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**In this experiment, a motion sensor is used to measure the position of an
**

oscillating mass as a function of time. The frequency of oscillations will be obtained

by measuring the velocity and acceleration of the oscillations, and ftting the data to a

sine function. The dependence of oscillation period on the mass applied and on the

spring constant will be studied.

Introduction

An object oscillating in simple harmonic motion is described by

( ) ( ) sin 2 sin y A ft A t π ϕ ω ϕ = + = +

(1)

where:

y = distance from the equilibrium position at time t

A = amplitude = maximum distance from equilibrium position

f = frequency = number of oscillations per second. An oscillation is one complete

back-and-forth motion

ω = angular frequency of the oscillation = 2πf

ϕ = initial phase angle

T = The period of the oscillation,

1

T

f

=

.

dy

dt

= the velocity of the mass = ( ) cos A t ω ω ϕ − +

.

2

2

d y

dt

= the acceleration of the mass = ( )

2

sin A t ω ω ϕ − +

.

Theory

When a mass hangs from a (massless) spring and oscillates vertically, its period is

09/04/14 1

where (2)

m = mass hanging from spring

k = spring constant (k = force/elongation)

Squaring both sides,

2 2

4

m

T

k

π =

If the spring’s mass is not negligible this becomes (for a uniform spring)

1

2 2 3

4

spring

m m

T

k

π

+

= ,

which can be written

1

2 2 2 3

4 4

spring

m

m

T

k k

π π

= +

. (3)

For a particular spring, this relation of period squared to mass can be written as a

linear equation

y Cx D = +

where

2

y T = and x = mass.

So a graph of T

2

versus mass should be a straight line with

Slope =

2

4

C

k

π

= (4)

Intercept =

( )

2

1

3

4

spring

D m

k

π

= (5)

Pre lab assignment

1.Find the period and the frequency of an object that oscillates 30 times in 44

seconds.

09/04/14 2

2

m

T

k

π =

2. In the sample graph, fnd the value of each of the following quantities; make sure

you include proper units!

amplitude

frequency

maximum velocity

maximum acceleration

initial phase angle (of position-

time graph)

3.In the sample graph, at t ≅ 0.9

seconds, y = maximum. Explain

why

v = 0

a = negative maximum

Also, at t ≅ 1.2 sec., y is at the

midpoint of its oscillation. Explain

why

v = negative maximum

a = 0

Apparatus

Pasco 750 Interface

Motion sensor

Spring, 6 cm by 1.5 cm from Pasco track accessories

Large table clamp, right angle clamp, multi-position pendulum clamp and rods

to hold spring and motion sensor (see Figure 1)

50 gram mass holder

50 grams of masses (1x10 gram and 2x20 gram masses)

Meterstick

Procedure and Analysis for the Simple Harmonic Motion Experiment

I.Set-up of computer and interface

1.Turn on the Pasco 750 interface frst. Verify that the indicator light is on.

2.Turn on the computer and login.

3.Set up the equipment, as shown in Figure 1

4.Click on Data Studio, following separate Data Studio instructions.

09/04/14 3

yt ()

t

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

0.1

0.05

0

0.05

0.1

Simple Harmonic Motion

Time (seconds)

D i s p l a c e m e n t

( m e t e r s )

5.Select Motion Sensor.

6.Double click on Motion to get to Sensor Properties.

7.Under Motion Sensor, increase trigger rate to 25 Hz.

8.Under Measurement, deselect position, and leave velocity and acceleration

selected.

9.Click and drag velocity from the Data Window, to the graph icon to create a

velocity versus time graph.

10. Click and drag acceleration from the Data Window to the bottom of the

velocity graph to create an acceleration graph below the velocity graph.

11. Click on the lock icon to keep the time axes of the plots locked together.

II. Set-up of equipment

Set-up a desk clamp and rods to hold the spring as in Figure 1. Hang the 50

gram weight holder from the spring, as shown in Figure 1.

III. Measurement of elongation of spring versus

applied force

Hold the meterstick in a vertical position next to the

weight holder, with the 100 centimeter end touching

the foor. Read the position of the bottom of the

weight holder; record the total mass on the spring

and the position of the mass into an excel

spreadsheet. Add 10 grams to the holder and again

read and record the mass and position into the

excel spreadsheet. Repeat until the total hanging

mass is 100 grams (the 50 gram holder plus 50

grams of weights.) This data will be graphed later to

determine the spring constant of the spring.

IV.Set-up of the motion sensor

Use the desk clamp and rods to set up the motion

sensor as in Figure 1. The motion sensor should

be resting on the foor directly below the weight

holder, and should be leveled so that its beam

goes directly upward. Set the beam width

Figure 1. Spring,

hanging mass, motion

sensor, and

miscellaneous rods and

clamps for the SHM

experiment

switch on the sensor for narrow beam and connect the yellow plug to digital

channel 1 of the Pasco interface, and the other plug to channel 2.

09/04/14 4

V.R ecording of position-time data during oscillations

With just the 50 gram holder on the spring, raise or lower the rod holding the

spring until the bottom of the weight holder is about 40 centimeters above the

motion sensor. This is done so that the distance from sensor to weight holder

will never be less than about 30 centimeters during an oscillation. This is to

insure that the motion sensor accurately measures the distance.

Start the weight holder oscillating vertically, about 5 centimeters above and

below the equilibrium position. Click on START to begin recording. After a

minimum of 5 oscillations, click on STOP.

VI. Determining the oscillation frequency by a sinusoidal ft

1.Click on Zoom Select to select the data to be ft. Go to Fit, and select Sine

Series Fit. Fit the velocity data, and the acceleration data separately. The

data points should form a smooth sine curve. If they don’t, delete the data

and record data again. To delete the data, click on run#1 in the experiment

set-up window, hit delete, and click on OK.

2.The ftted curve should match the data; if it does not ft well, ask the

instructor to assist you.

3.Into a second excel spreadsheet, record the mass on the spring, the

amplitude of the velocity, the amplitude of the acceleration, the frequency of

the velocity, and the frequency of the acceleration.

4.Print out a few representative graphs to be included with your laboratory

report.

5. Increase the hanging mass to 60 grams (total) and again adjust the spring

support so that the mass hanger is about 50 cm above the motion sensor.

Repeat V and VI.

6. Repeat the above steps for a total mass of 70, 80, 90, and 100 grams. (Print

a graph for each successful run.)

7. Finally, disassemble the apparatus and measure the mass of the spring on a

balance. Record this number.

VII. Calculations

1. Determine the spring constant by plotting the data from part III. Plot a

graph of Force versus x and use linear regression to fnd the slope of the

best ft straight line. This is the spring constant k, since

09/04/14 5

F kx =

F k x ∆ = ∆

F

k slope

x

∆

= =

∆

2.Determine the spring constant k using data from the oscillating masses.

First calculate the period of oscillation: Use the relation,

1

T

f

=

and obtain

the frequency from the ft to the velocity data. Calculate T

2

, and plot T

2

versus mass m. Fit the data with a linear trend line, and determine the

slope and y-intercept of the ft. Use equation (4) to obtain a second

determination of the spring constant k. Compare these two values of K.

3.Compare the determinations of k from step 1 and step 2 of the calculations,

and present the percent diference between the two. Also, compare the

predicted (equation (5)) and experimentally determined values of the y-

intercept, and discuss the percent diference between them.

4.Predict the value of the intercept of the graph obtained in step 2 by

calculating D using equation 5, the measured mass of the spring, and the

value of k obtained from the graph in step 2. Is the value of D equal to the

intercept you determined in step 2. What is the percent diference between

them? Discuss the result in your report.

5.For every oscillating hanging mass, is the amplitude of the acceleration

graph divided by the amplitude from the velocity graph equal to the angular

frequency of oscillation?.

6.For each mass, compare the frequency determined from the velocity and

acceleration data, and compute the percent diference

09/04/14 6

lab report ( lab 12 )

lab report ( lab 12 )

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