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INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE:
To understand the information contained in financial statements with a view to
know the strength or weaknesses of the firm and to make forecast about the future
prospects of the firm and thereby enabling the financial analyst to take different
decisions regarding the operations of the firm.

RATIO ANALYSIS:

Fundamental Analysis has a very broad scope. One aspect looks at the general
(qualitative) factors of a company. The other side considers tangible and measurable
factors (quantitative). This means crunching and analyzing numbers from the financial
statements. If used in conjunction with other methods, quantitative analysis can produce
excellent results.

Ratio analysis isn't just comparing different numbers from the balance sheet,
income statement, and cash flow statement. It's comparing the number against previous
years, other companies, the industry, or even the economy in general. Ratios look at the
relationships between individual values and relate them to how a company has
performed in the past, and might perform in the future.

MEANING OF RATIO:
A ratio is one figure express in terms of another figure. It is a mathematical
yardstick that measures the relationship two figures, which are related to each other and
mutually interdependent. Ratio is express by dividing one figure by the other related
figure. Thus a ratio is an expression relating one number to another. It is simply the
quotient of two numbers. It can be expressed as a fraction or as a decimal or as a pure
ratio or in absolute figures as “ so many times”. As accounting ratio is an expression
relating two figures or accounts or two sets of account heads or group contain in the
financial statements.
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MEANING OF RATIO ANALYSIS:


Ratio analysis is the method or process by which the relationship of items or
group of items in the financial statement are computed, determined and presented.
Ratio analysis is an attempt to derive quantitative measure or guides concerning
the financial health and profitability of business enterprises. Ratio analysis can be used
both in trend and static analysis. There are several ratios at the disposal of an annalist
but their group of ratio he would prefer depends on the purpose and the objective of
analysis.

While a detailed explanation of ratio analysis is beyond the scope of this section, we will
focus on a technique, which is easy to use. It can provide you with a valuable
investment analysis tool.

This technique is called cross-sectional analysis. Cross-sectional analysis compares


financial ratios of several companies from the same industry. Ratio analysis can provide
valuable information about a company's financial health. A financial ratio measures a
company's performance in a specific area. For example, you could use a ratio of a
company's debt to its equity to measure a company's leverage. By comparing the
leverage ratios of two companies, you can determine which company uses greater debt
in the conduct of its business. A company whose leverage ratio is higher than a
competitor's has more debt per equity. You can use this information to make a judgment
as to which company is a better investment risk.

However, you must be careful not to place too much importance on one ratio. You
obtain a better indication of the direction in which a company is moving when several
ratios are taken as a group.

OBJECTIVE OF RATIOS
Ratio is work out to analyze the following aspects of business organization-
A) Solvency-
1) Long term
2) Short term
3) Immediate
B) Stability
C) Profitability
D) Operational efficiency
E) Credit standing
F) Structural analysis
G) Effective utilization of resources
H) Leverage or external financing
FORMS OF RATIO:
Since a ratio is a mathematical relationship between to or more variables /
accounting figures, such relationship can be expressed in different ways as follows –

A] As a pure ratio:

For example the equity share capital of a company is Rs. 20,00,000 & the
preference share capital is Rs. 5,00,000, the ratio of equity share capital to preference
share capital is 20,00,000: 5,00,000 or simply 4:1.

B] As a rate of times:

In the above case the equity share capital may also be described as 4 times that
of preference share capital. Similarly, the cash sales of a firm are

Rs. 12,00,000 & credit sales are Rs. 30,00,000. so the ratio of credit sales to cash sales
can be described as 2.5 [30,00,000/12,00,000] or simply by saying that the credit sales
are 2.5 times that of cash sales.

C] As a percentage:

In such a case, one item may be expressed as a percentage of some other item.
For example, net sales of the firm are Rs.50,00,000 & the amount of the gross profit is
Rs. 10,00,000, then the gross profit may be described as 20% of sales
[ 10,00,000/50,00,000]

STEPS IN RATIO ANALYSIS


The ratio analysis requires two steps as follows:

1] Calculation of ratio

2] Comparing the ratio with some predetermined standards. The standard ratio may be
the past ratio of the same firm or industry’s average ratio or a projected ratio or the ratio
of the most successful firm in the industry. In interpreting the ratio of a particular firm,
the analyst cannot reach any fruitful conclusion unless the calculated ratio is compared
with some predetermined standard. The importance of a correct standard is oblivious as
the conclusion is going to be based on the standard itself.
TYPES OF COMPARISONS
The ratio can be compared in three different ways –

1] Cross section analysis:

One of the way of comparing the ratio or ratios of the firm is to compare them
with the ratio or ratios of some other selected firm in the same industry at the same
point of time. So it involves the comparison of two or more firm’s financial ratio at the
same point of time. The cross section analysis helps the analyst to find out as to how a
particular firm has performed in relation to its competitors. The firms performance may
be compared with the performance of the leader in the industry in order to uncover the
major operational inefficiencies. The cross section analysis is easy to be undertaken as
most of the data required for this may be available in financial statement of the firm.

2] Time series analysis:

The analysis is called Time series analysis when the performance of a firm is
evaluated over a period of time. By comparing the present performance of a firm with
the performance of the same firm over the last few years, an assessment can be made
about the trend in progress of the firm, about the direction of progress of the firm. Time
series analysis helps to the firm to assess whether the firm is approaching the long-term
goals or not. The Time series analysis looks for (1) important trends in financial
performance (2) shift in trend over the years (3) significant deviation if any from the
other set of data\

3] Combined analysis:

If the cross section & time analysis, both are combined together to study the
behavior & pattern of ratio, then meaningful & comprehensive evaluation of the
performance of the firm can definitely be made. A trend of ratio of a firm compared with
the trend of the ratio of the standard firm can give good results. For example, the ratio of
operating expenses to net sales for firm may be higher than the industry average
however, over the years it has been declining for the firm, whereas the industry average
has not shown any significant changes.
The combined analysis as depicted in the above diagram, which clearly shows that the
ratio of the firm is above the industry average, but it is decreasing over the years & is
approaching the industry average.

PRE-REQUISITIES TO RATIO ANALYSIS


In order to use the ratio analysis as device to make purposeful conclusions, there
are certain pre-requisites, which must be taken care of. It may be noted that these
prerequisites are not conditions for calculations for meaningful conclusions. The
accounting figures are inactive in them & can be used for any ratio but meaningful &
correct interpretation & conclusion can be arrived at only if the following points are well
considered.

1) The dates of different financial statements from where data is taken must be
same.

2) If possible, only audited financial statements should be considered, otherwise


there must be sufficient evidence that the data is correct.

3) Accounting policies followed by different firms must be same in case of cross


section analysis otherwise the results of the ratio analysis would be distorted.

4) One ratio may not throw light on any performance of the firm. Therefore, a group
of ratios must be preferred. This will be conductive to counter checks.
5) Last but not least, the analyst must find out that the two figures being used to
calculate a ratio must be related to each other, otherwise there is no purpose of
calculating a ratio.

CLASSIFICATION OF RATIO
CLASSIFICATION OF RATIO

BASED ON FINANCIAL BASED ON FUNCTION BASED ON USER


STATEMENT

1] BALANCE SHEET 1] LIQUIDITY RATIO 1] RATIOS FOR


RATIO 2] LEVERAGE RATIO SHORT TERM
2] REVENUE 3] ACTIVITY RATIO CREDITORS
STATEMENT 4] PROFITABILITY 2] RATIO FOR
RATIO RATIO SHAREHOLDER

3] COMPOSITE 5] COVERAGE 3] RATIOS FOR

RATIO RATIO MANAGEMENT

4] RATIO FOR
LONG TERM
CREDITORS

BASED ON FINANCIAL STATEMENT

Accounting ratios express the relationship between figures taken from financial
statements. Figures may be taken from Balance Sheet , P& P A/C, or both. One-way of
classification of ratios is based upon the sources from which are taken.
1] Balance sheet ratio:
If the ratios are based on the figures of balance sheet, they are called Balance
Sheet Ratios. E.g. ratio of current assets to current liabilities or ratio of debt to equity.
While calculating these ratios, there is no need to refer to the Revenue statement.
These ratios study the relationship between the assets & the liabilities, of the concern.
These ratio help to judge the liquidity, solvency & capital structure of the concern.
Balance sheet ratios are Current ratio, Liquid ratio, and Proprietory ratio, Capital gearing
ratio, Debt equity ratio, and Stock working capital ratio.

2] Revenue ratio:
Ratio based on the figures from the revenue statement is called revenue
statement ratios. These ratio study the relationship between the profitability & the sales
of the concern. Revenue ratios are Gross profit ratio, Operating ratio, Expense ratio, Net
profit ratio, Net operating profit ratio, Stock turnover ratio.

3] Composite ratio:
These ratios indicate the relationship between two items, of which one is found in
the balance sheet & other in revenue statement.
There are two types of composite ratios-
a) Some composite ratios study the relationship between the profits & the
investments of the concern. E.g. return on capital employed, return on proprietors
fund, return on equity capital etc.
b) Other composite ratios e.g. debtors turnover ratios, creditors turnover ratios,
dividend payout ratios, & debt service ratios
BASED ON FUNCTION:

Accounting ratios can also be classified according to their functions in to liquidity


ratios, leverage ratios, activity ratios, profitability ratios & turnover ratios.

1] Liquidity ratios:
It shows the relationship between the current assets & current liabilities of the
concern e.g. liquid ratios & current ratios.

2] Leverage ratios:
It shows the relationship between proprietors funds & debts used in financing the
assets of the concern e.g. capital gearing ratios, debt equity ratios, & Proprietory ratios.
3] Activity ratios:
It shows relationship between the sales & the assets. It is also known as
Turnover ratios & productivity ratios e.g. stock turnover ratios, debtors turnover ratios.

4] Profitability ratios:
a) It shows the relationship between profits & sales e.g. operating ratios, gross profit
ratios, operating net profit ratios, expenses ratios
b) It shows the relationship between profit & investment e.g. return on investment,
return on equity capital.

5] Coverage ratios:
It shows the relationship between the profit on the one hand & the claims of the
outsiders to be paid out of such profit e.g. dividend payout ratios & debt service ratios.

BASED ON USER:
1] Ratios for short-term creditors:
Current ratios, liquid ratios, stock working capital ratios
2] Ratios for the shareholders:
Return on proprietors fund, return on equity capital

3] Ratios for management:


Return on capital employed, turnover ratios, operating ratios, expenses ratios
4] Ratios for long-term creditors:
Debt equity ratios, return on capital employed, proprietor ratios.
LIQUIDITY RATIO: -
Liquidity refers to the ability of a firm to meet its short-term (usually up to 1 year)
obligations. The ratios, which indicate the liquidity of a company, are Current ratio,
Quick/Acid-Test ratio, and Cash ratio. These ratios are discussed below
CURRENT RATIO
Meaning:
This ratio compares the current assests with the current liabilities. It is also known as
‘working capital ratio’ or ‘ solvency ratio’. It is expressed in the form of pure ratio.
E.g. 2:1
Formula:

Current assets
Current ratio =

Current liabilities

The current assests of a firm represents those assets which can be, in the ordinary
course of business, converted into cash within a short period time, normally not
exceeding one year. The current liabilities defined as liabilities which are short term
maturing obligations to be met, as originally contemplated, with in a year.
Current ratio (CR) is the ratio of total current assets (CA) to total current liabilities (CL).
Current assets include cash and bank balances; inventory of raw materials, semi-
finished and finished goods; marketable securities; debtors (net of provision for bad and
doubtful debts); bills receivable; and prepaid expenses. Current liabilities consist of
trade creditors, bills payable, bank credit, provision for taxation, dividends payable and
outstanding expenses. This ratio measures the liquidity of the current assets and the
ability of a company to meet its short-term debt obligation.

CR measures the ability of the company to meet its CL, i.e., CA gets converted into
cash in the operating cycle of the firm and provides the funds needed to pay for CL. The
higher the current ratio, the greater the short-term solvency. This compares assets,
which will become liquid within approximately twelve months with liabilities, which will be
due for payment in the same period and is intended to indicate whether there are
sufficient short-term assets to meet the short- term liabilities. Recommended current
ratio is 2: 1. Any ratio below indicates that the entity may face liquidity problem but also
Ratio over 2: 1 as above indicates over trading, that is the entity is under utilizing its
current assets.

LIQUID RATIO:
Meaning:

Liquid ratio is also known as acid test ratio or quick ratio. Liquid ratio compare the quick
assets with the quick liabilities. It is expressed in the form of pure ratio. E.g. 1:1.

The term quick assets refer to current assets, which can be converted into, cash
immediately or at a short notice without diminution of value.

Formula:

Quick assets
Liquid ratio =

Quick liabilities

Quick Ratio (QR) is the ratio between quick current assets (QA) and CL. QA refers to
those current assets that can be converted into cash immediately without any value
strength. QA includes cash and bank balances, short-term marketable securities, and
sundry debtors. Inventory and prepaid expenses are excluded since these cannot be
turned into cash as and when required.

QR indicates the extent to which a company can pay its current liabilities without relying
on the sale of inventory. This is a fairly stringent measure of liquidity because it is based
on those current assets, which are highly liquid. Inventories are excluded from the
numerator of this ratio because they are deemed the least liquid component of current
assets. Generally, a quick ratio of 1:1 is considered good. One drawback of the quick
ratio is that it ignores the timing of receipts and payments.

CASH RATIO
Meaning:
This is also called as super quick ratio. This ratio considers only the absolute liquidity
available with the firm.
Formula:
Cash + Bank + Marketable securities
Cash ratio =
Total current liabilities

Since cash and bank balances and short term marketable securities are the most liquid
assets of a firm, financial analysts look at the cash ratio. If the super liquid assets are
too much in relation to the current liabilities then it may affect the profitability of the firm.

INVESTMENT / SHAREHOLDER

EARNING PER SAHRE:-

Meaning:

Earnings per Share are calculated to find out overall profitability of the organization. An
earnings per Share represents earning of the company whether or not dividends are
declared. If there is only one class of shares, the earning per share are determined by
dividing net profit by the number of equity shares.
EPS measures the profits available to the equity shareholders on each share held.
Formula:
NPAT
Earning per share =
Number of equity share

The higher EPS will attract more investors to acquire shares in the company as it
indicates that the business is more profitable enough to pay the dividends in time. But
remember not all profit earned is going to be distributed as dividends the company also
retains some profits for the business

DIVIDEND PER SHARE:-

Meaning:

DPS shows how much is paid as dividend to the shareholders on each share held.

Formula:

Dividend Paid to Ordinary Shareholders

Dividend per Share =


Number of Ordinary Shares

DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO:-

Meaning:

Dividend Pay-out Ratio shows the relationship between the dividend paid to equity
shareholders out of the profit available to the equity shareholders.

Formula:
Dividend per share
Dividend Pay out ratio = *100
Earning per share

D/P ratio shows the percentage share of net profits after taxes and after preference
dividend has been paid to the preference equity holders.

GEARING

CAPITAL GEARING RATIO:-


Meaning:
Gearing means the process of increasing the equity shareholders return through the
use of debt. Equity shareholders earn more when the rate of the return on total capital is
more than the rate of interest on debts. This is also known as leverage or trading on
equity. The Capital-gearing ratio shows the relationship between two types of capital
viz: - equity capital & preference capital & long term borrowings. It is expressed as a
pure ratio.

Formula:
Preference capital+ secured loan
Capital gearing ratio =
Equity capital & reserve & surplus
Capital gearing ratio indicates the proportion of debt & equity in the financing of assets
of a concern.

PROFITABILITY
These ratios help measure the profitability of a firm. A firm, which generates a
substantial amount of profits per rupee of sales, can comfortably meet its operating
expenses and provide more returns to its shareholders. The relationship between profit
and sales is measured by profitability ratios. There are two types of profitability ratios:
Gross Profit Margin and Net Profit Margin.

GROSS PROFIT RATIO:-

Meaning:
This ratio measures the relationship between gross profit and sales. It is defined as the
excess of the net sales over cost of goods sold or excess of revenue over cost. This
ratio shows the profit that remains after the manufacturing costs have been met. It
measures the efficiency of production as well as pricing. This ratio helps to judge how
efficient the concern is I managing its production, purchase, selling & inventory, how
good its control is over the direct cost, how productive the concern , how much amount
is left to meet other expenses & earn net profit.

Formula:

Gross profit
Gross profit ratio = * 100
Net sales
NET PROFIT RATIO:-

Meaning:

Net Profit ratio indicates the relationship between the net profit & the sales it is usually
expressed in the form of a percentage.

Formula:

NPAT
Net profit ratio = * 100

Net sales

This ratio shows the net earnings (to be distributed to both equity and preference
shareholders) as a percentage of net sales. It measures the overall efficiency of
production, administration, selling, financing, pricing and tax management. Jointly
considered, the gross and net profit margin ratios provide an understanding of the cost
and profit structure of a firm.

RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED:-

Meaning:
The profitability of the firm can also be analyzed from the point of view of the total funds
employed in the firm. The term fund employed or the capital employed refers to the total
long-term source of funds. It means that the capital employed comprises of shareholder
funds plus long-term debts. Alternatively it can also be defined as fixed assets plus net
working capital.

Capital employed refers to the long-term funds invested by the creditors and the owners
of a firm. It is the sum of long-term liabilities and owner's equity. ROCE indicates the
efficiency with which the long-term funds of a firm are utilized.

Formula:
NPAT
Return on capital employed = *100
Capital employed

FINANCIAL
These ratios determine how quickly certain current assets can be converted into cash.
They are also called efficiency ratios or asset utilization ratios as they measure the
efficiency of a firm in managing assets. These ratios are based on the relationship
between the level of activity represented by sales or cost of goods sold and levels of
investment in various assets. The important turnover ratios are debtors turnover ratio,
average collection period, inventory/stock turnover ratio, fixed assets turnover ratio, and
total assets turnover ratio. These are described below:
DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO (DTO)
Meaning:
DTO is calculated by dividing the net credit sales by average debtors outstanding during
the year. It measures the liquidity of a firm's debts. Net credit sales are the gross credit
sales minus returns, if any, from customers. Average debtors are the average of debtors
at the beginning and at the end of the year. This ratio shows how rapidly debts are
collected. The higher the DTO, the better it is for the organization.
Formula:
Credit sales
Debtors turnover ratio =
Average debtors

INVENTORY OR STOCK TURNOVER RATIO (ITR)


Meaning:
ITR refers to the number of times the inventory is sold and replaced during the
accounting period.
Formula:
COGS
Stock Turnover Ratio =
Average stock

ITR reflects the efficiency of inventory management. The higher the ratio, the more
efficient is the management of inventories, and vice versa. However, a high inventory
turnover may also result from a low level of inventory, which may lead to frequent stock
outs and loss of sales and customer goodwill. For calculating ITR, the average of
inventories at the beginning and the end of the year is taken. In general, averages may
be used when a flow figure (in this case, cost of goods sold) is related to a stock figure
(inventories).

FIXED ASSETS TURNOVER (FAT)

The FAT ratio measures the net sales per rupee of investment in fixed assets.

Formula:
Net sales
Fixed assets turnover =
Net fixed assets
This ratio measures the efficiency with which fixed assets are employed. A high ratio
indicates a high degree of efficiency in asset utilization while a low ratio reflects an
inefficient use of assets. However, this ratio should be used with caution because when
the fixed assets of a firm are old and substantially depreciated, the fixed assets turnover
ratio tends to be high (because the denominator of the ratio is very low).

PROPRIETORS RATIO:
Meaning:
Proprietary ratio is a test of financial & credit strength of the business. It relates
shareholders fund to total assets. This ratio determines the long term or ultimate
solvency of the company.
In other words, Proprietary ratio determines as to what extent the owner’s interest &
expectations are fulfilled from the total investment made in the business operation.
Proprietary ratio compares the proprietor fund with total liabilities. It is usually expressed
in the form of percentage. Total assets also know it as net worth.
Formula:
Proprietary fund
Proprietary ratio = OR

Total fund

Shareholders fund
Proprietary ratio =
Fixed assets + current liabilities

STOCK WORKING CAPITAL RATIO:


Meaning:
This ratio shows the relationship between the closing stock & the working capital. It
helps to judge the quantum of inventories in relation to the working capital of the
business. The purpose of this ratio is to show the extent to which working capital is
blocked in inventories. The ratio highlights the predominance of stocks in the current
financial position of the company. It is expressed as a percentage.
Formula:
Stock
Stock working capital ratio =
Working Capital

Stock working capital ratio is a liquidity ratio. It indicates the composition & quality of the
working capital. This ratio also helps to study the solvency of a concern. It is a
qualitative test of solvency. It shows the extent of funds blocked in stock. If investment
in stock is higher it means that the amount of liquid assets is lower.

DEBT EQUITY RATIO:


MEANING:
This ratio compares the long-term debts with shareholders fund. The relationship
between borrowed funds & owners capital is a popular measure of the long term
financial solvency of a firm. This relationship is shown by debt equity ratio. Alternatively,
this ratio indicates the relative proportion of debt & equity in financing the assets of the
firm. It is usually expressed as a pure ratio. E.g. 2:1

Formula:
Total long-term debt

Debt equity ratio =


Total shareholders fund
Debt equity ratio is also called as leverage ratio. Leverage means the process of the
increasing the equity shareholders return through the use of debt. Leverage is also
known as ‘gearing’ or ‘trading on equity’. Debt equity ratio shows the margin of safety
for long-term creditors & the balance between debt & equity.

RETURN ON PROPRIETOR FUND:


Meaning:
Return on proprietors fund is also known as ‘return on proprietors equity’ or ‘return on
shareholders investment’ or ‘ investment ratio’. This ratio indicates the relationship
between net profit earned & total proprietors funds. Return on proprietors fund is a
profitability ratio, which the relationship between profit & investment by the proprietors in
the concern. Its purpose is to measure the rate of return on the total fund made
available by the owners. This ratio helps to judge how efficient the concern is in
managing the owner’s fund at disposal. This ratio is of practical importance to
prospective investors & shareholders.
Formula:
NPAT
Return on proprietors fund = * 100
Proprietors fund

CREDITORS TURNOVER RATIO:


It is same as debtors turnover ratio. It shows the speed at which payments are made to
the supplier for purchase made from them. It is a relation between net credit purchase
and average creditors
Net credit purchase
Credit turnover ratio =
Average creditors

Months in a year
Average age of accounts payable =
Credit turnover ratio
Both the ratios indicate promptness in payment of creditor purchases. Higher creditors
turnover ratio or a lower credit period enjoyed signifies that the creditors are being paid
promptly. It enhances credit worthiness of the company. A very low ratio indicates that
the company is not taking full benefit of the credit period allowed by the creditors.

IMPORTANCE OF RATIO ANALYSIS:


As a tool of financial management, ratios are of crucial significance. The
importance of ratio analysis lies in the fact that it presents facts on a comparative basis
& enables the drawing of interference regarding the performance of a firm. Ratio
analysis is relevant in assessing the performance of a firm in respect of the following
aspects:
1] Liquidity position,
2] Long-term solvency,
3] Operating efficiency,
4] Overall profitability,
5] Inter firm comparison
6] Trend analysis.

1] LIQUIDITY POSITION: -
With the help of Ratio analysis conclusion can be drawn regarding the liquidity
position of a firm. The liquidity position of a firm would be satisfactory if it is able to meet
its current obligation when they become due. A firm can be said to have the ability to
meet its short-term liabilities if it has sufficient liquid funds to pay the interest on its short
maturing debt usually within a year as well as to repay the principal. This ability is
reflected in the liquidity ratio of a firm. The liquidity ratio are particularly useful in credit
analysis by bank & other suppliers of short term loans.
2] LONG TERM SOLVENCY: -
Ratio analysis is equally useful for assessing the long-term financial viability of a
firm. This respect of the financial position of a borrower is of concern to the long-term
creditors, security analyst & the present & potential owners of a business. The long-term
solvency is measured by the leverage/ capital structure & profitability ratio Ratio
analysis s that focus on earning power & operating efficiency.
Ratio analysis reveals the strength & weaknesses of a firm in this respect. The
leverage ratios, for instance, will indicate whether a firm has a reasonable proportion of
various sources of finance or if it is heavily loaded with debt in which case its solvency
is exposed to serious strain. Similarly the various profitability ratios would reveal
whether or not the firm is able to offer adequate return to its owners consistent with the
risk involved.

3] OPERATING EFFICIENCY:

Yet another dimension of the useful of the ratio analysis, relevant from the
viewpoint of management, is that it throws light on the degree of efficiency in
management & utilization of its assets. The various activity ratios measures this kind of
operational efficiency. In fact, the solvency of a firm is, in the ultimate analysis,
dependent upon the sales revenues generated by the use of its assets- total as well as
its components.

4] OVERALL PROFITABILITY:

Unlike the outsides parties, which are interested in one aspect of the financial
position of a firm, the management is constantly concerned about overall profitability of
the enterprise. That is, they are concerned about the ability of the firm to meets its short
term as well as long term obligations to its creditors, to ensure a reasonable return to its
owners & secure optimum utilization of the assets of the firm. This is possible if an
integrated view is taken & all the ratios are considered together.

5] INTER – FIRM COMPARISON:

Ratio analysis not only throws light on the financial position of firm but also
serves as a stepping-stone to remedial measures. This is made possible due to inter
firm comparison & comparison with the industry averages. A single figure of a particular
ratio is meaningless unless it is related to some standard or norm. one of the popular
techniques is to compare the ratios of a firm with the industry average. It should be
reasonably expected that the performance of a firm should be in broad conformity with
that of the industry to which it belongs. An inter firm comparison would demonstrate the
firms position vice-versa its competitors. If the results are at variance either with the
industry average or with the those of the competitors, the firm can seek to identify the
probable reasons & in light, take remedial measures.

6] TREND ANALYSIS:

Finally, ratio analysis enables a firm to take the time dimension into account. In
other words, whether the financial position of a firm is improving or deteriorating over
the years. This is made possible by the use of trend analysis. The significance of the
trend analysis of ratio lies in the fact that the analysts can know the direction of
movement, that is, whether the movement is favorable or unfavorable. For example, the
ratio may be low as compared to the norm but the trend may be upward. On the other
hand, though the present level may be satisfactory but the trend may be a declining
one.

ADVANTAGES OF RATIO ANALYSIS


Financial ratios are essentially concerned with the identification of significant
accounting data relationships, which give the decision-maker insights into the financial
performance of a company. The advantages of ratio analysis can be summarized as
follows:

➢ Ratios facilitate conducting trend analysis, which is important for decision


making and forecasting.

➢ Ratio analysis helps in the assessment of the liquidity, operating efficiency,


profitability and solvency of a firm.

➢ Ratio analysis provides a basis for both intra-firm as well as inter-firm


comparisons.

➢ The comparison of actual ratios with base year ratios or standard ratios helps
the management analyze the financial performance of the firm.
LIMITATIONS OF RATIO ANALYSIS
Ratio analysis has its limitations. These limitations are described below:
1] Information problems

➢ Ratios require quantitative information for analysis but it is not decisive about analytical
output .
➢ The figures in a set of accounts are likely to be at least several months out of
date, and so might not give a proper indication of the company’s current financial
position.
➢ Where historical cost convention is used, asset valuations in the balance sheet
could be misleading. Ratios based on this information will not be very useful for
decision-making.

2] Comparison of performance over time

➢ When comparing performance over time, there is need to consider the changes
in price. The movement in performance should be in line with the changes in
price.
➢ When comparing performance over time, there is need to consider the changes
in technology. The movement in performance should be in line with the changes
in technology.
➢ Changes in accounting policy may affect the comparison of results between
different accounting years as misleading.

3] Inter-firm comparison

➢ Companies may have different capital structures and to make comparison of


performance when one is all equity financed and another is a geared company it
may not be a good analysis.
➢ Selective application of government incentives to various companies may also
distort intercompany comparison. comparing the performance of two enterprises
may be misleading.

➢ Inter-firm comparison may not be useful unless the firms compared are of the
same size and age, and employ similar production methods and accounting
practices.

➢ Even within a company, comparisons can be distorted by changes in the price


level.

➢ Ratios provide only quantitative information, not qualitative information.

➢ Ratios are calculated on the basis of past financial statements. They do not
indicate future trends and they do not consider economic conditions.

PURPOSE OF RATIO ANLYSIS:


1] To identify aspects of a businesses performance to aid decision making
2] Quantitative process – may need to be supplemented by qualitative
Factors to get a complete picture.
3] 5 main areas:-

➢ Liquidity – the ability of the firm to pay its way


➢ Investment/shareholders – information to enable decisions to be made on the
extent of the risk and the earning potential of a business investment
➢ Gearing – information on the relationship between the exposure of the business
to loans as opposed to share capital
➢ Profitability – how effective the firm is at generating profits given sales and or its
capital assets
➢ Financial – the rate at which the company sells its stock and the efficiency with
which it uses its assets

ROLE OF RATIO ANALYSIS:


It is true that the technique of ratio analysis is not a creative technique in the
sense that it uses the same figure & information, which is already appearing in the
financial statement. At the same time, it is true that what can be achieved by the
technique of ratio analysis cannot be achieved by the mere preparation of financial
statement.
Ratio analysis helps to appraise the firm in terms of their profitability & efficiency
of performance, either individually or in relation to those of other firms in the same
industry. The process of this appraisal is not complete until the ratio so computed can
be compared with something, as the ratio all by them do not mean anything. This
comparison may be in the form of intra firm comparison, inter firm comparison or
comparison with standard ratios. Thus proper comparison of ratios may reveal where a
firm is placed as compared with earlier period or in comparison with the other firms in
the same industry.
Ratio analysis is one of the best possible techniques available to the
management to impart the basic functions like planning & control. As the future is
closely related to the immediate past, ratio calculated on the basis of historical financial
statements may be of good assistance to predict the future. Ratio analysis also helps to
locate & point out the various areas, which need the management attention in order to
improve the situation.
As the ratio analysis is concerned with all the aspect of a firms financial analysis
i.e. liquidity, solvency, activity, profitability & overall performance, it enables the
interested persons to know the financial & operational characteristics of an organisation
& take the suitable decision.

EVALUATION OF APLAB LIMITED THROUGH RATIO


COMPANY PROFILE
THE COMPANY –

APLAB Limited is a professionally managed Public Limited company quoted on


the Bombay Stock Exchange. Since its inception in 1962, APLAB has been serving the
global market with wide range of electronic products meeting the international standards
for safety and reliability such as UL, VDE etc. They specialize in Test and Measurement
Equipment, Power Conversion and UPS Systems, Self-Service Terminals for Banking
Sector and Fuel Dispensers for Petroleum Sector. APLAB enjoys worldwide recognition
for the quality of its products, business integrity and innovative engineering skills.

ABOUT APLAB:
 Aplab started its operation in October 1962.
 It is a professionally managed 40 years old public limited company.
 It is quoted on BOMBAY STOCK EXCHANGE.
 It serves customer global customer par excellence.
 It specialized in Test & measurement instruments, power conversion, & UPS &
fuel dispensers for petroleum sector.
 It enjoys worldwide recognition for the quality of its business integrity &
innovative engineering skills.

MISSION:
 To deliver high quality, carefully, engineered products, on time, with in budget, as
per the customer specification in a manner profitable to both, our customers & so
to us.

VISION:
 To be a global player, recognized for quality & integrity.
 To be the TOP INDIAN COMPANY as conceived by our customers.
 To be “ THE BEST ” company to work for, as rated by our employees.

GOAL:
 Goal at Aplab is extract ordinary customer service as we provide our customer
needs in the personal service industry.

CORPORATE MISSION –
1] To achieve healthy and profitable growth of the company in the interest of our
customers & the shareholders.

2] To encourage teamwork, reward innovation and maintain healthy interpersonal


relations within the organization.

3] To expand knowledge and remain at the leading edge in technology to serve the
global market.
4] To understand the customer’s needs and provide solutions than merely selling
products.

5] To create intellectual capital by investing in hardware and embedded software


development.

VALUES & BELIEFS:


Their values & beliefs required that they -
 Treat employees with respect & give them an opportunity for input on how to
continuously improve their service goals.
 Offer opportunities for growth, professional development & recognition.
 Provide most effective & corrective action, to resolve customer service issues, to
ensure customer satisfaction.
 Foster an open door policy, which encourages interaction, discussion & ideas to
improve work environment & increase productivity.
 “ Do it right the first time & every time” is their team commitment * our way of
doing business, it ensures as growth & prosperity.

THE 21ST CENTURY SUCCESS –

APLAB had planned to enter the 21st Century with a program for a fast and
healthy growth in the global market based on company’s high technology foundation
and the reputation of four decades for prompt customer service and as a reliable
solution provider. After completing three years in the new era, we can say with pride
that we have been delivering our promises to our customers and the shareholders.
APLAB has entered the field of Professional Services starting with the Banking
and the Petroleum Industry. Focus on developing embedded system software has been
also enhanced. We believe that professional services sector is poised to grow at a very
rapid pace.

QUALITY IS OUR WORK CULTURE - ISO 9001:2000


Quality at APLAB is a part of our people’s attitude. Entire organization is
committed to create an environment that encourages individual excellence and a
personal commitment to quality. In APLAB, “Quality is everybody’s responsibility” and all
strive to “do it right the first time”. It is therefore natural that APLAB Limited is certified
for quality with ISO 9001:2000 registration.

QUALITY POLICY:
 Aplab will deliver to its customer products & services that consistently meet or
exceed their requirement.
 Aplab will achieve this by total commitment & involvement of every individual.
 Aplab will encourage its employees & suppliers to develop quality products
prevent defects & make continual improvement in all processes.

QUALITY OBJECTIVE:
 Aplab is an ISO 9001:2000 certifies company.
 100% customer satisfaction.
 On time delivery every time reduction is out going PPM to 10,000
[4 sigma]

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Developing innovative products with the latest technology is the core strength of
APLAB. The Science & Technology Ministry of the Govt. of India accredits our R&D
Laboratories. We have a large team of dedicated, highly qualified skilled engineers who
excel in the latest state-of-the-art-technology. APLAB is recognized not only for
manufacturing standard products but also in providing solutions and services as per the
customer specifications. We spend more than 4% of the company revenue in Research
& Development activities.
Specific areas in which the company carries out R&D
1. Development of new product especially hi-tech intelligent product & electronic
transaction control system.
2. Improvement in the existing products & production processes, import
substitution.
3. Development of products to suit exports markets.
4. Customizing the products to the customer’s specifications & adaptation of
imported technology.
The company has achieved its position of leadership in the Indian
instrumentation industry & continuous to maintain it through its strong grip of
technology. Almost all the products manufactured by the company are import
substitution items, which are fully developed in house. It has resulted in considerable
saving of foreign exchange. With the company, R&D is an ongoing process. The
ministry of science & technology, Government of India, recognizes the company’s R&D.
Through a continuous interaction with production& Quality Assurance
Department takes up redesign of existing products. This is done to achieve state of the
art in our design & to bring about improvement to get maximum performance / cost
ratio.

FUTURE PLAN OF ACTION


Major R&D activity is concentrated around up gradation of product design & re-
alignment of production processes to bring about improved quality at lower cost. This
will greatly help the company in facing competition in local markets from foreign
companies.

EXPORT

APLAB currently exports over 25% of its production to Western Europe, Canada
& USA. Over 30 million U.S. Dollars worth of Power Systems and Test Instruments from
APLAB are today operational in UK, Germany, France, Sweden, Belgium, Canada, and
USA & Australia.

APLAB’S ORGANISATION CHART


EXECUTIVE
CHAIRMAN

MANAGING
DIRECTOR
REGIOAL
HEAD:
DIRECTOR MAEKETING MUMBAI
NEWDELHI
[TECHNICAL DIRECTOR SECUNDA-
- PE] RABAD
BANGLORE
CHENNAI
GENERAL
MANAGER

FINANCE G.M G.M. MATERIAL G.M. G.M.


MANAGER PROD. MARKETING MANAGER ELTRAC DESIGN
& PROD. &
DESIGN DEVLOP-
MENT

OFFICERS

STAFF

WORKERS

PRODUCTS OF APLAB:
a. TEST & MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
b. HIGH POWER AC SYSTEMS (UPS, Frequency Converter, Inverter,
Isolation Transformer)
c. HIGH POWER DC SYSTEMS (DC Power Supply, DC Uninterruptible
Power Supply)
d. ATM INSTACASH
e. POWER SUPPLIES, AC-DC POWER SUPPLY, DC/DC CONVERTERS,
SMPS, INVERTERS, STABILIZER, LINE CONDITIONER, ISOLATION
TRANSFORMER

ATM INSTACASH
The Banking Automation Division
of APLAB was launched in 1993,
when we introduced INSTACASH-
India’s first indigenously
manufactured ATM INSTACASH
demonstrated APLAB’s skills in
design, hardware manufacturing
and software integrations. Our in
house R&D group is constantly
striving to scan the rapidly
changing technology and offer
suitable end to end solutions. We
are into Self Service Delivery
Systems, MICR Cheque Processing and Smart Card based solutions. The latest is
IMAGEENABLED Cheque Processing solution- QUICKCLEAR.

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