You are on page 1of 115

PRACTICES MANUAL

Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 1 / 115


7 PRACTICES MANUAL...........................................................................................................................................................2
7.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM...........................................................................................................2
7.1.1 General description of the system............................................................................................................................2
7.1.2 Operation of the subsystems......................................................................................................................................5
7.2 THEORETICAL BASIS.....................................................................................................................................................7
7.2.1 Modeling, simulation and control process .............................................................................................................7
7.2.2 Dynamics and control ................................................................................................................................................8
7.2.3 Dynamic simulation of the control systems ......................................................................................................... 12
7.2.4 Operation and calibration of the process equipment and control elements.................................................. 15
7.3 LABORATORY PRACTICES........................................................................................................................................18
7.3.1 Practice 1: Flow control loops (manual) ............................................................................................................ 18
7.3.2 Practice 2: Flow control loops (on/off)................................................................................................................ 20
7.3.3 Practice 3: Flow control loops (proportional)................................................................................................... 22
7.3.4 Practice 4: Flow control loops (Proportional + Integral) ............................................................................... 24
7.3.5 Practice 5: Flow control loops (Proportional + Derivative)........................................................................... 26
7.3.6 Practice 6: Flow control loops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral) ....................................................... 28
7.3.7 Practice 7: Adjustment of the flow controller constants (Ziegler-Nichols) ................................................... 30
7.3.8 Practice 8: Adjustment of the flow controller constants (Reaction Curves) ................................................. 32
7.3.9 Practice 9: Level control loops (manual) ............................................................................................................ 35
7.3.10 Practice 10: Level control loops (on/off) ............................................................................................................. 37
7.3.11 Practice 11: Level control loops (proportional) ................................................................................................ 38
7.3.12 Practice 12: Level control loops (Proportional + Integral) ............................................................................ 41
7.3.13 Practice 13: Level control loops (proportional + derivative) ......................................................................... 42
7.3.14 Practice 14: Level control loops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral) .................................................... 43
7.3.15 Practice 15: Adjustment of the constants of a flow controller (Ziegler-Nichols) ......................................... 45
7.3.16 Practice 16: Adjustment of the constant of a flow controller (Reaction Curves) ......................................... 47
7.3.17 Practice 17: Temperature control loops (manual) ............................................................................................ 50
7.3.18 Practice 18: Temperature control loops (on/off)................................................................................................ 52
7.3.19 Practice 19: Temperature control loops (proportional) ................................................................................... 53
7.3.20 Practice 20: Temperature control loops (Proportional + Integral) ............................................................... 55
7.3.21 Practice 21: Temperature control loops (Proportional + Derivative) .......................................................... 56
7.3.22 Practice 22: Temperature control loops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral)....................................... 58
7.3.23 Practice 23: Adjustment of the constant of a controller of temperature (Ziegler-Nichols) ........................ 59
7.3.24 Practice 24: Adjustment of the constants of a temperature controller (Reaction Curves) ......................... 61
7.3.25 Practice 25: pH control loops (manual) .............................................................................................................. 64
7.3.26 Practice 26: pH control loops (on/off) ................................................................................................................. 66
7.3.27 Practice 27: pH control loops (proportional)..................................................................................................... 67
7.3.28 Practice 28: pH control loops (Proportional + Integral) ................................................................................ 69
7.3.29 Practice 29: pH control loops (Proportional + Derivative)............................................................................ 70
7.3.30 Practice 30: pH control l oops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral) ........................................................ 72
7.3.31 Practice 31: Adjustment of the constant of a pH controller (Ziegler-Nichols)............................................. 73
7.3.32 Practice 32: Adjustment of the constant of a pH controller (Reaction Curves) ........................................... 75
7.3.33 Practice 33: Conductivity control loops (manual)............................................................................................. 79
7.3.34 Practice 34: Conductivity control loops (on/off) ................................................................................................ 81
7.3.35 Practice 35: Conductivity control loops (proportional) ................................................................................... 82
7.3.36 Practice 36: Conductivity control loops (Proportional + Integral) ............................................................... 84
7.3.37 Practice 37: Conductivity control loops (Proportional + Derivative)........................................................... 86
7.3.38 Practice 38: Conductivity control loops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral) ....................................... 88
7.3.39 Practice 39: TDS control loops (manual) ........................................................................................................... 90
7.3.40 Practice 40: TDS control loops (on/off)............................................................................................................... 92
7.3.41 Practice 41: TDS control loops (proportional).................................................................................................. 93
7.3.42 Practice 42: TDS control loops (Proportional + Integral) .............................................................................. 95
7.3.43 Practice 43: TDS control l oops (Proportional + Derivative).......................................................................... 96
7.3.44 Practice 44: TDS control loops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral) ...................................................... 98
7.4 ANNEX ................................................................................................................................................................................100
7.4.1 Annex 1: Flow sensor calibration .......................................................................................................................100
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 2 / 115
7.4.2 Annex 2: Temperature sensor calibration.........................................................................................................104
7.4.3 Annex 3: Level sensor calibration ......................................................................................................................108
7.4.4 Annex 4: pH sensor calibration...........................................................................................................................112
7 PRACTICES MANUAL
7.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM
In this section, the process unit and the control loops used in measuring
experiments for level, flow, temperature and pH regulation are described, together
with the different equipment and necessary instruments for the physical simulation of
the corresponding dynamic systems.
7.1.1 General description of the system
This unit consists on a hydraulic circuit, with an bottom tank (1) and a
superior process tank (2), both dual ones, two pumps of centrifugal circulation (3),
two flowmeters with a manual control valve (4), three on/off solenoid valves (5) and
a motorized proportional valve (infinitely variable) (6). Of course, together with the
tubes, the union elbows, connections, feedthroungh, main valve and the appropriate
drainage for the circuit operation. All the above-mentioned is set on a designed
support structure so, that it is placed on a work table (7).
As additional fixed elements, there is also a turbine flow sensor that is
installed in one of the upward lines of flow (8), and a temperature sensor located in a
lateral bottom of the process tank (9) together with a serpentine with electric heating
(11).
The interchangeable additional elements are an agitator (10), the
immersion level sensor should be located in the process tank (12) and the pH sensor
(solenoid), can be in the process tank or also in the second tank (13), to study the
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 3 / 115
effect of the time out.
Figure 1.1.1 Main diagram of the equipment
The UCP elements indicated in the diagram are:
1. A main tank and collector with an orifice in the central dividing
wall (2 x 25 dm), and drainage in both compartments (made in
methacrylate).
2. A dual process tank (2 x 10 dm), interconnected through an
orifice and a ball valve and an overflow in the dividing wall
(methacrylate); a graduate scale and a threaded drain of adjustable
level with bypass (metallic).
3. Two centrifugal pumps.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 4 / 115
4. Two variable area flowmeters (0.2-2 l/min, and 0.2-10 l/min),
and with a manual valve.
5. Line of on/off regulation valves (solenoid). Usually one is
opened (AVS-1), and the other two are usually closed with
different Cv (AVS-2 and AVS-3); and manual drainage valves of
the superior tank.
6. A motorized control valve (AVP-1; piston type) with rotation
indicator.
7. Structures, panels, pipes and connections made in stainless
steel and methacrylate.
8. A flow sensor, fixed, turbine type.
9. A temperature sensor.
10. A helix agitator.
11. An electric resistor (0.5 KW), fixed.
12. Level sensor 0-300 mm (of capacitive immersion, 4-20 MA), can
be dismantled.
13. PH sensor (glass electrode, ddp(V)), collapsible (tank).
14. On/off level sensor. This sensor determines the performance of
the immersion resistor.
15. Control loops: interface, controller, monitor and keyboard (PC
and cards), electric connections.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 5 / 115
7.1.2 Operation of the subsystems
For the level, flow and temperature control test, the liquid (water) is
impelled from the tank by the pump, located to the left of the front of the equipment,
going through the flowmeter, the solenoid valve (usually open), the motorized valve,
the turbine (flow sensor) and the process tank. It is possible to use the second pump
in the level tests, as it will be indicated.
The pH control test of requires a second parallel line of flow (right),
provided only with pump and a flowmeter. The compartments of the inferior tank
should be loaded with diluted solutions of an acid and a base, respectively.
The process tank is divided in two halves, with an orifice between them
that allows their communication or isolation.
The right compartment has an overflow of variable level (that it prevents
the complete overflow of the tank, and it allows to modify its effective liquid
volume), two drains with solenoid valves with different Cv (normally closed), and a
third one with a normal drainage valve.
The left compartment is only connected to a drainage valve.
The level control tests require all the elements of the circuit and of the
tank, besides the sensor located in it. In some experiments, it is required the second
pump placed to the right-hand side of the equipment.
The TEMPERATURE CONTROL tests, in these cases, as we will see later
on, can be carried out with experiments in closed circuit or in open circuit. In the
close circuit case, fill the superior tank with the right pump 1 (AB-1) and carry out
the experiment. In open circuit, keep a constant water flow using the pump 1, this
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 6 / 115
way, a small water flow is adjusted and the superior overflow is used as a drainage
system. In this case, it is necessary to use the agitator to guarantee a good
temperature uniformity.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 7 / 115
7.2 THEORETICAL BASIS
Modeling, simulation, design and optimization require a series of processes that
will be explained in the following paragraphs. The understanding of these theoretical
concepts will help the student to follow the suitable instructions for the practices
procedure.
7.2.1 Modeling, simulation and control process
The development, and good operation of the industrial plants, requires the
right selection of the equipment and process parameters. This election is
supplemented with the instrumentation and the control, as well as with the dexterity
to adjust and to manipulate them correctly.
For it, the industrial engineering processes use different tools and technical
aspects based on:
1.- The modeling of the systems.
2.- The simulation of the stationary and dynamics response.
The control process is the objective of this modeling and simulation that
guarantees that the dynamic behavior is efficient and precise.
The design and the process optimization is based on calculations in
stationary state to specify, in a first approach, the operation conditions of the
equipment in the process plants. These design calculations in the stationary state
don't say anything about the dynamic response of the system, they only tell us where
we begin and where we end up, but anything about the process behavior. This type of
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 8 / 115
information is the one that informs about the study of the dynamics procedure.
The dynamics and the control study the non-stationary behavior of the
processes and the design of the control systems in function of the interferences. With
this, the design of the process systems is finished, that include the own process and
its control loops.
In a first approach, the process control unit has been designed for the study
of the dynamic behavior of the different control loops. The modeling and stationary
simulation of the processes is not deal with in this equipment.
7.2.2 Dynamics and control
Once the freedom degrees of the process are selected and the design
variables good values are calculated, these values should remain unaffected with the
deviations that take place during the real operation of the systems during the
stationary state.
The factors that cause such deviations are denominated interferences.
These can be internal or external to the process, random or programmed. The random
interference type are those that produce deviations from the programmed regime due
to some process input variables fluctuations. In the programmed interferences, it is
necessary to consider the transitory periods of starting-up, stop or changes in the
stationary state of the process.
The number of variables that you can fix coincides with the freedom
degrees (although they don't have to coincide with the free variables that were chosen
during the design phase). The variables that are more easily controlled are: level,
flow, pressure, temperature and composition. We will denominate them controlled
variables and their values we will be called set point. In a controller, the input
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 9 / 115
magnitude of the set point is fixed in a constant value. In a programmer controller
the inlet magnitude is a value that varies in function of the time, according to the
programmed law.
The variable used to regulate the set values is denominated manipulated
variable. The function of the regulating device of the system is to activate
automatically the control elements that allow to modify the value of the manipulated
variables, so that the controlled variables are the next to the set point.
7.2.2.1 Dynamics in open loop
The systems dynamics studies the non-stationary situations of the process.
This study is always previous to the design of the control that avoids the non-
reversibility of some deviations of the stationary state. In the process, the
manipulated variable acts changing the value of the controlled variables so, in the
simplest cases, it can be predicted using of a mathematical model. So, it is
fundamental to have an exhaustive knowledge of the process to will be studied.
The dynamic simulation of a process consists on:
1. Developing the material and energy balance equations, the
balances, the physical laws or other independent sources of
information.
2. Selecting the values of the necessary physical-chemical
magnitudes and the values of the preset points.
3. Obtaining the differential expressions of the variables determining
their temporary evolution for an interference in the stationary
regime starting from a defined initial state.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 10 / 115
As a particular case, the design equations in the stationary state can be
obtained (null accumulation) and, starting from them, calculate the values of the
design and state variables in this regime.
The system dynamic in open loop represents the process behavior in the
absence of controllers. The velocity and the tolerance of the response of the process
in function of the interferences can be studied, this is the necessity of the control
system.
7.2.2.2 Feedback Control
The feedback control system consists, essentially, on measuring the
controlled variable, to compare its value with the one wanted (set point) and,
according to the error, to act on the control element of the manipulated variable. This
is a feedback system, in which the corrector action persists while the error is not null.
The corresponding signals spread in the circuit, making comparison cycles, of
calculation and of correction (in closed loop) with a certain time of response.
If a closed control is turned into manual operation, the operator can govern
directly the control valve and the value of the regulated variable obtained from the
transmitter can be observed in the controller. In this case, we are operating in open
loop, since the output signal of the controller is off.
The main elements of a control system in closed loop are:
Sensor: Device that is able to measure the value of the controlled
variable (it is also denominated primary measure element).
Transducer: Device that transforms the measures in normalized
equivalent signals, pneumatic or electric, according to the distance
between the process and control rooms, which are sent to the
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 11 / 115
comparator (also denominated signal conditioner element).
Controller: Device that receives the error from the comparator,
interprets it, and it acts on the final element of control. There are
three types of corrective actions:
- Proportional: the signal sent to the final element is
proportional to the error. If the proportional constant is very
big the control behaves as an on/off control.
- Integral: the corrective signal sent is proportional to the
error accumulated with the time (integral error).
- Derivative: the signal is proportional to the velocity of
variation of the error.
These last two actions are usually combined with the primary signal
(proportional) to improve the control quality and even, they usually
combine the three in complex processes. These combined processes
are known as P.I.D. control (proportional-integral-derivative).
Final element of control (actuator): Device that, according to the
signal of the controller, acts on the manipulated variable regulating
the inlet material or energy flow to the process (valve, volumetric
pump, compressor, rheostat, etc.).
The control systems are effective with small interferences. In the case of
big interferences, the final element can end up being totally open or totally closed,
and, above a certain value, the control would not act appropriately (saturated). In
these cases, to correct it, you should act manually on the parameters of the system.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 12 / 115
The sensors, the transmitters and the final control elements are inserted in
the process in a logical way. The control devices are usually located in a control
room, and they are in normalized panels with graphic instruments for the variables
and a diagram of flow (in a simple pilot plant it can be a simple PC computer with a
monitor and a printer).
In the control diagrams, the variables are designated with the letters F
(flow), L (level), P (pressure), T (temperature), followed by the indicative letters of
the service and of the functions of the instruments: T (transmitter), C (controller), I
(indicator), R (register), A (alarms).
7.2.2.3 Forward control
The forward control makes the corrective action in the moment in which
the interference is detected, instead of waiting to its spread through the process, as it
happened in the feedback process. The action is independent of the value of the
controlled variable, making it depend on another, according to a calibrated preset.
This system is used with simple processes that don't require a great accuracy, or in
those processes in which the closed loop doesn't give good results, for example, in
processes in which that the measure and the corrective action take place in a great
period of time.
7.2.3 Dynamic simulation of the control systems
The dynamic simulation of the control systems allows studying the
response of the system facing up diverse interferences, such as changes in the input
variables, in the set point, or in the controller adjustments. The system consists of a
block that represents the process, and of another that corresponds the controller
connected to the first one forming a feedback loop.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 13 / 115
Figure 2.3.1
The process consists basically of an input (q), a manipulated variable, also
called feedback (m) and an output (c) (controlled variable). The controlled variable is
subtracted to the set point (r) to obtain the error (e) (input to the controller). The
controller calculates an output signal by means of an appropriate control algorithm.
The characteristic response of a controller on/off comes determined by its hysteresis,
also called dead band. In a PID controller (proportional-integral-derivative) the signal
comes determined by the gain (Kc) or its percentage inverse (BP=100/Kc,
proportional band) and the integral (I) and derivative (D) times.
[1]

[ ]

+ + =
=
=
)
(
,
t
e
D t e e Kc m
c r e
m q Kp c
In open loop, the state variables (outputs) are calculated starting from the
initial values and from the process pattern. It is defined in function of differential
equations for the transitory regime, or by state equations for the stationary regime
(invariable with the time).
These last ones are the techniques employed during the design phase of the
experiment and they allow calculating the values of the necessary input variables to
reach the stationary regime. The first ones allow studying the transitory periods
during the setting phases in setting-in, stops or changes in the stationary regime of
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 14 / 115
the process.
During the real operation of the process, the variables are modified with
the time as a consequence of diverse interferences in the input variables or in the set
point (programmed). In these cases, the process can only work correctly using a
closed loop control.
The dynamic behavior of the system is calculated by an iterative algorithm
at discreet intervals of time (Eulers method). The first phase of the program is the
data input: fixed variables, initial values of the manipulated variables, set point of the
controlled variables, adjustment of the controller (hysteresis, parameters PID) and
interference variables.
Q
t
R
T
H,K
C
, I,D
m C
t
e
I
m
t
Figure 2.3.2
The mathematical pattern of the process calculates the outlet (C
t
) in
function of the inlets (q t, m
t
). This value is compared with the set point (r
t
) and the
resulting error (e
t
) is calculated (the accumulated error (integral) or its derivative with
the time, the trapezoidal rules and finite increments are used in this case). Finally,
with these values, the controller output (s
t
) and the manipulated variable (m
t
) are
calculated making use of the adjustments of the control actions (H, K
c
, I, D) and of
the calibration of the actuator, respectively.
PROCESO COMPARACIN CONTROL
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 15 / 115
The relationship between these last two variables can be settled down on
the base of a function (lineal) between the width of the actuator (m) and the signal of
the controller (s).
Also, automatic graph representation commands of response can be
included (controlled and manipulated variables), time outs in the process (always
superior or similar to the time of sampling, tt) and sampling time of the controller
similar to those of the process (analogical control) or superiors (digital control).
In case a graphic register is used, this should be connected to the electric
signs of the sensor/conditioner (controller input) and to its output (actuator input) to
obtain a register of the response of the process.
7.2.4 Operation and calibration of the process equipment and control elements
The verification and calibration of all the sensors you can find in the
equipment can be carried out in two different ways. The Saced System that is
supplied with the equipment, has a calibration window specially designed for such a
purpose (see Calibration Manual).
However, and due to the importance that the calibration the sensors has in
the control process, the system offers two text windows in which the gain and the
zero can be introduced of each one of the transducers that the equipment has: flow,
level, temperature and pH.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 16 / 115
Figure 2.4.1
In the same way, the verification of the operation of the pumps, solenoid
valves, agitator, etc. it can be carried out from the calibration window in the Saced
System. This process of operation test should be carried out with extreme care and
under the introduction of the professor's PASSWORD. This Password has been
indicated in the software manual. Once the professor's password is introduced, the
program allows you to select the channels included in the equipment for the digital
outputs as well as for the analogical ones. Verify each one of the elements assembled
in the equipment and carry out a good calibration of the sensors. We should point out
that, when storing the calibration values in the file UCP.EDB, these will be recovered
every time that you enter in the program, independently from the values introduced
by the students in the different practice sessions.
When selecting the different outputs that has the acquisition card
(analogical and digital outputs, and analogical and digital inputs), you can verify the
operation of all devices of the equipment. As an example we have the following
table:
Name of the sensor for
calibration.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 17 / 115
Analogical port (Inputs) Digital Port (Outputs)
Channel Action/Sensor Channel Action/Sensor
Channel 0 pH sensor Channel 0 AVS-1
Channel 1 Level sensor Channel 1 AVS-2
Channel 2 Flow sensor Channel 2 AVS-3
Channel 3 Temperature sensor Channel 3 Resistor On/Off
Channel 4 Alarm of Level Channel 4 Agitator On/Off
Channel 5 Proportional Valve Channel 5 Pump 1 On /Off
Channel 6 Pump 2 On/Off
Table 2.4.1
To outputs and inputs it is necessary to add the analogical output that
corresponds to the motorized valve.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 18 / 115
7.3 LABORATORY PRACTICES
It is very important for the formation of the student, the calibration of the
sensors, hence is recommendable that the students see the Annex 1 to Annex 4.
7.3.1 Practice 1: Flow control loops (manual)
7.3.1.1 Objectives
The objective of this experiment is to control the flow that circulates
through a conduction of water by a manual procedure. We assume that the manual
control works as:
Manual regulation of the adjustable valve placed under the area
flowmeter.
Manual control of the elements used in the equipment as the
motorized valve, solenoid valves, etc.
7.3.1.2 Required material
To make this practice, the following elements are necessary:
UCP-F
Water
SACED Software.
7.3.1.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and execute the program
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 19 / 115
SACED UCP-F.
2.- Inside the program, select the option Configuration and connect pump 1
(AB-1) (see Software Manual for a more detailed operation).
3.- In the manual regulation (no controller) the flow can be regulated by the
manual adjustable valve VR1, placed in the inferior part of the flowmeter. Vary its
position and observe the adjustment of the flow in function of its position.
4.- Select the option Manual Control of the software supplied with the
equipment.
5.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1) and vary the position of the motorized valve by
the Slip bar or the command associated to this action. Check a fixed position, the
flow is regulated.
6.- Vary the position of the valve and repeat the values to observe the
reproduction of the flow control.
7.- Use the controls prepared in the software for controlling the solenoid
valves AVS-1 and the on/off button of the pump. Observe how an on and off button
also produces a flow control of the liquid.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 20 / 115
7.3.2 Practice 2: Flow control loops (on/off)
7.3.2.1 Objectives
Figure 3.6.1
The objective of this practice is to carry out a closed loop control by an
on/off controller. For it, the student will select the value wanted for the flow and the
controller will adjust this control by the closing and opening of the solenoid valve
AVS-1.
Control
On/off
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 21 / 115
7.3.2.2 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and the control software.
2.- Select the control option on/off.
3.- By a double click on the on/off control, select the flow wanted. By
defect there is certain flow, a tolerance and a performance time. It allows the students
to play with these parameters and they can see the influences of each one of them.
4.- It calculates the inertia of the system before an on/off response and
determines the limit time for an exact control.
Figure 3.6.2
7.3.2.3 Conclusions
From the results obtained by the on/off control on the flow variable we can
affirm that this controller is not the most appropriate due to the quick variation of this
magnitude before a small interference. Only with small values in the performance
times and the tolerances we can obtain a flow control next to the set value, but in any
case we will have a stable value of the flow.
Results of the on/off
action.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 22 / 115
7.3.3 Practice 3: Flow control loops (proportional)
7.3.3.1 Objectives
This configuration allows studying the system dynamics and the response
to the control actions in closed loop. The object of the experiment is to regulate the
set point (flow) by the employment of controllers that operate automatically on the
final element of the loop (control valves).
You can control the flow in the tank by a sensor and a controller
configured for proportional outputs to the actuator without the typical oscillations of
the on/off control. The response of the control loop can be studied compared to the
interferences in the variables of the process (flow) or variations in the set point (the
flow is changed fixing different set points).
Modifying the set point in a remote way, the flow changes can be
observed, oscillating around the new value. We can have the case that the set point is
not reached if the range of the actuator (manipulated variable) is not enough as to
control the interferences or the changes in the set point, so it will be stabilized only
until the maximum that the available water allows. In our case, the manipulated
variable is the water flow that circulates through a motorized valve, managed
automatically from the controller (0-10V signal), by means of superimposed actions
of proportional, integral and derivative type.
7.3.3.2 Required material
To make the practice the following material is needed:
UCP-F
Control and Acquisition Software.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 23 / 115
Water.
7.3.3.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual M4)
2.- Select the Option Control PID on the capture screen.
Figure 3.7.1
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual M4).
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 24 / 115
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral and derivative performance. In this
experiment we want to observe the effects of a proportional action.
Figure 3.7.2
6.- Activate the PID controller and start and go out and save the values.
The student will observe that the motorized valve begins to act.
7.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1).
8.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP (Proportional Valve)
to adjust the flow to the set value.
7.3.4 Practice 4: Flow control loops (Proportional + Integral)
7.3.4.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that an integral performance superimposed to a proportional action, in an
actuator, has.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 25 / 115
7.3.4.2 Required material
The following material is necessary for the practice development:
UCP-F
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
7.3.4.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the Option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software manual M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant and an
integral value. The value for the integral constant should be big so that the error
accumulation is carried out smoothly and it doesnt generate an on/off performance
in the actuator.
5.- Indicate a value of 0 for the derivative performance. In this experiment,
we want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus an integral action.
6.- Activate the PID controller, go out, and save the values. The student
will observe that the motorized valve begins to work.
7.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1).
8.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to adjust the flow to the set value.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 26 / 115
7.3.5 Practice 5: Flow control loops (Proportional + Derivative)
7.3.5.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to a proportional action, in an
actuator, has.
7.3.5.2 Required material
It is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-F
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
7.3.5.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the software control, see the Software Manual M4)
2.- Select the option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional and derivative
constant. The value for the derivative constant should be small so that the
performance is small and it does not generate an on/off performance in the actuator.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral performance. In this experiment,
we want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus a derivative action.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 27 / 115
5.- Activate the PID controller, go out, and save the values. The student
will observe that the motorized valve begins to act.
6.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1).
7.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to adjust the flow to the set value.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 28 / 115
7.3.6 Practice 6: Flow control loops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral)
7.3.6.1 Objectives
This practice supplements to the previous one. The objective is to observe
the effect that has a derivative performance superimposed to an integral performance
and a proportional action in an actuator.
7.3.6.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-F
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
7.3.6.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual M4)
2.- Select the option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant, derivative
and integral. The value for the derivative constant should be small and the integral
constant should be big so that the performance is small and it does not generate an
on/off performance in the actuator.
4.- Activate the PID controller, go about, and save the values. The student
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 29 / 115
will observe that the motorized valve begins to work.
5.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1).
6.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to adjust the flow to the set value.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 30 / 115
7.3.7 Practice 7: Adjustment of the flow controller constants (Ziegler-Nichols)
7.3.7.1 Objectives
To follow the optimization process of a controller of three terms (PID), for
a given process.
When you optimize the PID control values you will have to take into
account several initial considerations:
1.-The process has slow or quick response.
2.-The process reaction goes very retarded of the action.
3.-The sensors and controllers response is immediate or they need a
time out to reach the balance.
The objective of this practice is to get familiarized with the most usual
methods of optimizing the variables of a PID controller starting from the
characterization of the process.
For such a purpose the following methods will be used:
- Ziegler-Nichols (or closed loop).
- Reaction curve (or open loop).
7.3.7.2 Experimental procedure
The data to be analyzed will be obtained configuring the controller only
with the Proportional Band or the proportional action. The Integral and Derivative
Actions should be at zero.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 31 / 115
The objective of the experiment is to maintain the conduction of the system
with a flow of 1 l/m using a P controller for the control of the motorized valve.
With the motorized valve at the 50% of its complete way, regulate the
needle valve manually V
R-1
, until the flow of the system is at 1 l/min.
7.3.7.2.1 Method of the minimum period (Ziegler-Nichols)
Pass now to an automatic control and observe how the flow stays constant
at the 50% of the process variable. Change the process variables for a partial opening
of the needle valve, V
R-1
. As the process will become stable, increase the value of the
proportional constant and close the needle valve partially, V
R-1
, observing the
behavior of the process.
Continue increasing the value of the proportional constant and applying
every time a step interference (closing or opening V
R-1
), until the variable of the
process oscillates continually. Write down the value of the proportional constant
(Limit Proportional Band, L.P.B.) when this happens, to measure the oscillation time
of the process (O.T.).
The optimum values, depending on the control type that we are going to
make on our process are:
Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.
P 2 (L.P.B.) -- --
P+I 2.2 (L.P.B.) O.T. / 1.2 --
P+I+D 1.7 (L.P.B.) O.T. / 2.0 O.T. / 8.0
Table 3.11.1
A variant of the gain limit method is the method of the minimum overflow
of the set point. Once the self-maintained oscillation of Oscillation Time O.T. for a
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 32 / 115
Limit Proportional Band L.P.B. is obtained, the control action values are the
following ones:
B.P (%) = 1.25 L.P.B.
I.T. (MIN/REP) = 0.6 O.T.
D.T. (MIN) = 0.19 O.T.
7.3.8 Practice 8: Adjustment of the flow controller constants (Reaction Curves)
In this method of open loop, the general procedure consists on opening the
regulation closed loop before the valve, that is to say, the valve must be operated
directly with the manual controller and to create a small and quick change in step in
the input process. From the registration of the signal and from their graphic
representation the control values of the PID will be obtained. The graphic
representation of the controlled variable versus the time is a sigmoid. In the inflection
point of the sigmoid a tangent straight line is traced and the values of R and L can be
measured. R is the slope of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve and L is the
retard time of the process. That is, the time (in minutes) between the instant of the
change in the step and the point in which the tangent straight cuts the sigmoid in the
inflexion point crosses with the initial value of the controlled variable. DP is the
percentage (%) of position variation of the control valve that introduces the step in
the process, see figure 3.12.1.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 33 / 115
Figure 3.12.1 representation of the reaction curve.
From this representation we can obtain the slope of the sigmoid, R, and the time of retard, L.
The optimum values, depending on the control type that we will make on
our process, are
Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.
P P -- --
P+I 110RL/DP L/0.3 --
P+I+D 83RL/DP L/0.5 0.5L
Table 3.12.1.
Optimum values that are going to be used in function of the type of control used. L: Time of retard, R.: Slope
of the sigmoid in the inflection point. D: Derivative, P: Proportional.
Compare the values obtained by the two methods.
7.3.8.1 Other experiments to carry out
7.3.8.1.1 Evaluation of the PID controller calibration
Once the PID values are entered to the controller, adjust in manual way,
with the motorized valve positioned at 50% of their way, the needle valve V
R-1
, until
the flow of the system is at the 50% of the maximum flow provided by the pump. Go
to automatic control of the process and apply an interference, as the solenoid valve
AVS-1. Observe the temporary behavior of the process. Repeat the process for the
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 34 / 115
PID control values obtained by the other method.
7.3.8.2 Conclusions
- There are techniques to obtain the different values of the variables of a
PID controller and they should be determined for any particular process.
- The values obtained by any of the different methods differ and they
should be treated as start values for the good regulation of the process; they should be
slightly modified by the operator, carrying out, this way, their fine adjustment until
you obtain the good values.
- There are methods of automatic adjustment, in which the instrument has
an algorithm of self adjustment of the control actions that allows it to tune in with a
wide range of industrial processes. The application of a test signal to the process and
the analysis of the obtained response and its mathematical modeling leads to the
controller analytic design (Nishikawa, Sannomiya, Ohta and Tanaka, 1984). Or you
can use an iterative process to the method of the gain limit (Chindambara, 1970, and
Kraus and Myron, 1984):
The error signal obtained is analyzed, in the case of changes in the set point
or in the load of the process, and iterating the new PID values can be determined.
Controller P: B.P.N+1 = B.P.N / (0.5 + 2.27 R)
Controller PI: same B.P.n+1 and I.T. = P / (1.2 *sqr(1+R2)) min/rep
Controller PID: same B.P.and I.T. = P / (2 *sqr(1+R2))
D.T. = P / (8 *SQR(1+R2)).
being R = 1/(2*3.14) * Ln(a/b) and P the period of the oscillation muffled, in
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 35 / 115
minutes. Where a and b are the widths of the first two oscillations introduced the
after the interference.
If, when applying these methods, the process enters into oscillation, the
interference can invalidate the application, in case the process does not allow it.
7.3.9 Practice 9: Level control loops (manual)
7.3.9.1 Objectives
The objective of this experiment is to control the level in a tank of water by
a manual procedure. We understand that the manual control works as:
Manual regulation of the adjustable valve placed under the area
flowmeter.
Manual control of the elements prepared in the equipment;
motorized valve, solenoid valves, etc.
7.3.9.2 Required material
The following elements are required for the realization of this practice:
UCP-L
Water
SACED Software.
7.3.9.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and execute the program
SACED UCP-L.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 36 / 115
2.- Inside the program, select the option Manual.
3.- In the manual regulation (no controller) the flow can be regulated by the
manual adjustable valve V
R1
, placed in the inferior part of the flowmeter. This
regulation, together with the opening of the tank manual valves, to notice a level of
water. Change its position and observe the adjustment of the level in function of their
position.
4.- Select the option Manual Control of the software supplied with the
equipment.
5.- Connect pump 1 and vary the position of the motorized valve in the slip
bar or the command associated to this action. Open AVS-1 or AVS-2 and check how,
for a given position, the level of water in the tank fixes.
6.- Change the position of the valve and repeat the values to observe the
reproducibility of the level control.
7.- Use the controls prepared in the software for the control of the solenoid
valves AVS-1, AVS-2 and AVS-3 and the switch on/off button of the pump. Observe
how an on/off of it also produces a level control of the liquid.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 37 / 115
7.3.10 Practice 10: Level control loops (on/off)
7.3.10.1 Objectives
Figure 3.14.1
The objective of this practice is to carry out a closed loop control by an
on/off controller. For it, the student will select a value wanted for the level and the
controller will adjust this control by the closing and opening of the solenoid valve
AVS-1, AVS-2, AVS-3 and the activation of pump 2.
7.3.10.2 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and the control software.
2.- Select the control on/off option.
On/Off
controller
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 38 / 115
3.- Make a double click on the on/off control, select the wanted flow. By
defect, there is a certain flow, tolerance and performance time. It allows the students
to play with these parameters and see the influences of each one.
4.- The level control can be carried out by the activation of a single
actuator, or of several ones, to which different tolerances are allowed. These
controllers work as security system measures when the controlled variable exceeds in
a tolerance the set value. To activate or to disable each one of these controllers you
have to make a double click on each one of them and press the button PAUSE.
5.-Calculate the inertia of the system before an on/off response and
determine the limit time for an exact control.
7.3.10.3 Conclusions
From the results obtained by the on/off control on the variable level, we
can affirm that this controller has an acceptable behavior due to the fact that the
variation of this magnitude under a small interference is slow. If we also take small
values in the performance times and in the tolerances, we can obtain a level control
next to the set value.
7.3.11 Practice 11: Level control loops (proportional)
7.3.11.1 Objectives
This configuration allows studying the dynamics of the system and the
response to the control actions in closed loop. The object of the experiments is to
regulate the set point (LEVEL) by the use of the controllers that automatically
operate on the final element of the loop (control valves).
You can control the level in the tank by a sensor and a controller
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 39 / 115
configured for proportional output to the actuator without the typical oscillations of
the on/off control. The response of the control loop can be studied faced to
interferences in the variables of the process (flow) or variations in the set point (the
flow is changed fixing different set points).
Modifying the set point in a remote way, the level changes can be observed
oscillating around the new value. It can happened that the set point is not reached if
the range of the actuator (manipulated variable) it is not enough to control the
interferences or the changes in the set point, so it will be stabilized only until the
maximum that allows the available water. In our case, the manipulated variable is the
water level of the tank that, at the same time, comes determined by the flow that
passes through a motorized valve, manipulated automatically from the controller (0-
10V signal), by means of superimposed actions of proportional, integral and
derivative type.
7.3.11.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-L
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
7.3.11.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual M4)
2.- Select the Option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 40 / 115
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral and derivative performance. In this
experiment, we want to observe the effects of a proportional action.
5.- Activate the PID controller, go out and save the values. The student will
observe that the motorized valve begins to work.
6.- Connect pump 1 (AB-1).
7.- Activate the solenoid valve AVS-2.
8.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to adjust the flow that controls the level from the water tank to the set value.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 41 / 115
7.3.12 Practice 12: Level control loops (Proportional + Integral)
7.3.12.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that an integral performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator has.
7.3.12.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-L
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
7.3.12.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameters, see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant and an
integral value. The value for the integral constant should be big so that the error
accumulation is carried out smoothly and it doesnt generate an on/off performance
in the actuator.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the derivative performance. In this experiment
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 42 / 115
we want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus an integral action.
5.- Activate the PID controller, go out, and save the values. The student
will observe that the motorized valve begins to act.
6.- Connect pump 1.
7.- Open the solenoid valve AVS-1.
8.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to adjust the flow that controls the set value.
7.3.13 Practice 13: Level control loops (proportional + derivative)
7.3.13.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that has a derivative performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator.
7.3.13.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-L
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
7.3.13.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 43 / 115
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant and
derivative. The value for the derivative constant should be small so that the
performance is small and it doesnt generate an on/off performance in the actuator.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral performance. In this experiment we
want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus a derivative action.
5.- The activated PID controller and start and save the values. The student
will observe that the motorized valve begins to work.
6.- Connect pump 1.
7.- Open valve AVS-2.
8.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Porportional
Valve) to vary the flow to adjust the level to the set value.
7.3.14 Practice 14: Level control loops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral)
7.3.14.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to an integral performance and a
proportional action in an actuator has.
7.3.14.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 44 / 115
UCP-L
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
7.3.14.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant, derivative
and integral. The value for the derivative constant should be small and the integral
constant should be big so that the performance is small and doesnt generate an
on/off performance in the actuator.
4.- Activate the PID controller, go out and save the values. The student will
observe that the motorized valve begins to act.
5.- Connect pump 1.
6.- Open the solenoid valve AVS-2.
7.- The controller will modify the position of the AVP-1 (Proportional
Valve) to vary the flow to adjust the level to the set value.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 45 / 115
7.3.15 Practice 15: Adjustment of the constants of a flow controller (Ziegler-
Nichols)
7.3.15.1 Objective of the experiment
To follow the optimization process of a controller of three terms (PID), for
a given process.
When the PID control values of a process are optimized, you will have to
take into account several initial considerations:
1.-The process is of slow or quick response.
2.-The reaction of the process goes very retarded of the action.
3.-The response of the sensors and controllers is immediate or they
need a time out to reach the balance.
The objective of this practice is to get familiarized with the most usual
methods of optimizing the variables of a PID controller starting from the
characterization of the process.
For such a purpose the following methods will be used:
- Ziegler-Nichols (or closed loop).
- Reaction Curves (or open loop).
7.3.15.2 Experimental procedure
The data to be analyzed will be obtained configuring only the controller
with the Proportional Band or the proportional action. The integral and derivative
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 46 / 115
actions should be at zero.
The objective of the experience is to maintain the system with a constant
level using a controller P for the control of the motorized valve.
With the motorized valve at the 50% of its way, regulate the needle valve
manually V
R-1
, until getting that the level of the tank is constant.
7.3.15.3 Method of the minimum period (Ziegler-Nichols)
Pass now to an automatic control and observe how the level stays constant
at the 50% of the process variable. Change the variables of the process for partial
opening of the needle valve, V
R-1
. As the process will become stable, increase the
value of the proportional constant and close the needle valve, V
R-1
, partially
observing the behavior of the process.
Continue increasing the value of the proportional constant, applying each
time an interference in step (closing or opening V
R-1
), until the variable of the process
oscillates continually. Note down the value of the proportional constant (Limit
Proportional Band, L.P.B.) when this happens, measure the oscillation time of the
process (O.T.).
The optimum values, depending on the control type we will make on our
process are:
Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.
P 2 (L.P.B.) -- --
P+I 2.2 (L.P.B.) T.O/1.2 --
P+I+D 1.7 (B.P.L) O.T. / 2.0 T.O/8.0
Table 3.19.1
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 47 / 115
A variant of the gain limit method is the method of the minimum overflow
of the set point. Once the self-maintained oscillation of the Time of Oscillation O.T.
is obtained for a Limit Proportional Band L.P.B., the values of the control actions are
the following ones:
B.P (%) = 1.25 L.P.B.
I.T. (MIN/REP) = 0.6 O.T.
D.T. (MIN) = 0.19 O.T.
7.3.16 Practice 16: Adjustment of the constant of a flow controller (Reaction
Curves)
In this open loop method, the general procedure consists on opening the
closed loop of regulation before the valve, that is to say, the valve must be directly
operating with the controller manually and to create a small one and quick change in
the step in the input process. From the signal registration and from their graphic
representation the PID control values can be obtained. The graphic representation of
the controlled variable versus the time is a sigmoid. In the inflection point of the
sigmoid a tangent straight line is traced and the values R and L are measured. R is the
slope of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve and L is the retard time of the
process. That is, time (in minutes) that takes place between the instant of the change
in step and the point in which the straight line, tangent to the sigmoid, cuts the initial
value of the controlled variable. DP is the percentage (%) of the position variation of
the control valve that introduces the step in the process, see figure 3.20.1
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 48 / 115
Figure 3.20.1:
Representation of the reaction curve.
From this representation we can obtain the slope of the sigmoid R and the time of retard L.
The optimum values, depending on the control type that we will be made
on our process are:
Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.
P P -- --
P+I 110RL/DP L/0.3 --
P+I+D 83RL/DP L/0.5 0.5L
Table 3.20.1:
Optimum values necessary to use in function of the type of control used.
L: Time of retard, R.: Slope of the sigmoid in the inflection point. D. Derivative, P.: Proportional.
Compare the values obtained by the two methods.
7.3.16.1 Other experiments to carry out
7.3.16.1.1 - Evaluation of the calibration of the PID controller
Once the PID values are introduced in the controller in a manual way, with
the motorized valve positioned at the 50% of their way, regulate the needle valve
manually V
R-1
, until obtaining that the flow of the system is at the 50% of the
maximum flow provided by the pump. Go to the automatic control of the process and
apply an interference, as the solenoid valve AVS-1. Observe the temporary behavior
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 49 / 115
of the process. Repeat the process for the PID control values obtained by the other
method.
7.3.16.2 Conclusions
- There are techniques to obtain the different values of the variables of a
PID controller and they should be determined for any particular process.
- The values obtained by any of the different methods differ, and they
should be treated as starting values for the good regulation of the process, which
should be slightly modified by the operator, carrying out this way their fine
adjustment until obtaining the optimum values.
- There are methods of automatic adjustment, in which the instrument has
an algorithm of self-adjustment of the control actions that allows him to tune in with
a wide range of industrial processes. The application of a test signal to the process
and the analysis of the obtained response and its mathematical modeling leads to the
controller analytic design (Nishikawa, Sannomiya, Ohta and Tanaka, 1984). Or you
can use an iterative process to the method of the gain limit (Chindambara, 1970 and
Kraus and Myron, 1984):
The obtained error signal is analyzed in the case of changes in the set point
or in the load of the process, and by iteration the new values PID can be determined.
Controller P: B.P.N+1 = B.P.N / (0.5 + 2.27 R)
Controller PI: same B.P.n+1 and I.T. = P / (1.2 *sqr(1+R2)) min/rep
Controller PID: same B.P.and I.T. = P / (2 *sqr(1+R2))
D.T. = P / (8 *SQR(1+R2)).
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 50 / 115
Being R = 1/(2*3.14) * Ln(a/b) and P the period of the oscillation muffled in
minutes. Where a and b are the widths of the first two oscillations introduced after
the interference.
If, when applying these methods, the process enters into oscillation, the
interference can invalidate the application, in case the process does not allow it.
7.3.17 Practice 17: Temperature control loops (manual)
7.3.17.1 Objectives
The objective of this experiment is the temperature control in a tank of
water by a manual procedure. We understand that the manual control works as:
Manual regulation of the adjustable valve placed under the area
flowmeter.
Manual control of the equipment elements: motorized valve, solenoid
valves, relay of activation / deactivation of the resistor, etc.
7.3.17.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of this practice:
UCP-T
Water.
SACED Software.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 51 / 115
7.3.17.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and execute the program
SACED UCP-T.
2.- Inside the program, select the option Configuration and connect pump 1
(see Software Manual for more operation details).
3.- The temperature regulation of a tank of water can be carried out by two
different procedures that we will identify as:
a. - Static; it consists on filling the left superior tank above the level
alarm.
b. - Continuous or Dynamic; it consists on fixing a water level in the left
superior tank but with an inlet and outlet of constant water. In this
second procedure, it is required that the incoming and outcoming water
flows are small in order to establish a thermal balance in the tank.
Under these conditions, it is also necessary to maintain the water level
above the level alarm.
3.- In the manual regulation (no controller) the temperature can be
regulated by the on and off immersion resistor placed in the tank.
4.- Select the option Manual Control of the software supplied with the
equipment.
5.- Connect pump 1
a) Fill the tank above the level alarm. Disconnect pump 1 and close
the valve V
R1
manually.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 52 / 115
b) Connect pump 1 and fill the tank until getting the level alarm.
Once surpassed this, AVS-1 opens, and using V
R1
fix a constant
inlet and outlet water flow in the tank.
6.- Connect, anyway, the agitator given with the equipment.
7.- By the connection and disconnection of the resistor, fix a temperature
for the water. In the case b, if it is necessary, fix the temperature varying the inlet and
outlet of flow. So, open or close valve V
R1
or the AVS-1.
7.3.18 Practice 18: Temperature control loops (on/off)
7.3.18.1 Objectives
The objective of this practice is to carry out a closed loop control by an
on/off controller. For it, the student will select a value wanted for the temperature and
Off/On Control
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 53 / 115
the controller will adjust this control by the on/off switch of the resistor.
7.3.18.2 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and the control software.
2.- Select the control option on/off.
3.- Select the wanted temperature (Set point). By defect, There is a set
point, tolerance and performance time determined. It allows the students to play with
these parameters and to see the influences of each of them.
4.- It calculates the inertia of the system before an on/off response and
determines the limit time for an exact control.
7.3.18.3 Conclusions
From the results obtained by the on/off control on the variable of
temperature, we can affirm that this controller has an acceptable behavior due to the
fact that the variation of this magnitude before a small interference is slow. If we also
take small values in the performance times and in the tolerance we can obtain a
TEMPERATURE CONTROL next to the set value.
7.3.19 Practice 19: Temperature control loops (proportional)
7.3.19.1 Objectives
This configuration allows studying the dynamics of the system and the
response to the control actions in closed loop. The object of the experiments is to
regulate the set point (TEMPERATURE) by using the controllers that operate
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 54 / 115
automatically on the final element of the loop (control ACTIONS).
You can control the temperature in the tank by a thermal probe and a
controller configured for proportional outputs to the actuator without the typical
oscillations of the on/off control. You can study the response of the control loop in
front of interferences in the process variables (flow) or variations in the set point (the
temperature is changed fixing different set points).
Modifying the set point in a remote way the temperature changes can be
observed oscillating around the new value. It can happen that the set point is not
reached if the range of the actuator (manipulated variable) it is not enough to control
the interferences or the changes in the set point, so it will be stabilized only up to the
maximum that allows the water available. In our case, the manipulated variable is the
water temperature of the tank that, at the same time, is determined through a PWM
actuator, which acts as a temporizer, whose performance time is proportional to the
value of 0-10 volt. A bigger performance time of the resistor means a bigger energy
given by the resistor to the liquid.
7.3.19.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-T
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
7.3.19.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 55 / 115
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the option Control PID on the capture screen.
3.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral and derivative performance. In this
experiment we want to observe the effects of a proportional action. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).
6.- Activate the PID controller, go out and save the values. The student will
observe that the motorized valve begins to work.
7.3.20 Practice 20: Temperature control loops (Proportional + Integral)
7.3.20.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that an integral performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator has.
7.3.20.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-T
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
7.3.20.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 56 / 115
2.- Select the option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant and an
integral value. The value for the integral constant should be big so that the error
accumulation is carried out smoothly and doesnt generate an on/off performance in
the actuator.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the derivative performance. In this experiment
we want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus an integral action.
5.- Activate the PID controller, go out, and save the values. You will
observe that the resistor begins to work.
7.3.21 Practice 21: Temperature control loops (Proportional + Derivative)
7.3.21.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator has.
7.3.21.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-T
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 57 / 115
7.3.21.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional and derivative
constant. The value for the derivative constant should be small so that the
performance is small and it doesnt generate in a on/off performance in the actuator.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral performance. In this experiment we
want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus a derivative action.
5.- Activate the PID controller, go out and save the values. The student will
observe that the motorized valve begins to work.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 58 / 115
7.3.22 Practice 22: Temperature control loops (Proportional + Derivative +
Integral).
7.3.22.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to an integral performance and a
proportional action in an actuator has.
7.3.22.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-T
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
7.3.22.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the Option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameters, see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional, derivative and
integral constant. The value for the derivative constant should be small and the
integral constant should be big so that the performance is small and it doesnt
generate an on/off performance in the actuator.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 59 / 115
4.- Activate the PID controller, go out and save the values. The student will
observe that the motorized valve begins to work.
7.3.23 Practice 23: Adjustment of the constant of a controller of temperature
(Ziegler-Nichols)
7.3.23.1 Objective
To follow the process of optimization of a controller of three terms (PID),
for a given process.
When the values of a PID process are optimized you have to take into
account several initial considerations:
1.-The process is of slow or quick response.
2.-The reaction of the process goes very retarded of the action.
3.-The response of the sensors and controllers are immediate or they
need a time out to reach the balance.
The objective of this practice is to familiarize with the most usual methods
of optimizing the variables of a PID controller starting from the characterization of
the process.
For such a purpose the following methods will be used:
- Ziegler-Nichols (or closed loop).
- Reaction Curves (or open loop).
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 60 / 115
7.3.23.2 Experimental procedure
The data to be analyzed will be obtained configuring the controller only
with the Proportional Band or the proportional action. The Integral and Derivative
Actions should be at zero.
The objective of the experience is to maintain the system with a constant
temperature using a controller P for the control of the resistor.
With the motorized valve at the 50% of its way, regulate the needle valve
manually V
R-1
, until getting that the level of the tank is constant.
7.3.23.2.1 Method of the minimum period (Ziegler-Nichols)
Pass now to an automatic control and observe how the temperature stays
constant at the 50% of the process variable. Change the process variables for partial
opening of the needle valve V
R-1
. As the process will become stable, increase the
value of the proportional constant and close the needle valve, V
R-1
, partially,
observing the behavior of the process.
Continue increasing the value of the proportional constant and applying
each time an interference in step (close or opening of V
R-1
), until the process variable
oscillates continually. Write down the value of the proportional constant (Limit
Proportional Band, L.P.B.). When this happens, measure the oscillation time of the
process (O.T.).
The optimum values, depending on the control type that we will make in
on our process are:
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 61 / 115
Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.
P 2 (L.P.B.) -- --
P+I 2.2 (L.P.B.) O.T. / 1.2 --
P+I+D 1.7 (L.P.B.) O.T. / 2.0 T.O/8.0
Table 3.27.1
A variant of the limit gain method is the method of minimum overflow of
the set point. Once the self-maintained oscillation of Time of Oscillation O.T. for a
Limit Proportional Band L.P.B., the values of the control actions are the following
ones:
B.P (%) = 1.25 L.P.B.
I.T. (MIN/REP) = 0.6 O.T.
D.T. (MIN) = 0.19 O.T.
7.3.24 Practice 24: Adjustment of the constants of a temperature controller
(Reaction Curves)
In this open loop method, the general procedure consists on opening the
regulation closed loop before the valve, that is to say, the valve must operated
directly with the controller in manual and create a small and quick change in step in
the input process. From the registration of the signal and from its graphic
representation the control values of the PID will be obtained. The graphic
representation of the controlled variable versus the time is a sigmoid. In the inflection
point of the sigmoid a tangent straight line is traced and the values R and L are
measured. R is the slope of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve and L is the
retard time of the process. That is, time (in minutes) that takes place between the
instant of the change in step and the point in which the tangent straight line crosses
the initial value of the controlled variable. DP is the percentage (%) of position
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 62 / 115
variation of the control valve that introduces the step in the process. See figure
3.28.1.
Fig. 3.28.1
Representation of the reaction curve. From this representation we can obtain the slope of the
sigmoid R and the time of retard L.
The optimum values, depending on the control type that we will make on
our process are
Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.
P P -- --
P+I 110RL/DP L/0.3 --
P+I+D 83RL/DP L/0.5 0.5L
Table 3.28.1.
Optimum values good necessary to use in function of the type of control used. L: Time of retard, R: Slope of
the sigmoid in the inflection point. D: Derivative, P: Proportional.
Compare the values obtained with the two methods.
7.3.24.1 Other experiments to carry out
7.3.24.1.1 Evaluation of the calibration of the PID controller
Once the PID values have been entered to the controller, adjust, in a
manual way, with the motorized valve positioned at the 50% of their way, regulate
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 63 / 115
the needle valve manually, V
R-1
, until getting that the flow of the system is at the
50% of the maximum flow provided by the pump. Go to the automatic control of the
process and apply an interference, as the solenoid valve AVS-1. Observe the
temporary behavior of the process. Repeat the process for the PID control values
obtained by the other method.
7.3.24.2 Conclusions
- There are techniques to obtain the different values of the variables of a
PID controller and they should be determined for any particular process.
- The values obtained by any of the different methods differ, and they
should be treated as starting values for the good regulation of the process that should
be slightly modified by the operator, carrying out, this way, their fine adjustment
until obtaining the good values.
- There are methods of automatic adjustment, in which the instrument has
an algorithm of self-adjustment of the control actions that allows him to tune in with
a wide range of industrial processes. The application of a test signal to the process,
the analysis of the response obtained and its mathematical modeling leads to the
controller analytic design (Nishikawa, Sannomiya, Ohta and Tanaka, 1984). Or you
can use an iterative process to the method of the limit gain (Chindambara, 1970 and
Kraus and Myron, 1984):
The error signal obtained is analyzed in the case of changes in the set point
or in the load of the process and by iteration the new PID values can be determined.
Controller P: B.P.
N+1
= B.P.N / (0.5 + 2.27 R)
Controller PI: same B.P.
n+1
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 64 / 115
I.T. = P / (1.2 *sqr(1+R
2
)) min/rep
Controller PID: the same B.P.
I.T. = P / (2 *sqr(1+R
2
))
D.T. = P / (8 *SQR(1+R
2
)).
being R = 1/(2*3.14) * Ln(a/b) and P the period of the oscillation muffled in minutes.
Where a and b are once the widths of the first two oscillations introduced after the
interference.
If when applying these methods, the process enters into oscillation, the rising
interference can invalidate the application, in case the process doesnt allow it.
7.3.25 Practice 25: pH control loops (manual)
7.3.25.1 Objectives
The objective of this experiment is the control of the pH in a tank by a
manual procedure. We understand that the manual control works as:
Manual regulation of the adjustable valve placed under the area
flowmeter.
Manual control of the equipment elements: motorized valve, solenoid
valves, relays of activation / resistor deactivation, pumps, etc.
7.3.25.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of this practice:
UCP-pH
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 65 / 115
Water.
SACED Software.
Acid and basic solution.
7.3.25.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and execute the program
SACED UCP-pH.
2.- Prepare a basic solution in the left inferior tank of pH 9.
3.- Prepare an acid solution in the right inferior tank of pH 6.
4.- Inside the program, select the option Configuration and connect pump 2
for the filling of the superior tank (See Software Manual for a more detailed
operation).
5.- Connect pump 2, and regulate a low flow by V
R2
, placed under the area
flowmeter.
6.- Introduce the pH and the agitator. Connect this last one from the
software.
7.- The pH regulation of the resulting solution in the left superior tank will
come given by the combination of the quantities and concentration of the basic and
acid solutions.
8.- Fix a certain pH and play with the flows, modifying and adjusting the
flows manually by the valves V
R1
and V
R2
. It is also possible to control the quantity
of the acid solution by the AVP-1.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 66 / 115
7.3.26 Practice 26: pH control loops (on/off)
7.3.26.1 Objectives
The objective of this practice is to carry out a control of closed loop by
means of a On/off controller. For it, the student will select a value wanted for the pH
and the controller will adjust this control by means of the valve AVS-1.
7.3.26.2 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the equipment interface and the control software.
2.- Select the control option on/off.
3.- Select the wanted pH (Set point). By defect, it has certain values for pH,
tolerance and a performance time. It allows the students to play with these parameters
and see the influences of each one of them.
4.- It calculates the inertia of the system before an on/off response and
determine the limit time for an exact control.
7.3.26.3 Conclusions
From the results obtained by the on/off control on the variable pH we can
affirm that this controller has an acceptable behavior due to the fact that the variation
of this magnitude under a small interference is slow. Moreover, if we take small
values in the performance times and in the tolerance we can obtain a pH control next
to the set value.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 67 / 115
7.3.27 Practice 27: pH control loops (proportional)
7.3.27.1 Objectives
This configuration allows studying the system dynamics and the response
to the control actions in closed loop. The object of the experiments is to regulate the
set point (pH) employing controllers that operate automatically on the final element
of the loop (control ACTIONS).
You can control the pH in the tank by a pH electrode and a controller
configured for proportional outputs to the actuator without the typical oscillations of
the on/off control. The response of the control loop in front of interferences in the
variables of the process (flow) or variations in the set point (the temperature changes
fixing different set points) can be studied.
Modifying the set point in a remote way, the pH changes can be observed
oscillating around the new value. It can happened that the set point is not reached if
the range of the actuator (manipulated variable) it is not enough to control the
interferences or the changes in the set point, so it will be stabilized only up to the
maximum that allows the water available. In our case, the manipulated variable is the
pH of a solution. The resulting pH is the result of a combination of an acid solution
and another basic one. The combination of these, in given proportions, allows fixing
its pH. For it, the actuator, in this case, comes given by the AVP-1 placed in the line
of pump 1.
7.3.27.2 Required material
The materials required for the realization of the practice are:
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 68 / 115
UCP-pH
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
Acid solution and basic solution.
7.3.27.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the Option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller and a proportional constant.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral and derivative performance. In this
experiment we want to observe the effects of a proportional action.
5.- Activate the PID controller, go out and save the values. The student will
observe that the motorized valve begins to work. Note: do not forget to connect pump
2 and fix a small flow for this drive line.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 69 / 115
7.3.28 Practice 28: pH control loops (Proportional + Integral)
7.3.28.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that an integral performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator has.
7.3.28.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-pH
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
Acid solution and basic solution.
7.3.28.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the software control, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select Set Point and the option Control PID on the capture screen.
(For more information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software
Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, PID controller type (Position and Velocity) and a
proportional and an integral constant. The value for the integral constant should be
big so that the error accumulation is carried out smoothly and it doesnt generate an
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 70 / 115
on/off performance in the actuator.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the derivative performance. In this experiment
we want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus an Integral action.
5.- Activate the PID controller, go out and save the values. You will
observe that the motorized valve begins to adjust the flow of the basic solution to
adjust the pH to the set value.
7.3.29 Practice 29: pH control loops (Proportional + Derivative)
7.3.29.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator has.
7.3.29.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-pH
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
Acid solution and basic solution.
7.3.29.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 71 / 115
2.- Select the Option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, a PID controller and a proportional and derivative
constant. The value for the derivative constant should be small so that the
performance is small and it doesnt generate an on/off performance in the actuator.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral performance. In this experiment we
want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus a derivative action.
5.- Activate the PID controller, go out and save the values. The student will
observe that the motorized valve begins to work.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 72 / 115
7.3.30 Practice 30: pH control loops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral)
7.3.30.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to an integral performance and a
proportional action in an actuator has.
7.3.30.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-pH
Control and Acquisition Software.
Acid solution and basic solution.
7.3.30.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the option Control PID on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Select a set point, a PID controller and a proportional, derivative and
integral constant. The value for the derivative constant should be small and the
integral constant should be big so that the performance is small and it doesnt
generate an on/off performance in the actuator.
6.- Activate the PID controller, go out and save the values. The student will
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 73 / 115
observe that the motorized valve begins to work.
7.3.31 Practice 31: Adjustment of the constant of a pH controller (Ziegler-
Nichols)
7.3.31.1 Objective
To follow the optimization process of a controller of three terms (PID), for
a given process.
When the PID control values are optimized it is necessary to take into
account several initial considerations:
1.-The process is of slow or quick response.
2.-The reaction of the process goes very retarded of the action.
3.-The response of the sensors and controllers are immediate or they
need a time out to reach the balance.
The objective of this practice is to get familiarized with the most usual
methods of optimizing the variables of a PID controller starting from the
characterization of the process.
For such a purpose the following methods will be used:
- Ziegler-Nichols (or closed loop).
- Reaction Curves (or open loop).
7.3.31.2 Experimental procedure
The data to be analyzed will be obtained configuring only the controller
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 74 / 115
with the Proportional Band or the proportional action. The Integral and Derivative
Actions should be at zero.
The objective of the experience is to maintain the system with a value of
constant pH using a P controller for the pH control.
With the motorized valve at the 50% of its way, regulate the needle valve,
V
R-1
,

manually, until getting that the pH is constant.
7.3.31.2.1 Method of the minimum period (Ziegler-Nichols)
Pass now to automatic control and observe how the pH stays constant at
the 50% of the process variable. Change the variables of the process for partial
opening of the needle valve V
R-1
. As the process will become stable, increase the
value of the proportional constant and close partially the needle valve, V
R-1
,
observing the behavior of the process.
Continue increasing the value of the proportional constant and applying
each time an interference in step (closing or opening of V
R-1
), until the variable of the
process oscillates continually. Write down the value of the proportional constant
(Limit Proportional Band, L.P.B.) when this happens, measure the oscillation time of
the process (O.T.).
The optimum values, depending on the control type that we will make on
our process are:
Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.
P 2 (L.P.B.) -- --
P+I 2.2 (L.P.B.) T.O/1.2 --
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 75 / 115
P+I+D 1.7 (B.P.L) O.T. / 2.0 T.O/8.0
Table 3.35.1
A variant of the limit gain method is the method of minimum overflow of
the set point. Once the self-maintained oscillation of Time of Oscillation O.T. for a
Limit Proportional Band L.P.B. is obtained, the values of the control actions are the
following ones:
B.P (%) = 1.25 L.P.B.
I.T. (MIN/REP) = 0.6 O.T.
D.T. (MIN) = 0.19 O.T.
7.3.32 Practice 32: Adjustment of the constant of a pH controller (Reaction
Curves)
In this open loop method, the general procedure consists on opening the
closed loop of regulation before the valve, that is to say, the valve must be operate
directly with the controller in a manual way and create a small and quick change in
step in the input process. From the registration of the signal and of from its graphic
representation the values of the PID control will be obtained. The graphic
representation of the controlled variable versus the time is a sigmoid. In the inflection
point of the sigmoid a tangent straight line is traced and the values R and L are
measured. R is the slope of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve and L is the
retard time of the process. That is, time (in minutes) that takes place between the
instant of the change in step and the point in which the straight line tangent to the
sigmoid crosses with the initial value of the controlled variable. DP is the percentage
(%) of position variation of the control valve that introduces the step in the process.
See figure 3.36.1.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 76 / 115
Figure 3.36.1
Representation of the reaction curve. From this representation we can obtain the slope of the sigmoid R and
the time of retard L.
The optimum values, depending on the control type that we are going to
make on our process, are:
Type of Control B.P. I.T. D.T.
P P -- --
P+I 110RL/DP L/0.3 --
P+I+D 83RL/DP L/0.5 0.5L
Table 3.36.1
Optimum values necessary to use in function of the type of control used. L: Time of retard, R: Slope of the
sigmoid in the inflection point. D: Derivative, P: Proportional.
Compare the values obtained with the two methods.
7.3.32.1 Other experiments to carry out
7.3.32.1.1 Evaluation of the calibration of the PID controller
Once the PID values have been entered to the controller, adjust, in a
manual way, with the motorized valve positioned at the 50% of its way, regulate the
needle valve, V
R-1
, manually until getting that the system flow is at the 50% of the
maximum flow provided by the pump. Pass to automatic control of the process and
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 77 / 115
apply an interference, as the solenoid valve AVS-1. Observe the temporary behavior
of the process. Repeat the process for the PID control values obtained by the other
method.
7.3.32.2 Conclusions
- There are techniques to obtain the different values of the variables of a
PID controller and they should be determined for any particular process.
- The values obtained by any of the different methods differ and they
should be treated as starting values for the good regulation of the process that should
be slightly modified by the operator, carrying out this way their fine adjustment until
the optimum values are obtained.
- There are methods of automatic adjustment, in which the instrument has
an algorithm of self-adjustment of the control actions that allows it to tune in with a
wide range of industrial processes. The application of a test signal to the process and
the analysis of the obtained response and its mathematical modeling leads to the
controller analytic design (Nishikawa, Sannomiya, Ohta and Tanaka, 1984). Or you
can use an iterative process to the method of the limit gain (Chindambara, 1970 and
Kraus and Myron, 1984):
The obtained error signal is analyzed in the case of changes in the set point
or in the load of the process and by iteration the new PID values can be determined.
Controller P: B.P.N+1 = B.P.N / (0.5 + 2.27 R)
Controller PI: same B.P.n+1
I.T. = P / (1.2 *sqr(1+R
2
)) min/rep
Controller PID: same B.P.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 78 / 115
I.T. = P / (2 *sqr(1+R
2
))
D.T. = P / (8 *SQR(1+R2)).
being R = 1/(2*3.14) * Ln(a/b) and P the period of the oscillation muffled in minutes.
Where a and b are the widths of the first two oscillations introduced after the
interference.
If, when applying these methods, the process enters into oscillation, the
following interference can invalidate the application, in case the process doesnt
allow it.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 79 / 115
7.3.33 Practice 33: Conductivity control loops (manual)
7.3.33.1 Objectives
The objective of this experiment is the control of the conductivity in a tank
by a manual procedure. We understand that the manual control works as:
Manual regulation of the adjustable valve placed under the area
flowmeter.
Manual control of the equipment elements: motorized valve, solenoid
valves, relays of activation / resistor deactivation, pumps, etc.
7.3.33.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of this practice:
UCP-Conductivity
SACED Software
Water.
Potassium closure, KCI. Around 30g or less.
7.3.33.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and execute the program
SACED UCP-Conductivity.
2.- Prepare a conductivity dissolution in the left inferior tank of 1,5 mS/cm,
you can get this dissolution with 11 liters of water with 12g KCI approximately.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 80 / 115
3.- Water to fill the right inferior tank up to 250 mm of level.
4.- Inside the program, select Control 1 and connect pump 2 (AB-2) to
fill with water the left superior tank (See Software Manual for a more detailed
operation) up to 100mm of level.
5.- Introduce the conductivity probe and stirrer in the left superior tank.
6.- Connect pump 2, and regulate a very low flow by V
R2
, placed under the
flowmeter area.
7.- The conductivity regulation of the resulting solution in the left superior
tank will come given by the combination of the quantities and concentration of the
dissolution of left inferior tank and the water of right inferior tank.
8.- Fix a certain conductivity and play with the flows, modifying and
adjusting the flows manually by the valves V
R1
and V
R2
. It is also possible to control
the quantity of the conductivity dissolution by the AVP-1.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 81 / 115
7.3.34 Practice 34: Conductivity control loops (on/off)
7.3.34.1 Objectives
The objective of this practice is to carry out a control of closed loop by
means of a On/off controller. For it, the student will select a value wanted for the
conductivity and the controller will adjust this control by means of the valve AVS-1.
7.3.34.2 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the equipment interface and the control software.
2.- Select the control 2 option, on/off.
3.- Select the wanted conductivity (Set point). By defect, it has certain
values for conductivity, tolerance and a performance time. It allows the students to
play with these parameters and see the influences of each one of them.
4.- It calculates the inertia of the system before an on/off response and
determine the limit time for an exact control.
7.3.34.3 Conclusions
From the results obtained by the on/off control on the variable conductivity
we can affirm that this controller has an acceptable behavior due to the fact that the
variation of this magnitude under a small interference is slow. Moreover, if we take
small values in the performance times and in the tolerance we can obtain a
conductivity control next to the set value.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 82 / 115
7.3.35 Practice 35: Conductivity control loops (proportional)
7.3.35.1 Objectives
This configuration allows studying the system dynamics and the response
to the control actions in closed loop. The object of the experiments is to regulate the
set point (conductivity) employing controllers that operate automatically on the final
element of the loop (control ACTIONS).
You can control the conductivity in the tank by a conductivity probe and a
controller configured for proportional outputs to the actuator without the typical
oscillations of the on/off control. The response of the control loop in front of
interferences in the variables of the process (flow) or variations in the set point (the
temperature changes fixing different set points) can be studied.
Modifying the set point in a remote way, the conductivity changes can be
observed oscillating around the new value. It can happened that the set point is not
reached if the range of the actuator (manipulated variable) it is not enough to control
the interferences or the changes in the set point, so it will be stabilized only up to the
maximum that allows the water available. In our case, the manipulated variable is the
conductivity of a dissolution. The resulting conductivity dissolution is the result of a
combination of an conductivity dissolution and water. The combination of these, in
given proportions, allows fixing its conductivity. For it, the actuator, in this case,
comes given by the AVP-1 placed in the line of pump 1, AB-1.
7.3.35.2 Required material
The materials required for the realization of the practice are:
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 83 / 115
UCP-conductivity.
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
Conductivity dissolution (200 mm of water level with 12g KCI
to get 1,5 mS/cm approximately) and water.
7.3.35.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the Option Control 3 on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Activate Siemens sensor, select conductivity sensor Scon, a set point,
and a proportional constant in the control 3 frame.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral and derivative performance. In this
experiment we want to observe the effects of a proportional action. And activate AB-
1.
5.- Activate the PID controller. The student will observe that the motorized
valve begins to work. Note: do not forget to connect pump 2 and fix a very small
flow for this drive line.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 84 / 115
7.3.36 Practice 36: Conductivity control loops (Proportional + Integral)
7.3.36.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that an integral performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator has.
7.3.36.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-conductivity
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
Conductivity dissolution (200 mm of water level with 12g KCI
to get 1,5 mS/cm approximately) and water.
7.3.36.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the software control, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Activate Siemens sensor, select conductivity sensor Scon, a set point,
and a proportional constant and a integral constant, in the control 3 frame.
3.- Indicate a value of 0 for the derivative performance. In this experiment
we want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus an Integral action.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 85 / 115
Suggestion: Setpoint = 0,25mS/cm; Kc= 300; Ti= 0.4; Td = 0;
4.- Activate the PID controller. You will observe that the motorized valve
begins to adjust the flow of the dissolution to adjust the conductivity to the set value.
In the next picture can see un PID control on conductivity.
Note: If the AB-1s flow is higher than 1,8l/m when AVP-1 is totally open, adjust
manual valve until 1,8 l/m. On the other hand, The AB-2s flow must be very low,
around 0,8 l/m.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 86 / 115
7.3.37 Practice 37: Conductivity control loops (Proportional + Derivative)
7.3.37.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator has.
7.3.37.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-Conductivity
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
Conductivity dissolution (200 mm of water level with 12g KCI
to get 1,5 mS/cm approximately) and water.
7.3.37.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the Option Control 3 on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Activate Siemens sensor, select conductivity sensor Scon, a set point,
and a proportional constant and a derivative constant, in the control 3 frame.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 87 / 115
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral performance. In this experiment we
want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus a derivative action.
5.- Activate AB-1, AB-2 and then activate the PID controller. The student
will observe that the motorized valve begins to work.
Note: If the AB-1s flow is higher than 1,8l/m when AVP-1 is totally open,
adjust manual valve until 1,8 l/m. On the other hand, The AB-2s flow must be very
low, around 0,8 l/m
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 88 / 115
7.3.38 Practice 38: Conductivity control loops (Proportional + Derivative +
Integral)
7.3.38.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to an integral performance and a
proportional action in an actuator has.
7.3.38.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-Conductivity
SACED UCP.
Conductivity dissolution (200 mm of water level with 12g KCI to
get 1,5 mS/cm approximately) and water.
7.3.38.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the option Control 3 on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Activate Siemens sensor, select conductivity sensor Scon, a set point,
and a proportional constant and a integral constant, in the control 3 frame. The
value for the derivative constant should be small and the integral constant should be
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 89 / 115
big so that the performance is small and it doesnt generate an on/off performance in
the actuator.
6.- Activate AB-1, AB-2 and then the PID controller. The student will observe that
the motorized valve begins to work.
Note: If the AB-1s flow is higher than 1,8l/m when AVP-1 is totally open, adjust
manual valve until 1,8 l/m. On the other hand, The AB-2s flow must be very low,
around 0,8 l/m.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 90 / 115
7.3.39 Practice 39: TDS control loops (manual)
7.3.39.1 Objectives
The objective of this experiment is the control of the TDS in a tank by a
manual procedure. We understand that the manual control works as:
Manual regulation of the adjustable valve placed under the area
flowmeter.
Manual control of the equipment elements: motorized valve, solenoid
valves, relays of activation / resistor deactivation, pumps, etc.
7.3.39.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of this practice:
UCP-TDS
SACED Software
Water.
TDS dissolution (200 mm of water level with 12g Potassium
closure KCI to get 1,5 mS/cm approximately)
7.3.39.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and execute the program
SACED UCP-TDS.
2.- Prepare a TDS dissolution in the left inferior tank of 1,5 mS/cm, you
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 91 / 115
can get this dissolution with 11 liters of water with 12g KCI approximately.
3.- Water to fill the right inferior tank up to 250 mm of level.
4.- Inside the program, select Control 1 and connect pump 2 (AB-2) to
fill with water the left superior tank (See Software Manual for a more detailed
operation) up to 100mm of level.
5.- Introduce the TDS probe and stirrer in the left superior tank.
6.- Connect pump 2, and regulate a very low flow by V
R2
, placed under the
flowmeter area.
7.- The TDS regulation of the resulting solution in the left superior tank
will come given by the combination of the quantities and concentration of the
dissolution of left inferior tank and the water of right inferior tank.
8.- Fix a certain TDS and play with the flows, modifying and adjusting the
flows manually by the valves V
R1
and V
R2
. It is also possible to control the quantity
of the conductivity dissolution by the AVP-1.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 92 / 115
7.3.40 Practice 40: TDS control loops (on/off)
7.3.40.1 Objectives
The objective of this practice is to carry out a control of closed loop by
means of a On/off controller. For it, the student will select a value wanted for the
conductivity and the controller will adjust this control by means of the valve AVS-1.
7.3.40.2 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the equipment interface and the control software.
2.- Select the control 2 option, on/off.
3.- Select the wanted TDS (Set point). By defect, it has certain values for
TDS, tolerance and a performance time. It allows the students to play with these
parameters and see the influences of each one of them.
4.- It calculates the inertia of the system before an on/off response and
determine the limit time for an exact control.
7.3.40.3 Conclusions
From the results obtained by the on/off control on the variable TDS we can
affirm that this controller has an acceptable behavior due to the fact that the variation
of this magnitude under a small interference is slow. Moreover, if we take small
values in the performance times and in the tolerance we can obtain a TDS control
next to the set value.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 93 / 115
7.3.41 Practice 41: TDS control loops (proportional)
7.3.41.1 Objectives
This configuration allows studying the system dynamics and the response
to the control actions in closed loop. The object of the experiments is to regulate the
set point (TDS) employing controllers that operate automatically on the final element
of the loop (control ACTIONS).
You can control the TDS in the tank by a TDS probe and a controller
configured for proportional outputs to the actuator without the typical oscillations of
the on/off control. The response of the control loop in front of interferences in the
variables of the process (flow) or variations in the set point (the temperature changes
fixing different set points) can be studied.
Modifying the set point in a remote way, the TDS changes can be observed
oscillating around the new value. It can happened that the set point is not reached if
the range of the actuator (manipulated variable) it is not enough to control the
interferences or the changes in the set point, so it will be stabilized only up to the
maximum that allows the water available. In our case, the manipulated variable is the
TDS of a dissolution. The resulting TDS dissolution is the result of a combination of
an TDS dissolution and water. The combination of these, in given proportions, allows
fixing its TDS. For it, the actuator, in this case, comes given by the AVP-1 placed in
the line of pump 1, AB-1.
7.3.41.2 Required material
The materials required for the realization of the practice are:
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 94 / 115
UCP-TDS.
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
TDS dissolution (200 mm of water level with 12g KCI to get
1,5 mS/cm approximately) and water.
7.3.41.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the Option Control 3 on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter, see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Activate TDS probe, select TDS sensor STDS, a set point, and a
proportional constant in the control 3 frame.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral and derivative performance. In this
experiment we want to observe the effects of a proportional action. And activate AB-
1.
5.- Activate the PID controller. The student will observe that the motorized
valve begins to work. Note: do not forget to connect pump 2 and fix a very small
flow for this drive line.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 95 / 115
7.3.42 Practice 42: TDS control loops (Proportional + Integral)
7.3.42.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that an integral performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator has.
7.3.42.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-TDS
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
TDS dissolution (200 mm of water level with 12g KCI to get
1,5 mS/cm approximately) and water.
7.3.42.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the software control, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Activate TDS probe, select TDS sensor STDS, a set point, and a
proportional constant and a integral constant, in the control 3 frame.
3.- Indicate a value of 0 for the derivative performance. In this experiment
we want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus an Integral action.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 96 / 115
Suggestion: Setpoint = 350ppm; Kc= 5; Ti= 0.4; Td = 0;
4.- Activate the PID controller. You will observe that the motorized valve
begins to adjust the flow of the dissolution to adjust the TDS to the set value.
Note: If the AB-1s flow is higher than 1,8l/m when AVP-1 is totally open, adjust
manual valve until 1,8 l/m. On the other hand, The AB-2s flow must be very low,
around 0,8 l/m.
7.3.43 Practice 43: TDS control loops (Proportional + Derivative)
7.3.43.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to a proportional action in an
actuator has.
7.3.43.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-TDS
Control and Acquisition Software.
Water.
TDS dissolution (200 mm of water level with 12g KCI to get
1,5 mS/cm approximately) and water.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 97 / 115
7.3.43.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the Option Control 3 on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Activate TDS probe, select TDS sensor STDS, a set point, and a
proportional constant and a derivative constant, in the control 3 frame.
4.- Indicate a value of 0 for the integral performance. In this experiment we
want to observe the effects of a proportional action plus a derivative action.
5.- Activate AB-1, AB-2 and then activate the PID controller. The student
will observe that the motorized valve begins to work.
Note: If the AB-1s flow is higher than 1,8l/m when AVP-1 is totally open,
adjust manual valve until 1,8 l/m. On the other hand, The AB-2s flow must be very
low, around 0,8 l/m
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 98 / 115
7.3.44 Practice 44: TDS control loops (Proportional + Derivative + Integral)
7.3.44.1 Objectives
This practice supplements the previous one. The objective is to observe the
effect that a derivative performance superimposed to an integral performance and a
proportional action in an actuator has.
7.3.44.2 Required material
The following material is required for the realization of the practice:
UCP-TDS
SACED UCP.
TDS dissolution (200 mm of water level with 12g KCI to get 1,5
mS/cm approximately) and water.
7.3.44.3 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the control software (For more
details about the control software, see the Software Manual, M4)
2.- Select the option Control 3 on the capture screen. (For more
information about the meaning of each parameter see the Software Manual, M4).
3.- Activate TDS sensor, select TDS sensor STDS, a set point, and a
proportional constant and a integral constant, in the control 3 frame. The value
for the derivative constant should be small and the integral constant should be big so
that the performance is small and it doesnt generate an on/off performance in the
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 99 / 115
actuator.
6.- Activate AB-1, AB-2 and then the PID controller. The student will observe that
the motorized valve begins to work.
Note: If the AB-1s flow is higher than 1,8l/m when AVP-1 is totally open, adjust
manual valve until 1,8 l/m. On the other hand, The AB-2s flow must be very low,
around 0,8 l/m.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 100 / 115
7.4 ANNEX
7.4.1 Annex 1: Flow sensor calibration
7.4.1.1 Objectives
A good industrial controller necessarily requires perfectly calibrated
transducers. The main objective of this first practice corresponds to the learning of
the sensor calibration concept and to the study of its hysteresis curve.
7.4.1.2 Required material
For the practice realization you will need:
UCP-F.
Saced System.
7.4.1.3 Experimental procedure
As it has been previously indicated, there are two calibration procedures,
one associated to the own equipment and a second one associated with the practices
carried out by the students. This second procedure differs from the first one in that
the data are not stored in the system.
Calibration associated to the equipment:
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and switch on the computer,
executing the software supplied with the equipment (SACED-System).
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 101 / 115
2.- Activate Calibration window (press CALIBRATE button). Introduce
the Instructors Password. For it, select on the expanded menu placed in the superior
part of the software the option PassWord and introduce the password. (Note: see
the Instructors password in the Software Manual).
3.- Select the analogical inputs again and select the channel associated with
the flowmeter. As you can observe, the indicator placed in the inferior part of the
window indicates the reading in Volts coming from the sensor.
4.- Modify the flow by the manual valve placed under the flowmeter of
variable area. As the flow increases, the voltage coming from the sensor will
increase. The flow calibration is better to do with the AVS-2 and AVS-3 valves
opened, because if there are too much pressure in the Flow Meter (SC-1), it is not
sensitive for a little flow (less than 0.4 l/min).
5.- Make a table in which the relationship between the flow and the voltage
coming from the electronic flowmeter can be seen.
6.- Carry out the measures in the increasing as well as in the decreasing
flow and verify the hysteresis curve of the sensor and if it is assumed.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 102 / 115
Increasing flow Decreasing flow
Signal (Volt) Measure (lpm) Signal (Volt) Measure (lpm)
Table 3.1.1
Figure 3.1.1: Calibration made by the student
7.4.1.4 Objectives
As well as in the previous case, the main objective of the realization of this
practice is the calibration of the flow sensor. With this simple practice, the student
can check the importance of a good calibration as well as the effects that a sensor
with a great hysteresis can cause. The main difference in the calibration process
Signal (Volts)
Measure (lpm)
Measure
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 103 / 115
carried out by the student and the one carried out in the previous procedure is that, in
this case, it is not stored in the configuration file of the equipment so the calibration
carried out for the equipment is not altered.
7.4.1.5 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the program SACED associated with
the unit of Flow control UCP-F.
2.- Activate the Calibration window (press CALIBRATE button).
3.- In the inferior part of this window there are two text windows,
associated with the gain and the zero of the sensor, another two text windows; one it
is the value in volts and another the showed values correspond with those introduced
as calibration of the equipment.
4.- Carry out a table with the values measured in the area flowmeter and
the signal in volts provided by the sensor.
5.- Carry out the table with increment and decrement values of the flow.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 104 / 115
7.4.2 Annex 2: Temperature sensor calibration
7.4.2.1 Objectives
A good industrial controller necessarily requires perfectly calibrated
transducers. The main objective of this practice corresponds to the learning of the
sensors calibration concept and the study of its hysteresis curve.
7.4.2.2 Required material
For the practice realization you will need:
UCP-T.
Saced System.
Calibrated mercury or alcohol thermometer.
7.4.2.3 Experimental procedure
As it has been previously indicated, there are two calibration procedures,
one associated to the own equipment and a second one that we will be associated
with the practices carried out by the students. This second procedure differs from the
first one that the data are not stored in the system.
Calibration associated to the equipment
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and switch on the computer,
executing the software that is supplied with the equipment (SACED-System).
2.- Activate the Calibration window (press CALIBRATE button).
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 105 / 115
3.- In the inferior part of this window there are two text windows,
associated with the gain and the zero of the sensor, another two text windows; one it
is the value in volts and another the showed values correspond with those introduced
as calibration of the equipment.
4.- Carry out a table with the values measured in the area Temperature and
the signal in volts provided by the sensor.
5.- Carry out the table with increment and decrement values of the flow.
6.- Select the digital channel associated with the resistor and put the
channel at 1. The resistor begins to heat the water of the left superior tank.
7.- Introduce the alcohol or mercury thermometer in the superior tank.
8.- Select the analogical inputs and select the channel associated with the
temperature sensor. As you can observe, the indicator placed in the inferior part of
the window indicates us the reading in Volts coming from the sensor.
9.- Make a table in which the relationship between the temperature and the
voltage coming from the temperature sensor is shown.
10.- Carry out the measurements with the increasing as decreasing
temperature and verify the hysteresis curve of the sensor.
T. Increasing T. Decreasing
Signal (Volt) Measure (C) Signal (Volt) Measure (C)
Table3.2.1
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 106 / 115
Figure 3.2.1: Calibration made by the student.
7.4.2.4 Objectives
As well as in the previous case, the main objective of the realization of this
practice is to calibrate the temperature sensor. With this simple practice, the student
can check the importance that a good calibration has as well as the effects that it can
cause a sensor with a great hysteresis. The main difference in the calibration process
carried out by the student and the one carried out in the previous procedure, is that it
is not stored in the file of configuration of the equipment, so the calibration carried
out for the equipment has been not altered.
7.4.2.5 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the program SACED associated with
the unit of temperature control UCP-T.
Signal (Volts)
Measure (C)
Measure
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 107 / 115
2.- Activate the Configuration window.
3.- In the inferior part of this window there are two text windows,
associated with the gain and the zero of the sensor, another two text windows; one it
is the value in volts and another the showed values correspond with those introduced
as calibration of the equipment.
4.- To obtain the input in volts, you should erase the values introduced in
the zero windows and indicate 1 in the gain window.
5.- Make a table with the values measured in the temperature sensor and
the signal in volts provided by the sensor.
6.- Make the table with increasing and decreasing temperature values.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 108 / 115
7.4.3 Annex 3: Level sensor calibration
7.4.3.1 Objectives
A good industrial controller necessarily requires some perfectly calibrated
transducers. The main objective of this practice corresponds to the learning of the
sensor calibration concept and the study of its hysteresis curve.
7.4.3.2 Required material
To make the practice, it is necessary
UCP-L.
Saced System.
7.4.3.3 Experimental procedure
As it has been previously indicated, there are two calibration procedures,
one associated to the own equipment and a second one that we will be associated
with the practices carried out by the students. This second procedure differs from the
first one in that the data are not stored in the system.
7.4.3.3.1 Calibration associated to the equipment
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and switch on the computer,
executing the software that is supplied with the equipment (SACED-System).
2.- Activate Calibration window (press CALIBRATE button). Introduce
the Instructors Password Password. For it, select on the expanded menu placed in
the superior part of the software the option PassWord and introduce the password.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 109 / 115
(Note: see the professors password in the Software Manual).
4.- Select the channel associated to the LEVEL.
6.- Select the option of digital outputs, select the channel of pump 1
(channel 5). Activate the pump pressing the START button and displacing the bar,
the pump 1 will begin to work, impelling water from the inferior to the superior tank.
7.- Select the analogical inputs and select the channel associated with the
level sensor. As you can observe, the indicator placed in the inferior part of the
window indicates us the reading, in Volts, coming from the sensor.
8.- Make a table that shows relationship between the temperature and the
voltage coming from the level sensor.
9.- Carry out the measures with the level increasing as well as decreasing
and verify the hysteresis curve of the sensor and if it is assumed.
N. Increasing N. Decreasing
Signal (Volt) Measure (mm) Signal (Volt) Measure (mm)
Table 3.3.1
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 110 / 115
Figure 3.3.1: Calibration carried out by the Student
7.4.3.4 Objectives
As well as in the previous case, the main objective of the realization of this
practice is the calibration of the level sensor. With this simple practice, the student
can check the importance that has a good calibration as well as the effects that it can
cause a sensor with a great hysteresis. The main difference in the calibration process
carried out by the student and the one carried out in the previous procedure is that it
not stored in the configuration file of the equipment, so the calibration carried out for
the equipment is not altered.
7.4.3.5 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the program SACED associated with
the unit of TEMPERATURE CONTROL UCP-L.
Signal (Volts)
Measure (mm)
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 111 / 115
2.- Activate the Configuration window.
3.- In the inferior part of this window you have two text windows,
associated with the gain and the zero of the sensor. At first, the values that appear
correspond with those introduced as calibration of the equipment.
4.- Make a table with the values measured in the level sensor and the
signal, in volts, provided by the sensor.
5.- Make the table with the values of increment and decrement of the level.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 112 / 115
7.4.4 Annex 4: pH sensor calibration
7.4.4.1 Objectives
A good industrial controller requires necessarily perfectly calibrated
transducers. The main objective of this practice corresponds to the learning of the
sensor calibration concept and to the study of its hysteresis curve.
7.4.4.2 Required material
For the practice realization the following materials are required:
UCP-pH.
Saced System.
Hydrochloric acid and Sodium Hydroxide.
7.4.4.3 Experimental procedure
As it has been previously indicated, there are two calibration procedures,
one associated to the own equipment and a second one that we will be associated
with the practices carried out by the students. This second procedure differs from the
first one that the data are not stored in the system.
7.4.4.3.1 Calibration associated to the equipment
1.- Connect the interface of the equipment and switch on the computer,
executing the software that is supplied with the equipment (SACED-System).
2.- Select the calibration window.
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 113 / 115
4.- Select the channel associated to the pH.
5.- In a precipitate glass, prepare a solution with pH = 4, for example.
6.- In a second glass have a basic solution with pH = 9.
7.- Introduce the pH electrode inside the first solution.
8.- Make a table that shows the relationship between the pH and the
voltage coming from the pH sensor. To vary the pH, you must add an exact and well-
known quantity of basic solution.
9.- Carry out the measures with the level increasing and decreasing and
verify the hysteresis curve of the sensor.
N. Upward N. Descending
Signal (Volt) Measure (pH) Signal (Volt) Measure (pH)
Table 3.4.1
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 114 / 115
Figure 3.4.1: Calibration made by the student.
7.4.4.4 Objectives
As well as in the previous case, the main objective of the realization of this
practice is the calibration of the pH sensor. With this simple practice, the student can
check the importance that has a good calibration as well as the effects that it can
cause a sensor with a great hysteresis. The main difference in the calibration process
carried out by the student and the one carried out in the previous procedure is that, in
the last one, it is not stored in the configuration file of the equipment so the
calibration carried out for the equipment is not altered.
7.4.4.5 Experimental procedure
1.- Connect the Interface and execute the program SACED associated with
the unit of TEMPERATURE CONTROL UCP-pH.
Signal (Volts)
(pH) measure
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: UCP Date: October 2010 Pg: 115 / 115
2.- Activate the Configuration window.
3.- In the inferior part of this window you have two text windows,
associated with the gain and the zero of the sensor. At first, the values that appear
correspond with those introduced as calibration of the equipment.
4.- Make a table with the values measured in the pH sensor and the signal,
in volts, provided by the sensor.
6.- Make the table with increasing and decreasing values of pH.