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PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

Stage 1: Zygote and twinning


Stage 2: Germinal Period
(2-week period following
fertilization)
Zygote continues dividing and moving toward the uterus; cell differentiation is the process that results in
specialized cells for all of the various parts of the body
Stage 3: Embryonic Period
(2 weeks after conception to 8
weeks)
Once attached to the uterus, developing organism is called an embryo
Embryo is vulnerable to hazards such as diseases and substances ingested by the mother as it receives
nourishment through the placenta
Stage 4: Fetal Period
(from about 8 weeks to birth)
Developing organism now called a fetus; time of tremendous growth and development
Muscles begin to contract during the 3
rd
month, mother can start to feel flutters by 4
th
month, kicks felt
by 5
th
month
Full-term birth occurs around end of 38
th
week
INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT
Physical Development Immediately after birth, body systems start to function (i.e., respiratory, circulatory, temperature
regulation, digestive)
Babies are born with (innate) reflex behaviours
1. Grasping reflex
2. Startle reflex (or Moro reflex)
3. Rooting reflex (when you touch a babys cheek it will turn toward your hand, open its mouth, and
search for the nipple)
4. Stepping reflex
5. Sucking reflex
Sensory Development Touch, taste, and smell are well developed
Hearing is functional but not fully developed
Vision is least developed
Motor development Normal motor development is related to many factors, such as nutrition, care, and health
Birth to 2 years = period of rapid development
1. Raising head and chest 2 to 4 months
2. Rolling over 2 to 5 months
3. Sitting up with support 4 to 6 months
4. Sitting up without support 6 to 7 months
5. Crawling 7 to 8 months
6. Walking 8 to 18 months
(These six motor milestones develop typically from the top of the body downward. This pattern is seen
in the early control of the neck muscles and the much later development of control of the legs and
feet)

Cognitive Development Piagets Theory
o Suggests children form mental concepts or schemes

o Proposes four distinct stages of cognitive development that span infancy to adolescence
1. Sensorimotor children explore the world using their senses and ability to move. They
develop object permanence and the understanding that concepts and mental images
represent objects, people, and events.
2. Preoperational young children can mentally represent and refer to objects and events
with words or pictures and they can pretend. However, they cant conserve, logically
reason, or simultaneously consider many characteristics of an object
3. Concrete Operations children at this stage are able to conserve, reverse their thinking,
and classify objects in terms of their many characteristics. They can also think logically and
understand analogies but only about concrete events
4. Formal Operations People at this stage can use abstract reasoning about hypothetical
events or situations, think about logical possibilities, use abstract analogies, and
systematically examine and test hypotheses. Not everyone can eventually reason in all
these ways.

Stages of language development
o Language allows children to think in words, ask questions, communicate needs and wants, and
form concepts
o Universal progressive stages but various views of development
Psychosocial Development Involves development of personality, relationships, and a sense of being male or female; process begins in
infancy and continues into adulthood
Eriksons theorSuggests development occurs in a series of eight stages
o At each stage an emotional crisis must be successfully met for normal development to occur
ADOLESCENTS
Physical development Increase in height and changes in both primary and secondary sex characteristics
Occurs as the result of glandular and hormonal activities
Tends to occur about 2 years after beginning of growth spurt
Cognitive development Final maturation of the frontal lobes allows cognitive advances
Despite advances, still have egocentric thought that emerges in a variety of ways
Moral development Understanding of what is right and wrong

Psychosocial development Adolescence is largely marked by the search for a consistent sense of self or personal identity
Erikson: the psychosocial crisis that must be resolved is identity vs. role confusion
Parent-teen conflict to be expected
ADULTHOOD
Physical development Young adulthood
Middle age
Late adulthood
Cognitive development Cognitive skills often highest in 20s; processing and reaction time slow in middle age but are often
compensated by greater life and situational knowledge
Memory issues begin in middle age, likely due to stress and information overload
Mental abilities aided by active cognitive engagement (challenging crossword puzzles, reading, etc.) and
physical activity
Psychosocial development Typical life concerns involve career, relationships family and approaching old age
Theories on Aging vary focus from
biological changes to influence on
external stressors
Stages of death and dying
o Denial
o Anger
o Bargaining
o Depression
o acceptance
Eriksons Psychosocial Stages Summary
Stage Basic Conflict Important Events Outcome
Infancy (birth
to 18 months)
Trust vs. Mistrust Feeding Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and
affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust
Early
Childhood (2-
Autonomy vs. Shame and
Doubt
Toilet Training Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a
sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in
3 years) feelings of shame and doubt.
Preschool (3-5
years)
Initiative vs. Guilt Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment.
Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too
much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.

School Age (6-
11 years)
Industry vs. Inferiority School Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a
sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.

Adolescence
(12 18
years)
Identity vs. Role Confusion Social Relationships Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an
ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak
sense of self.

Young
Adulthood
(19-40 years)
Intimacy vs. Isolation Relationships Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people.
Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and
isolation.

Middle
Adulthood
(40-65 years)
Generativity vs. Stagnation Work and Parenthood Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having
children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to
feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow
involvement in the worlds.

Late
Adulthood (65
to death)
Ego Integrity vs. Despair Reflection on Life Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfilment. Success at
this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness,
and despair.