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- newtons third law of motion notes 9 12-9 13 independent tasks
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You are on page 1of 6

Do not forget to

state the direction.

2. Your physics book has a mass of 400 g. It is kept on a horizontal table. Taking g = 10 m/s 2, find the

force (both magnitude and direction) exerted by

(a) the table on the physics book

(b) the physics book on the table

(c) the earth on the physics book

(d) the physics book on the earth.

3. How much force is needed to produce an acceleration of 16 cm/s2 in a body of mass 250 g?

4. A force of 10 N acts on a particle of mass 0.4 kg. Find the acceleration of the particle.

5. A body of mass 1 kg is kept at rest. A constant force of 6.0 N starts acting on it. Find the time taken

by the body to move through a distance of 12 m.

6. The velocity of a particle of mass 150 g changes from 8 m/s to 12 m/s in two seconds. Assuming

that a constant force acts on it, find the magnitude of the force.

7. A force of 4.0 N acts on a body of mass 2.0 kg for 4.0 s. Assuming the body to be initially at rest,

find

(a) its velocity when the force stops acting,

(b) the distance covered in 10 s after the force starts acting.

8. A coin of mass 20 g is pushed on a table. The coin starts moving at a speed of 25 cm/s and stops in

5 seconds. Find the force of friction exerted by the table on the coin.

9. When a body is dropped from a height, it falls with an acceleration of 10 m/s2. If its mass is 250 g,

how much force is exerted on it downwards? Who exerts this force on the body?

10. A feather of mass 20 g is dropped from a height. It is found to fall down with a constant velocity.

What is the net force acting on it?

11. When a horizontal force P acts on a cart of mass 20 kg, it moves with a uniform velocity on a

horizontal floor. When a force of 1.2 P acts on the cart, it moves with an acceleration of 0.05 m/s2.

Find the value of P.

12. Figure 3.E2 shows the velocity-time graph for a particle moving in a fixed direction, (a) Find the

acceleration of the particle, (b) If the mass of the particle is 200 g, what is the force acting on it?

13. A force produces an acceleration of 1.5 m/s2 in a disk. Three such disks are tied together and the

same force is applied on the combination. What will be the acceleration?

14. A constant force of 12 N acts on a body for 4 s. Find the change in the linear momentum of the

body.

15. Two particles A and B of mass 10 g and 20 g respectively fall vertically. At a given time, the speed

of particle A is 12 m/s and that of B is 15 m/s. Find the total linear momentum of the system of the two

particles.

16. Two bodies A and B of mass 150 g and 250 g respectively are approaching each other. Both

particles have a speed of 3 m/s. Find the magnitude of the total linear momentum of the system of the

two particles.

17. A boy weighing 30 kg is riding a bicycle weighing 50 kg. If the bicycle is moving at a speed of 9

km/h towards the west, find the linear momentum of the bicycle-boy system in SI units.

18. A block of mass 120 g moves with a speed of 6.0 m/s on a frictionless horizontal surface towards

another block of mass 180 g kept at rest. They collide and the first block stops. Find the speed of the

other block after the collision.

19. A ball of mass 100 g and another ball of 120 g moves towards each other with speeds 6 m/s and 5

m/s respectively. If they stick to each other after colliding, What would be the velocity of the combined

mass after the collision?

20. A cart of mass 50 kg is moving on a straight track with a speed of 12 m/s. A mass of 10 kg is gently

put into the cart. What will be the velocity of the cart after this?

21. A force of 12 N is uniformly distributed over an area of 120 cm 2. Find the pressure in pascals.

22. How much force should be applied on an area of 1 cm 2 to get a pressure of 12 Pa?

23. A block weighing 1.0 kg is in the shape of a cube of length 10 cm. It is kept on a horizontal table.

Find the pressure on the portion of the table where the block is kept.

24. A body of volume 50 cm3 is completely immersed in water. Find the force of buoyancy on it.

25. A metallic sphere of radius 2.00 cm is completely immersed in water. Find the force of buoyancy

on it.

26. A body of mass 2.0 kg and density 8,000 kg/m3 is completely immersed in a liquid of density 800

kg/m3. Find the force of buoyancy on it.

27. A body of mass 2.0 kg floats in a liquid. What is the buoyant force on the body?

Answers

1.1.47 N upwards

2. (a) 4 N upwards (b) 4 N downwards

(c) 4 N downwards (d) 4 N upwards

3.0.04 N 4.25 m/s2 5.2 s 6.0,30 N

7. (a) 8 m/s (b) 64 m

8. 0.001 N

9.2.5 N, earth 10. zero

11.5 N 12. (a) 4 m/s2 (b) 0.8 N

13.0.5 m/s2 14.48 kg m/s

15.0.42 kg m/s downwards 16.0.30 kg m/s

17. 200 kg m/s 18.4 m/s 19.0 20.10 m/s

21.1,000 Pa 22.1.2 x 10"3 N 23.980 Pa

24.0.49 N 25.0.328 N 26.1.96 N

27.19.6 N

Which of the following has more inertia: (a) a rubber ball and a stone of the same size?

(b) a bicycle and a train? (c) a five-rupees coin and a one-rupee coin?

Inertia of an object id directly related the mass of the body. The greater is the mass of the body;

the greater is its inertia and vice-versa.

(a) Mass of a stone is more than the mass of a rubber ball for the same size.

Hence, inertia of the stone is greater than that of a rubber ball.

(b) Mass of a train is more than the mass of a bicycle.

Hence, inertia of the train is greater than that of the bicycle.

(c) Mass of a five rupee coin is more than that of a one-rupee coin. Hence, inertia of the five

rupee coin is greater than that of the one-rupee coin.

In the following example, try to identify the number of times the velocity of the ball changes:

A football player kicks a football to another player of his team who kicks the football towards the goal. The

goalkeeper of the opposite team collects the football and kicks it towards a player of his own team. Also

identify the agent supplying the force in each case.

The velocity of the ball changes four times.

When a football player kicks the football, its speed changes from zero to a certain value. In this

case, force applied by player helps to change the velocity of the ball. This at first changes the

velocity of the ball.

Another player kicks the ball towards the goal post. This changes the direction of the ball .

Therefore, its velocity also changes. In this case, the player applied a force to change the

velocity of the ball. The goalkeeper collects the ball. In other words, the ball comes to rest.

Thus, its speed reduces to zero from a certain value. The velocity of the ball has changed 2nd

time

The goalkeeper applied an opposite force to stop/change the velocity of the ball. Hence, its

velocity changes third time.

The goalkeeper kicks the ball towards his team players. Hence, the speed of the ball increases

from zero to a certain value. Hence, its velocity changes once again. In this case, the

goalkeeper applied a force to change the velocity of the ball.

Explain why some of the leaves may get detached from a tree if we vigorously shake its branch.

when we vigorously shake the branches of a tree , it moves a tree to and fro, but its leaves try to remain at rest

and fall down. In this case the inertia of the leaves tend to resist the to and fro motion of tree .

Why do you fall in the forward direction when a moving bus brakes to a stop and fall backwards when it

accelerates from rest?

Ans: In a moving bus, a passenger moves with the bus due to inertia of motion. As the driver

applies brakes, the bus comes to rest. But, the passenger tries to maintain to inertia of motion.

As a result, a forward force is exerted on him.

Similarly, the passenger tends to fall backwards when the bus accelerates from rest. This is

because when the bus accelerates, the inertia of rest of the passenger tends to oppose the

forward motion of the bus. Hence, the passenger tends to fall backwards when the bus

accelerates forward.

If action is always equal to the reaction, explain how a horse can pull a cart.

A horse pushes the ground with foot in the backward direction. According to Newtons third law

of motion, a reaction force is exerted by the Earth on the horse in the forward direction.

Hence the cart moves forward.

Explain, why is it difficult for a fireman to hold a hose, which ejects large amounts of water at a high velocity.

It is difficult for a fireman to hold a hose, which ejects large amounts of water at a high velocity due to the

backward force applied by ejected water

When a fireman holds a hose, which is ejecting large amounts of water at a high velocity, then a reaction force

is exerted on him by the ejecting water in the backward direction. This is because of Newtons third law of

motion. As a result of the backward force, the stability of the fireman decreases. Hence, it is difficult for him to

remain stable while holding the hose.

An object experiences a net zero external unbalanced force. Is it possible for the object to be travelling with a

non-zero velocity? If yes, state the conditions that must be placed on the magnitude and direction of the

velocity. If no, provide a reason.

Yes. Even when an object experiences a net zero external unbalanced force, it is possible that

the object is traveling with a non-zero velocity.

This is possible only when the object has been moving with a constant velocity in a particular

direction. Then, there is no net unbalanced force applied on the body. The object will keep

moving with a non-zero velocity due to inertia of motion.

To change the state of motion, a net non-zero external unbalanced force must be applied on the

object.

When a carpet is beaten with a stick, dust comes out of it. Explain.

When a carpet is beaten with a stick, then the carpet comes to motion. But, the dust particles try

to resist their inertia of rest and the dust particles come out of the carpet.

Why is it advised to tie any luggage kept on the roof of a bus with a rope?

When the bus accelerates and moves in forward direction. The luggage kept on the roof try to retain its state of

rest and ultimately falls from the roof of the bus and vice versa. Hence, to avoid this situation , it is advised to

tie any luggage kept on the roof of a bus with a rope.

A batsman hits a cricket ball which then rolls on a level ground. After covering a short distance, the ball comes

to rest. The ball slows to a stop because

(a) the batsman did not hit the ball hard enough.

(b) velocity is proportional to the force exerted on the ball.

(c) there is a force on the ball opposing the motion.

(d) there is no unbalanced force on the ball, so the ball would want to come to rest.

(c) A batsman hits a cricket ball, which then rolls on a level ground.there is frictional force on the ball opposing

its motion.Hence, after covering a short distance, the ball comes to rest

You remember that frictional force always acts in the direction opposite to the direction of motion of object.

Two objects, each of mass 1.5 kg are moving in the same straight line but in opposite directions. The

velocity of each object is 2.5 m s

1

before the collision during which they stick together. What will be

the velocity of the combined object after collision?

Mass of one of the objects, m

1

= 1.5 kg

Mass of the other object, m

2

= 1.5 kg

Velocity of m

1

before collision, v

1

= 2.5 m/s

Velocity of m

2

, moving in opposite direction before collision, v

2

= 2.5 m/s

(Negative sign arises because mass m

2

is moving in an opposite direction)

After collision, the two objects stick together.then Total mass = m

1

+ m

2

Velocity of the combined object = v

According to the law of conservation of momentum:

Total momentum before collision = Total momentum after collision

m

1

v

1

+ m

2

v

1

= (m

1

+ m

2

) v

1.5(2.5) + 1.5 (2.5) = (1.5 + 1.5) v

3.75 3.75 = 3 v

v = 0

Hence, the velocity of the combined object after collision is 0 m/s.and they comes into rest.

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