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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential
Security Level:
47pt
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How to analyze Coverage
Issues in DT
Coverage
Downlink RxLevel and Coverage
Coverage of single cell
Coverage of whole network
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 3
Coverage
EIRP(dBm)
L(dB)
RxLev(dBm)
Unexpected coverage
(overshooting) Good coverage
Network Coverage is evaluated by:
RxLev = EIRP(dBm) L(dB)
Where:
EIRP = Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
L = Propagation Losses
In urban area, Lower Antenna Height (<=25m), Greater downtilt (>=6 degree),
and Lower EIRP (<=41 dBm) are used to control overshooting &
interference.
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 4
Coverage(one cell)
The following example shows the
downlink RxLevel(Dedicated Mode)
decreases when MS is driving away
from BTS.
The RxLevel decrease faster when
Antenna Downtilt increase.
Downtilt: 0 drgree
Downtilt: 8 drgree
Variation
due to
shadowing
Global
means
R
x
L
e
v
e
l
Variation
s due to
Rayleigh
fading
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 5
Coverage(Network)
The picture shows the coverage of a city, which contains good and bad
coverage areas.
The distribution of downlink RxLev concentrates from -80 to -95 dBm.
Good Coverage
Bad Coverage
Coverage Issues
What is
Coverage hole
Sudden Decrease on Signal Level
Line of Sight Lost
Lack of Dominant Server
Coverage Overlapping
Overshooting
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Coverage Hole
RxQuality
RxLevel
Legend
Poor Coverage
Areas
RxLevel(Serving Cell) is about (or less than) -95 dBm
RxLevel(Neighbours) are about (or less than) -95 dBm
Bad
RxQuality
Call
Dro
p
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Sudden Decrease on Signal Level
RxLev(Serving Cell and
Neighbors) decrease in a
short time.
Check if there is big
change of testing
environment, e.g. check
if the test was performed
on a highway and that
particular area was a
tunnel or not.
Signal level on the chart
will make a curve rather
than unstable changes.
This usually results in
Ping Pong Handovers
Page 8
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Line of Sight Lost
Page 9
Signal Strength of Serving cell make fast up and down due
to far away server being blocked by obstacles from the
terrain. The other way, signal from the server lose line of
sight(LOS) to the mobile because of a hill of something.
RxQuality goes
worse when the
level drops down
fast
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Lack of Dominant Server
Page 10
Signal Level of more
than one cell (Serving
Cell and Neighbors)
are not high enough.
This might happen
because the MS is
located on the cell
borders and there is
no any best server to
keep the call.
Lack of Dominant
Server Causes too
many Handovers
Between the same
Cells
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Coverage Overlapping
Signal Level of 34
cells are too closed
to each other.
This might point
overlapping cells.
This will cause
quality problems
because of
frequency reuse
Immediate action to
optimize cell
coverage should be
taken by by power
reductions, downtilts
or other
configuration
changes.
Page 11
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Overshooting
Page 12
BTS
Serving
cell
Coverage spot
(island effect)
Neighbour cell A
BSIC 1
Freq. A
Other cell B
BSIC 1
Freq. A
MS is covered by the
serving cell, but is
outside the cell
BSC thinks that it is
neighbour cell A and
makes a handover to
cell A
The MS is not near
cell A so the
assigned TCH for the
handover is not used
Cell A will have
unused TCH
(handover)
The call might be
dropped because it
cannot make the
handover
Proposal of Coverage Issue
Solution of low coverage
Solution of overshooting and overlapping
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Solutions of Low Coverage
Possible solution can be listed as below:
New Site Proposal
Sector Addition
Site Configuration Change (Antenna Type, height, azimuth, tilt changes)
Loss or Attenuation Check ( Feeders, Connectors, Jumpers, etc..)
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Proposal Remark How to do
New Site Proposal
Most effective solution,
but the cost is highest
Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the best
locations to put new sites
Sector Addition
Effective solution
but only for Omni-Site
Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the
recommended azimuth of new sectors
Antenna
Height Difficult, high cost
Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the
recommended height, type, azimuth or down tilt
of sector.
Type Difficult, high cost
Azimuth Easy to operate
Downtilt Easy to operate
Hardware
Feeders Only for troubleshooting
Referring to hardware checking guide
Connectors Only for troubleshooting
Jumpers Only for troubleshooting
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Solutions of overshooting or overlapping
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Possible solution can be listed as below:
Site Configuration Change (Antenna Type, height, azimuth, tilt changes)
Cell Configuration Change (Carrier Power Type, Static TRX Power Class, Fine
Tuning of Static TRX Power)
Proposal Remark How to do
Antenna
Height Difficult, high cost
Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify
the recommmended height, type,
azimuth or downtilt of sector.
Type Difficult, high cost
Azimuth Easy to operate
Downtilt
Easy to operate
Parameter
Output Power related
Easy to operate, but with
risk of coverage reduction
Referring to Data Configuration
Reference Help
Thank you
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