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JT) IIISIORV OI' AlllIHTi:( TUUK. r,< I.

its ))r()ioc'tiiig roof is siipiiorted by a double row of wooden columns, tlie intervals between
wiiicli, in each row, are filled with brickwork to the height of 4 ft.
; the ))art above the
wall being filled in with lattice work, covered with transparent paper. The courts are
intersected by canals s))anned by several marble bridges. The gateways of the quadrangles
are adorned with marble columns on pedestals, decorated with dragons. The courts
contain sculptured lions 7 ft. or 8 ft. high
;
and at the angles of the building, surrounding
each area, are square towers, two stories high, crowned with galleries. The reader will
find a delineation of this extraordinary building in Cousin's work, Dii Genie de UArchitec-
ture, 4to, Paris, 1822, pi. 2ff. The peristylia of the interior buildings of the palace are
built upon a platform of white marble, above which they are raised but a few steps; but
this, platform is reached by three flights of marjjle ste])s, decorated with vases and other
ornaments.
104. It is said that there are 10,000 miao, or idol temples in Pekin and its environs.
Some of these are of considerable size, others are more distinguished for their beauty
; there
IS, however, no sufficient account of them, and we shall therefore proceed to those of Canton,
which have been described by Chambers. He says that in this city there are a great num-
i)er of temples, to which Europeaiis usually ap])ly the name of pagoda. Some of these are
small, and consist of a single chamber
;
others stand in a court surrounded by corridors, at
the extremity of which the ting, or idols, are placed. The most extensive of these pagodas
is at Ho-nang, in the southern suburb of Conan. Its interior area is of the length of 590 ft.,
its width 250 ft. This area is surrounded by cells for 200 bonzes, having no light but what
is obtained from the doors. The entrance to the quadrangle is by a vestibule in the middle
of one of the short sides
;
and at the angles are buildings 30 ft. square, in which the principal
bonzes reside. In the middle of each of the long sides is a rectangular are<i, surroimded by
cells, one containing the kitchens and refectories, nnd the other, hospitals for animals, and a
burying ground. The great quadrangle contains three pagodas or pavilions, each S.S ft.
square on the jilan. They consist each of two stories, the lowest whereof is surrounded bv
a peristyle of twenty-four columns. The basement to each is 6 ft. high, to which there is a
flight of steps on each side, and the three basements are connected by a broad wall for the
purpose of communication between them, with steps descending into the court. The roofs
i)f the peristylia are concave on the exterior
;
and the angles, which are curved iqiwards, are
decorated with animals. The sides of the upper story are formed with wooden posts, filled
in with open framework. Hound the foot on the exterior is a balcony with a rail in front.
The roof resembles that of the ))eristyle, and has its angles similarly ornamented. Tiie
buildings are all covered with green varnished tiles.
105. The Chinese towers, which also ICuropeans call pagodas, are very common in the
;ountrv. The most celebrated, whereof a iliagram is presented here
(Jig. 75.), is thus
described by P. Le Comte. Its
form on the ))lan is octagonal,
and 40 ft. in diameter
; so that
each side is full ifi.i ft. It is sur-
rounded by a wall at a distance
of 15 ft., bearing, at a moderate
height, a roof covered with var-
nished tiles, which seems to rise
out of the body of the tower,
forming a gallery below. The
tower consists of nine stories,
each ornamented with a cornice
of
."
ft. at the level of the win-
dows, and each with a roof si-
milar to that of the gallery, ex-
cept that they do not project so
much, not being siqjported by a
second wall. They grow smaller as the stories rise. The wall of the ground story is 12 ft.
thick, and
8^
ft. high, and is cased with porcelain, whose lustre the rain and dust have much
injured in the course of three centuries. The staircase within is small and inconvenient, the
risers being extremely high. Each floor is formed by transverse beams, covered with planks
forming a chamber, whose ceiling is decorated with painting. The walls are hollowed for
numberless niches, containing idols in bas-relief. The whole work is gilt, and seems of
marble or wrought stone
;
but the author thinks it of brick, which the Chinese are ex-
tremely skilful in moulding with ornaments thereon. The first story is the highest, but the
i'est are equal in height.
"
I counted," says M. Le Comte,
"
190 steps, of ten full inches
each, which make 158 ft. If to this we add the height of the basement, and that of the
ninth storv, wherein there are no steps, and the covering, we shall find that the whole
exceeds a height of 200 ft. The roof is not the least of the beauties which this tower boasts.
It consists of a thick mast, whose foot stands on the eighth floor, and rises thirty feet from
FiK. 75.