)
2
=0.009 in. wg.
or P
os
=0.135(5.3/129)
2
=2.3 Pa

12-29. From Problem 12-28
Q

b
/Q

c
=0.3125; A
b
/A
c
=0.25
V
b
=1273 ft/min or 6.8 m/s
C
b
=0.93, Table 12-11B
P
ob
=0.93(1273/4005)
2
=0.094 in. wg.
or P
ob
=0.93(6.8/1.29)
2
=25.8 Pa
Q

s
/Q

c
=0.6875; A
s
/A
c
=0.694
C
s
=0.135; Table 12-11B
V
s
=1008 ft/min or 5.3 m/s
P
os
=0.135(1008/4005)
2
=0.009 in. wg.
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231
or P
os
=0.135(5.3/129)
2
=2.3 Pa



12-30. (a) A
o
/A
1
=6.0; =180 deg., C
o
=37.4, Table 12-9B
V
1
=
4500x144
(18x18)
=2,000 ft/min
A
oVo
=A
1V1
; V
o
=
1
o
A
A
x 2,000 =2000/6 =333 ft/min
P
o
=37.4(333/4005)
2
=0.260 in. wg.

(b) C
o
=14.35 (Table 12-9B)
P
o
=14.35(333/4005)
2
=0.099 in. wg.


12-31. Q

b
/Q

c
=500/1000 =0.50
A
b
/A
c
=(8/12)
2
=0.444
A
s
/A
c
=(8/12)
2
=0.444
Q

s
/Q

c
=500/1000 =0.5

(a) C
b
=0.755, Table 12-12A
Interpolation required or use
ASHRAE Duct Fitting Data
]
C
s
=0.215, Table 12-12A
V
b
=500/[/4)(8/12)
2
] =1432 ft/min =V
s

or V
b
=0.24/[(/4)(0.2)
2
] =7.64 m/s
P
ob
=0.755(1432/4005)
2
=0.097 in. wg.
or P
ob
=0.755(7.64/129)
2
=26.5 Pa
P
os
=0.215(1432/4005)
2
=0.028 in. wg.
or P
os
=0.215(7.64/129)
2
=7.54 Pa
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232

(b) C
b
=0.688, Table 12-12B
C
s
=0.847, Table 12-12B
P
ob
=0.688(1432/4005)
2
=0.088 in. wg.
or P
ob
=0.688(7.64/129)
2
=24.1 Pa
P
os
=0.847(1432/4005)
2
=0.108 in. wg.
or P
os
=0.847(7.64/1.29)
2
=29.7 Pa

12-32. From Figure 12-35
1 2
3
12 in.
10 in.
12 in.
P
Assume:
Abrupt entrance
Pleated elbows
45
o
branch

Equivalent Length Method:

Section
No.
L
e
*
ft
Q


cfm
P/L
in. wg.
100 ft
V
ft/min
P
o
in. wg.
P
o
Pa
1 115 800 0.135 1020 0.155 39
2 102 500 0.055 630 0.056 14
3 45 300 0.050 550 0.023 6
* boots and diffusers at ends of runs neglected.

Loss Coefficient Method:
Sec.
No.
L
ft
P/L
in. wg.
100 ft
P
d
in. wg.

C
1

C
2
V
ft
min
P
1
in. wg.
P
2
in. wg.
P
t
in. wg.
P
t
Pa
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233
1 55 0.135 0.074 0.50 2(0.26) 1020 0.032 0.034 0.140 35
2 72 0.055 0.040 0.16 2(0.26) 630 0.004 0.013 0.057 14
3 20 0.050 0.010 2.0 0.17 550 0.038 0.003 0.051 13


12-33. L =D x C
o
/f; f =0.019, Table 12-13
Bellmouth: L =1 x 0.2/0.019 =10.5 ft
Abrupt Int.: L =1 x 0.5/0.019 =26.3 ft
=1000 x /4 =785 cfm; P Q

o
/L =0.12 in. wg./100 ft, Fig. 12-21
P
0B
=0.12 x 10.5/100 =0.0126 in. wg. or about 3.1 Pa
P
0A
=0.12 x 26.3/100 =0.0316 in. wg. or about 7.9 Pa

12-34. From Problem 12-26, C
o
=0.25, D =14 in.
L
e
=DxC
o
/f; f =0.017, Table 12-13
L
e
=
14 0.25
x
12 0.017
=17.2 ft
=1200 cfm; P Q

o
/L =0.13 in. wg./100 ft
P
o
=0.13 x 17.2/100 =0.022 in. wg. or about 5.6 Pa

Note: Most of following duct sizing problems can be solved with the computer
program, DUCT.


12-35. From Figure 12-36.
1 2
3
P
5
4
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234

Estimate Total Equivalent Length of Run 1-2-3 to be approximately
132 ft, Table 12-14. Then P
o
/L
e
=(0.13 x 100)/132
=0.10 in. wg./100 ft size ducts using Figure 12-21 and record the
actual P
o
/L from Figure 12-21.

Section
No.
L
e
ft
Q


cfm
D
in.
P/L
in. wg.
100 ft
P
n
in. wg.
1 45 300 9 0.084 0.038
2 16 220 8 0.090 0.014
3 71 100 6 0.083 0.059
4 55 80 5 0.14 0.077
5 55 120 6 0.125 0.069


Run 1-2-5 actually has the greatest lost pressure.

P
14
=0.038 +0.077 =0.115 in. wg.;
P
125
=0.038 +0.014 +0.059 =0.121 in. wg.
P
123
=0.038 +0.014 +0.059 =0.111 in. wg.

12-36. The design pressure loss is (0.25 0.1) =0.15 in. wg. (for supply ducts)
Assume the run with the largest equivalent length is:
1-2-3-4-5; Le =185 ft

Then for design: P
o
/Le =
(0.15 0.03)
185

x 100 =0.065 in. wg./100 ft


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235

Section 1 has a total flow of 845 cfm. Therefore, the maximum
velocity in section 1 will be about 800 ft/min if a 14 in. duct is used.

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236

12-36. (continued)
(a)
Section
No.
Le
ft
Q


cfm
D
in.
P/L
in. wg.
100 ft
P
n
in. wg.
1 88 845 14 0.065 0.057
2 18 595 12 0.070 0.013
3 16 395 12 0.034 0.0054
4 17 275 9 0.065 0.011
5 46 125 7 0.065 0.030
6 51 250 9 0.060 0.031
7 43 200 8 0.072 0.031
8 49 120 7 0.065 0.032
9 49 150 8 0.040 0.020

With the equal friction method, every branch should have a damper for
balancing purposes.
Actual total pressure loss:
P
o
=P
1
+P
2
+P
3
+P
4
+P
5
+P
d5

P
o
=0.146 in. wg.
Note that run 1-2-3-4-7 actually has the greatest loss in total pressure
but the difference is not significant. Use P
o
=0.15 in. wg.

(b) Sizing of the longest run, 1-2-3-4-5, is the same as (a) above where
P
o
/L =0.065 in. wg./100 ft. Construct a new table as follows:


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237
MAIN DUCT RUN BRANCH DUCTS
(1)
Sec.
No.
(2)
L
e
ft.
(3)
cfm
(4)
D
e
/wxh
in.
(5)
P
L
(6)
V
fpm
(7)
P
o
(2)(5)
100
(8)
P
o
(7)
(9)
Br.
Sec
No.
(10)
P
i
P
od+
-(8)+
P
d
(11)
L
e
ft.
(12)
P
i
L
(10)100
(11)
(13)
cfm
(14)
D
e
/wxh
in.
(15)
V
fpm
1 88 845 14 0.065 800 0.057 0.057 6 0.039 51 0.076 250 9 550
2 18 595 12 0.070 760 0.013 0.070 7 0.036 43 0.084 200 8 570
3 16 395 12 0.034 500 0.005 0.075 8 0.035 49 0.071 120 7 500
4 17 275 9 0.065 600 0.011 0.086 9 0.020 49 0.041 150 8 420
5 46 125 7 0.065 500 0.03 0.116

Diffuser 5 0.030 0.146

The left 8 columns are the same as (a) above. The branches, 6-7-8-9,
are sized to balance in the right hand 7 columns.

(c) Equal Friction Method


- - Desi gn Pr ocedur e - -

Syst emt ype: Suppl y
Duct Si zi ng Met hod: Equal Fr i ct i on
Roundi ng Met hod: Round Near est


- - Fan Sel ect i on - -

Known Fan Par amet er : Fan Tot al Pr essur e = 0. 250 i n. wg

Fan Ai r f l ow: 845. 0 cf m
Fan or Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 250 i n. wg
Coi l Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
Fi l t er Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
Mi sc. Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
- - - - - - -
AHU Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 250 i n. wg

AHU Pr essur e f or Suppl y Syst em: 0. 150 i n. wg - or 60. 0 %
AHU Pr essur e f or Ret ur n Syst em: 0. 100 i n. wg - or 40. 0 %



- - Lost Pr essur e f r omAi r Handl i ng Uni t t o Di f f user - -

Di f f user I D Q Tot al Del t a P
( cf m) ( i n. wg)

17 125. 0 0. 120
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238
22 150. 0 0. 154
26 120. 0 0. 130
30 200. 0 0. 125
34 250. 0 0. 127
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tot al 845. 0



- - Cal cul at ed Fi t t i ng Val ues - -

I D Fi t t i ng Type Di a. Q Vel oci t y Del t a P P/ L
( i n) ( cf m) ( f t / mi n) ( i n. wg) ( i n. wg)

1 Ai r Handl i ng Uni t 0. 0 845. 0 0. 0 0. 000
2 St r ai ght Duct 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 013 0. 06415
3 Coni cal Cont r act i on 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 013
4 El bow 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 006
5 El bow 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 006
6 Tee / Wye mai n 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6 0. 005
br anch 9. 0 250. 0 565. 9 0. 018
common 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4
7 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6 0. 007 0. 07167
8 Tee / Wye mai n 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2 0. 004
br anch 8. 0 200. 0 573. 0 0. 017
common 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6
9 St r ai ght Duct 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2 0. 007 0. 08259
10 Tee / Wye mai n 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5 0. 003
br anch 7. 0 120. 0 449. 0 0. 016
common 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2
11 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5 0. 007 0. 07138
12 Tee / Wye mai n 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 002
br anch 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 009
common 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5
13 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 008 0. 05817
14 El bow 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 002
15 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 002 0. 05817
16 El bow 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 003
17 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 125. 0 0. 030
18 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 006 0. 08082
19 El bow 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 005
20 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 016 0. 08082
21 El bow 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 005
22 Di f f user / Gr i l 150. 0 0. 040
23 El bow 7. 0 120. 0 449. 0 0. 002
24 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 120. 0 449. 0 0. 011 0. 05405
25 El bow 7. 0 120. 0 449. 0 0. 003
26 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 120. 0 0. 036
27 El bow 8. 0 200. 0 573. 0 0. 003
28 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 200. 573. 0 0. 010 0. 07106
29 El bow 8. 0 200. 0 573. 0 0. 005
30 Di f f user / Gr i l l 200. 0 0. 040
31 El bow 9. 0 250. 0 565. 9 0. 003
32 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 250. 0 565. 9 0. 013 0. 06004
33 El bow 9. 0 250. 0 565. 9 0. 004
34 Di f f user / Gr i l l 250. 0 0. 050

(c) Balanced Capacity Method


- - Desi gn Pr ocedur e - -

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239
Syst emt ype: Suppl y
Duct Si zi ng Met hod: Bal anced Capaci t y
Roundi ng Met hod: Round Near est


- - Fan Sel ect i on - -

Known Fan Par amet er : Fan Tot al Pr essur e = 0. 250 i n. wg

Fan Ai r f l ow: 845. 0 cf m
Fan or Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 250 i n. wg
Coi l Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
Fi l t er Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
Mi sc. Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
- - - - - - -
AHU Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 250 i n. wg

AHU Pr essur e f or Suppl y Syst em: 0. 150 i n. wg - or 60. 0 %
AHU Pr essur e f or Ret ur n Syst em: 0. 100 i n. wg - or 40. 0 %



- - Lost Pr essur e f r omAi r Handl i ng Uni t t o Di f f user - -

Di f f user I D Q Tot al Del t a P
( cf m) ( i n. wg)

17 125. 0 0. 138
22 150. 0 0. 154
26 120. 0 0. 145
30 200. 0 0. 140
34 250. 0 0. 141
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tot al 845. 0



- - Cal cul at ed Fi t t i ng Val ues - -

I D Fi t t i ng Type Di a. Q Vel oci t y Del t a P P/ L
( i n) ( cf m) ( f t / mi n) ( i n. wg) ( i n. wg)

1 Ai r Handl i ng Uni t 0. 0 845. 0 0. 0 0. 00
2 St r ai ght Duct 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 013 0. 06415
3 Coni cal Cont r act i on 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 013
4 El bow 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 006
5 El bow 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 006
6 Tee / Wye mai n 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6 0. 005
br anch 8. 0 250. 0 716. 2 0. 016
common 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4
7 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6 0. 007 0. 07167
8 Tee / Wye mai n 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2 0. 004
br anch 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 016
common 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6
9 St r ai ght Duct 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2 0. 007 0. 08259
10 Tee / Wye mai n 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5 0. 003
br anch 6. 0 120. 0 611. 2 0. 013
common 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2
11 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5 0. 007 0. 07138
12 Tee / Wye mai n 6. 0 125. 0 636. 6 0. 003
br anch 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 009
common 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5
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240
13 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 125. 0 636. 6 0. 016
0. 12304
14 El bow 6. 0 125. 0 636. 6 0. 004
15 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 125. 0 636. 6 0. 005 0. 12304
16 El bow 6. 0 125. 0 636. 6 0. 007
17 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 125. 0 0. 030

18 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 006 0. 08082
19 El bow 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 005
20 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 016 0. 08082
21 El bow 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 005
22 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 150. 0 0. 040
23 El bow 6. 0 120. 0 611. 2 0. 004
24 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 120. 0 611. 2 0. 023 0. 11427
25 El bow 6. 0 120. 0 611. 2 0. 006
26 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 120. 0 0. 036
27 El bow 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 005
28 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 019 0. 13629
29 El bow 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 009
30 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 200. 0 0. 040
31 El bow 8. 0 250. 0 716. 2 0. 005
32 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 250. 0 716. 2 0. 023 0. 10661
33 El bow 8. 0 250. 0 716. 2 0. 007
34 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 250. 0 0. 050



12-37. P
0S
+P
0R
=0.70 0.35 =0.35 in. wg.
P
0S
0.65(0.35) =0.23 in. wg.
P
0R
0.35 0.23 =0.12 in. wg.
The method of solution is similar to Problem 12-36. An
acceptable solution follows:
(a) Longest run ~1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-11-13
The summation of equivalent lengths may vary with designers.
P
o
/Le =
(0.23 0.03)
217

100 =0.092 in. wg./100 ft



Size all supply ducts for this pressure loss per unit length.





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241





Section
No.
Q


cfm
D
in.
Section
No.
Q


cfm
D
in.
1 1200 16 18 150 7
2 1050 14 19 100 6
3 850 14 20 100 6
4 750 12 21 75 6
5 650 12 22 100 6
6 550 12 23 200 8
7 475 10
8 225 8
9 175 7
10 50 5
11 125 6
12 50 5
13 75 6
14 50 5

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1
2
-
4
2
.


(
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
)





(b) Construct a table as shown in 12-36 or solve with computer program.
MAIN DUCT RUN BRANCH DUCTS*
(1)
Sec.
No.
(2)
L
e
ft.
(3)
cfm
(4)
D
e
in.
(5)
P
L
(6)
V
fpm
(7)
P
o
(2)(5)
100
(8)
P
o
(7)
(9)
Br.
Sec
No.
(10)
P
i
P
od+
-(8)+
P
d
(11)
L
e
ft.
(12)
P
i
L
(10)100
(11)
(13)
cfm
(14)
D
e
in.
(15)
V
fpm
1 38 1000 14 0.89 940 0.034 0.034 18 0.167 105 0.16 150 6 700
2 16 850 14 0.68 800 0.011 0.045 23 0.165 105 0.16 200 7 750
3 18 650 12 .086 820 0.016 0.061 19 0.160 90 0.18 100 5 700
4 12 550 12 .063 700 0.008 0.069 22 0.181 73 0.25 100 5 700
5 14 450 10 0.10 800 0.014 0.083 20 0.162 57 0.28 100 5 700
6 14 350 9 0.11 800 0.015 0.098 21 0.176 65 0.27 75 5 650
7+8 34 275 8 0.12 750 0.041 0.139 14 0.160 57 0.28 50 4 600
9 13 225 8 0.09 670 .012 0.151 10 0.184 58 .32 75 5 620
11 8 150 6 0.13 700 .010 0.161 12 0.186 36 .52 75 5 620
13 50 75 6 .06 450 .030 0.191
Tot. 213 P
d
= 0.030 0.221
* Damper Required in all branches because velocity is too high. Increase size until velocity is about 500 ft/min.
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12-37. (continued)

P
o
for the longest run will be about 0.22 in. wg. for the above sizes.
Therefore, size the return system for a pressure loss of (0.35 0.22)
or 0.13 in. wg.

For the return system:
(L
e
)
max
230 ft, (1r 2r 3r)
then P
o
/L
e
=
0.13 0.05
230

100 =0.035 in. wg./100 ft


Using the equal friction method:

Section
No.
Q


cfm
D
in.
L
e
ft
P
o
/L P
o
in. wg.
1r 1200 18 115 0.038 0.044
2r 800 16 70 0.033 0.023
3r 400 12 44 0.036 0.016
4r 400 12 14 0.036 0.005
5r 400 12 28 0.036 0.010

Return system is the same for parts (a) and (b).
P
o
for return =0.133 in. wg.
(c) Equal Friction Method


- - Desi gn Pr ocedur e - -

Syst emt ype: Suppl y
Duct Si zi ng Met hod: Equal Fr i ct i on
Roundi ng Met hod: Round Near est


- - Fan Sel ect i on - -

Known Fan Par amet er : Fan Tot al Pr essur e = 0. 700 i n. wg
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244

Fan Ai r f l ow: 1000. 0 cf m
Fan or Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 700 i n. wg
Coi l Lost Pr essur e: 0. 250 i n. wg
Fi l t er Lost Pr essur e: 0. 100 i n. wg
Mi sc. Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
- - - - - - -
AHU Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 350 i n. wg

AHU Pr essur e f or Suppl y Syst em: 0. 228 i n. wg - or 65. 0 %
AHU Pr essur e f or Ret ur n Syst em: 0. 123 i n. wg - or 35. 0 %



- - Lost Pr essur e f r omAi r Handl i ng Uni t t o Di f f user - -

Di f f user I D Q Tot al Del t a P
( cf m) ( i n. wg)

27 75. 0 0. 227
30 75. 0 0. 207
34 75. 0 0. 211
38 50. 0 0. 212
56 75. 0 0. 171
60 100. 0 0. 158
63 100. 0 0. 171
67 100. 0 0. 142
72 200. 0 0. 202
75 150. 0 0. 131
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tot al 1000. 0



- - Cal cul at ed Fi t t i ng Val ues - -

I D Fi t t i ng Type Di a. Q Vel oci t y Del t a P P/ L
( i n) ( cf m) ( f t / mi n) ( i n. wg) ( i n. wg)

1 Ai r Handl i ng Uni t 0. 0 1000. 0 0. 0 0. 000
2 Coni cal Cont r act i on 14. 0 1000. 0 935. 4 0. 011
3 St r ai ght Duct 14. 0 1000. 0 935. 4 0. 007 0. 08745
4 Tee / Wye mai n 12. 0 850. 0 082. 3 0. 010
br anch 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 061
common 14. 0 1000. 0 935. 4
5 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 850. 0 1082. 3 0. 003 0. 13819
6 Tee / Wye mai n 12. 0 650. 0 827. 6 0. 008*<10>
br anch 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 058
common 12. 0 850. 0 1082. 3
7 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 650. 0 827. 6 0. 005 0. 08429
8 Tee / Wye mai n 10. 0 550. 0 1008. 4 0. 009
br anch 6. 0 100. 0 509. 3 0. 037
common 12. 0 650. 0 827. 6
9 St r ai ght Duct 10. 0 550. 0 1008. 4 0. 006 0. 15164
10 Tee / Wye mai n 10. 0 450. 0 825. 1 0. 010*<10>
br anch 6. 0 100. 0 509. 3 0. 064
common 10. 0 550. 0 1008. 4
11 St r ai ght Duct 10. 0 450. 0 825. 1 0. 004 0. 10485
12 Tee / Wye mai n 9. 0 350. 0 792. 2 0. 005
br anch 6. 0 100. 0 509. 3 0. 024
common 10. 0 450. 0 825. 1
13 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 350. 0 792. 2 0. 014 0. 11082
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245
14 Tee / Wye mai n 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8 0. 005
br anch 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 019
common 9. 0 350. 0 792. 2
15 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8 0. 006 0. 12687
17 El bow 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8 0. 008
18 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8 0. 013 0. 12687
19 Tee / Wye mai n 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 009*<10>
br anch 4. 0 50. 0 573. 0 0. 027
common 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8
20 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 007 0. 08800
21 Tee / Wye mai n 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 003
br anch 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 011
common 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6
22 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 018 0. 08082
23 Tee / Wye mai n 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 002
br anch 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 007
common 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3
24 El bow 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 006
25 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 012 0. 11869
26 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 5. 0 75. 0 270. 0 0. 005
27 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 75. 0 0. 030
28 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 007 0. 11869
29 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 5. 0 75. 0 270. 0 0. 005
30 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 75. 0 0. 025
31 El bow 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 006
32 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 018 0. 11869
33 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 5. 0 75. 0 270. 0 0. 005
34 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 75. 0 0. 025
35 El bow 4. 0 50. 0 573. 0 0. 007
36 St r ai ght Duct 4. 0 50. 0 573. 0 0. 017 0. 16916
37 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 4. 0 50. 0 180. 0 0. 010
38 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 50. 0 0. 020
53 El bow 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 006
54 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 018 0. 11869
55 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 5. 0 75. 0 270. 0 0. 005
56 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 75. 0 0. 030
57 El bow 6. 0 100. 0 509. 3 0. 004
58 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 100. 0 509. 3 0. 008 0. 08221
59 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 6. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 003
60 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 045
61 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 100. 0 509. 3 0. 012 0. 08221
62 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 6. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 003
63 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 032
64 El bow 6. 0 100. 0 509. 3 0. 004
65 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 100. 0 509. 3 0. 008 0. 08221
66 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 6. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 003
67 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 045
68 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 027 0. 13629
69 El bow 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 013
70 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 027 0. 13629
71 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 7. 0 200. 0 720. 0 0. 001
72 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 200. 0 0. 045
73 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 032 0. 08082
74 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 7. 0 150. 0 540. 0 0. 001
75 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 150. 0 0. 020
16 El bow 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8 0. 005


* - Del t a P was comput ed usi ng t he f i t t i ng equi val ent l engt h

Balanced Capacity Method

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246

- - Desi gn Pr ocedur e -

Not e t hat al most al l br anch duct s need a damper t o i ncr ease t he di amet er and
r educe vel oci t y.

Syst emt ype: Suppl y
Duct Si zi ng Met hod: Bal anced Capaci t y
Roundi ng Met hod: Round Near est


- - Fan Sel ect i on - -

Known Fan Par amet er : Fan Tot al Pr essur e = 0. 700 i n. wg

Fan Ai r f l ow: 1000. 0 cf m
Fan or Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 700 i n. wg
Coi l Lost Pr essur e: 0. 250 i n. wg
Fi l t er Lost Pr essur e: 0. 100 i n. wg
Mi sc. Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
- - - - - - -
AHU Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 350 i n. wg

AHU Pr essur e f or Suppl y Syst em: 0. 228 i n. wg - or 65. 0 %
AHU Pr essur e f or Ret ur n Syst em: 0. 123 i n. wg - or 35. 0 %



- - Lost Pr essur e f r omAi r Handl i ng Uni t t o Di f f user - -

Di f f user I D Q Tot al Del t a P
( cf m) ( i n. wg)

27 75. 0 0. 227
30 75. 0 0. 243
34 75. 0 0. 211
38 50. 0 0. 212
56 75. 0 0. 232
60 100. 0 0. 279
63 100. 0 0. 285
67 100. 0 0. 257
72 200. 0 0. 202
75 150. 0 0. 170
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tot al 1000. 0



- - Cal cul at ed Fi t t i ng Val ues - -

I D Fi t t i ng Type Di a. Q Vel oci t y Del t a P P/ L
( i n) ( cf m) ( f t / mi n) ( i n. wg) ( i n. wg)

1 Ai r Handl i ng Uni t 0. 0 1000. 0 0. 0 0. 000
2 Coni cal Cont r act i on 14. 0 1000. 0 935. 4 0. 011
3 St r ai ght Duct 14. 0 1000. 0 935. 4 0. 007 0. 08745
4 Tee / Wye mai n 12. 0 850. 0 1082. 3 0. 010
br anch 6. 0 150. 0 763. 9 0. 057
common 14. 0 1000. 0 935. 4
5 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 850. 0 1082. 3 0. 003 0. 13819
6 Tee / Wye mai n 12. 0 650. 0 827. 6 0. 008*<10>
br anch 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 058
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247
common 12. 0 850. 0 1082. 3
7 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 650. 0 827. 6 0. 005 0. 08429
8 Tee / Wye mai n 10. 0 550. 0 1008. 4 0. 009
br anch 4. 0 100. 0 1145. 9 0. 039
common 12. 0 650. 0 827. 6
9 St r ai ght Duct 10. 0 550. 0 1008. 4 0. 006 0. 15164
10 Tee / Wye mai n 10. 0 450. 0 825. 1 0. 010*<10>
br anch 4. 0 100. 0 1145. 9 0. 062
common 10. 0 550. 0 1008. 4
11 St r ai ght Duct 10. 0 450. 0 825. 1 0. 004 0. 10485
12 Tee / Wye mai n 9. 0 350. 0 792. 2 0. 005
br anch 4. 0 100. 0 1145. 9 0. 031
common 10. 0 450. 0 825. 1
13 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 350. 0 792. 2 0. 014 0. 11082
14 Tee / Wye mai n 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8 0. 005
br anch 4. 0 75. 0 859. 4 0. 017
common 9. 0 350. 0 792. 2
15 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8 0. 006 0. 12687
17 El bow 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8 0. 008
18 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8 0. 013 0. 12687
19 Tee / Wye mai n 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 009*<10>
br anch 4. 0 50. 0 573. 0 0. 027
common 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8
20 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 007 0. 08800
21 Tee / Wye mai n 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 003
br anch 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 011
common 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6
22 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 018 0. 08082
23 Tee / Wye mai n 4. 0 75. 0 859. 4 0. 007
br anch 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 007
common 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3
24 El bow 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 006
25 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 012 0. 11869
26 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 5. 0 75. 0 270. 0 0. 005
27 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 75. 0 0. 030
28 St r ai ght Duct 4. 0 75. 0 859. 4 0. 021 0. 35266
29 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 4. 0 75. 0 270. 0 0. 024
30 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 75. 0 0. 025
31 El bow 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 006
32 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 75. 0 550. 0 0. 018 0. 11869
33 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 5. 0 75. 0 270. 0 0. 005
34 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 75. 0 0. 025
35 El bow 4. 0 50. 0 573. 0 0. 007
36 St r ai ght Duct 4. 0 50. 0 573. 0 0. 017 0. 16916
37 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 4. 0 50. 0 180. 0 0. 010
38 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 50. 0 0. 020
53 El bow 4. 0 75. 0 859. 4 0. 015
54 St r ai ght Duct 4. 0 75. 0 859. 4 0. 053 0. 35266
55 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 4. 0 75. 0 270. 0 0. 024
56 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 75. 0 0. 030
57 El bow 4. 0 100. 0 1145. 9 0. 027
58 St r ai ght Duct 4. 0 100. 0 1145. 9 0. 060 0. 59744
59 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 4. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 042
60 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 045
61 St r ai ght Duct 4. 0 100. 0 1145. 9 0. 090 0. 59744
62 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 4. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 042
63 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 032
64 El bow 4. 0 100. 0 1145. 9 0. 027
65 St r ai ght Duct 4. 0 100. 0 1145. 9 0. 060 0. 59744
66 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 4. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 042
67 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 045
68 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 027 0. 13629
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248
69 El bow 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 013
70 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 027 0. 13629
71 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 7. 0 200. 0 720. 0 0. 001
72 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 200. 0 0. 045
73 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 150. 0 763. 9 0. 069 0. 17139
74 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 6. 0 150. 0 540. 0 0. 007
75 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 150. 0 0. 020
16 El bow 8. 0 275. 0 787. 8 0. 005

* - Del t a P was comput ed usi ng t he f i t t i ng equi val ent l engt h


Return Ducts, Equal Friction Method

- - Desi gn Pr ocedur e - -

Syst emt ype: Ret ur n
Duct Si zi ng Met hod: Equal Fr i ct i on
Roundi ng Met hod: Round Near est

- - Fan Sel ect i on - -

Known Fan Par amet er : Fan Tot al Pr essur e = 0. 700 i n. wg

Fan Ai r f l ow: 1200. 0 cf m
Fan or Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 700 i n. wg
Coi l Lost Pr essur e: 0. 250 i n. wg
Fi l t er Lost Pr essur e: 0. 100 i n. wg
Mi sc. Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
- - - - - - -
AHU Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 350 i n. wg

AHU Pr essur e f or Suppl y Syst em: 0. 228 i n. wg - or 65. 0 %
AHU Pr essur e f or Ret ur n Syst em: 0. 123 i n. wg - or 35. 0 %


- - Lost Pr essur e f r omAi r Handl i ng Uni t t o Di f f user - -

Di f f user I D Q Tot al Del t a P
( cf m) ( i n. wg)

11 400. 0 0. 125
14 400. 0 0. 113
17 400. 0 0. 096
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tot al 1200. 0

- - Cal cul at ed Fi t t i ng Val ues - -

I D Fi t t i ng Type Di a. Q Vel oci t y Del t a P P/ L
( i n) ( cf m) ( f t / mi n) ( i n. wg) ( i n. wg)

1 Ai r Handl i ng Uni t 0. 0 1200. 0 0. 0 0. 000
2 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 18. 0 1200. 0 679. 1 0. 001
3 St r ai ght Duct 18. 0 1200. 0 679. 1 0. 002 0. 03572
4 Tee / Wye mai n 12. 0 400. 0 509. 3 0. 026
br anch 16. 0 800. 0 573. 0 0. 026
common 18. 0 1200. 0 679. 1
5 St r ai ght Duct 16. 0 800. 0 573. 0 0. 006 0. 03024
6 Tee / Wye mai n 12. 0 400. 0 509. 3 0. 015
br anch 12. 0 400. 0 509. 3 0. 013
common 16. 0 800. 0 573. 0
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249
7 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 400. 0 509. 3 0. 007
0. 03476 8 El bow 12. 0 400. 0 509. 3
0. 003
9 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 400. 0 509. 3 0. 001 0. 03476
10 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 12. 0 400. 0 100. 0 0. 014
11 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 400. 0 0. 050
12 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 400. 0 509. 3 0. 001 0. 03476
13 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 12. 0 400. 0 100. 0 0. 014
14 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 400. 0 0. 050
15 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 400. 0 509. 3 0. 003 0. 03476
16 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 12. 0 400. 0 100. 0 0. 014
17 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 400. 0 0. 050



12-38. The three branches from the plenum must be designed as close as
possible for the same pressure loss. Start with B since it appears
to be more extensive than A or C.

For B: P
o
/L
e
=
0.18 0.025
145

100 =0.107 in. wg./100 ft


For A: P
o
/L
e
=
0.18 0.025
142

100 =0.109 in. wg./100 ft


For C: P
o
/L
e
=
0.18 0.025
104

100 =0.149 in. wg./100 ft



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250
12-38. (continued)

Note that the resulting total pressures losses turn out to be:
MAIN DUCT RUN BRANCH DUCTS
(1)
Sec.
No.
(2)
L
e
ft.
(3)
cfm
(4)
D
e
in.
(5)
P
L
actual
(6)
V
fpm
(7)
P
o
(2)(5)
100
(8)
P
o
(7)
(9)
Br.
Sec
No.
(10)
P
i
P
od
+
-(8) +
-P
d
(11)
L
e
ft.
(12)
P
i
L
(10)100
(11)
(13)
cfm
(14)
D
e
in.
(15)
V
fpm
8 44 500 12 .057 650 .025 .025 14 0.094 55 0.171 125 6 660
9 22 375 10 .085 700 .019 .044 10 0.075 52 0.144 200 7 760
11 25 175 7 0.11 630 .028 .072 12 0.047 38 0.124 75 5 550
13 54 100 6 .087 520 .047 0.119
Tot 145 P
d
= .025 0.144
1 50 400 10 .095 760 0.048 0.048 7 0.084 38 0.221 100 5 750
2 19 300 9 .092 700 0.018 .066 6 0.066 48 0.138 100 6 510
3 25 200 8 .08 590 0.02 .086 4 0.046 57 0.081 100 6 500
5 48 100 6 .095 530 0.046 .132
Tot. 142 P
d
= 0.025 .157
15 56 225 7 .17 850 0.095 .095 16 0.041 38 0.108 125 6 610
17 48 100 6 .085 510 0.041 .136
Tot. 104 P
d
= 0.025 .161
C
A
B

{
{
{
(P
o
)
B
=0.144 in.wg.; (P
o
)
A
=0.157 in. wg.; (P
o
)
C
=0.161 in. wg.
Within the accuracy of the calculation these are approximately equal.
It may be necessary to use a damper in branch B, sec. 8.

12-38.

Branch A, Balanced Capacity Method

- - Desi gn Pr ocedur e - -

Syst emt ype: Suppl y
Duct Si zi ng Met hod: Bal anced Capaci t y
Roundi ng Met hod: Round Near est

- - Fan Sel ect i on - -

Known Fan Par amet er : Pl enumTot al Pr essur e = 0. 180 i n. wg

Fan Ai r f l ow: 400. 0 cf m
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251
Fan or Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 269 i n. wg
Coi l Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
Fi l t er Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
Mi sc. Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
- - - - - - -
AHU Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 269 i n. wg

AHU Pr essur e f or Suppl y Syst em: 0. 180 i n. wg - or 67. 0 %
AHU Pr essur e f or Ret ur n Syst em: 0. 089 i n. wg - or 33. 0 %


- - Lost Pr essur e f r omAi r Handl i ng Uni t t o Di f f user - -

Di f f user I D Q Tot al Del t a P
( cf m) ( i n. wg)

15 100. 0 0. 171
19 100. 0 0. 155
23 100. 0 0. 141
29 100. 0 0. 187
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tot al 400. 0



- - Cal cul at ed Fi t t i ng Val ues - -

I D Fi t t i ng Type Di a. Q Vel oci t y Del t a P P/ L
( i n) ( cf m) ( f t / mi n) ( i n. wg) ( i n. wg)

1 Ai r Handl i ng Uni t 0. 0 400. 0 0. 0 0. 000
2 Coni cal Cont r act i on 9. 0 400. 0 905. 4 0. 011
3 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 400. 0 905. 4 0. 003 0. 14157
4 El bow 9. 0 400. 0 905. 4 0. 011
5 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 400. 0 905. 4 0. 014 0. 14157
6 Tee / Wye mai n 8. 0 300. 0 859. 4 0. 006
br anch 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 039
common 9. 0 400. 0 905. 4
7 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 300. 0 859. 4 0. 018 0. 14878
8 Tee / Wye mai n 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 005
br anch 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 020
common 8. 0 300. 0 859. 4
9 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4 0. 016 0. 13629
10 Tee / Wye mai n 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 004
br anch 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 013
common 7. 0 200. 0 748. 4
11 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 020 0. 19977
12 El bow 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 012
13 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 016 0. 19977
14 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 5. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 010
15 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 025
16 El bow 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 007
17 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 016 0. 19977
18 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 5. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 010
19 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 025
20 El bow 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 007
21 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 016 0. 19977
22 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 5. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 010
23 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 025
24 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 016 0. 19977
27 But t er f l y Damper 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 058
28 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 5. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 010
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252
29 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 025


Branch B, Balanced Capacity Method


- - Desi gn Pr ocedur e - -

Syst emt ype: Suppl y
Duct Si zi ng Met hod: Bal anced Capaci t y
Roundi ng Met hod: Round Near est

- - Fan Sel ect i on - -

Known Fan Par amet er : Pl enumTot al Pr essur e = 0. 180 i n. wg

Fan Ai r f l ow: 500. 0 cf m
Fan or Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 180 i n. wg
Coi l Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
Fi l t er Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
Mi sc. Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
- - - - - - -
AHU Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 180 i n. wg

AHU Pr essur e f or Suppl y Syst em: 0. 180 i n. wg - or 100. 0 %
AHU Pr essur e f or Ret ur n Syst em: 0. 000 i n. wg - or . 0 %


- - Lost Pr essur e f r omAi r Handl i ng Uni t t o Di f f user - -

Di f f user I D Q Tot al Del t a P
( cf m) ( i n. wg)

13 100. 0 0. 185
16 75. 0 0. 179
19 200. 0 0. 142
23 125. 0 0. 158
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tot al 500. 0



- - Cal cul at ed Fi t t i ng Val ues - -

I D Fi t t i ng Type Di a. Q Vel oci t y Del t a P P/ L
( i n) ( cf m) ( f t / mi n) ( i n. wg) ( i n. wg)

1 Ai r Handl i ng Uni t 0. 0 500. 0 0. 0 0. 000
2 Coni cal Cont r act i on 10. 0 500. 0 916. 7 0. 011
3 St r ai ght Duct 10. 0 500. 0 916. 7 0. 018 0. 12723
4 Tee / Wye mai n 9. 0 375. 0 848. 8 0. 006
br anch 6. 0 125. 0 636. 6 0. 042
common 10. 0 500. 0 916. 7
5 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 375. 0 848. 8 0. 019 0. 12575
6 Tee / Wye mai n 6. 0 200. 0 1018. 6 0. 009
br anch 6. 0 175. 0 891. 3 0. 019
common 9. 0 375. 0 848. 8
7 El bow 6. 0 175. 0 891. 3 0. 008
8 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 175. 0 891. 3 0. 014 0. 22715
9 Tee / Wye mai n 4. 0 75. 0 859. 4 0. 006
br anch 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 020
common 6. 0 175. 0 891. 3
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253
10 El bow 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 007
11 St r ai ght Duct 5. 0 100. 0 733. 4 0. 028 0. 19977
12 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 5. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 010
13 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 025
14 St r ai ght Duct 4. 0 75. 0 859. 4 0. 028 0. 35266
15 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 4. 0 75. 0 270. 0 0. 025
16 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 75. 0 0. 025
17 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 200. 0 1018. 6 0. 041 0. 29022
18 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 6. 0 200. 0 720. 0 0. 014
19 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 200. 0 0. 025
20 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 125. 0 636. 6 0. 012 0. 12304
21 But t er f l y Damper 6. 0 125. 0 636. 6 0. 044
22 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 6. 0 125. 0 450. 0 0. 005
23 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 125. 0 0. 025


Branch C, Balanced Capacity Method


- - Desi gn Pr ocedur e - -

Syst emt ype: Suppl y
Duct Si zi ng Met hod: Bal anced Capaci t y
Roundi ng Met hod: Round Near est


- - Fan Sel ect i on - -

Known Fan Par amet er : Pl enumTot al Pr essur e = 0. 180 i n. wg

Fan Ai r f l ow: 225. 0 cf m
Fan or Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 180 i n. wg
Coi l Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
Fi l t er Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
Mi sc. Lost Pr essur e: 0. 000 i n. wg
- - - - - - -
AHU Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 180 i n. wg

AHU Pr essur e f or Suppl y Syst em: 0. 180 i n. wg - or 100. 0 %
AHU Pr essur e f or Ret ur n Syst em: 0. 000 i n. wg - or . 0 %



- - Lost Pr essur e f r omAi r Handl i ng Uni t t o Di f f user - -

Di f f user I D Q Tot al Del t a P
( cf m) ( i n. wg)

14 100. 0 0. 191
18 125. 0 0. 186
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tot al 225. 0



- - Cal cul at ed Fi t t i ng Val ues - -

I D Fi t t i ng Type Di a. Q Vel oci t y Del t a P P/ L
( i n) ( cf m) ( f t / mi n) ( i n. wg) ( i n. wg)

1 Ai r Handl i ng Uni t 0. 0 225. 0 0. 0 0. 000
2 Coni cal Cont r act i on 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 005
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254
3 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 003
0. 08800
4 But t er f l y Damper 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 112
5 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 003 0. 08800
6 El bow 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 006
7 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 004 0. 08800
8 El bow 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 006
9 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6 0. 005 0. 08800
10 Tee / Wye mai n 6. 0 125. 0 636. 6 0. 003
br anch 6. 0 100. 0 509. 3 0. 011
common 8. 0 225. 0 644. 6
11 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 100. 0 509. 3 0. 007 0. 08221
12 El bow 6. 0 100. 0 509. 3 0. 003
13 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 6. 0 100. 0 360. 0 0. 003
14 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 100. 0 0. 025
15 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 125. 0 636. 6 0. 010 0. 12304
17 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 6. 0 125. 0 450. 0 0. 005
18 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 125. 0 0. 025



12-39. Solution follows Example 12-14 closely.

12-40 Solution follows Example 12-14 closely
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255
12-41.

P
b
=0
1
2
1
Coil
M
A
RF
S
SF
2
B
E
C

Supply fan: P
o
=4 in. wg.
Return fan: P
o
=1.75 in. wg.

12-42.
P
b
=0
1
2
-1
-2
Coil
M
A
Space Pressure
S
SF
B
E
C
3
4
S


Fan, P
o
=5.75 in. wg.

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256
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257
12-43.
P
b
=0
1
2
-1
-2
Coil
M
A
RF
S
B
E
C
3
4
S
Supply fan: P
o
=4 in. wg.
Return fan: P
o
=1.75 in. wg.

12-44.
P
b
=0
1
2
-1
-2
Coil
M
A
S
SF
B
E
C
3
4
S
5
6

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258
Fan, P
o
=5.75 in. wg.

12-45.
Damper
Mix. box
Grille


(a) Assume a reasonable duct velocity of about 1200 fpm. P
o
/L =0.095
in. wg./100 ft. and D
e
=18 in. (may be converted to 20 x 14 in. for
example)
For the duct: P
d
=(0.095 x 40)/100 =0.038 in. wg.
For elbows: C
o
=0.15; P
e
=2 x 0.15(1180/4005)
2
=0.026 in. wg.
For damper: C
o
=0.52; P
d
=0.52(1180/4005)
2
=0.045 in. wg.
For grille: P
g
=0.25 in. wg
For expansion: V
o
=V
1
(A
1
/A
o
) =1180/2 =590 fpm
P
e
=1.2(590/4005)
2
=0.026 in. wg.
Overall: P
o
=0.038 +0.026 +0.045 +0.25 +0.026 =
P
o
=0.385 in. wg.

(b) For 18 in. duct with 1,000 cfm, P/L =0.027 in. wg./100 ft
For duct: P
d
=0.027 x 40/100 =0.011 in. wg.
For elbows: P
e
=2 x 0.15(590/4005)
2
=0.006 in. wg.
For grille: P
g
=0.25(1000/2000)
2
=0.063
For expansion: V
o
=590/2 =295 fpm
P
e
=1.2(295/4005)
2
=0.007 in. wg.
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259
For damper: P
d
=0.385 (0.011 +0.007 +0.063 +0.007) =
P
d
=0.297 in. wg. =C
oe
(590/4005)
2

(c) C
oe
=0.297/0.022 =13.7

12-46. Equal Friction Method

Not e t hat a damper has been i nser t ed i n duct 6 ( No. 34 bel ow) t o
cause an i ncr ease i n duct di amet er f r om8 t o 9 i n. wi t h a consequent
decr ease i n vel oci t y t o an accept abl e l evel .


- - Desi gn Pr ocedur e - -

Syst emt ype: Suppl y
Duct Si zi ng Met hod: Equal Fr i ct i on
Roundi ng Met hod: Round Near est


- - Fan Sel ect i on - -

Known Fan Par amet er : Fan Tot al Pr essur e = 0. 900 i n. wg

Fan Ai r f l ow: 845. 0 cf m
Fan or Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 900 i n. wg
Coi l Lost Pr essur e: 0. 500 i n. wg
Fi l t er Lost Pr essur e: 0. 100 i n. wg
Mi sc. Lost Pr essur e: 0. 050 i n. wg
- - - - - - -
AHU Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 250 i n. wg

AHU Pr essur e f or Suppl y Syst em: 0. 150 i n. wg - or 60. 0 %
AHU Pr essur e f or Ret ur n Syst em: 0. 100 i n. wg - or 40. 0 %



- - Lost Pr essur e f r omAi r Handl i ng Uni t t o Di f f user - -

Di f f user I D Q Tot al Del t a P
( cf m) ( i n. wg)

19 150. 0 0. 141
24 125. 0 0. 128
28 120. 0 0. 123
32 200. 0 0. 115
38 250. 0 0. 143
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tot al 845. 0



- - Cal cul at ed Fi t t i ng Val ues - -

I D Fi t t i ng Type Di a. Q Vel oci t y Del t a P P/ L
( i n) ( cf m) ( f t / mi n) ( i n. wg) ( i n. wg)
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260

1 Ai r Handl i ng Uni t 0. 0 845. 0 0. 0 0. 000
2 Coni cal Cont r act i on 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 008
3 St r ai ght Duct 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 003 0. 06415
4 El bow 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 006
5 St r ai ght Duct 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 005 0. 06415
6 El bow 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 006

7 St r ai ght Duct 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 006 0. 06415
8 Tee / Wye mai n 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6 0. 005
br anch 9. 0 250. 0 565. 9 0. 018
common 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4
9 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6 0. 007 0. 07167
10 Tee / Wye mai n 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2 0. 004
br anch 8. 0 200. 0 573. 0 0. 017
common 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6
11 St r ai ght Duct 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2 0. 007 0. 08259
12 Tee / Wye mai n 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5 0. 003
br anch 7. 0 120. 0 449. 0 0. 016
common 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2
13 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5 0. 007 0. 07138
14 Tee / Wye mai n 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 003
br anch 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 011
common 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5
15 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 006 0. 08082
16 El bow 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 005
17 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 016 0. 08082
18 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 7. 0 150. 0 450. 0 0. 004
19 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 150. 0 0. 040
20 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 013 0. 05817
21 El bow 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 002
22 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 002 0. 05817
23 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 7. 0 125. 0 375. 0 0. 002
24 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 125. 0 0. 030
25 El bow 7. 0 120. 0 449. 0 0. 002
26 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 120. 0 449. 0 0. 011 0. 05405
27 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 7. 0 120. 0 360. 0 0. 002
28 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 120. 0 0. 036
29 El bow 8. 0 200. 0 573. 0 0. 003
30 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 200. 0 573. 0 0. 010 0. 07106
31 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 8. 0 200. 0 600. 0 0. 000
32 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 200. 0 0. 040
33 El bow 9. 0 250. 0 565. 9 0. 003
34 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 250. 0 565. 9 0. 013 0. 06004
35 But t er f l y Damper 9. 0 250. 0 565. 9 0. 024
36 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 250. 0 565. 9 0. 001 0. 06004
37 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 9. 0 250. 0 750. 0 0. 001
38 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 250. 0 0. 050


Balanced Capacity Method

Not e t hat damper s have been i nser t ed i n duct s 6 and 7 ( No. 31 and
36 bel ow) t o cause an i ncr ease i n duct di amet er and a consequent
decr ease i n vel oci t y.


- - Desi gn Pr ocedur e - -

Syst emt ype: Suppl y
Duct Si zi ng Met hod: Bal anced Capaci t y
Roundi ng Met hod: Round Near est
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261


- - Fan Sel ect i on - -

Known Fan Par amet er : Fan Tot al Pr essur e = 0. 900 i n. wg

Fan Ai r f l ow: 845. 0 cf m
Fan or Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 900 i n. wg
Coi l Lost Pr essur e: 0. 500 i n. wg
Fi l t er Lost Pr essur e: 0. 100 i n. wg
Mi sc. Lost Pr essur e: 0. 050 i n. wg
- - - - - - -
AHU Ext er nal Tot al Pr essur e: 0. 250 i n. wg

AHU Pr essur e f or Suppl y Syst em: 0. 150 i n. wg - or 60. 0 %
AHU Pr essur e f or Ret ur n Syst em: 0. 100 i n. wg - or 40. 0 %



- - Lost Pr essur e f r omAi r Handl i ng Uni t t o Di f f user - -

Di f f user I D Q Tot al Del t a P
( cf m) ( i n. wg)

19 150. 0 0. 141
24 125. 0 0. 128
28 120. 0 0. 140
33 200. 0 0. 140
38 250. 0 0. 131
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Tot al 845. 0



- - Cal cul at ed Fi t t i ng Val ues - -

I D Fi t t i ng Type Di a. Q Vel oci t y Del t a P P/ L
( i n) ( cf m) ( f t / mi n) ( i n. wg) ( i n. wg)

1 Ai r Handl i ng Uni t 0. 0 845. 0 0. 0 0. 000
2 Coni cal Cont r act i on 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 008
3 St r ai ght Duct 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 003 0. 06415
4 El bow 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 006
5 St r ai ght Duct 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 005 0. 06415
6 El bow 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 006
7 St r ai ght Duct 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4 0. 006 0. 06415
8 Tee / Wye mai n 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6 0. 005
br anch 10. 0 250. 0 458. 4 0. 020
common 14. 0 845. 0 790. 4
9 St r ai ght Duct 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6 0. 007 0. 07167
10 Tee / Wye mai n 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2 0. 004
br anch 8. 0 200. 0 573. 0 0. 017
common 12. 0 595. 0 757. 6
11 St r ai ght Duct 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2 0. 007 0. 08259
12 Tee / Wye mai n 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5 0. 003
br anch 6. 0 120. 0 611. 2 0. 013
common 10. 0 395. 0 724. 2
13 St r ai ght Duct 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5 0. 007 0. 07138
14 Tee / Wye mai n 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 003
br anch 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 011
common 9. 0 275. 0 622. 5
15 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 006 0. 08082
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262
16 El bow 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 005
17 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 150. 0 561. 3 0. 016 0. 08082
18 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 7. 0 150. 0 450. 0 0. 004
19 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 150. 0 0. 040
20 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 013 0. 05817
21 El bow 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 002
22 St r ai ght Duct 7. 0 125. 0 467. 7 0. 002 0. 05817
23 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 7. 0 125. 0 375. 0 0. 002
24 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 125. 0 0. 030
25 El bow 6. 0 120. 0 611. 2 0. 004
26 St r ai ght Duct 6. 0 120. 0 611. 2 0. 023 0. 11427
27 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 6. 0 120. 0 360. 0 0. 007
28 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 120. 0 0. 036
29 El bow 8. 0 200. 0 573. 0 0. 003
30 But t er f l y Damper 8. 0 200. 0 573. 0 0. 024
31 St r ai ght Duct 8. 0 200. 0 573. 0 0. 010 0. 07106
32 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 8. 0 200. 0 600. 0 0. 000
33 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 200. 0 0. 040
34 El bow 10. 0 250. 0 458. 4 0. 002
35 But t er f l y Damper 10. 0 250. 0 458. 4 0. 016
36 St r ai ght Duct 10. 0 250. 0 458. 4 0. 008 0. 03599
37 Rect angul ar Tr ansi t i on 10. 0 250. 0 750. 0 0. 001
38 Di f f user / Gr i l l e 250. 0 0. 050





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CHAPTER 13

13-1. From Eq. 13-2
h
m
=
( )
( )
3
w w
2
2 3
w
w
m lb ft
A C C
ft hr
hr ft lb / ft
= =


Now C and W are related by Eq. 13-14
C =W
a

a w
3
a
lb lb
lb
ft
=lb
w
/ft
3

The density of dry air must be used. Then from Eq. 13-17
h
d
=h
m

a
=
3
a a
2 3 2
lb lb ft
x
ft hr ft ft hr
=


Consider Eq. 13-13 which is dimensionless

3 2
a
2 3
a pa m a
lb F h Btu ft ft hr
x x x
c h lb Btu
ft hr F ft


=

=1
Clearly dimensionless when C
pa
is used.

13-2. using Eq. 13-18,

pa d
h
c h
=Le
2/3
1; h =
d
=
pa
h 10
c 0.2
=
4
=41.7 lba/(hr ft
2
)
also h
m
=h
d
/
a
=41.7/0.075 =555.6 ft
3
/(hr ft
2
)
h
d
0.057 kga/(m
2
s)

13-3.
hd
k
=0.615 Re
0.47

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261
Re
d
=
0.075x100x60x(1/12)
0.044
=852
k =0.0147 Btu/(ft-hr-F) (Table A-4a)
h =
0.0147
(1/12)
x 0.615(852)
0.47
=2.59 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
h
d
=h/c
pa
=2.59/0.24 =10.8 lba/(ft
2
-hr)
h
m
=h
d
/
a
=10.8/0.075 =144 ft
3
/(ft
2
-hr)

13-4. Nu =0.023 Re
0.8
Pr
0.3
or h =0.023 (k/D) Re
0.8
Pr
0.3

and h
d
=h/c
pa
, assuming Le =1
Re =VD/; V =600/(/4) =471 ft/min or 28,260 ft/hr
=0.044 lbm/ft-hr; =0.075 (Table A-4a)
Re =
0.075x28,260x1
0.044
=48,170
Pr =0.7; k =0.0147 btu/hr-ft-F (Table A-4a)
h =0.023
0.0147
1
(48,170)
0.8
(0.7)
0.3
=1.7 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
h
d
=1.7/0.24 =7.1 lba/(ft
2
-hr)
h
m
=h
d
/
a
=7.1/0.075 =95 ft
3
/(ft
2
-hr)


13-5. 43,560 ft
2
=1 acre; m

w
=h
d
A(W
w
- W

)
Use j factor analogy, h/c
p
h
d
=Le
2/3

Assume: Le 0.85; C =
p
= 0.24
Then h
d
=
2/ 3
5
0.24(0.85)
=23.22 lba/(ft
2
-hr)
Using chart 1: W

=0.013 lb
v
/lba
W
w
=0.0223 lb
v
/lba (assume sat. air at 80 F)
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262
m

w
=(23.22)1000(43,560)(0.0223 0.013)
m

w
=9,415,000 lb
v
/hr = 19 gpm/acre

13-6. Use analogy of Eq. 13-18
q

l
=h
d
A(W

- W
w
)i
fg
; q

s
=hA(t

- t
w
)
= q

l
+q

s
; W
w
=0.00765; W

=0.0110; Chart 1
h
d
=
2/3
p
h
c Le
(1.15) =
2/ 3
9(1.15)
0.24(0.82)
=49.23 lba/(ft
2
-hr)
q

l
/A =49.23(0.011-0.00765)1065 =176 Btu/(hr ft
2
)
q

s
/A =9(1.15)(75-50) =259 Btu/(hr-ft
2
)
/A =435 Btu/(hr ft q

2
)

1.37 kW/m
2

13-7. q

l
=m

w
(i

- i
w
)
m

w
=h
d
A(W
w
- W

)
h
d
=h/(c
pa
Le
2/3
); c
pa
=0.24 Btu/(lba F); Le
2/3
1

h
d
=1.5/0.24 =6.25 lba/(hr ft
2
)
W
w
=0.0223 lb
v
/lba W

=0.0096 lb
v
/lba
i

=28.4 Btu/lba; Chart 1


m

w
=6.25(300 x 150)(0.0223 0.0096)
m

w
=3,572 lbw/hr
q

l
=3,572(1,050) =3,750,600 Btu/hr or 1,099 kW
Any water on the deck and occupants neglected.

13-8. It is assumed that the blanket is folded in half over the clothes line with
one side exposed to air.
h
d
=
p
h
c
Le
-2/3
=
4
0.24
(0.83)
-2/3
=18.87 lba/(hr ft
2
)
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ful.
263
m

w
=h
d
A(W
b
W
a
); W
b
=0.0312; W
a
=0.0152
m

w
=
w
m

; =m
w
/[h
d
A(W
v
W
a
)]
=
(16 4)
18.87(56)(0.0312 0.0152)

=0.71 hr
=42.6 min say 45 min.

13-9. The procedure is the same as example 13-1 except that the
energy balance line A-B will have a positive slope
and t
l 1
=75F, t
l 2
=90F
Ans: 68/62F; 17.4 ft
2
; 4.8 ft

13-10. The solutions to this problem closely follows example 13-2.

Ans: 77/69F; 17.4 ft
2
; 4.8 ft
Ans: 31/26 C; 1.6 m
2
; 3 m

13-11. The procedure is the same as example 13-2 except that the energy
balance line A-B will have a negative slope and the inlet and outlet
water temps. are reversed.
Ans: 71/69F; 17.4 ft
2
; 5.5 ft

13- 12. A
c
=m

a
/G
a
=
4000 x 0.071 x
60/1000 =17 ft
2
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Plot i vs. 1/(i
i
i) and evaluate: y =
( )
2
i
1
i
d
i i



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264
y = 2.7, Then
L =G
a
y/h
d
a
m
=1000 x 2.7/229.2 =11.8 ft






13-13. The solution to this problem closely follows example 13-3

13-14. Ans: 1.4 to 1.5

13-15. Solution of this problem follows example 13-4 closely.

13-16. Ans: 500 ft
2
; 12.2 ft

13-17. Extrapolate the 72 F wb curve in Fig. 13-9. The largest cooling
tower model "M", is not large enough to handle 2000 gpm.
Therefore use two towers of 1000 gpm each. Select the
model "L" which is rated at about 1100 gpm.

13-18 See example 13-3; the cooling tower must be larger.

13-19. See example 13-3; the cooling tower must be larger.

13-20. (a) Model B or C using Fig. 13-9

(b) Cooling Range =t

1
- t

2
=100 85 =15 F
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265
Approach =t

2
t
wb1
=85 76 =9 F
Tower capacity =q

q =(200 x 60 x 8.33)(1)(15) =1,499,400 Btu/hr


13-21. =500 qpm x t; qpm = q

250,000
500x10
=50
qpm/ton =
50
(250,000/15,000)
=3.0
Note: In this case, 1 ton =15,000 Btu/hr
Cold water temperature; t
c
=70 10 =60 F
From Fig. 13-7; t
wb
=42 F

13-22. Albuquerque, NM; t
wb
=64 F (Table B-1a)
(a) From Fig. 13-7; cold water temperature =73 F;
gpm/ton =2.5; warm water temperature =(73 +10) 83 F
(b) Charleston, SC; t
wb
=79 F (Table B-1a)
From Fig. 13-7; cold water temperature =84 F,
gpm =
500,000
15,000
x 2.5 =83 gpm (a & b)

13-23. (a) tons =
1,200,000
15,000
=80; gpm/ton =240/80 =3.0; maximum t
wb
=72 F
(b) gpm/ton =
320
80
=4.0; max. t
wb
=65 F


13-24. Model G, nominal rating 600 gpm & 250 tons (Table 13-2).
Using Figure 13-9; assume gpm is constant.
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266
With cooling range of (97 85) =12
Max. t
wb
=76 F (Figure 13-9)
With cooling range =15; t
w
=100 F
Max. t
wb
=74 F (Figure 13-9)
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CHAPTER 14


14-1. (a) P =
120 60
200 60

=0.43

180
60
200
120
air
water
1 2
R =
200 180
120 60

=0.33
F =0.985 {Fig. 14-19]

LMTD =
(180 60) (200 120)
(180 60)
ln
(200 120)


LMTD =98.7F

(b) C
c
=(mc

p
)
air
=5000 x 60
(29.92x0.491x144)
53.35(520)
(0.24)
=5490 Btu/hr-F
C
h
=C
c
(t
a2
t
a1
)/(t
w2
t
w1
) =5490(120 60)/(200 180)
=16,500 Btu/hr-F

(c) C
h
=(mc

p
)
w
=(Qc

p
)
w
=16,500 Btu/hr-F
Q =

16,500
(60.1)(1)
=275 ft
3
/hr; = Q

275(7.48)
60
=34 gpm

(d) q =UAF(LMTD)

UA =
( )
h w2 w1
C t t
16,500(200 180)
F(LMTD) 0.985(98.7)


= =3390 Btu/hr-F

(e) NTU =
min c air
UA UA UA
C C C
= =
NTU =
3390
5490
=0.62
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267

(f) =
120 60
200 60

0.43

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268
14-2. (a) q =UAF(LMTD) =(mc

p
)
air
(110-50)
m

a
=4000 x 14.7 x 144/(53.35 x 510) =311.2 lb/min
or 18,672 lb/hr
q =18,672(0.24)(110-50) =268,874 Btu/hr

q =(mc

pw
)(180 t
ho
) =(25 x 8.33)(1)(180 t
ho
)60
t
ho
=180 -
268,874
25x8.33x60
=158.5 F or 159 F
P =
110 50
180 50

=0.46; R =
180 159
110 50

=0.35
F =0.98; Fig. 14-1
LMTD =
109 70
109
ln
70

=88
A =q/(UF x LMTD) =

268,874
10x0.98x88
=312 ft
2


(b) C
air
=18,672(0.24) =4481 =C
min

C
wat
=25 x (60.8/7.48) x 60 =12,193 =C
max

=
110 50
180 50

=0.461;
min
max
C 4481
C 12,1
=
93
=0.37
NTU =0.7, Fig. 14-18
UA/C
min
=0.7; A =
0.7x4481
10
=314 ft
2



14-3. (a) m

air
=3200 x 60 x
14.7x144
53.35x555
=13,726 lb/hr
C
air
=C
min
=3294

125
95
125
T air
refrig.
T
NTU =
10
=0.91
x300
3294
=0.615, Fig. 14-18
at C
min
/C
max
=0

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269
14-3. (continued)
0.615 =
co
t 9
125 95

5
; t
co
=t
ao
=0.615(125 95) +95
t
ao
=113.5F

(b) q =C

air
(t
ao
t
ai
) =m

r
i
fg
=3294(113.5 95)
m

r
=
3294(113.5 95)
65.5

=928 lb/hr


14-4. (a) m =
1/ 2
2h 2x10
ky 90(0.008/12)

=


=18.26 ft
-1
l m =
(1.0 0.5)
12

18.26 =0.76
R/r =1/0.5 =2.0; =0.8, Fig. 14-4

(b) =
tanh(mr )
(mr )

; =
R R
1 1 0.35ln
r r

+


=1.243
mr =(18.26)(0.5/12)1.243 =0.9454
=
tanh(0.9454)
0.9454
=0.78

(c) Within readability of Fig. 14-4 the answers are the same



14-5.
s
=1-
f
A
A
(1 - ); =0.78 from proplem 14-4

s
=1-0.9(1-0.78) =0.80



14-6.
o o so m o i i o
1 1 x 1 1 (0.015/12)
U h k(A / A ) h(A / A ) 10x0.8 (100x1)

= + + = +
+
1
200x(1/9)
=0.17; Assumes A
i
A
o
and k
copper
100
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270
The second term may be neglected
U
o
=5.9 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)

14-7.
o
1 1 1
U 10x0.8 1100(1/9)
= + =0.133
U
o
=7.5 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)



14-8. =
tanh(m )
m


m =
1/ 2
1/ 2
3
2h 2x57
ky
173(0.16x10 )

=64.18 m
-1

ml =64.18(6 x 10
-3
) =0.385; =0.953


14-9.
s
=1 -
f
A
A
(1 - ) =1 0.85(1 0.95)

s
=0.96


14-10.
r p p s p r s
1 1 x 1 1 A 1 1
;
UA h A kA hA U A h h

= + + = + ; Assume
p
x
kA

=0

A
f
=2HLWP
s
mm
2
; A
p
=LW mm
2
; A =A
f
+(LW tLWP
s
)

Where P
s
=fin pitch in fins/in. and L =W =1


s s
p s
2HLWP LW tP A 2x6x0.47 1 0.16x.47
A 2HLWP 2x6x.47
+ +
= = =1.164


1 1.164 1
U 1400 57(0.96)
= + =0.019; U =52.3 W/(m
2
C)

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271
14-11. =
tanh(mr )
mr

; =
e e
R R
1 1 0.35ln
r r


+






e
R
=1.28 ( - 0.2)
r
1/2
; m =
1/ 2
2h
ky




a
b
b =1.35 in.
Dim
2
Dim
1
=
M
; =
r
L
M
; L M
(a) Dim
1
=
a 1.12
2 2
= =0.56 in
Dim
2
=
1/ 2
2
2
1 a
b
2 2


+





=
1
2
[(0.56)
2
+(1.35)
2
]
1/2
=0.73
Then L =Dim
2
=0.73 in.; M =Dim
1
=0.56 in.
=
0.56
(0.64/2)
=1.75; =
0.73
0.56
=1.3

e
R
=1.27(1.75)(1.3 0.3)
r
1/2
=2.22
=(2.22 1)[1 +0.35ln(2.22)] =1.56; m =
1/ 2
2x10
90(0.01/12)



=16.33 ft
-1

mr =16.33(0.32/12)1.56 =0.631

b
b =22 mm
Dim
2
Dim
1
a =25 mm
=
tanh(0.762)
=0.869
0.762
(b) Dim
1
=
a
2
=12.5 mm
Dim
2
=
1
2
[22
2
+12.5
2
]
1/2
=12.65 mm
L =Dim
2
=12.65 mm
M =Dim
1
=12.5 mm
=
12.
=2.5; =
5
5
12.65
=1.012
12.5

e
R
=1.27(2.5)(1.012 0.3)
r
1/2
=2.69
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272
=2.69 1)[1 +0.35 ln(2.69)] =2.26
m =
2x68
170(0.00018)

=66.67 m
-1

mr =66.67(0.005)2.26 =0.753
=
tanh(0.753)
0.753

=0.85

14-12.
( ) o o o
j j o
1 1 1
U h
h A / A

= + ; neglecting tube wall resistance


(a)
o
=1 -
f
A
A
(1 - ) =1 0.9(1 0.84) =0.86

o
1 1 1
U 10x0.86 600(10)
= + =0.120; U
o
=8.60 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
(b)
o
=1 0.9(1 0.81) =0.83

o
1 1 1
U 0.068x0.83 (3.4x10)
= + =17.8; U
o
=0.056 kW/(m
2
C)


14-13. (a) R
ct
=2.222 x 10
-6

0.6422
2
1/12
0.64 1
0.010
0.010











R
ct
=4.15 x 10
-4
(hr-ft
2
-F)/Btu

(b) 12 fins/in =0.472 fin/mm
R
ct
=3.913 x 10
-7

0.6422
2
1/0.72
10 1
0.18
0.18




=1.093 x 10
-4
(m
2
C)/W


14-14. Re =
VD

; =60.6 lbm/ft
3

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273
D
I
=0.545/12 =0.0454 ft; Table C-2
V = /A = Q

2
2.5 1
x
7.48
60( / 4)(0.0454)
=3.44 ft/sec
=0.93 lbm/(ft hr) =2.58 x 10
-4
lbm/(ft-sec) Table A-1a
Re =
4
60.6(3.44)0.0454
2.58x10

=36,683; Re =36,700
(L/D)
min
=4/0.0454 =88 ft
Pr =2.43 (Pr =c
p
/k)

hD
k
=0.023 Pr
0.8
D
Re
0.3
; k =0.383 Btu/(hr-ft-F)
h =0.023
(0.383)
(0.0454)
(36,700)
0.8
(2.43)
0.3
=1,136 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)

14-15. =1.01(62.4) =63.02 LBM/FT
2
[Fig. 10-2a]
=0.7/1490 =4.7 x 10
-4
lbm/ft-sec [Fig. 10-2b]
C
p
=0.93 Btu/lbm-F [Fig. 14-8];
K =0.93 Btu/lbm-F [Fig. 14-9]
V =3.44 ft/sec [Problem 14-14];
D =0.0454 ft [Problem 14-14]
Re =
4
63.02(3.44)0.0454
4.7x10

=20,940
(L/D)
min
=88 ft [Problem 14-14]
P
r
=
4
p
c
4.7x10 (3600)0.93
k 0.285


= =5.52
h =0.023
(0.285)
(0.0454)
(20,940)
0.8
(5.52)
0.3
=690 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)

14-16. =1.045 x 62.4 =65.21 lbm/ft
2
;
=1.3/1490 =8.725 x 10
-4
lbm/(ft-sec)
c
p
=0.81; k =0.22; V =3.44 ft/sec; D =0.0454 ft
Re =
4
65.21(3.44)0.0454
8.725x10

=11,670
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274
Pr =
4
0.81x8.725x10 3600
0.22

=1.16
h =0.023
(0.22)
0.0454
(11,670)
0.8
(1.16)
0.3
=209 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)



14-17. Use hydraulic dia. for rectangular channel
D
h
=4r
n
=4(A
c
/P) =4(3/8) =1.5 in. =0.125 ft
=62.4 lbm/ft
3
[Table A-1a];
=3.45 lbm/(ft-hr) [Table A-1a]
Re =
62.4(4)(0.125)
(3.45/3600)
=32,556
c
p
=1.003 Btu/lbm-F [Table a-1a]
k =0.338 Btu/(ft-hr-F); Pr =3.45 x 1.003/0.338 =10
(a) For cooling; h =0.023
k
D
Re
0.8
Pr
0.3

h =0.023
0.338
0.125
(32,556)
0.8
(10.2)
0.3
=509 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)

(b) For heating;
h =0.023
0.338
0.125
(32,556)
0.8
(10.2)
0.4
=642 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)


14-18. D
h
=0.125 ft [From problem 14-17]
=62.4(1.045) =65.2 lbm/ft
3
[Fig. 10-2a]
=3.5/1490 =2.35 x 10
-3
lbm/ft-sec [Fig. 10-2b]
Re =
3
65.2(4)0.125
2.35x10

=13,900;
c
p
=0.89 btu/(lbm-F) [Fig. 14-8]
k =0.28 Btu/(ft-hr-F) [Fig. 14-9];
Pr =2.35 x 10
-3
(3600)(0.89)/0.28 =26.9
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275

(a) Cooling
h =0.023
(0.28)
0.125
(13,900)
0.8
(26.9)
0.3
=285 Btu/(hr-ft
2-
F)

(b) Heating: h =285
0.4
0.3
(26.9)
(26.9)
=396 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)


14-19. (a) Re =
3
VD 990.2(1.5)(0.012)
0.596x10


= =29,905
Assume L/D >60
Then
hD
k
=0.023 Re
0.8
Pr
0.4
; Pr =
3
0.596x10 x4.182
637.3




=3.91
h =
0.023
0.012
(0.637)(31,157)
0.8
(3.91)
0.4
h =8287 W/(m
2
C) =8.29 kW/(m
2
C)


Data from Figures 10-2a, 10-2b, 14-8 and 14-9.

(b) Re =
3
(1.028)999(1.5)(0.012)
1.2x10

=15,400
Pr =
3 3
1.2x10 x3.7x10
0.50

=8.9
h =
0.023
0.012
(0.50)(15,400)
0.8
(8.9)
0.4
=5140 W/(m
2
C)
=5.14 kW/(m
2
C)


14-20. (a) Re =
62.4(0.5)(0.34/12)
(3.45/3600)
=922 <2500

hD
k
=1.86[ReP
r

D
L
]
1/3

0.14
s




; Assume
0.14
s




1
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276
Pr =
3.45(1.004)
0.332
=10.4
h =
1.86(0.332)
(0.34/12)
[922(10.4)
0.34
10x12

]
1/3
=66 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)

(b) Same procedure as part a using data for 30% ethylene
glycol from Figures 10-2a, 10-2b, 14-8 and 14-9.


14-21. Re =
3
992.2(0.10)x10
653
=1519
There is a question about the flow regime. It is probably
in the transition region. Assume it is laminar and use
Eq. 14-24 and assume
0.14
s




1.
Pr =
3
0.653x10 (4.182)
0.63

=4.34
h =
1.86(0.63)
0.01
[1519(4.34)
0.01
3

]
1/3
=328 W/(m
2
- C)

14-22. Use average values for G
v
and G

and Eq. 14-26.


G

=
c
m
A

; (m

)
avg
=0.912; (G
l
)
avg
=
2
0.9/ 2
0.589
4 12




=237.8 lbm/(ft
2
-hr)
(m

v
)
avg
=(1 +0.1)/2 =0.55 lbm/hr
(G
v
)
avg
=0.55/A
c
=290.6 lbm/(ft
2
hr)

DG 0.589 237.8
12 0.95

=

=12.3

v
DG 0.589 290.6
12 0.95

=

=15

hD
k
=

=13.8(Pr

)
1/3

0.2
1/ 6
1/ 2
fg
v
p v
i
DG
c t













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277

1/ 2
v
v
DG



=15.0
1/ 2
61.0
0.0135



=1008
Pr

=
0.95(1.001)
0.384
=2.48
i
fg
=1001 Btu/lbm
t 80 =(160 80); t
wall
= 80F (Using water outside the tubes)
h =13.8
0.384
0.589/12
(2.48)
1/3

1/ 6
1001
1.0(80)



[1008]
0.2

h =888 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)


14-23. Use average values of G

and G
v
and Eq. 14-26
A
c
=
4

(0.015)
2
=1.767 x 10
-4
m
2

(G

)
avg
=
3
4
(0.88)0.126x10 / 2
1.767x10

=0.314 kg/(m
2
s)
(G
v
)
avg
=
3
4
0.126x10 (1 0.12)/ 2
1.767x10

+
=0.399 kg/(m
2
s)


3
DG 0.015(0.314)
0.390x10

=12.1

1/ 2
1/ 2
v
3
v
DG 0.015(0.399 976
0.219
0.390x10

=1024
Pr

=
3 3
0.390x10 x4.19x10
0.665

=2.46; i
fg
=2326 kJ /kg
t 45C =(73 28); liquid water assumed outside tubes
h =13.8
(0.665)
(0.015)
(2.46)
1/3

1/ 6
2326
4.19(45)



(1024)
0.2
=5022 W/(m
2
C)
h =5.02 kW(m
2
C)


14-24. Use Eq. 14-28

pr
R-22
{
At inl
m

=
et x =0.20; at outlet 10F superheat
80 lbm/hr per tube, P =70 psia; L =5 ft
1
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278

Since x
c
1.0; C
1
=8.2 x 10
-3
; n =0.4
Assume tube wall thickness of 0.016 in.
Then D
j
=0.375 2(0.016) =0.343 in.
A
j
=
2
i
D
4

=6.417 x 10
-4
ft
2

G =
4
j
m 80
A
6.417x10

=124,700 lbm/(ft
2
hr)

=0.52 lbm/(ft-hr) at 30F (sat. temp. at 70 psia)



GD 124,700(0.343/12)
0.52
=

=6855
k =0.056 Btu/(hr-ft-F) at 30F (sat. temp.); Table A-3a
i
fg
=88.5 Btu/lbm
h =8.2 x 10
-3

0.4
2
(0.056) 778(0.8)88.5(32.17)
(6855)
(0.343/12) 5(32.17)






h =779 btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)

14-25. Use Equation 14-28
R-22; G =200 kg/(m
2
s); D
i
=8.5 mm; L =2 m; P
i
=210 kPa
X
j
=30%; x
e
=100%
T
sat
=-24C at 210 kPa abs. Pres. [Table A-3b]

=0.270 x 10
-3
N-s/m
2
[Table A-3b]; extrapolate
k

=0.107 W/(m c) [Table A-3b]


i
fg
=223 kJ /kg [Table A-3b]

3
GD 200(0.0085)
0.270x10

=6296
C
1
=8.2 x 10
-3
; n =0.4
h =8.2 x 10
-3

0.4
2
(0.107) 0.7(223)1000
(6296)
0.0085 2x9.807





h =4106 W/(m
2
C) =4.11 kW/m
2
C

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279
14-26. l
h
=f
2
L V
D 2g
; Assume isothermal
Re =36,700; Problem 14-14; smooth tubes
f =0.022, Fig. 10-1; L =(6 x 6) +(5 x 1) =41 ft
D
i
=0.0454 ft; V =3.44 ft/sec, Problem 14-14
l
h
=0.022 x
2
41 (3.44)
x
0.0454 2x32.17
=3.65 ft


14-27. l
h
=f
2
L V
D 2g
; Assume isothermal
V =0.5 ft/sec; f =64/Re =64/922 =0.069
L =(10 x 10) +(9 x 1.5) =113.5 ft; D
i
=0.34 in.
l
h
=0.069 x
2
113.5x12 0.5
x
0.34 2x32.17
=1.07 ft

14-28. Refer to Fig. 14-10
Load/circuit =10 x 12,000/10 =12,000 Btu/hr
Length/circuit =(6 x 5) +(5 x 0.75) =33.75 ft
(a) P

/L =0.10 psi/ft; CF =1.25 Fig. 14-10


P

=0.10 x 33.75 x 1.25 =4.22 psi


(b) P

/L =0.04 psi/ft
CF =1.25
P

=0.04 x 33.75 x 1.25 =1.7 psi




14-29. G
fr
=1800 lbm/(hr-ft
2
); t
1
=70F, t
2
=120F
(a) Figure 14-12
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280
Re
x
=
c b
G x

; G
c
=
fr
G 1800
0.56
= =3214 lbm/(ft
2
-hr)
=4.6 x 10
-2
lbm/(ft-hr) at t =95F (Table A-4a)
Re
x

2
3214(1.083/12)
4.6x10

=6306
j =0.0091; f =0.021 Fig. 14-12
h =jG
c
c
p
Pr
-2/3
=0.0091(3214)0.24(0.7)
-2/3

=8.91 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)

(b) Re
d
=6306 x 0.525/1.083 =3057; assumes expanded tubes
plus fin collars.

b a
t h
4x x A 4 1.25x1.083x0.56
A D D 0.0152x0.525x12


= =10.08
J P =(3057)
-0.4
(10.08)
-0.15
=0.0285 (Eq. 14-39)
j =9.1 x 10
-3
Fig. 14-14; h =0.0091(3214)(0.24)(0.7)
-2/3

=8.9 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
D* =
0.525x10.08
(1.25 0.525)
1
1/6.7

+
=0.904
Using Eq. 14-44:
FP = (3057)
-0.25
0.4
0.25 0.5
0.525 1.25 0.525 1.25
1
1 0.904 0.904
4 0.006
6.7




=
0.173
f =4.2 x 10
-2
or f =0.042 (Note that f may be in error up to
35% (Figure 14-15)

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281
14-30. (a) G
c
=4.5 kg/(m
2
s); t
b
=20C; Re =
c
G (0.0275)

;
=18.2 x 10
-6
N-s/m
2
[Table A-4b]
Re =
6
4.5(0.0275)
18.2x10

=6800; c
p
=1.005 kJ /kg-C
j =0.009; f =0.020 [Fig. 14-12]
h =jG
c
c
p
Pr
-2/3
=0.0090(4.5)1.005(0.7)
-2/3
=0.051 kJ /(m
2
-s-C)
h =0.051 kW/(m
2
-C)

(b) See problem 14-29b for prcedure

14-31. Use Eq. 14-42 or 14-45
l
h
=
( )
2
2
c 1 1
m 1 2 c m
G A
1 1 f
2g A




+ +




1
=
14.7(144)
53.35(530)
=0.075 lbm/ft
3
;
2
=0.068 lbm/ft
3

m
=(
1
+
2
)/2 =0.072 lbm/ft
3

c fr
A V 147(1.083/12)5
A A (1)0.56

= = =118.45
Where V =A
fr
xL; A
fr
=1 ft
2
; L =5 x 1.083/12 =0.451
l
h
=
( )
2
2
2
(3214) 0.075
1 (0.56) 1
0.068
2(32.17)(0.072)(0.075)(3600)


+

+
0.042(118.5)(0.075)
0.072


h =12.2 ft of air
P
o
=12.2
(0.075)12
(62.4)
=0.18 in. wg.

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282
14-32. Use Equation 14-42 or 14-45
t
i
=10C; t
2
=30C; A/A
c
=118.5 from problem 14-31

1
=
3
101x10
287(283)
=1.244 kg/m
3
;
2
=1.161 kg/m
3
;

m
=1.203 kg/m
3

l
h
=
( )
2
2
(4.5) 1.244
1 (0.56) 1
2(9.807)(1.203)(1.244) 1.161

+


+
0.019(118.5)
1.244
1.203


l
h
=1.67 m of air
P
o
=1.67
1.244
1000

(1000) =2.08 mm of wg.


or P
o
=1.67(1.244)9.807 =20.4 Pa

14-33. Re =
c h
G D

; D
h
=0.0101 ft
At 65F, =4.39 x 10
-2
lbm/(ft-hr) [Table A-4a]
Re =
2
2700(0.0101)
4.39x10

=621
From Fig. 14-16; j =0.013, f =0.053
h =G
c
c
p
j Pr
-2/3
=2700(0.24)0.013(0.72)
-2/3
=10.5 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
Where c
p
=0.24 Btu/(lbm-F); Pr =0.72 From Table A-4a

14-34. Use Eq. 14-33; t
b
=65 F
=
14.6x144
53.35(535)
=0.074 lbm/ft
3
;
2
=0.077 lbm/ft
3


m
=(
1
+
s
)/2 =0.076 lbm/ft
3
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283

c h
A 4L 4(4/12)
A D 0.0101
= = =132
Assume a contraction ratio of 0.5
Then K
i
=0.32; K
e
=0.27 Fig. 14-17

2
o
2
01
P (2700)
P
2(32.17)14.6(144)(0.074)(3600)

= {(0.32 +1-
2
0.5 )
+2
2
0.074 0.074 0.074
1 0.053(132) 1 (0.5) 0.27
0.077 0.076 0.077


+






P
o
/P
01
=4.126 x 10
-4

P
o
=4.126 x 10
-4
(14.6)(144)(12)/62.4 =0.17 in. wg.


14-35. (a) Coil Description:
Type of coil =Refrigerant condenser
Tube pattern =Staggered plate-fin-tube coil
Material =Aluminum fins with copper tubes
Refrigerant type =Refrigerant 134
Finned side fluid =air
Finned side air pressure =29.92 inches of Hg

Face area =4.44 square feet
Height of heat exchanger =20.0 inches
Width of heat exchanger =32.0 inches
Number of rows of tubes in the air flow direction =4
Number of tubes per row =16 circuits on tube side =4

Fin pitch =8 fins/inch Fin thickness =.006 inches
Vertical tube spacing =1.250 inches
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284
Horizontal tube spacing =1.083 inches
Tube outside diameter =.500 inches
Tube wall thickness =.016 inches
Inside tube fouling factor =.0000 BTU-HR-SQFT-F
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285
14-35. (continued)
Total heat transfer rate =-48783.2 Btu/hr
Sensible heat transfer rate =-48783.2 Btu/hr
Entering air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =95.0 F
Face velocity =650.00 FPM
Air volume flow rate =2888.9 CFM
Leaving air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =111.4 F
Tube side conditions:
Refrigerant saturation temperature =125.0 F
Air pressure loss =.393 inches of water
Tube side pressure loss =1.07 PSI
Fin efficiency =.808 Surface effectiveness =.824

Tube side heat transfer coefficient =388.8 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Finned side heat transfer coefficient =12.5 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Mean temperature difference =-20.7 F

(b) yes



14-36. Coil Description:
Type of coil =water or brine solution
Tube pattern =staggered plate-fin-tube coil
Material =aluminum fins with copper tubes
Tube side fluid =water
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286
Finned side fluid =air
Finned side air pressure =29.92 iches of Hg

Face area =5.56 square feet
Height of heat exchanger =20.0 inches
Width of heat exchanger =40.0 inches
Number or rows of tubes in the air flow direction =2
Number of tubes per row =16 Circuits on tube side =4

Fin pitch =7 fins/inch Fin thickness =.008 inches
Vertical tube spacing =1.250 inches
Horizontal tube spacing =1.083 inches
Tube outside diameter =.500 inches
Tube wall thickness =.016 inches
Inside tube fouling factor =.0000 Btu-hr-SQFT-F
Diameter of inlet pipe/header =1.0 inch(s)

Total heat transfer rate =-95759.1 Btu/hr
Sensible heat transfer rate =-95759.1 Btu/hr
Entering air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =70.0 F
Face velocity =650.00 FPM
Air volume flow rate =3611.1 CFM
Leaving air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =94.6 F
Tube side conditions:
Entering fluid temperature =150.0 F
Leaving fluid temperature =128.2 F
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287
Tube side fluid velocity =4.00 FPS
Cooling or heating liquid flow rate =9.0 GPM
Air pressure loss =.187 inches of water
Tube side head loss =8.20 feet or water

Fin efficiency =.831 Surface effectiveness =.846

Tube side heat transfer coefficient =1368.8 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Finned side heat transfer coefficient =14.4 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Mean temperature difference =-56.8 F

14-37. From problem 14-29, Re =6306 (based on x
b
)
and h
5
=8.91 btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)

n
1
j
j
=1 1280 Nr(Re)
-1.2
(Eq. 14-42)
then
1.2 1.2
5
1
j
1 1280 x5(Re) 1 6400Re
j

= =
and
1.2
8
1.2
5
j 1 (8x1280)(6306)
j
1 (5x1280)(6306)

=0.872
now h
8
/h
5
=j
8
/j
5
=0.872
h
8
=0.872(8.91)
h
8
=7.77 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)

14-38. From problem 14-30, Re =6800 and h
5
=51W/(m
2
C)

1.2
n
1.2
5
j 1 1280Nr(Re)
j
1 6400Re

[From solution to 14-37]



1.2
6
1.2
5
j 1 (6x1280)(680)
j
1 6400(680)

=0.96
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288
h
6
/h
5
=j
6
/j
5
=0.96
h
6
=0.96 x 51 =49W/(m
2
C) or 0.049 kW/(m
2
C)

14-39. Re
x
=
c b
V x 0.073 500
x
0.0445 0.54

= (1.083/12) x 60 =8225
j =0.0095 (Fig. 14-12)
h =jGc
p
Pr
-2/3
=0.0085 x 0.073 x
500
0.54
x 60 x 0.24(0.7)
-2/3

h =10.5 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
C
1
=
0.0123 0.0092
85 55

=1.033 x 10
-4
;
}
Using Chart 1 or
Computer Program
PSYC
C
2
=
0.0123 0.0063
85 45

=1.5 x 10
-4

C
avg
=1.27 x 10
-4
; Use Eq. 14-70 & 14-73; k =128
Btu
(ft hr F)
;
From Table 5-1a.

M
2
=
4
2x10.5x12 1.27x10 x1065
1
128x0.006 0.24

=513; M =22.7 ft
-1


e
R
r
=1.27 ( - 0.3)
1/2
=
1.27x1.25
0.525x2
(1 0.3)
1/2
=1.265
=
e e
R R
1 1 0.35ln
r r

+


=(1.265 1)[1 +0.35 ln(1.265)] =0.287
Mr =22.7 x
0.525
12
x 0.287 =0.285

m
=
tanh(mr )
mr

=0.974 or 97.4%

ms
=1 -
f
A
A
(1 -
m
) =1 0.94(1 0.974) =0.98 or 98%


14-40. For 80/67F; t
dp
=60F
Surface temperature must be equal to or less than 60F.
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289
Moisture would condense at the base of the fin on the
tube outer surface if it condenses at all.

Let t
w
be this temperature.
=U q

i
A
i
(t
w
t
I
) =h
d

o
A(i
a
i
w
)
where
i i i i m
1 1
UA hA kA
x
= + ; A
m
=A
i
and
i i
1 1 x 1 0.018
U h k 1000 12x190

= + = + =0.001
U
i
=1000 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F); where k
copper
=190 Btu/(ft-hr-F)
t
w
=t
I
+
d o
i i
h A
UA

(i
a
i
w
) =50 +
60x12
1000
(31.7 i
w
)

Assume a value for t
w
, read i
w
from chart 1 and compute t
w
to
check assumption. Assume t
w
=55.8F then i
w
=23.7 Btu/lba
and the calculated t
w
checks O.K. Therefore moisture will
condense at the base of the fin and on some portion of the fin.
There will probably be no condensation near the outer edge of the
fin.

14-41. For 27/19 C, t
dp
=15 C
Solution is similar to problem 14-40
U
i
A
i
(t
w
t
I
) =h
d

o
(i
a
i
w
)

i
1 1 0.0005
U 53 58
= + =0.01888; U
i
=52.98
t
w
=t
i
+
d o
i i
h A
UA

(i
a
i
w
) =14.3 +
2.5x14
52.98
(54.2 i
w
)
1000
3600

For t
w
=16; i
w
=45. Checks O.K.
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290
There will be no condensation because the tube outside wall is
greater than the dew point temperature of the air.

14-42. This problem is intended for computer solution because
considerable iteration is required.

Coil Description:
Type of coil =water or brine solution
Tube pattern =staggered plate-fin-tube coil
Material =aluminum fins with copper tubes
Tube side fluid =water
Finned side fluid =air
Finned side air pressure =29.92 inches of Hg

Face area =12.50 square feet
Height of heat exchanger =30.0 inches
Width of heat exchanger =60.0 inches; W =2H
Number of rows of tubes in the air flow direction =5
Number of tubes per row =24 Circuits on tube side =12

Fin pitch =12 fins/inch Fin thickness =.008 inches
Vertical tube spacing =1.250 inches
Horizontal tube spacing =1.083 inches
Tube outside diameter =.500 inches
Tube wall thickness =.016 inches
Inside tube fouling factor =.0000 Btu-hr-SQFT-F
Diameter of inlet pipe/header =2.5 inch(s)
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291
14.42. (continued)
Total heat transfer rate =232885.0 Btu/hr
Sensible heat transfer rate =164919.4 Btu/hr
Entering air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =80.0 F
Wet bulb temperature =68.0 F
Enthalpy =32.3 Btu/LBMA
Humidity ratio =83.3 grains/LBMA
Face velocity =550.00 FPM
Air volume flow rate =6875.0 CFM
Comment: coil is 34.3 percent dry
Leaving air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =57.4 F
Wet bulb temperature =57.1 F
Enthalpy =24.4 Btu/LBMA
Humidity ratio =68.7 Grains/LBMA
Tube side conditions:
Entering fluid temperature =45.0 F
Leaving fluid temperature =62.4 F
Tube side fluid velocity =4.00 FPS
Cooling or heating liquid flow rate =26.9 GPM
Air pressure loss =.774 inches of water
Tube side head loss =14.09 feet of water

Fin efficiency =.809 Surface effectiveness =.819

Tube side heat transfer coefficient =822.3 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Finned side heat transfer coefficient =10.0 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
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292



14-43. Coil Description:
Type of coil =Direct expansion
Tube pattern =Staggered circular-fin-tube coil
Material =Aluminum fins with copper tubes
Refrigerant type =refrigerant 22
Finned side fluid =air
Finned side air pressure =29.92 inches of Hg

Face area =10.31 square feet
Height of heat exchanger =24.8 inches
Width of heat exchanger =60.0 inches
Number of rows of tubes in the air flow direction =4
Number of tubes per row =16 Circuits on tube side =16

Fin pitch =12 Fins/inch Fin thickness =.014 inches
Vertical tube spacing =1.500 inches
Horizontal tube spacing =1.300 inches
Tube outside diameter =.625 inches
Tube wall thickness =.022 inches
Inside tube fouling factor =.0000 Btu-HR-SQFT-F

Total heat transfer rate =241221.0 Btu/hr
Sensible heat transfer rate =162201.8 Btu/hr
Entering air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =82.0 F
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293
Wet bulb temperature =67.0 F
Enthalpy =31.4 Btu/LBMA
Humidity ratio =74.9 Grains/LBMA
Face velocity =500.00 FPM
Air volume flow rate =5156.3 CFM
Comment: Coil is .0 percent dry
Leaving air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =52.2 F
Wet bulb temperature =50.7 F
Enthalpy =20.6 Btu/LBMA
Humidity ratio =52.1 Grains/LBMA
Tube side conditions:
Refrigerant saturation temperature =35.0 F
Air pressure loss =.623 inches of water
Tube side pressure loss =1.36 PSI
Refrigerant quality entering/leaving evaporator =.29
Enthalpy change in evaporator =62.75 Btu/LBM
Fin efficiency =.879 Surface effectiveness =.885
Tube side heat transfer coefficient =375.5 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Finned side heat transfer coefficient =9.3 Btu/hr-SQFT-F

14-44. Coil Description:
Type of coil =Steam
Tube pattern =Triangular plate-fin-tube coil
Material =Aluminum fins with copper tubes
Tube side fluid =Steam
Finned side fluid =Air
Finned side air pressure =29.92 inches of Hg
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294

Face area =12.00 square feet
Height of heat exchanger =24.0 inches
Width of heat exchanger =72.0 inches
Number of rows of tubes in the air flow direction =2
Number of tubes per row =16 Circuits on tube side =16

Fin pitch =8 Fins/inch Fin thickness =.006 inches
Vertical tube spacing =1.500 inches
Horizontal tube spacing =1.299 inches
Tube outside diameter =.625 inches
Tube wall thickness =.018 inches
Inside tube fouling factor =.0000 Btu-hr-SQFT-F

Total heat transfer rate =-554503.6 Btu/hr
Sensible heat transfer rate =-554503.6 Btu/hr
Entering air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =60.0 F
Face velocity =750.00 FPM
Air volume flow rate =9000.0 CFM
Leaving air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =116.1 F
Tube side conditions:
Steam temperature =227.1 F
Steam saturation pressure =5.000 PSIG

Air pressure loss =.269 inches of water
Fin efficiency =.738 surface effectiveness =.756
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295
14-44. (continued)
Tube side heat transfer coefficient =2051.7 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Finned side heat transfer coefficient =14.6 Btu/hr-SQFT-F

14-45. Coil Description:
Type of coil =Water or brine solution
Tube pattern =Staggered plate-fin-tube coil
Material =Aluminum fins with copper tubes
Tube side fluid =30% ethylene glycol solution
Finned side fluid =Air
Finned side air pressure =29.92 inches of Hg

Face area =5.56 square feet
Height of heat exchanger =20.0 inches
Width of heat exchanger =40.0 inches
Number of rows of tubes in the air flow direction =2
Number of tubes per row =16 Circuits on tube side =4

Fin pitch =7 Fins/inch Fin thickness =.008 inches
Vertical tube spacing =1.250 inches
Horizontal tube spacing =1.083 inches
Tube outside diameter =.500 inches
Tube wall thickness =.016 inches
Inside tube fouling factor =.0000 Btu-hr-SQFT-F
Diameter of inlet pipe/header =1.0 inch(s)

Total heat transfer rate =-90610.1 Btu/hr
Sensible heat transfer rate =-90610.1 Btu/hr
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296
Entering air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =70.0 F
Face velocity =650.00 FPM
Air volume flow rate =3611.1 CFM
Leaving air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =93.3 F
Tube side conditions:
Entering fluid temperature =150.0 F
Leaving fluid temperature =128.4 F
Tube side fluid velocity =4.00 FPS
Cooling or heating liquid flow rate =9.0 GPM
Air pressure loss =.186 inches of water
Tube side head loss =10.13 feet of water

Fin efficiency =.831 Surface effectiveness =.846

Tube side heat transfer coefficient =796.0 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Finned side heat transfer coefficient =14.4 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Mean temperature difference =-57.6 F

There is a 5 percent reduction in capacity and increased pressure loss
on the tube side.

14-46. Coil Description:
Type of coil =Water or brine solution
Tube pattern =Staggered plate-fin-tube coil
Material =Aluminum fins with copper tubes
Tube side fluid =30% ethylene glycol solution
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297
Finned side fluid =Air
Finned side air pressure =29.92 inches of Hg

Face area =12.50 square feet
Height of heat exchanger =30.0 inches
Width of heat exchanger =60.0 inches
Number of rows of tubes in the air flow direction =5
Number of tubes per row =24 Circuits on tube side =12

Fin pitch =12 Fins/inch Fin thickness =.008 inches
Vertical tube spacing =1.250 inches
Horizontal tube spacing =1.083 inches
Tube outside diameter =.500 inches
Tube wall thickness =.016 inches

Inside tube fouling factor =.0000 Btu-hr-SQFT-F
Diameter of inlet pipe/header =2.5 inch(s)

Total heat transfer rate =211374.2 Btu/hr
Sensible heat transfer rate =155955.9 Btu/hr
Entering air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =80.0 F
Wet bulb temperature =68.0 F
Enthalpy =32.3 Btu/LBMA
Humidity ratio =83.3 Grains/LBMA
Face velocity =550.00 FPM
Air volume flow rate =6875.0 CFM
Comment: Coil is 43.6 percent dry
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298
14-46. (continued)
Leaving air conditions:
Dry bulb temperature =58.6 F
Wet bulb temperature =58.2 F
Enthalpy =25.1 Btu/LBMA
Humidity ratio =71.4 Grains/LBMA
Tube side conditions:
Entering fluid temperature =45.0 F
Leaving fluid temperature =62.0 F
Tube side fluid velocity =4.00 FPS
Cooling or heating liquid flow rate =26.9 GPM
Air pressure loss =.756 inches of water
Tube side head loss =18.13 feet of water

Fin efficiency =.809 Surface effectiveness =.819

Tube side heat transfer coefficient =476.4 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Finned side heat transfer coefficient =10.0 Btu-hr-SQFT-F
The capacity is reduced by about 9 percent, the pressure loss on the
tube side is increased and the leaving air temperatures have increased
by about 1 degree.

14-47. Check Examples 14-1 through 14-5

Coil Description:
Type of Coil =Water or Brine Solution
Tube Pattern =Staggered Plate-Fin-Tube Coil
Material =Aluminum Fins With Copper Tubes
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299
Tube Side Fluid =Water
Finned Side Fluid =Air
Finned Side Air Pressure = 0. FT. of Elevation

Face Area = 2.17 Square Feet
Height of Heat Exchanger = 12.5 Inches
Width of Heat Exchanger = 25.0 Iinches
Number of Rows of Tubes in the Air Flow Direction = 5
Number of Tubes Per Row =10 Circuits on Tube Side = 5

Fin Pitch = 8 Fins/Inch Fin Thickness = .006 Inches
Vertical Tube Spacing = 1.250 Inches
Horizontal Tube Spacing = 1.083 Inches
Tube Outside Diameter = .525 Inches
Tube Wall Thickness = .015 Inches
Inside Tube Fouling Factor = .0000 HR-FT^2-F/Btu
Diameter of Inlet Pipe/Header = 1.3 Inch(s)

Total Heat Transfer Rate = -133026.9 Btu/HR
Sensible Heat Transfer Rate = -133026.9 Btu/HR
Entering Air Conditions:
Dry Bulb Temperature = 50.0 F
Face Velocity = 950.00 FPM
Air Volume Flow Rate= 2061.6 CFM
Leaving Air Conditions:
Dry Bulb Temperature =107.6 F
Tube Side Conditions:
Entering Fluid Temperature =150.0 F
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300
Leaving Fluid Temperature =128.3 F
Tube Side Fluid Velocity = 4.00 FPS
Cooling or Heating Liquid Flow Rate = 12.5 GPM
Air Pressure Loss =1.131 Inches of Water
Tube Side Head Loss = 6.77 Feet of Water

Fin Efficiency = .750 Surface Effectiveness = .771

Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient =1354.2 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Finned Side Heat Transfer Coefficient = 19.5 Btu/hr-SQFT-F
Mean Temperature Difference =-58.5 F

The above results show that a 5 row coil would easily satisfy
the specified requirements. The manual calculation of the
examples are very conservative.


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adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108
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Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030.

Chapter 15

15-1
e
COP q / w; Use P - i diagram =


4 3
w i i 119.5 105.5 = =

- 14.0 Btu / lbm =

q
c
=i
1
i
4
=42.5 119.5

=- 77 Btu / lbm

q
e
=-q
c
+w =77 14

=63 Btu / lbm

(a) COP =63 / 14 =4.5

(b) COP
carnot
=500 / (570 500) =7.14


r
4.5
0.63 or 63 %
7.14
= =

(c)

e
q 10 (12,000)
W 26,667 Btu / hr 10.5 HP 7.8 kW
COP 4.5
= = = =




HP 10.5 kW
then 1.05 and 0.22
ton 10 kW
= = =

(d)
e e
10 (12,000)
q mq or m 1905 lbm / hr 0.24 kg /s
63
= = =



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300
(e) W 10.5 HP from (c) above 7.8 kW =


(f)
3 3
3
1905 (0.68)
PD mv 21.6 ft / min 0.01 m / s
60
= = =




15-2 W 2.5 kW; m 0.05 kg / s = =



(a)
c 1 4 4
q i i ; - w i i = =

3


4 3
i i W / m 398.4 2.5 / 0.05 448.4 kJ / kg = = + =




c 1 4
q i i 260.3 448.4 188.1 kJ / kg = = =



3 4
w i i 398.4 448.4 50 kJ / kg = = =


e c
q q w 188.1 50 138.1 kJ / kg = = =


(b) COP =138.1 / 50 =2.76


carnot
255
( C OP ) 3.86
321 255
= =


(c)
4
i 448.4 kJ / kg from part (a) =

(d)
r
2.76 / 3.86 0.72 or 72 % = =

15-3 R- 134a; Energy Balance

m
11 44 22 55 1 2 3 4 5
i m i mi mi ; m m m m m + = + = = = =

i i i 44.94 101.54 37.98 108.5 Btu / lbm = + = + =
P 16.6 psia = =
5
i ; S S = =

i
5 1 4 2

8.8
P
5 4

w i
6 5 6

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301

6
i 127 Btu / lbm [Chart 3] =

w 127 - 108.5 18.5 Btu / lbm = =


e 4 3 4 2
q i i i i 101.54 - 37.98 63.6 = = = =


15-3 (continued)


e
HP mw
~ 778
ton mq




HP (18.5) 778 (12,000)
1.37
ton (63.6) 60 (33,000)
= =

15-4
1/n
c 3
v
b b
P v
1 C C
P v


= +




n =k =1.17; 1 / n =0.855


c b
P / P 180 / 20 9 = =


3
b
v 2.14
0.90 [chart 4 table A3a]
v 2.38
= =

(a)
0.855
v
1 0.03 - 0.03 (9) 0.90 0.75

= + =



3
3 v
v
3
mv m
or lb / ft
PD PD v

= =




m 0.75
=0.35
PD 2.14
=



(b)
0.855
v
1 0.15 0.15 (9) 0.90 0.15

= + =


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302

3
m / PD 0.15 / 2.14 0.07 lb / ft = =


(c)
a b
a
m m 0.07
1 0.80 or 80 %
m 0.35

= =



(d) Power is directly proportional to the mass flow rate

therefore, Power compares as in (c) above.


15-5
v
0.70 =

4 cyl 3" bore, 4" stroke, 800 rpm


1
P 49.7 psia (chart 3) =


4
P 138.8 psia (chart 3) =


3
v 2a 2a
mv / PD; v 1.04 ft / lbm; = =


Table A-2a @ 55 F / 52 psia


12 2 1
q m (i i =

)


3
( 2 /4)(4) 4 (800)
PD 52.36 ft / min
1728

= =
i 46 Btu / lbm = =
12 Btu / lbm =


i
1 4

i 1
2


v
12 2 1
2a
PD 52.36 (0.7)
q ( i i ) (112 - 46) 2326 Btu / min
v 1.04

= = =

139,560 Btu / hr 11.6 tons



or q = =
12

15-6 R-22, assume superheat =20 F
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303

Subcooling =10 F (a)


c e
t 130 F, t 45 F = =


15-6 (Continued)


1
t 130 10 120 F = =


1 2
i i 46 Btu / l = = b

(b)
e
q 144,000 Btu / hr (Fig. 15-7) =


c
W 14.8 kW 50,498 Btu / hr = =



(c)
e
t 32.5 F (Fig. 15-7); W 13.3 kW = =


15-7 Refer to Fig. 15-7 CAP =133,000 Btu/hr t
e
=47 F

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lled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
students enro

304

15-8















Excerpts from
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305










e e
P 69 psia; t 30 F (Table A-4) = =

(a) The condensing temperature is still about 115 F, but the

evaporating temperature is low, about 30 to 31 F.

(b)
d d
195
(q q) / q 1 0.36 or 36 % low
305
= =



(c) It appears that the evaporator is not loading the compressor.

Check for proper air flow over evaporator. Fan speed may be

low or an obstruction exists.



15-9 Suction valve, P 2 psia =

Discharge valve, P 4 psia =

10 F S.H. in intake man. and cyl.

Piston clearance =5 %.


1/n
c 3
v
b b
P v
1 C C
P v




= +






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306

3 g
v v at 45 F; =
3
3
v 0.604 ft / lbm (Table A-3a) =


3
b
v 0.66 ft / lbm (Chart 4 at 55 F / 89 psia) =


c b
P 275 4 279 psia; P 90.73 2 88.73 psia = + = = =

n 1.16, C 0.05 =

(a)
1/1.16
v
279 0.604
1 0.05 0.05
88.73 0.66



= +




+0.838

(b)

v 3
m (PD) / v (0.838) 20 / 0.604 27.75 lbm/min 0.2 kg /s = = =



(c)
n 1
n
c
b b
m b
P mw n
W ; w P v
n-1 P

1



= =







0.16
1.16 1.16 2.79
w (88.73) (144) (0.66) 1
0.16 88.73



=






15-9 (continued)

10,466 ft - lbf /lbm 31 kJ / kg =


27.75(10,4666)
W 11.0 HP 8.2 kW
0.80(33,000)
= =



15-10 (a)
1/1.4
v
200 0.74
1 0.04 0.04
53 0.77



= +






Note: An average value of k assumed and 2 psi pres. loss

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307
assumed in suction header and valve.


v v 2
60
0.90, m (PD) / v = =



=9.4 (0.90) / 0.74

m 11.44 lbm / min =




1.4 1
1.4 1.4 200
w (53) 144 (0.77)
(1.4 1) 53




=9491( ft lbf) / lbm


m
mw
W 9491 (11.44) / (0.9 x 778) 155 Btu / min

= = =

W q (155 x 60) 30,000 39,300 Btu / hr = + = + =


q 655 Btu / min =


q
H L



15-10 (Continued)

or
H


23 2 3 3 2
9491
w i i ; i i w 133 125.2 Btu / lbm
778
= = + = + =


H 4 3 4 H 3
655
q i i ; i q i 125.2 68 Btu / lbm
11.44
= = + = + =


(b) Iteration is required

P
3
will decrease with the lighter load but P
2
is also lower and

(P
3
/ P
2
)
1/n
will be about the same as part (a);

v
2 b v
/ v will be about constant. Then constant.
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308

However, v
2
=0.85 and
v 3
m (PD) / v (9.4) 0.87 / 0.85 = =



=9.62 lbm / min.


9491 (48)(1.03)
now w 14.78 Btu / lbm
53 (0.77) 778
= =

W =(14.78) (9.62) (60) =8530 Btu/hr;

Q
H
=8530 +24,000 =32, 530 Btu/hr

Which assumes P
3
/ P
2
is constant and 2 psi pres. loss in the

valve.


3 2
i i w 83.5 14.78 94.3 Btu / lbm = + = + =


1 2 12
i i q 111 24,000 / 9.62 (60) 69.4 Btu / lbm = = =


3
200
P (50) 188 psia
53
= =









15-11 Reduced air flow reduces the load on the evaporator. Without

suction pressure control the evaporator pressure will decrease

until condensate will freeze and completely block the

evaporator air flow. Liquid refrigerant will return to the

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309
compressor and eventually cause the compressor suction

valve to fail.

15-12 Install an evaporator pressure regulator set to maintain a

pressure such that the temperature of the evaporator surface

will not decrease below the freezing point for water.

15-13 Install a suction pressure regulator on the compressor inlet.

The regulator should be set to limit the suction pressure to a

level compatible with the compressor capacity.

15-14 (a) Using chart 2 with the construction shown,

the final temperature is 90 F

(b)
1
v
mv 3.7
0.185 or
m 20
= = =



18.5 % vapor (Use chart 2)



15-15 Using chart 2


3 3
X 0.495; t 125 F = =









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310

15-16
e g o
max g
g o e
T (T T )
(COP) ; T 180 460 640R;
T (T T )

= = +

=

T
e
=75 +460 =535 R; T
o
=100 +460 =560 R


max
(COP) 2.675 =

15-17 Refer to Chart 5 for saturated vapor at 10 mm hg.

Vapor must first be condensed to sat. liquid at 10 mm hg.

q
c
=i
fg
; Table A-1a;

i
fg
=1064.8 Btu/lbmu for 1 lbm of vapor or q
c
=1064.8 Btu


at 50 F, P =0.178 psia or

15-17 (continued)

P =10 mm hg

Locate point l at x =0; P =10 mm hg

Locate point s at x =0.6 ; P =10 mm hg

m
v
=1 ; m
s
=5


ms 5 mv
6 mm ms
= =


v
5 5
m ms x 45.5 37.9 (depends on scale used)
6 6
= = =

(a) x =0.50

(b) q
s
=i
m
i
b
=-50 (-70) =20 Btu / lbm of solution
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311


tot
q 1064.8 +(6 x 20) =1,184.8 Btu =

0 0.5 0.
0.8
i
im
ib

6
v
1
0

m
m

h
g
m
b
s
X >
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EXAMPLE WS3-1

A space is to be conditioned with a system as shown in Figure WS3-1. The space
temperature and relative humidity (RH) are 75 F (24 C) db and 50 % respectively. The cooling
load for the space is 68,000 Btu/hr (20 kW) with a SHF of 0.75. Outdoor air at 99 F (37 C) and
40 % RH is one third of the amount of air supplied to the space. The coil ADP is 50 F (10 C)
and air is supplied to the space at 80 % RH. The sum of the return fan power and heat gain to the
return ducts is estimated to be 4 horsepower (3 kW). (a) Find the quantity and state of the air
supplied to the space. (b) Determine the combined power for the supply fan and the supply ducts
heat gain. (c) Determine the capacity of the cooling coil.

SOLUTION SI
(a) Using the attached Chart 1 (SI) which has been drawn using the ASHRAE
Psychrometric Analysis program, the supply air required is found by locating states 4 and 3 and
laying out line 4-3 for a SHF of 0.75. Then
( ) ( )
3 4
3
3
3 4 3
i i
v
Q
i i m
a
= =

q
m 82 . 0
3
= v
3
/kg; 9 . 47
4
= i kJ/kg; 2 . 34
3
= i kJ/kg
then
( )
( )
( )
20 . 1
2 . 34 9 . 47
82 . 0 20
3 4
3
3
=

=
i i
v q
Q

m
3
/s
(b) State 5, the condition of the air leaving the return fan, is located horizonally to the right of
point 4 and is defined by the heat gain and return fan power. For simplicity it is assumed that all
of the return air is recirculated to the mixing box. Actually some of the return air is exhausted.
q or ( )
4 5 45
i i m
a
=
4
45
5
i
m
q
a
+ =

i
1
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q kW; 0 . 3
45
= 46 . 1 82 . 0 20 . 1 = =
a
m kg/s
( ) 50 9 . 47 46 . 1 0 . 3
5
= + = i kJ/kg
Then state 5 is located at approximately 26.0 C db and 17.7 C wb. State 0 can now be plotted on
Chart 1 and the mixing process solved for state 1 which lies one third of the distance from state 5
to state 0 on a straight line. Using states 1 and the coil ADP, the coil process may be drawn.
State 2 lies horizonally to the left of state 3 at the intersection of the coil process. Note that a
path has been assumed for the coil process that actually depends on the coil design and the type
and temperature of the cooling medium. However, for a thermodynamic analysis, only the end
points of the process are relevant and a straight line from 1 to ADP is sufficient. The sum of the
supply fan power and the supply duct heat gain is then
( ) 2 . 32 ;
2 2 3 3 ' 2 23
= = + = i i i m q q
a fan
q kJ/kg
and ( ) 92 . 2 2 . 32 2 . 34 46 . 1
23
= = q kW
(c)The total coil capacity is
( ) 2 . 59 ;
1 2 1 12
= = i i i m q
a
kJ/kg
( ) 4 . 39 2 . 32 2 . 59 46 . 1
12
= = q kW


2
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1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
50
6
0
7
0
8
0
90
10
0
11
0
11
0
12
0
1
2
0
ENTHALPY - KJ PER KI LOGRAM OF DRY AIR
10
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
80
9
0
10
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
-
K
J
P
E
R
K
IL
O
G
R
A
M

O
F

D
R
Y
A
I
R
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

C
51
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
D
R
Y
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-
C
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
10% RELATIVE HUMID ITY
20%
30%
40
%
5
0
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
5
5
10
10
1
5
15
2
0
20
2
5
25
3
0
W
E
T
B
U
LB
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- C
30
0
.7
8
0
.8
0
0
.8
2
0
.
8
4
0
.8
6
V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
B
IC
M
E
T
E
R
P
E
R
k
g
D
R
Y
A
IR
0
.8
8
0
.9
0
0
.9
2
0
.9
4
H
U
M
I
D
IT
Y
R
A
T
IO

-
G
R
A
M
S
M
O
IS
T
U
R
E

P
E
R

K
I
L
O
G
R
A
M

D
R
Y
A
IR
0
2 3
4 5
1
ADP
State t - C RH - % i - kJ/kga v - cum/kga
0 37.0/25.5 40 78.0 0.90
1 29.7/20.6 44 59.2 0.87
2 11.9/11.2 92 32.2 0.82
3 13.9/12.0 81 34.2 0.82
4 24.0/17.0 50 47.9 0.85
5 26.0/17.7 44 50.0 0.86
ADP 10.0/10.0 100 29.4 0.81
EXAMPLE WS3-1 (SI)
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 101.325 kPa
Copyright 1992
AMERI CAN SOCI ETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDI TIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1. 0 1 .0

1 . 5
2. 0
4 .0
-4.0
-2
.0
-1
.0
-0
.5
-0
.2
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0. 4
0.5
0. 6
0. 7
0 .8
-5. 0
-2. 0
0. 0
1
.0
2
.0
2
. 5
3
. 0
4
. 0
5 . 0
1 0 . 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


SOLUTION IP
(a) Using the attached Chart 1 (IP) which has been drawn using the ASHRAE
Psychrometric Analysis program the supply air required is found by locating states 4 and 3 and
laying out line 4-3 for a SHF of 0.75. Then
( )
( )
( )
3 4
3
3
3 4 3
60
i i
v
Q
i i m
a
= =

q
ft 19 . 13
3
= v
3
/lbma; 2 . 28
4
= i Btu/lbma; 4 . 22
3
= i Btu/lbma
then
( )
( )
( )
577 , 2
4 . 22 2 . 28 60
19 . 13 000 , 68
60
3 4
3
3
=

=
i i
v q
Q

cfm
3
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
(b) State 5, the condition of the air leaving the return fan, is located horizonally to the right of
point 4 and is defined by the heat gain and return fan power.
q or ( )
4 5 45
i i m
a
=
4
45
5
i
m
q
a
+ =

i
q kW; 0 . 3
45
=
( )
723 , 11
19 . 13
60 2577
= =
a
m lbma/hr

( )
1 . 29 2 . 28
723 . 11
2545 4
5
= + = i Btu/lbma
Then state 5 is located at approximately 78.8 Fdb and 63.8 F wb. State 0 can now be plotted on
Chart 1 and the mixing process solved for state 1 which lies one third of the distance from state 5
to state 0 on a straight line. Using states 1 and the coil ADP, the line representing the coil
process may be drawn. Note that a path for the coil process has been assumed which actually
depends on the coil design and the type and temperature of the cooling medium. However, for a
thermodynamic analysis only the end points are relevant and a straight line from 1 to ADP is
sufficient. State 2 lies horizonally to the left of state 3 at the intersection of the coil process. The
sum of the supply fan power and the supply duct heat gain is then
( ) 5 . 21 ;
2 2 3 3 ' 2 23
= = + = i i i m q q q
a fan
Btu/lbma
and ( ) 551 , 10 5 . 21 4 . 22 723 , 11
23
= = q Btu/hr = 4.1 hp
(c)The total coil capacity is
( ) 2 . 33 ;
1 2 1 12
= = i i i m
a
q Btu/lbma
( ) 159 , 137 5 . 21 2 . 33 723 , 11
12
= = q Btu/hr = 11.43 tons

4
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
10 1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
5
5
6
0
6
0
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
1
5
2
0
25
3
0
35
4
0
4
5
5
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y

B
U
L
B

T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

-

F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
4
5
45
5
0
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.F
T
. P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
IR
1
4
.5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
I
T
Y

R
A
T
I
O

-

P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
I
S
T
U
R
E

P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D

D
R
Y

A
I
R
0
2 3
4 5
1
ADP
State t - F RH - % i - Btu/lba v - cuft/lba
0 99.0/78.2 40 41.5 14.44
1 85.5/69.1 44 33.2 13.99
2 53.5/52.2 92 21.5 13.10
3 57.0/53.6 80 22.4 13.19
4 75.0/62.5 50 28.2 13.68
5 78.8/63.8 44 29.1 13.77
ADP 50.0/50.0 100 20.3 13.0
EXAMPLE WS3-1 (IP)
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1. 0 1 .0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8. 0 -4
.0
-2.0
-1
.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
. 3
-0
. 2
-
0
.1
0
.
1
0
.2
0
. 3
0.4
0 .5
0. 6
0 .8
-2 00 0
-100 0
0
5
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0
0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

5
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
EXAMPLE WS3-2
A system is designed with a coil that cools and dehumidifies air from 80 F (27 C) db and
67 F (19 C) wb to 51.5 F (11 C) db and 90 % RH for supply to the space. The space is to be
maintained at 75 F (24 C) db and 50 % RH. There are off-design periods when the cooling load
changes and the SHF is estimated to be 0.6. The flow rate of the air remains constant. (a)
Assume the cooling coil operates as given above at all times, and determine the amount of reheat
required and the state of the air supplied to the space for the off-design periods. (b) Compare the
space cooling load for the two different conditions. Assume standard sea level pressure.

SOLUTION IP
The given design conditions are shown on Chart 1 (IP) as 1-2 for the coil and 2-4 for the
space. The chart has been drawn using the ASHRAE Psychrometric analysis program. Note that
the program assumes a path for the coil process that actually depends on the coil design and the
type and temperature of the cooling medium, not known in this case. The space SHF is about
0.71 for the design condition. Process 3-4 for the off-design period is laid out from state 4 for a
SHF of 0.6. Then the reheat process is 2-3 and the air enters the space at 61 F db and 64 % RH
determined by the intersection of processes 2-3 and 3-4.
(a) The amount of reheat per unit mass of dry air is
( ) ( )
2 3 2 3 23
t t c i i
pa
q = =
( ) 32 . 2 5 . 51 61 244 . 0
23
= = q Btu/lbma
(b) The design cooling load is
q ( )
2 4 24
i i = 3 . 20
2
= i Btu/lbma and 2 . 28
4
= i Btu/lbma
( ) 9 . 7 3 . 20 2 . 28
24
= = q Btu/lbma
1
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
The cooling load for the off-design period is
q ( )
3 4 34
i i = 6 . 22
3
= i Btu/lbma
( ) 6 . 5 6 . 22 2 . 28
34
= = q Btu/lbma
The cooling load for the off-design period is about 29 % less than the design cooling load.
However the coil load is the same for both cases.
2
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R

10 1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
5
5
6
0
6
0
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
1
5
2
0
25
3
0
35
4
0
4
5
5
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y

B
U
L
B

T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

-

F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
4
0%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
4
5
45
5
0
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.
5
1
4
.
0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-

C
U
.
F
T
.

P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y
A
I
R
1
4
.
5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
I
T
Y

R
A
T
I
O

-

P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
I
S
T
U
R
E

P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D

D
R
Y

A
I
R
1
2 3
44
State t - F RH - % i - Btu/lbma v - cuft/lbma
1 80.0/67.0 51 31.5 13.85
2 51.5/49.9 90 20.3 13.0
3 61.0/54.0 64 22.6 13.3
4 75.0/62.5 50 28.2 13.7
EXAMPLE WS3-2 (IP)
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4
.0
-2.0
-1
.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-0
.
3
-
0
.
2
-
0
.1
0
.
1
0
. 2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0. 6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0
0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W
SOLUTION SI
The given design conditions are shown on Chart 1 (SI) as 1-2 for the coil and 2-4 for the
space. The chart has been drawn using the ASHRAE Psychrometric analysis program. Note that
the program assumes a path for the coil process that actually depends on the coil design and the
type and temperature of the cooling medium, not known in this case. The space SHF is about
3
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
The space SHF is about 0.7 for the design condition. Process 3-4 for the off-design period is laid
out from state 4 for a SHF of 0.6. Then the reheat process is 2-3 and the air enters the space at
17 C db and 61 % RH determined by the intersection of processes 2-3 and 3-4.
(a) The amount of reheat per unit mass of dry air is
q ( ) (
2 3 2 3 23
t t c i i
pa
) = =
q kJ/kga ( ) 06 . 6 11 17 01 . 1
23
= =
(b) The design cooling load is
kJ/kga and ( )
2 4 24
i i q = 6 . 29
2
= i 9 . 47
4
= i kJ/kga
( ) 3 . 18 6 . 29 9 . 47
24
= = q kJ/kga
The cooling load for the off-design period is
q ( )
3 4 34
i i = 7 . 35
3
= i kJ/kga
( ) 2 . 12 7 . 35 9 . 47
34
= = q kJ/kga
The cooling load for the off-design period is about 34 % less than the design cooling load.
However the coil load is the same for both cases.
4
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
50
6
0
7
0
8
0
90
10
0
11
0
11
0
12
0
1
2
0
ENTHALPY - KJ PER KI LOGRAM OF DRY AIR
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
80
9
0
10
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
-
K
J
P
E
R
K
IL
O
G
R
A
M

O
F

D
R
Y
A
I
R
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

C
51
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
D
R
Y

B
U
L
B

T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

-

C
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40
%
5
0
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
5
5
10
10
1
5
15
2
0
20
2
5
25
3
0
W
E
T
B
U
LB
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- C
30
0
.7
8
0
.
8
0
0
.
8
2
0
.
8
4
0
.
8
6

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
B
IC

M
E
T
E
R

P
E
R
k
g

D
R
Y

A
I
R
0
.
8
8
0
.9
0
0
.
9
2
0
.9
4
H
U
M
I
D
I
T
Y

R
A
T
I
O

-

G
R
A
M
S

M
O
I
S
T
U
R
E

P
E
R

K
I
L
O
G
R
A
M

D
R
Y

A
I
R
1
2 3
44
State t- C RH - % i - kJ/kga v - cum/kga
1 27.0/19.0 47 53.9 0.86
2 11.0/10.1 90 29.6 0.81
3 17.0/12.7 61 35.7 0.83
4 24.0/17.1 50 47.9 0.85
EXAMPLE WS3-2 (SI)
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 101.325 kPa
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

1.5
2.0
4.0
-4.0
-2
.0
-1
.0
-0
.5
-
0
.
2
0
.1
0
. 2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
-5.0
-2.0
0.0
1
.0
2
.0
2
.
5
3
. 0
4
. 0
5 . 0
1 0 . 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

5
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R

EXAMPLE WS3-3
A multizone air handler similar to the one shown in Figure 2-4 operates with 4,000 cfm
(1.9 m3/s) of air entering at 85 F (29 C) db and 70 F (21 C) wb temperature. Three fourths of the
air flows through the inactive heating coil while the air flowing over the cooling coil leaves at 52
F (11 C) db and 50 F (10 C) wb temperature. Determine the condition of the mixed air supplied
to the space to include the volume flow rate. Show the process on a psychrometric chart.
Assume standard sea level pressure.

SOLUTION IP
This is a classical adiabatic mixing problem involving the air leaving the heating and
cooling coils that may be solved using a psychrometric chart or a computer program. Using the
adiabatic mixing option of the ASHRAE Psychrometric program, the result for the mixed
condition is 76.3 F db and 65.5 F wb with an enthalpy and humidity ratio of 30.4 Btu/lbma and
0.0110 lbmv/lbma respectively.
Using Chart 1 (IP) and locating the mixed state 3 three fourths of the distance from point
2 to point 1 on a straight line results in state 3 at 77 F db and 66 F wb with enthalpy of 30.7 and
humidity ratio of 0.0111 lbmv/lbma. The results compare favorably. To determine the leaving
volume flow rate the specific volumes of the entering and mixed air are required. Using the
ASHRAE program v
1
is 14.0 ft
3
/lbma and v
3
is 13.75 ft
3
/lbma. Alternately, the specific volumes
may be estimated from Chart 1a as v
1
= 14.0 ft
3
/lbma and v
3
= 13.76 ft
3
/lbma. Then from the
program
3929
0 . 14
75 . 13
4000
1
3
1 3
=

= =
v
v
Q Q

cfm
1
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
or from the chart 3931
0 . 14
76 . 13
4000
1
3
1 3
=

= =
v
v
Q Q

cfm
Again, the agreement is very good.

10 1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
5
5
6
0
6
0
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
1
5
2
0
25
3
0
35
4
0
4
5
5
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y

B
U
L
B

T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

-

F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
4
0%
5
0
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
4
5
45
5
0
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.
5
1
4
.
0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-

C
U
.
F
T
.
P
E
R

L
B
.

D
R
Y

A
I
R
1
4
.
5
1
5
.
0
H
U
M
I
D
I
T
Y

R
A
T
I
O

-

P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
I
S
T
U
R
E

P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D

D
R
Y

A
I
R
1
2
3
State t-F RH-% i-Btu/lbma v-cuft/lbma
1 85.0/70.0 48 33.95 14.0
2 52.0/50.0 87 20.29 13.0
3 76.3/65.5 57 30.36 13.8
EXAMPLE WS3-3 (IP)
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8. 0 -4
.0
-2.0
-1
. 0
-0
.5 -
0
. 4
-0
.3
-
0
.
2
-
0
.1
0
.
1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0
0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

2
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
SOLUTION SI
This is a classical adiabatic mixing problem involving the air leaving the heating
and cooling coils that may be solved using a psychrometric chart or a computer program. Using
the ASHRAE psychrometric program the result of the mixed condition is 24.3 C db and 18.5 C
wb with enthalpy and humidity ratio of 52.4 kJ/kga and 11.0 gmv/kga respectively.
Using Chart 1 (SI) and locating the mixed state 3 three fourths of the distance from point
2 to point 1 on a straight line results in state 3 at 24.6 C db and 18.7 C wb with enthalpy of 53.0
kJ/kg and humidity ratio of 11.1 gmv/kga. To determine the leaving volume flow rate the
specific volumes of the entering and mixed air are required. Using the ASHRAE program v
1
is
0.873 m
3
/kga and v
3
is 0.857 m
3
/kga. The specific volumes may be estimated from Chart 1 as v
1

= 0.873 m
3
/kga and v
3
= 0.859 m
3
/kga. Then from the program
87 . 1
873 . 0
857 . 0
9 . 1
1
3
1 3
= = =
v
v
Q Q

m
3
/s
87 . 1
873 . 0
859 . 0
9 . 1
1
3
1 3
= =
v
v

= Q Q m
3
/s
3
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
50
6
0
7
0
8
0
90
10
0
11
0
11
0
12
0
1
2
0
ENTHALPY - KJ PER KI LOGRAM OF DRY AIR
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
80
9
0
10
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
-
K
J
P
E
R
K
IL
O
G
R
A
M

O
F

D
R
Y
A
I
R
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

C
51
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
D
R
Y

B
U
L
B

T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

-

C
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40
%
5
0
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
5
5
10
10
1
5
15
2
0
20
2
5
25
3
0
W
E
T
B
U
LB
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- C
30
0
.7
8
0
.
8
0
0
.8
2
0
.
8
4
0
.
8
6

V
O
L
U
M
E

-

C
U
B
I
C

M
E
T
E
R

P
E
R

k
g

D
R
Y
A
IR
0
.
8
8
0
.
9
0
0
.
9
2
0
.9
4
H
U
M
I
D
I
T
Y

R
A
T
I
O

-

G
R
A
M
S

M
O
I
S
T
U
R
E

P
E
R

K
I
L
O
G
R
A
M

D
R
Y

A
I
R
1
2
3
State t-C RH-% i-kJ/kga v-cum/kga
1 29.0/21.0 49 60.7 0.873
2 11.0/10.0 89 29.3 0.814
3 24.3/18.5 58 52.4 0.857
EXAMPLE WS3-3 (SI)
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 101.325 kPa
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

1.5
2.0
4.0
-4.0
-2
.0
-1
.0
-0
.5
-
0
.
2
0
.1
0
.
2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
-5.0
-2.0
0. 0
1
.0
2
.
0
2
.
5
3
. 0
4
. 0
5 . 0
1 0 . 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W




4
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R

EXAMPLE WS3-4
A Dual duct VAV system similar to Figure 2-22 has one zone operating under the following
conditions. The space is controlled to 75 F (24 C) db and 50 % RH. The hot deck furnishes air at 100 F
(38 C) and 10 % RH while the cold deck furnishes air at 55 F (13 C) db and 90 % RH. At a given time
the zone has a total cooling load of 50,000 Btu/hr (14.7 kW) with a sensible heat factor of 0.6. Use charts
1 to determine: (a) The state of the air supplied to the zone. (b) The quantity of air supplied to the zone;
(c) The amount of air supplied by the cold deck and the amount of air supplied by the hot deck. Assume
standard sea level pressure.

SOLUTION IP
(a) Locate states 1, 2 and 3 as shown on psychrometric Chart 1 (IP). Connect states 2 and 3 with
a straight line, assuming adiabatic mixing of the hot and cold deck air. Construct the condition line for
the space for a SHF of 0.6 and the space condition, state 1. State 4 for the supplied air is at the
intersection of the condition line and line 2-3, approximately 63 F db and 62 % RH. (b) The quantity of
air supplied to the space is
( )
( )
( )
4 1
4
4
4 1 4
60
i i
v
Q
i i m
a c
= =

q
from Chart 1, i Btu/lbma; 2 . 28
1
= 4 . 23
4
= i Btu/lbma and 33 . 13
4
= v ft
3
/lbma.
Then
( )
( )
( )
2314
4 . 23 2 . 28 60
33 . 13 000 , 50
60
4 1
4
4
=

=
i i
v q
Q
c

ft
3
/min or cfm
(c) The relative proportions of the mixed air are, assuming constant density
817 . 0
23
34
4
2
= =
Q
Q

and 183 . 0 817 . 0 1


4
3
= =
Q
Q


Then ( ) 1891 2314 817 . 0
2
= = Q

cfm and cfm 423 1891 2314


3
= = Q


1
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
10 1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
5
5
6
0
6
0
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
1
5
2
0
25
3
0
35
4
0
4
5
5
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y

B
U
L
B

T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

-

F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
4
0%
5
0
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
4
5
45
5
0
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.
5
1
4
.
0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-
C
U
.
F
T
.
P
E
R

L
B
.
D
R
Y

A
I
R
1
4
.
5
1
5
.0
H
U
M
I
D
I
T
Y

R
A
T
I
O

-

P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
I
S
T
U
R
E

P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D

D
R
Y

A
I
R
1
2
3
4
EXAMPLE WS3-4 (IP)
State t-F RH-% i-Btu/lbma v-cuft/lbma
1 75.0/62.5 50 28.2 13.68
2 55.0/53.3 90 22.2 13.14
3 100.0/3.3 10 28.5 14.20
4 63.0/55.4 62 23.4 13.33
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1. 0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4
.0
-2.0
-1
.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-
0
.
3
-
0
.
2
-
0
.1
0
.
1
0
.2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0
0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

SOLUTION SI
(a) Locate states 1, 2 and 3 as shown on psychrometric Chart 1 (SI). Connect states 2 and 3 with
a straight line, assuming adiabatic mixing of the hot and cold deck air. Construct the condition line for
the space for a SHF of 0.6 and the space condition, state 1. The state of the supplied air is at the
intersection of the condition line and line 2-3, approximately 17.5 C db and 61 % RH. (b) The quantity of
air supplied to the space is
( ) ( )
4 1
4
4
4 1 4
i i
v
Q
i i m
a c
= =

q
from Chart 1, i kJ/kga; i kJ/kga and 9 . 47
1
= 8 . 36
4
= 833 . 0
4
= v m
3
/kga.
2
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
Then
( )
( )
( )
10 . 1
8 . 36 9 . 47
833 . 0 7 . 14
4 1
4
4
=

=
i i
v q
Q
c

m
3
/s
(c) The relative proportions of the mixed air are, assuming constant density
817 . 0
23
34
4
2
= =
Q
Q

and 183 . 0 817 . 0 1


4
3
= =
Q
Q


Then ( ) 899 . 0 10 . 1 817 . 0
2
= = Q

m
3
/s and Q m 201 . 0 899 . 0 10 . 1
3
= =

3
/s
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
50
6
0
7
0
8
0
90
10
0
11
0
11
0
12
0
1
2
0
ENTHALPY - KJ PER KI LOGRAM OF DRY AIR
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
80
9
0
10
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
-
K
J
P
E
R
K
IL
O
G
R
A
M

O
F

D
R
Y
A
I
R
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

C
51
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
D
R
Y

B
U
L
B

T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

-

C
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40
%
5
0
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
5
5
10
10
1
5
15
2
0
20
2
5
25
3
0
W
E
T
B
U
LB
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- C
30
0
.7
8
0
.
8
0
0
.8
2
0
.
8
4
0
.
8
6

V
O
L
U
M
E

-

C
U
B
I
C

M
E
T
E
R

P
E
R

k
g

D
R
Y
A
IR
0
.
8
8
0
.
9
0
0
.
9
2
0
.9
4
H
U
M
I
D
I
T
Y

R
A
T
I
O

-

G
R
A
M
S

M
O
I
S
T
U
R
E

P
E
R

K
I
L
O
G
R
A
M

D
R
Y

A
I
R
1
2
3
4
EXAMPLE WS3-4 (SI)
State t-C RH-% i-kJ/kga v-cum/kga
1 24.0/17.1 50 47.9 0.854
2 13.0/12.1 90 34.3 0.821
3 38.0/17.5 10 48.8 0.887
4 17.5/13.1 61 36.8 0.833
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 101.325 kPa
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

1.5
2.0
4.0
-4.0
-2
.0
-1
.0
-0
.5
-
0
.
2
0
.1
0
.
2
0
.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
-5.0
-2.0
0. 0
1
.0
2
.
0
2
.
5
3
. 0
4
. 0
5 . 0
1 0 . 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W
3
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
EXAMPLE WS3-5

A space is to be conditioned during the heating season with the system shown by the
attached schematic.. The space is to be maintained at 72 F (22 C)db with a relative humidity of
30 percent. The total heating load is 250,000 Btu/hr (73.3 kW) with a SHF of 0.8. The quantity
of supply air is the same as previously determined for the system in the cooling mode, 5200 cfm
(2.45 m
3
/s) and the amount of outdoor ventilation air is 1725 cfm (0.81 m
3
/s). Outdoor air is at
10 F (-12 C) db and 0.001 lbmv/lbma (or kgv/kga). Saturated water vapor at 6 psig (142 kPa
absolute) is available for humidification. Determine the amount of heating required for both
preheating and final heating and the amount of vapor required for humidification and heating.
Use ASHRAE Chart 1 assuming sea level pressure.

SOLUTION IP
The solution is initiated by locating the space condition, R of 72 F db, 30 % RH on the
chart and using the protractor to plot the condition line from point R to the right for a SHF of 0.8.
Point S, the supply air condition is located on the condition line and can be located using the
known volume flow rate of air and either the total or sensible heating load. Using the sensible
load
( ) ( )
R S
S
p S
R S p a s
t t
v
c Q
t t c m = =


60
q
or
( )
( )
F
c Q
v q
t t
p s
S s
R S
3 . 110
243 . 0 5200 60
5 . 14 000 , 250 8 . 0
72
60
= + = + =


where v
s
and c
p
have been estimated using Chart 1.
The outdoor air at 10 F db is preheated to some arbitrary temperature P, say 65 F before
mixing with return air. The outdoor air condition is off the chart. However, the heating process
1
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
appears as a horizontal line at the given humidity ratio of 0.001 lbmv/lbma terminating at point
P. The preheating required is
( )
( )
( ) 150 , 129 10 65
4 . 13
242 . 0 1725 60
60
= = =
O P
O
p O
P
t t
v
c Q

q Btu/hr
where v
o
is read from Chart 1 and c
p
is estimated as before.
The mixing of the preheated outdoor air and return air may now be considered.
Neglecting density effects and solving on the basis of volume flow rate
33 . 0
5200
1725
= = =
PR
MR
Q
Q
R
P


Then point M is located approximately one third of the distance from point R to point P on the
chart at 69.7 F db. Now the mixed air is heated sensibly from point M to point X where the air is
humidified adiabatically to previously found point S. To locate point X, recall that the path for
the humidification process is defined by
1157 = =

w
i
W
i
Btu/lbv from Table A-1a in the text.
Then using the protractor, plot a line downward from point S to intersect the heating process line
from point M. The intersection defines point X at 109.5 F db. All of the processes and states
have now been determined. The amount of heating required for the mixed air is
( )
( )
( ) 258 , 224 7 . 69 5 . 109
4 . 13
242 . 0 5200 60
60
= = =
M X
M
p M
M
t t
v
c Q

q Btu/hr
The amount of vapor required for humidification is
( )
( )
( 8 . 74 0037 . 0 0072 . 0
4 . 14
5200 60
= = =
X S a v
W W m m ) lbmv/hr
Assuming that the heating coils use saturated vapor at 6 psig, the total amount of steam required
is
2
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
380 8 . 74
1157
258 , 224
1157
150 , 129
= + + =
vt
m lbmv/hr
10 1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
5
5
6
0
6
0
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
1
5
2
0
25
3
0
35
4
0
4
5
5
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y

-
B
T
U
P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D
O
F
D
R
Y
A
IR
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

F
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
5
6
0
6
5
7
0
7
5
8
0
8
5
9
0
9
5
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
1
1
5
1
2
0
D
R
Y

B
U
L
B

T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

-

F
.002
.004
.006
.008
.010
.012
.014
.016
.018
.020
.022
.024
.026
.028
10% RELATI VE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
4
0%
50
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
3
5
35
4
0
40
4
5
45
5
0
50 5
5
55
60
60
6
5
65
7
0
70
7
5
75
8
0
80
8
5 W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- F
85
9
0
1
2
.
5
1
3
.
0
1
3
.5
1
4
.
0

V
O
L
U
M
E

-

C
U
.F
T
.
P
E
R

L
B
.

D
R
Y

A
I
R
1
4
.
5
1
5
.
0
H
U
M
I
D
I
T
Y

R
A
T
I
O

-

P
O
U
N
D
S

M
O
I
S
T
U
R
E

P
E
R

P
O
U
N
D

D
R
Y

A
I
R
R
S
P
M X
R
S
State t-F RH-% i-Btu/lbma v-cuft/lbma
R 72.0/54.4 30 22.74 13.51
S 110.3/70.9 13 34.46 14.53
O 10.0/8.8 76 3.47 11.86
P 65.0/43.2 8 16.69 13.24
M 69.7/51.0 24 20.77 13.42
X 109.5/65.9 7 30.39 14.43
EXAMPLE WS3-5 IP
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

2.0
4.0
8.0
-8.0 -4
.0
-2.0
-1
.0
-0
.5 -
0
.4
-
0
.3
-
0
.
2
-
0
.1
0
.
1
0
. 2
0
.3
0
.4
0.5
0. 6
0.8
-2000
-1000
0
5
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2 0 0
0
3 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W

SOLUTION SI
The solution is initiated by locating the space condition, R of 22 F db, 30 % RH on the
chart and using the protractor to plot the condition line from point R to the right for a SHF of 0.8.
Point S, the supply air condition is located on the condition line and can be located using the
3
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
known volume flow rate of air and either the total or sensible heating load. Using the sensible
load
( ) ( )
R S
S
p S
R S p a s
t t
v
c Q
t t c m = =

q
or
( )
( )
C
c Q
v q
t t
p s
S s
R S
6 . 43
01 . 1 45 . 2
91 . 0 3 . 73 8 . 0
22 = + = + =


where v
s
and c
p
have been estimated using Chart 1.
The outdoor air at -12 C db is preheated to some arbitrary temperature P, say 18 C before
mixing with return air. The outdoor air condition is off the chart. However, the heating process
appears as a horizontal line at the given humidity ratio of 0.001 kgv/kga terminating at point P.
The preheating required is
( )
( )
( ) [ ] 80 . 32 12 18
741 . 0
00 . 1 81 . 0
= = =
O P
O
p O
P
t t
v
c Q

q kW
where v
o
is read from Chart 1 and c
p
is estimated as before.
The mixing of the preheated outdoor air and return air may now be considered.
Neglecting density effects and solving on the basis of volume flow rate
33 . 0
45 . 2
81 . 0
= = =
PR
MR
Q
Q
R
P


Then point M is located approximately one third of the distance from point R to point P on the
chart at 20.7 C db. Now the mixed air is heated sensibly from point M to point X where the air is
humidified adiabatically to previously found point S. To locate point X, recall that the path for
the humidification process is defined by
2736 = =

w
i
W
i
kJ/kgv from Table A-1b in the text.
4
M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
Then using the protractor, plot a line downward from point S to intersect the heating process line
from point M. The intersection defines point X at 43.1 C db. All of the processes and states
have now been determined. The amount of heating required for the mixed air is
( )
( )
( ) 22 . 66 7 . 20 1 . 43
837 . 0
01 . 1 45 . 2
= = =
M X
M
p M
M
t t
v
c Q

q kW
The amount of vapor required for humidification is
( )
( )
( ) 00952 . 0 0037 . 0 0072 . 0
901 . 0
45 . 2
= = =
X S a v
W W m m kgv/s = 34.3 kgv/hr
Assuming that the heating coils use saturated vapor at 142 kPa absolute, the total amount of
steam required is
165 3 . 34
2736
22 . 66 80 . 32
3600 = +

+
=
vt
m kgv/hr
5
M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
50
6
0
7
0
8
0
90
10
0
11
0
11
0
12
0
1
2
0
ENTHALPY - KJ PER KI LOGRAM OF DRY AIR
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
80
9
0
10
0
E
N
T
H
A
L
P
Y
-
K
J
P
E
R
K
IL
O
G
R
A
M

O
F

D
R
Y
A
I
R
S
A
T
U
R
A
T
IO
N
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
-

C
51
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5
0
D
R
Y

B
U
L
B

T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

-

C
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40
%
5
0
%
6
0
%
7
0
%
8
0
%
9
0
%
5
5
10
10
1
5
15
2
0
20
2
5
25
3
0
W
E
T
B
U
L
B
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E
- C
30
0
.7
8
0
.
8
0
0
.
8
2
0
.
8
4
0
.8
6

V
O
L
U
M
E

-

C
U
B
IC

M
E
T
E
R

P
E
R

k
g

D
R
Y
A
I
R
0
.
8
8
0
.9
0
0
.
9
2
0
.9
4
H
U
M
I
D
I
T
Y

R
A
T
I
O

-

G
R
A
M
S

M
O
I
S
T
U
R
E

P
E
R

K
I
L
O
G
R
A
M

D
R
Y

A
I
R
R
S
P
M
X
R
S
State t-C RH-% i-kJ/kga v-cum/kga
R 22.0/12.3 30 34.64 0.842
S 43.6/21.6 13 62.40 0.907
O -12.0/-11.5 75 -9.58 0.741
P 18.0/6.1 8 20.62 0.826
M 20.7/10.3 24 29.94 0.837
X 43.1/18.8 7 52.81 0.901
EXAMPLE WS3-5 SI
R R
ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE: 101.325 kPa
Copyright 1992
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, INC.
SEA LEVEL
0
1.0 1.0

1.5
2.0
4.0
-4.0
-2
.0
-1
.0
-0
.5
-
0
.
2
0
.1
0
.2
0
.3
0
.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
-5.0
-2.0
0.0
1
.0
2
.
0
2
.
5
3
. 0
4
. 0
5 . 0
1 0 . 0
-

SENSIBLE HEAT Qs
TOTAL HEAT Qt
ENTHALPY
HUMIDITY RATIO
h
W


6
M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R

EXAMPLE WS5-1
Frame walls with either wood siding or brick veneer are common in light commercial and
residential construction. The attached schematic shows a cross-section of a typical brick veneer
wall. Compute an overall heat transfer coefficient for the wall taking into account the wood
framing.
SOLUTION-IP
It is noted that two distinct paths are present for the transfer of heat through the wall: A
path through the space containing insulation and a path through the wood studs. Lateral heat
transfer between the insulation and the studs may be neglected and the thermal resistances for
each path considered to be in parallel. The table below summarizes the necessary data to arrive
at a solution.

Unit Thermal Resistance, (hr-ft
2
-F)/Btu
Element Table Comment Path 1 Path2
Outside Air Film 5-2a 7 mph 0.25 0.25
Brick, 4 in. 5-1a x/k=4/6 0.67 0.67
Air Space, in. 5-3a t
m
=0, t=10 F 1.15 1.15
Sheathing, in. 5-1a 1/C=1/0.76 1.32 1.32
Stud, wood 5-1a x/k=3.5/0.8 ---- 4.40
Insulation, 3-4 in. 5-1a 1/C=1/0.091 11.0 ----
Plaster Board, 3/8 in. 5-1a 1/C=1/3.1 0.32 0.32
Inside Air Film 5-2a Still Air 0.68 0.68
Total R 15.39 8.79

Now the analysis could be continued using the Unit Resistances, R, however, since the
resistances are in parallel, it will be convenient to use the Unit Conductances, U.
U
2 2 1 1
A U A U A
o o
+ =
Where Ao 16 in., A
1
14.5 in., A
2
1.5 in. since a 2 x 4 in actually 1 x 3 in.
and U
1
= 1/R
1
= 1/15.39 = 0.065 and U
2
= 1/R
2
= 1/8.79 = 0.114
1
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
Then
0696 . 0 114 . 0
16
5 . 1
065 . 0
16
5 . 14
2
2
1
1
= + = + = U
A
A
U
A
A
o o
o
U Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
Now, in reality there is more wood in a complete frame wall than just the studs.
There are plates at the top and bottom of the wall which would be 2 x 4s in this case.
There are almost solid wood headers above each window and door. There is probably an
extra stud in the wall due to uneven spacing and there is usually an extra stud in each
corner. Therefore, Path 2 through the wood accounts for more area than used above. As
computed above the wood studs make up about 10 percent of the wall area. In an actual
case the wood area is more like 20 percent. Then
( ) ( ) 075 . 0 114 . 0 2 . 0 065 . 0 8 . 0 2 . 0 8 . 0
1 1
= + = + = U U U
o
Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
This is a more realistic solution for the finished wall.

SOLUTION-SI
It is noted that two distinct paths are present for the transfer of heat through the wall: A
path through the space containing insulation and a path through the wood studs. Lateral heat
transfer between the insulation and the studs may be neglected and the thermal
resistances for each path considered to be in parallel. The table below summarizes the necessary
data to arrive at a solution.


Unit Thermal Resistance, (m2-C)/W
Element Table Comment Path 1 Path2
Outside Air Film 5-2b 3.4 m/s 0.044 0.044
Brick, 100 mm 5-1b x/k=0.1/0.9 0.111 0.111
Air Space, 13 mm 5-3b t
m
=17.8, t=5.6 C 0.200 0.200
Sheathing, 12.7 mm 5-1b 1/C=1/4.3 0.233 0.233
2
M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
Stud, wood, 89 mm 5-1b x/k=0.089/0.12 ---- 0.740
Insulation, 75-100 mm 5-1b 1/C=1/0.52 1.920 ----
Plaster Board, 9.5 mm 5-1b 1/C=1/17.6 0.057 0.057
Inside Air Film 5-2b Still Air 0.120 0.120
Total R 2.685 1.505

Now the analysis could be continued using the Unit Resistances, R, however, since the
resistances are in parallel, it will be convenient to use the Unit Conductances, U.
U
2 2 1 1
A U A U A
o o
+ =
Where Ao 406 mm, A
1
368 mm, A
2
38 mm since a 2 x 4 in actually 38 x 89 mm.
and U
1
= 1/R
1
= .685 = 0.372 and U
2
= 1/R
2
= 1/1.505 = 0.664 W/(m
2
-C)
Then
399 . 0 664 . 0
406
38
372 . 0
406
368
2
2
1
1
= + = + = U
A
A
U
A
A
o o
o
U W/(m
2
-C)
Now, in reality there is more wood in a complete frame wall than just the studs. There
are plates at the top and bottom of the wall which would be 2 x 4s in this case. There are almost
solid wood headers above each window and door. There is probably an extra stud in the wall
due to uneven spacing and there is usually an extra stud in each corner. Therefore, Path 2
through the wood accounts for more area than used above. As computed above the wood studs
make up about 10 percent of the wall area. In an actual case the wood area is more like 20
percent. Then
( ) ( ) 430 . 0 664 . 0 2 . 0 372 . 0 8 . 0 2 . 0 8 . 0
1 1
= + = + = U U U
o
W/(m
2
-C)
This is a more realistic solution for the finished wall.
3
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R






4
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R

EXAMPLE WS5-2
The first floor of a small building is partially underground as shown in the attached
sketch. The back portion of the first floor is similar to a basement while the front resembles a
concrete slab on grade. The back and side walls are 6 in. (15 cm) concrete with R-8.34 (hr-ft
2
-
F)/Btu [1.47 (m
2
-C)/W] insulation on the outside below grade and finished on the inside with one
in. (25 mm) of glass fiber, organic bonded board and in. (12.7 mm) of gypsum board. The
outside of the exposed concrete walls are covered with 4 in. (10 cm) brick veneer. The concrete
slab floor has horizontal R-3.3 (hr-ft
2
-F)/Btu [0.62 (m
2
-C)/W] insulation 2 ft (0.6 m) wide along
the front and extending back about two widths on each side. The front wall is frame with brick
veneer with a large window and door. The wall has an effective overall heat transfer coefficient
of 0.22 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F) [1.25 W/(m
2
-C)]. The building is located in Louisville, KY where the
outdoor temperature is 12 F (-11 C). Assume an inside air temperature of 72 F (22 C). Estimate
the heat loss for the first floor of the building.
SOLUTION - IP
The physical situation in this case does not exactly fit the data available, therefore, some
reasonable assumptions will have to be made. The various transmission coefficients will first be
estimated followed by the heat loss calculations.
Calculations for the back wall are straight forward in that it is nearly all below grade like
a basement wall and an overall transmission coefficient can be read from Table 5-9 for a depth of
7 ft with R-8.34 insulation as 0.064 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F). Then, adding the inside finish material we get
1 . 20
22 . 2
1
25 . 0
1
064 . 0
1 1 1
= + + = +


+ =
gb fb
bw
C k
x
U
R (hr-ft
2
-F)/Btu orU Btu/(hr-ft 05 . 0 =
bw
2
-F)
1
M16FMR
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
There is a narrow strip at the top of the back wall that is above grade. A coefficient will be
found for that area a little later.


It is assumed that the two end walls have equal contact with the ground. Note in the
sketch that the end walls in contact with the ground have been divided into 2 ft wide increments.
Starting on the left, the first increment is assumed to be 7 ft below grade and each increment to
the right decreases in depth by one foot. A finite element approach will be used to find the
overall heat transfer coefficient of the end walls below grade.

2
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USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
Element
No.
Depth
ft
U
Btu/(hr-ft
2
-f)
A
ft
2
UA
Btu/(hr-F)
1 7 0.064 14 0.89
2 6 0.067 12 0.80
3 5 0.071 10 0.71
4 4 0.075 8 0.60
5 3 0.080 6 0.48
A = 50 ft
2
& UA = 3.48
and U =UA/A=3.48/50 = 0.070 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)

Now, as before the inside finish resistance must be added to obtain the final coefficient of
transmission for the below grade end walls.
7 . 18
22 . 2
1
25 . 0
1
070 . 0
1 1 1
= + + = +


+ =
gb fb
ew
C k
x
U
R (hr-ft
2
-F)/Btu
or 052 . 0
7 . 18
1
= =
ew
U Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
Now the end wall above grade is made up of several layers as follows:

Layer R
(hr-ft
2
-F)/Btu
Outside Air, Table 5-2a, 15 mph 0.17
Brick, 4 in., 120 lb, x/k=4/6.2 0.65
Air Space, in., Table 5-3a 1.15
Concrete, 6 in., x/k=6/15 0.40
Fiber Board, 1 in., x/k=1/0.25 4.00
Gypsum Board, in., 1/C=1/2.22 0.45
Inside Air, Table 5-2a, Still Air 0.68
Total R =
and U
cw
= 0.13 Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
7.50

The floor is a combination basement and slab on grade. As an approximation, assume
that the floor beneath elements 6 and 7, the 2 ft of exposed slab at the front on each side and the
front of the floor slab are slab on grade and use a coefficient from Figure 5-8. Consider the
3
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M
1
6
F
M
R
remainder of the floor to be a basement floor and use a coefficient from Table 5-10 at an average
depth of say 5 ft. Then for the slab with 2 ft of R-3.3 insulation, U
s
= 0.9 Btu/(hr-ft-F) with a
length of 36 ft. For the basement floor, 032 . 0 =
bf
U Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F) with an area of 240 ft
2
.
The heat loss can now be computed after the ground surface temperature has been
estimated. The average annual air temperature in Louisville, KY is 44 F from Table 5-11 and the
amplitude of ground temperature, Amp is about 20 F from Figure 5-7. Then
24 20 44 = = = Amp t
avg g
t F
Care must be taken to use the correct t and area or length.

Component U
Btu/(hr-ft
2
-F)
U
Btu/(hr-ft-F)
A
ft
2

L
ft
t
F
q
Btu/hr

Back Wall, above gr. 0.13 ---- 24 -- 60 187
Back Wall, below gr. 0.050 ---- 168 -- 48 403
End Walls, below gr. 0.052 ---- 100 -- 48 250
End Walls, above gr. 0.13 ---- 148 -- 60 1154
Floor, basement 0.032 ---- 240 -- 48 369
Floor slab ---- 0.9 --- 36 60 1944
Front Wall, frame 0.22 ---- 192 -- 60 2534
Total 6841

The final load estimate appears to be reasonable.
-----------
SOLUTION - SI
The physical situation in this case does not exactly fit the data available, therefore, some
reasonable assumptions will have to be made. The various transmission coefficients will first be
estimated followed by the heat loss calculations.
4
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
Calculations for the back wall are straight forward in that it is nearly all below grade like
a basement wall and an overall transmission coefficient can be read from Table 5-9 for a depth of
2.1 m with R-1.47 insulation as 2.52 W/(m
2
-C). Then, adding the inside finish material we get
55 . 3
6 . 12
1
036 . 0
025 . 0
36 . 0
1 1 1
= + + = +

+ =
gb fb
bw
C k
x
U
R (m
2
-C)/W or 28 . 0 =
bw
U W/(m
2
-C)
There is a narrow strip at the top of the back wall that is above grade. A coefficient will be
found for that area a little later.
It is assumed that the two end walls have equal contact with the ground. Note in the
sketch that the end walls in contact with the ground have been divided into 0.6 m wide
increments. Starting on the left, the first increment is assumed to be 2.1 m below grade and each
increment to the right decreases in depth by 0.3 m. A finite element approach will be used to
find the overall heat transfer coefficient of the end walls below grade.
Element
No.
Depth
m
U
W.(m
2
-C)
A
m
2

UA
W/C
1 2.1 0.36 1.26 0.45
2 1.8 0.38 1.08 0.41
3 1.5 0.40 0.90 0.36
4 1.2 0.43 0.72 0.31
5 0.9 0.45 0.54 0.24
A = 4.5 m
2
& UA =1.77
and U =UA/A= 1.77/4.5 =0.39 W/(m
2
-C)

Now, as before the inside finish resistance must be added to obtain the final coefficient of
transmission for the below grade end walls.
59 . 2
6 . 12
1
036 . 0
025 . 0
39 . 0
1 1 1
= + + = +


+ =
gb fb
ew
C k
x
U
R (m
2
-C)/W
or 39 . 0
59 . 2
1
= =
ew
U W/(m
2
-C)
Now the end wall above grade is made up of several layers as follows:
5
M16FMR
m16fmr@hotmail.co.uk
USE IT WITH YOUR MIND
M
1
6
F
M
R
Layer R
(m
2
-C)/W
Outside Air, Table 5-2b, 6.7 m/s 0.029
Brick, 100 mm, 1920 kg, x/k=0.1/0.9 0.111
Air Space, 12.7 mm, Table 5-3b 0.200
Concrete, 15 cm, x/k= 0.152/2.2 0.069
Fiber Board, 25 mm, x/k=0.025/0.036 0.694
Gypsum Board, 12.7 mm, 1/C=1/12.6 0.079
Inside Air, Table 5-2b, Still Air 0.120
Total R =
and U
cw
= 0.77 W/(m
2
-C)
1.302

The floor is a combination basement and slab on grade. As an approximation, assume
that the floor beneath elements 6 and 7, the 0.6 m of exposed slab at the front on each side and
the front of the floor slab are slab on grade and use a coefficient from Figure 5-8. Consider the
remainder of the floor to be a basement floor and use a coefficient from Table 5-10 at an average
depth of 1.5 m. Then for the slab with 0.6 m of R-0.62 insulation, U
s
= 1.54 W/(m-C) with a
length of 11 m. For the basement floor, 18 . 0 =
bf
U W/(m
2
-C) with an area of 21.9 m
2
.
The heat loss can now be computed after the ground surface temperature has been
estimated. The average winter temperature in Louisville, KY is 6.7 C from Table 5-11 and the
amplitude of ground temperature, Amp is about 11 C from Figure 5-7. Then
3 . 4 11 7 . 6 = = = Amp t t
avg g
C
Care must be taken to use the correct t and area or length.





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Component U
W/(m
2
-C)
U
W/(m-C)
A
m
2

L
m
t
C
q
W
Back Wall, above gr. 0.77 ---- 2.2 -- 33.0 56
Back Wall, below gr. 0.28 ---- 15.3 -- 26.3 113
End Walls, below gr. 0.39 ---- 9.0 -- 26.3 92
End Walls, above gr. 0.77 ---- 14.5 -- 33.0 368
Floor, basement 0.18 ---- 21.9 -- 26.3 104
Floor slab ---- 1.54 --- 11.0 33.0 559
Front Wall, frame 1.25 ---- 17.5 -- 33.0 722
Total 2019

The final load estimate appears to be reasonable.
-----------




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EXAMPLE WS10-1

Consider the design of a central chilled water cooling system for a clubhouse and residential
lodges for a prestigious golf club. The clubhouse is large with a 75 ton cooling load. It is single storey
with a basement for storage and mechanical equipment. Four lodges with 8 suites and 2 common areas
have a cooling load of 20 tons each located to one side of the clubhouse. The first lodge is about 250 ft
away and the others are spaced about 100 ft apart farther on. The equipment room is located at the end of
the basement closest to the first lodge. Each lodge has a basement for equipment.
The golf course is located 70 miles from a city where qualified service personnel are available
and there is no on site operating personnel. Layout a suitable central chilled water system for the
complex, describe the main features of the system and considerations in arriving at the design.

SOLUTION:
Obviously whatever type system is designed should be reliable and simple as possible without
going overboard due to lack of local trained operating and service personnel. A system similar to that
shown in Figure 10-34 of the text would be a good choice to ensure reliable operation and is reasonably
simple because it requires a minimum of controls. This type system would be very responsive to the
expected variable load. Schematicly the system would appear as shown in Figure WS10-1. The air
handling units in the clubhouse and the fan coils in the lodges with piping for the tertiary circuits are not
shown but would resemble Figure 10-33 in the text with the required number of units laid out in a
reverse-return manner. In this case it is not practical to use reverse-return for the secondary circuit.
However, the control of pump P
L
by the required pressure differential at lodge No. 4 will ensure
circulation to all tertiary circuits.
The total combined cooling load is 155 tons. Two chillers with capacity of 75 tons each are
chosen. Each can unload in four steps which allows the capacity of the system to vary from about 20 to
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150 tons. Actually two chillers of about 60 tons each would be adequate due to the diversity in load
usually encountered in situations of this kind. However, due to location, if a chiller was to fail, the other
75 ton unit would provide reasonable cooling in most cases until the second unit could be put back in
service.
It is assumed that the system will operate with chilled water supplied at 45 F and returned at 55 F.
Then the flow rate of water for each chiller is
( ) ( )
s r s r p
t t Q t t c m = =

500 q
Where Q is in gallons per min (gpm). Then


( )
( )
( )
180
45 55 500
000 , 12 75
500
=

=
s r
t t
q
Q

gpm
and the total flow rate at full load is 360 gpm.
Each of the lodge circuits will be sized for 48 gpm which corresponds to 20 tons although there is
theoretically only 45 gpm available for each lodge. It is highly unlikely that all four lodges would be at
full load simultaneously.
Now, in order to size the pipe and compute the lost head for the various circuits so that the pumps
may be specified, a realistic layout of the piping is necessary. Normally a CAD drawing of the piping
showing all valves, fittings and accessories would be made to scale and overlaid on a plan of the
buildings. Since that is not possible here a single line layout with some of the details is shown in Figure
WS10-2. Using the criteria recommended and discussed in the text, the various sections of the piping can
now be sized using Figures 10-20 or 10-21 in the text or the program PIPE given on this website. The
flow rates and pipe sizes are shown on Figure WS10-2, except for the tertiary circuits. An analysis for the
lost head is not given here due to lack of details available in Figure WS10-2. However, the pipe sizing
and head loss calculation is usually done simultaneously using a program like PIPE. For this design an
analysis would yield the results shown below in Table WS10-1.

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The tertiary circuits for the clubhouse and lodges are similar to that shown in Figure 10-33 in the text with
the necessary additional coils and piped in a reverse-return manner.
It is obvious that considerable work is required to design a system of this kind. The effort required to
select all the required valves and accessories is great. However, attention to all the details ensures a reliable,
trouble free design.
Table WS10-1 Approximate Pump Specifications
Pump Speed
rpm
Location Capacity
gpm
Total Head
ft
P
1
1750 Chiller 1 180 20
P
2
1750 Chiller 2 180 20
P
3

a
1750 4Lodges 48 32

P
c
3500
VSD
Clubhouse
Circuit
180 40
P
L
3500
VSD

Secondary
Circuit
360 60
a
Typical of all 4 Lodges
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EXAMPLE WS10-2

The purpose of this example is to illustrate more details of the piping for HVAC systems than are
practical to show in the diagrams and sketches in the text. The following are not all inclusive but show
some of the more important details as they might appear on the working drawings for a piping system.



Figure WS10-2-1 shows a flexible coupled, centrifugal pump and base with all the accessories that might
be used. Not every item will always be used and there might be some other special devices not known to
the author. The spring mounted base would only be used where a danger of sound transmission to the
floor might be a problem. Otherwise only the concrete pad would be used. The suction diffuser is
usually used when the return piping comes from above and is close to the pump suction. Note the
instrumentation, balancing valve, isolation valves and flexible connections. Not shown are pipe supports
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above the flexible connections. The chemical feeder is probably not a permanent fixture but used during
startup to add rust and corrosion inhibitor, etc.


Figure WS10-2-2 shows typical piping for an expansion tank, air elimination and makeup water system.
There are alternate locations for the bladder type expansion tank. The floor mounted tank may be the
most common. Note the details of the makeup system to include the pressure regulator and the backflow
prevention section labeled RPBP. Notice the liberal use of air vents. At startup air removal is especially
critical.

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Figure WS10-2-3 shows a typical piping connection for a coil. A three-way diverting valve is shown but a two-
way valve could be used as discussed in the text. In such a case the bypass from the three-way valve to the return
would not be present. Note the balancing valve, strainer, air vent and instrumentation. Also note that as shown,
the coil is piped for parallel flow which is not typical. Counter flow would be used most typically.
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EXAMPLE WS11-1
The principles discussed relative to jet behavior are quite useful in designing
exhaust systems to remove harmful contaminants from an area before they mix with the
air in the occupied space. When a contaminant such as smoke is emitted in a room it is
ineffective to simply exhaust air because the smoke will diffuse throughout and the space
may never completely clear. However, if the smoke or other such contaminant can be
entrained in a jet, the jet can be captured and removed from the space before the whole
space is contaminated.
Consider an engine rebuilding shop with a free standing, circular parts washing
vat containing a non-toxic but volatile cleaning fluid which is irritating to the workers
eyes standing and working around the vat. The vat is about 8 ft in diameter at bench
height, about 32 in., with a round opening in the center. That is, the vat is annular or
doughnut in shape. It is proposed to install an air outlet in the open center of the vat
discharging a circular jet vertically upward toward an exhaust hood which is to capture
the jet with entrained air and vapor from the vat. The hood is 9 ft above the surface of
the vat.
Determine the basic parameters from which to construct the above system.
SOLUTION
This is a typical design problem where some trial and error may be required to
reach a satisfactory solution. Equations 11-1 and 11-2 cover this situation. To start,
assume an initial velocity,
o
V , of 800 ft/min which should not produce objectionable
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noise. K in Eq. 11-1 is 5 for a circular jet and the throw is 9 ft, the distance from the vat
surface to the hood. Then from Eq. 11-1a
x
o
o
V x 100(9)
A 0.199
800(1.13)5 1.13V K
= = =

and
2 2
0
A (0.199) 0.0397 ft. = =


o
o
4A 4(0.0397)
0.2248 ft. or 2.7 in.

= D = =


0
0 0
Q V A 800(0.0397) 31.76 cfm = = =


The volume flow rate at the hood from Eq. 11-2a is

0
x 0
x
V 800
Q 2Q 2(31.76) 508 cfm
100 V

= = =



Therefore, almost 500 cfm of room air has been entrained in the jet while sweeping the
vapors from the cleaning fluid with it. The cross-sectional area of the jet at the hood
could now be computed. However, a practical pipe size for the initial jet should be used
to recalculate the various parameters. Assume a 3 in. diameter and recalculate
x
V using
Eq, 11-1a.

0
x 0
D 5(800)3
V 111 ft / mi
x 12(9)
= = = V K

n
and
2
2
0
0
o
o o
V D 3
Q V A 800 39.3 cfm
4 4 12

= = = =



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Then from Eq. 11-2a

0
x 0
x
V 800
2Q 2(39.3) 566 cfm
111 V

= = =



Q

The cross-sectional area of the jet at x = 9 ft is

x
x
x
Q 556
A 5.1 ft
111 V
= = =



1/ 2 1/ 2
x
x
4A 4(5.1)


= = =


D 2

.55 ft
Then the hood should have a minimum diameter of 2.55 ft, say 3 ft. The exhaust fan
should have a capacity of about 600 cfm and the fan supplying the initial jet should have
a capacity of about 40 cfm. Finally the space requires makeup air of at least 600 cfm.
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EXAMPLE WS12-1

This example involves the use of the duct sizing program, DUCT. It is recommended
that the instructions for this program and the associated examples be reviewed before
proceeding. Further, it is recommended that this file be printed so that it can be
referenced after the program DUCT is started to show the actual solution.
The system shown in the given figure is to be sized and the associated fan(s) specified
using the program DUCT. Circular (round) duct is to be used. Assume that only one fan,
the fan in the air handling unit (AHU), is to be used. Finally, discuss the addition of a
return fan with the specifications for both fans. All required data are given on the figure.
SOLUTION
It is assumed that a maximum velocity of 800 fpm will be maintained in the main
supply ducts and the branch velocities should be less than 600 fpm to obtain a quiet
system when put into operation. Using the duct program proceed by first numbering all
the duct sections, fittings and diffusers starting at the AHU. The first fitting or section of
duct is number 2. Proceed down the main run all the way to diffuser number 22. To
reduce clutter, only the diffuser numbers are shown on the figure. Following diffuser 22
proceed backward with the branches. For this example the next fitting after 22 is the 45
deg. elbow off the wye that terminates with diffuser 27. Continue on concluding with
diffuser 57. Note that the branches all have dampers except the farthest two, 22 and 27.
It is anticipated that the branches closest to the AHU will probably have velocities greater
than 600 fpm with out some kind of control. The dampers may be adjusted later using
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the modification feature of the program. The dampers in branches 32 and 37 were
actually inserted later when it was found they were needed. This will be explained later.
After numbering all the duct sections and fittings, the data for each was entered in the
duct program. By numbering the system and entering the data in the same order, the
program will connect all the parts appropriately. After this step was complete the other
design parameters were entered or selected. The button to specify a maximum velocity
of 800 fpm was selected initially. The pressure loss data for the coils, filter, etc. were
entered. Using the Pressure Distribution slide bar the fan total pressure was proportioned
between the supply and return parts of the system. A 60 40 split was initially selected
for this example and later adjusted to refine the supply and return system solutions. The
system type, supply; the sizing method, balanced capacity; duct size rounding, round
nearest were selected. Then by clicking on the Calculate Duct Sizes button, a solution
was obtained. It is suggested that at this point the duct program be started and the file
named [Example WS12-1 (Supply).df] be opened. The setup of the final solution for the
supply ducts is shown as discussed above in the window entitled Duct Fittings. Note the
way the elements are connected together. Other data and selections are also shown as
discussed above. Actually the fittings do not have to be all numbered in sequence as
long as they are connected properly. This is an important point because it is often
necessary to add one or more fittings after the initial setup. This was actually done in this
example. Note at the bottom of the list that two dampers numbered 58 and 59 were
added later. The procedure to do this is described in the next paragraph.
To insert an element in the system, first determine the location for the addition.
Next, break the connection of the downstream element from the upstream element by
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selecting the downstream element in the window and click on the Modify button. A
window entitled Fan-Side Connection will pop up, select the Leave Temporarily
Disconnected option and click on the Accept button. Next, add the new fitting with a
new number at the bottom of the fitting list and click Accept. Then click on the
downstream fitting to which the new fitting is to be connected and click on Modify.
Then click on the new fitting. All the fittings should then be reconnected. If a fitting is
still disconnected, repeat the last step above with the disconnected fitting. A new
solution can then be recalculated.
Calculation of the duct sizes with the file given above produces a satisfactory
solution for the supply ducts. Note that the maximum velocity and branch velocity
criteria are met. This was accomplished by adjusting the dampers in the various branches
using the Modification feature of the program and recalculating after each change. Note
that the total flow rate of 1725 cfm was computed, the fan total pressure of 0.63 in. wg is
shown with a 55 45 % split between supply and return was finally used to size both the
supply and return systems. Also note the total pressures for each run which indicate good
system balance even with rounding of the ducts to even sizes.
Once a layout is entered into the program many variations can be investigated as
indicated above such as changing the system total pressure, changing the proportions of
the available total pressure between supply and return, changing the sizing method, etc.
It is usually necessary to alternate work between the supply and return systems to obtain
compatible solutions. When suitable solutions are obtained the output can be edited to
add a title or notes and saved to a file or printed.
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The return ducts are numbered and entered into the program in the same way as
the supply ducts starting at the mixing box with the first element numbered 2. Again all
the numbers are not shown on the figure to avoid too much clutter, however, the return
grilles 17, 22 and 27 are numbered. File [Example WS12-1(Return).df] shows the setup
for the return system. Note that the Air System option is the Fan Total Pressure option
and set equal to 0.63 in. wg, the same total pressure obtained in the solution for the
supply ducts. The AHU internal lost pressures remain the same as well as the
proportioning of the air between supply and return. The sizing method is Balanced
Capacity, the same as the supply system. Calculation of the duct sizes reveals the same
type of data for the return system as was obtained for the supply ducts. Changes to the
solution are limited now because this solution must be compatible with the supply duct
system. The sizing method and rounding parameters are the only options.
Finally, it should be noted that the exhaust and outdoor air ducts should be 20 in.
diameter or an equivalent rectangular size so that the system could operate with 100 %
outdoor air if desired.
The fan in the AHU must produce 1725 cfm at a total pressure of 0.63 in. wg.
However, it should be noted that for the system to operate with outdoor air (ODA) and
Exhaust, the space must be pressurized (see the section on pressure grade lines in the
text). Therefore, to really operate well a return fan should be installed between branch 21
and the tee where the exhaust duct is connected. With two fans, the supply fan must
produce a total pressure of 0.518 in. wg with a capacity of 1725 cfm and the return fan
would have a capacity of 1725 cfm with a total pressure of 0.113 in. wg assuming no
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system effect for the return fan. However, there probably would be some system effect,
especially on the inlet side.


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EXAMPLE WS12-2

An air distribution system was designed and installed as shown schematically in Figure
WS12-2-1. When the system was put into operation it was found that the 3,000 and 2,000 cfm
runs checked out OK. However, the run to the meeting room delivered only 300 cfm rather than
500 cfm as required. This latter run is hidden between a concrete floor above and a metal lath
and plaster ceiling below all the way from point A to the room diffusers. There are no
observably obstructions in the duct. The run of duct is very long with many changes in direction
with an estimated total equivalent length of 400 ft as designed. The building structure prevented
any other routing of the duct run to the meeting room. The duct is round galvanized steel.
Analyze and recommend correction of this problem.

SOLUTION
First, check to see if the 10 in. diameter duct is adequate to handle 500 cfm with the
available total pressure and given total equivalent length.

( )
15 . 0 100
400
1 . 0 7 . 0
/ =

= L P in. wg/100 ft
Then using Figure 12-21 in the text at L P / = 0.15 in. wg/100 ft and 500 cfm the diameter is
given as almost exactly 10 in. Therefore, the design calculation was correct and there must be
something about the hidden part of the duct that is restricting the flow of air. Perhaps the duct
was deformed (crushed), resized or rerouted during construction that resulted in a considerable
increase in flow resistance. Considering where the duct is located, it is impractical to remove the
ceiling for inspection and correction of the problem. A possible correction would be to increase
the fan speed in order to produce enough total pressure to satisfy the 500 cfm run. A damper at
1
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position C would be required to reduce the excess pressure for the 2000 and 3000 cfm runs. To
determine the necessary total pressure to correct the 500 cfm run, first determine the effective
total equivalent length of the run as it exists. Using Figure 12-21 with 300 cfm, the existing total
pressure of (0.7 0.1) = 0.6 in. wg and the 10 in. diameter duct, 055 . 0 / = L P in. wg/100 ft.
Then the effective total equivalent length can be computed using the available total pressure of
0.6 in. wg
15 . 0 / = L P
1090 100
055 . 0
6 . 0
100
/
= =

=
L P
P
L
e
ft
Then with 500 cfm, a 10 in. duct and again going to Figure 12-21, in. wg/100 ft.
The required total pressure for the duct is
( ) ( ) 64 . 1 100 / 1090 15 . 0 100 / / = = =
e n
L L P P in. wg
Then adding the diffuser loss, the new fan total pressure is 1.74 in. wg. Now using the fan laws
the amount of fan speed required to produce the new total pressure and power may be computed.

i i
i
n
i n
R R
P
P
R R 58 . 1
7 . 0
74 . 1
2 / 1
2 / 1
=

=
or nearly a 60 % increase in fan speed of 500 to 600 rpm. The power would be
( )
i i
i
n
i n
P P
R
R
P P 9 . 3 58 . 1
3
3
= =

=
and shows an increase by nearly a factor of 4 or about 3 horsepower for a typical fan. This
seems to be unrealistic.
Since the only part of the system requiring more pressure is the 500 cfm run, consider
placing another fan at position A to supply the needed additional total pressure. Neglecting the
difference in pressure between the fan discharge and point A, the required total pressure for the
fan is (1.74 0.7) = 1.04 or about 1.0 in. wg. Therefore, the added fan should be rated at 500
2
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cfm and 1.0 in. wg, neglecting any fan system effects. This approach would result in only a
small increase in power of less than horsepower. This is a much more reasonable solution.
Now with the increase in flow rate of 200 cfm for the complete system the main fan total
pressure will decrease slightly because the system characteristic for the complete system has
changed. Therefore, a slight increase in fan speed may be required to maintain flow in the 2000
and 3000 cfm branches. The increase in speed would be only 3 to 4 percent or about 25 to 40
rpm for fan speed in the 800 to 1000 rpm range.



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