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19 views74 pagesHere I have put together a curriculum for the physical sciences which is of the nature I would have liked to have seen it when I was in High School, at least for AP (advanced placement students).

Sep 04, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

Here I have put together a curriculum for the physical sciences which is of the nature I would have liked to have seen it when I was in High School, at least for AP (advanced placement students).

© All Rights Reserved

19 views

Here I have put together a curriculum for the physical sciences which is of the nature I would have liked to have seen it when I was in High School, at least for AP (advanced placement students).

© All Rights Reserved

- Climate Basics 01
- Gypsy Astronomy
- The Exploits Of Manuel
- College Notes
- Discover And Contact
- College Notes 01
- An Extraterrestrial Analysis
- A Message From ETs
- Volume 01
- Science 02 A
- Seti: Another Signal In Sagittarius
- All That Can Be Said 02
- Volume 02
- The Reason
- A Mystical Whole
- More That Can Be Said
- Volume 03
- Basics of Climate Science
- My Climate Science Journal
- Discover and Contact

You are on page 1of 74

Science 01

By Ian Beardsley

Copyright 2014 by Ian Beardsley

2

Here I have put together a curriculum for the physical sciences which

is of the nature I would have liked to have seen it when I was in High

School, at least for AP (advanced placement students).

3

Mathematics 01

Formulas Derived from the Parallelogram

Remarks. Squares and rectangles are parallelograms that have four sides the

same length, or two sides the same length. We can determine area by measuring

it either in unit triangles or unit squares. Both are fine because they both are

equal sided, equal angled geometries that tessellate. With unit triangles, the

areas of the regular polygons that tessellate have whole number areas. Unit

squares are usually chosen to measure area.

Having chosen the unit square with which to measure area, we notice that the

area of a rectangle is base times height because the rows determine the amount

of columns and the columns determine the amount of rows. Thus for a rectangle

we have:

A=bh

Drawing in the diagonal of a rectangle we create two right triangles, that by

symmetry are congruent. Each right triangle therefore occupies half the area, and

from the above formula we conclude that the area of a right triangle is one half

base times height:

A=(1/2)bh

By drawing in the altitude of a triangle, we make two right triangles and applying

the above formula we find that it holds for all triangles in general.

We draw a regular hexagon, or any regular polygon, and draw in all of its radii,

thus breaking it up into congruent triangles. We draw in the apothem of each

triangle, and using our formula for the area of triangles we find that its area is one

half apothem times perimeter, where the perimeter is the sum of its sides:

4

A=(1/2)ap

A circle is a regular polygon with an infinite amount of infitesimal sides. If the

sides of a regular polygon are increased indefinitely, the apothem becomes the

radius of a circle, and the perimeter becomes the circumference of a circle.

Replace a with r, the radius, and p with c, the circumference, and we have the

formula for the area of a circle:

A=(1/2)rc

We define the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter as pi. That is

pi=c/D. Since the diameter is twice the radius, pi=c/2r. Therefore c=2(pi)r and the

equation for the area of a circle becomes:

A=(pi)r^2

(More derived from the parallelogram)

Divide rectangles into four quadrants, and show that

A. (x+a)(x+b)=(x^2)+(a+b)x+ab

B. (x+a)(x+a)=(x^2)+2ax+(a^2)

A. Gives us a way to factor quadratic expressions.

B. Gives us a way to solve quadratic equations. (Notice that the last term is the

square of one half the middle coefficient.)

Remember that a square is a special case of a rectangle.

5

There are four interesting squares to complete.

1) The area of a rectangle is 100. The length is equal to 5 more than the width

multiplied by 3. Calculate the width and the length.

2) Solve the general expression for a quadratic equation, a(x^2)+bx+c=0

3) Find the golden ratio, a/b, such that a/b=b/c and a=b+c.

4) The position of a particle is given by x=vt+(1/2)at^2. Find t.

Show that for a right triangle (a^2)=(b^2)+(c^2) where a is the hypotenuse, b and

c are legs. It can be done by inscribing a square in a square such that four right

triangles are made.

Use the Pythagorean theorem to show that the equation of a circle centered at

the origin is given by r^2=x^2+y^2 where r is the radius of the circle and x and y

the orthogonal coordinates.

Derive the equation of a straight line: y=mx+b by defining the slope of the line as

the change in vertical distance per change in horizontal distance.

Triangles

All polygons can be broken up into triangles. Because of that we can use

triangles to determine the area of any polygon.

Theorems Branch 1

1. If in a triangle a line is drawn parallel to the base, then the lines on both sides

of the line are proportional.

2. From (1) we can prove that: If two triangles are mutually equiangular, they are

similar.

6

3. From (2) we can prove that: If in a right triangle a perpendicular is drawn from

the base to the right angle, then the two triangles on either side of the

perpendicular, are similar to one another and to the whole.

4. From (3) we can prove the Pythagorean theorem.

Theorems Branch 2

1. Draw two intersecting lines and show that opposite angles are equal.

2. Draw two parallel lines with one intersecting both. Use the fact that opposite

angles are equal to show that alternate interior angles are equal.

3. Inscribe a triangle in two parallel lines such that its base is part of one of the

lines and the apex meets with the other. Use the fact that alternate interior angles

are equal to show that the sum of the angles in a triangle are two right angles, or

180 degrees.

Theorems Branch 3

1. Any triangle can be solved given two sides and the included angle.

c^2=a^2+b^2-2abcos(C)

2. Given two angles and a side of a triangle, the other two sides can be found.

a/sin(A)=b/sin(B)=c/sin(C)

3.Given two sides and the included angle of a triangle you can find its area, K.

K=(1/2)bc(sin(A))

4.Given three sides of a triangle, the area can be found by using the formulas in

(1) and (3).

Question: what do parallelograms and triangles have in common?

Answer: They can both be used to add vectors.

7

Trigonometry

When a line bisects another so as to form two equal angles on either side, the

angles are called right angles. It is customary to divide a circle into 360 equal

units called degrees, so that a right angle, one fourth of the way around a circle,

is 90 degrees.

The angle in radians is the intercepted arc of the circle, divided by its radius, from

which we see that in the unit circle 360 degrees is 2(pi)radians, and we can

relate degrees to radians as follows: Degrees/180 degrees=Radians/pi radians

An angle is merely the measure of separation between two lines that meet at a

point.

The trigonometric functions are defined as follows:

cos x=side adjacent/hypotenuse

sin x=side opposite/hypotenuse

tan x=side opposite/side adjacent

csc x=1/sin x

sec x=1/cos x

cot x=1/tan x

We consider the square and the triangle, and find with them we can determine

the trigonometric function of some important angles.

Square (draw in the diagonal): cos 45 degrees =1/sqrt(2)=sqrt(2)/2

Equilateral triangle (draw in the altitude): cos 30 degrees=sqrt(3)/2; cos 60

degrees=1/2

Using the above formula for converting degrees to radians and vice versa:

30 degrees=(pi)/6 radians; 60 degrees=(pi)/3 radians.

8

The regular hexagon and pi

Tessellating equilateral triangles we find we can make a regular hexagon, which

also tessellates. Making a regular hexagon like this we find two sides of an

equilateral triangle make radii of the regular hexagon, and the remaining side of

the equilateral triangle makes a side of the regular hexagon. All of the sides of an

equilateral triangle being the same, we can conclude that the regular hexagon

has its sides equal in length to its radii.

If we inscribe a regular hexagon in a circle, we notice its perimeter is nearly the

same as that of the circle, and its radius is the same as that of the circle. If we

consider a unit regular hexagon, that is, one with side lengths of one, then its

perimeter is six, and its radius is one. Its diameter is therefore two, and six

divided by two is three. This is close to the value of pi, clearly, by looking at a

regular hexagon inscribed in a circle.

The sum of the angles in a polygon

Draw a polygon. It need not be regular and can have any number of sides. Draw

in the radii. The sum of the angles at the center is four right angles, or 360

degrees. The sum of the angles of all the triangles formed by the sides of the

polygon and the radii taken together are the number of sides, n, of the polygon

times two right angles, or 180 degrees. The sum of the angles of the polygon are

that of the triangles minus the angles at its center, or A, the sum of the angles of

the polygon equals n(180 degrees)-360 degrees, or

A=180 degrees(n-2)

With a rectangular coordinate system you need only two numbers to specify a

point, but with a triangular coordinate system --- three axes separated by 120

degrees -- you need three. However, a triangular coordinates system makes use

of only 3 directions, whereas a rectangular one makes use of 4.

A rectangular coordinate system is optimal in that it can specify a point in the

plane with the fewest numbers, and a triangular coordinate system is optimal in

that it can specify a point in the plane with the fewest directions for its axes. The

rectangular coordinate system is determined by a square and the triangular

coordinate system by an equilateral triangle.

9

Chemistry 01

I had a dream last night that because I could not afford more tabla lessons with my tabla

instructor from India, we decided I would teach him chemistry in exchange for tabla

lessons. I woke up remembering exactly what I had said, and it was the following:

The most important concept in chemistry is the mole. We measure a number of eggs in

dozens, but the number of atoms that make up a piece of matter is usually so large that

we have to measure them in a much greater amount, which is the mole. A mole is

6.02E23 atoms. We have figured out the molar mass of all the elements. The molar mass

is the amount of grams there are in an element that contains a mole of atoms. For

instance, carbon, if we look on the periodic table of the elements has 12 grams per every

mole.

6.02E23 means a six followed by 23 figures, the first two of which are zero and two.

How does this work? Lets say we have

1E3

That is a one followed by three zeros, or on thousand (1,000). Notice when we multiply

one thousand by one thousand we have:

(1,000)(1,000)=1,000,000

In other words:

(1E3)(1E3)=1(E3+E3)=1E6=1,000,000

1,000 is represented by k, and is read kilo meaning thousand

1,000,000 is represented by M, and is read mega, meaning million

1,000,000,000 is represented by G, and is read Giga, meaning billion

So,

(km = kilometers, Mm = megameters, and Gm = gigameters)

Or, (ks=kiloseconds, Ms = megaseconds, and Gs = gigaseconds)

and so on

I had written at another time:

10

When metals react with non-metals, the metals lose electrons to become positive ions

while the non-metals gain electrons to become negative ions. They combine such that

they are neutral. This determines the number of each element in the compound. The

amount of electrons gained by non-metals is such that the outer shells are filled so that

they have noble gas electron configuration. This can be used with the periodic table of

elements to determine the amount of electrons gained. When a metal combines with a

non-metal like this, then, it is called ionic bonding. This is in contrast to how non-metals

combine with one another. They share their valence electrons, or electrons in their outer

shell in other words, such that their outer shells are filled. This is called covalent

bonding.

Applying What We Have Learned

Hydropshere: Total water on, under, and over the Earth

Wikipedia states that the hydrosphere is 1.4E18 Tonnes

(1.4E18 t)(1,000 kg)(1,000 g) = 1.4E24 g

We ask how much Europium is required to react with the entire hydrosphere?

The reaction of Europium with water is:

2Eu + 6H_2O -! 2Eu(OH)_3 + 3H_2

That is, six moles of H2O are required for every two moles of Europium to make two

moles of Europium Hydroxide and Three moles of Hydrogen gas. I would say that is

how that equation reads, though my chemical nomenclature is a little rusty. I would say

since the europium displaces the hydrogen, that this is a single displacement reaction. I

am little rusty on my reaction classification as well. Regardless, the equation clearly

states that one third of the moles of H20 are the moles of Europium required for the

reaction to take place (2/6= 1/3). We write:

H_2 = 2(1.01) = 2.02 g/mol

O = 16.00 g/mol

H2O = 2.02 + 16.00 = 18.02 g/mol

By looking up the molar masses of the elements in the periodic table of the elements.

((1 mol H2O)/(18.02 g H2O))x((1.4E24 g H2O)/(hydrosphere))

= 7.8E22 mol H2O/hydrosphere

1/3(7.8E22 mol H2O) = 2.6E22 mol Eu

Eu = 151.97 g Eu/ mol

11

(2.6E22 mol Eu)(151.97 g Eu/ mol) = 3.95E24 g Eu

The density of Europium at STP is 5.243 g/cm^3

(cm^3/5.243 g)(3.95E24 g) = 7.53E23 cm^3

Is the volume of the body composed of 3.95E24 grams of Europium. If it is a sphere,

then the radius of it is:

(4/3)(pi)r^3 = 7.53E23 cm^3

r^3 = 1.8E23 cm^3

r = 56,462,162 cm

(56,562,162 cm)/(100 cm)(1000 m) = 564.62 km ~ 565 km

The Europium Sphere would have a radius of 565 kilometers. That of the moon of

Jupiter called Europa is:

1,566 km

1,566/565 = 2.77

The radius of the moon orbiting the Earth is:

1,738 km

1,738/565 = 3.1 ~ pi ~ 3

The moon is about three times larger than the Europium Sphere, or about pi times larger.

Let us look at another example:

How does aluminum (Al) combine with Oxygen (O)?

Al is a metal in group 13 in the periodic table. Therefore, Al loses three electrons to

become Al_3+ and O is a non-metal in group 16 of the periodic table. The last group is

group 18 and O wants to gain 2 electrons attain the nobel gas electron configuration of

that group, so it become O_2-. For Al to combine with O and be neutral, it must have

two atoms of Al to have a charge of plus six, and there must be three atoms of O to have

a negative charge of 6, So, the chemical formula for Aluminum Oxide is:

Al_2O_3

12

We are given that chromium metal is heated with iodine and produces powdered

chromium (III) iodide.

First we say

Cr + I_2 ! CrI_3

We write I_3 on the right because we are told Cr is Cr3+ and to combine with Iodine,

which has charge of 1- being a metal in group 17 (one away from group 18 of the inert

gases) it must be three atoms of iodine per every one atom of chromium for the

compound to be neutral. We write I_2 on the left because iodine is a diatomic molecule

(naturally occurs in pairs). But this equation is not balanced. Three I_2 molecules on the

left and 2 on the right make the same amount of iodine on the left and right hand sides of

the equation, but to place a two in front of chromium on the right means there are two

atoms of chromium on the right for every one atom of chromium on the left. This would

violate the conservation of matter, which states the same amount of matter going into the

reaction must be the same as that coming out. To account for this we place a two in front

of the chromium molecule on the left and the equation is balanced:

2Cr+3I_2 ! 2CrI_3

This says two moles of chromium react with three moles of diatomic iodine to make two

moles of chromium iodide. We can further classify this as a combination reaction,

because chromium combines with iodine to make the compound chromium iodide.

Nothing is decomposed or displaced.

You can increase the temperature of any substance. The amount of energy required to

raise a gram of any substance one degree centigrade is given by its specific heat which

you can find in the CRC handbook. For instance, the specific heat of water is one calorie

per gram degree centigrade. That is pretty high, and is the reason the Earth stays cool

because it takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature of water. Lets use this in an

example and ask how many calories are required to raise the temperature of 2 grams of it

2 degrees centigrade:

(2 grams)(1 cal/gram degree C)(2 degrees C) = 4 calories

13

As I have progressed through my education in the sciences I have

encountered problems that resonate with me; problems that I find

interesting and that penetrate deep within in my being. Sometimes

what we find interesting to ourselves, we learn is interesting to others.

Perhaps this is because it gets at what it is to be human. Here I

present such problems, and their solutions.

Ian Beardsley

July 12, 2014

14

Climate Science 01

As climate science is a new science, there are many models for the

climate and I learned my climate science at MIT in a free online edX

course. One can generate a basic model for climate with nothing

more than high school algebra using nothing more than the

temperature of the sun, the distance of the earth from the sun, and

the earths albedo, the percent of light it reflects back into space.

The luminosity of the sun is:

!

L

0

= 3.9 "10

26

J / s

The separation between the earth and the sun is:

!

1.5 "10

11

m

The solar luminosity at the earth is reduced by the inverse square

law, so the solar constant is:

!

S

0

=

3.9 "10

26

4#(1.5 "10

11

)

2

=1, 370Watts/ meter

2

That is the effective energy hitting the earth per second per square

meter. This radiation is equal to the temperature,

!

T

e

, to the fourth

power by the steffan-bolzmann constant, sigma

!

(").

!

T

e

can be called

the effective temperature, the temperature entering the earth.

!

S

0

intercepts the earth disc,

!

"r

2

, and distributes itself over the

entire earth surface,

!

4"r

2

, while 30% is reflected back into space

due to the earths albedo, a, which is equal to 0.3, so

!

"T

e

4

=

S

0

4

(1# a)

(1# a)S

0

$r

2

4$r

2

But, just as the same amount of radiation that enters the system,

leaves it, to have radiative equilibrium, the atmosphere radiates back

15

to the surface so that the radiation from the atmosphere,

!

"T

a

4

plus the

radiation entering the earth,

!

"T

e

4

is the radiation at the surface of the

earth,

!

"T

s

4

. However,

!

"T

a

4

="T

e

4

and we have:

!

"T

s

4

="T

a

4

+"T

e

4

= 2"T

e

4

T

s

= 2

1

4

T

e

"T

e

4

=

S

0

4

(1# a)

" = 5.67 $10

#8

S

0

=1, 370

a = 0.3

1, 370

4

(0.7) = 239.75

T

e

4

=

239.75

5.67 $10

#8

= 4.228 $10

9

T

e

= 255Kelvin

So, for the temperature at the surface of the Earth:

!

T

s

= 2

1

4

T

e

=1.189(255) = 303Kelvin

Lets convert that to degrees centigrade:

Degrees Centigrade = 303 - 273 = 30 degrees centigrade

And, lets convert that to Fahrenheit:

Degrees Fahrenheit = 30(9/5)+32=86 Degrees Fahrenheit

In reality this is warmer than the average annual temperature at the

surface of the earth, but, in this model, we only considered radiative

heat transfer and not convective heat transfer. In other words, there

is cooling due to vaporization of water (the formation of clouds) and

16

due to the condensation of water vapor into rain droplets

(precipitation or the formation of rain).

17

Summary

The incoming radiation from the sun is about 1370 watts per square

meter as determined by the energy per second emitted by the sun

reduced by the inverse square law at earth orbit. We calculate the

total absorbed energy intercepted by the Earth's disc (pi)r^2, its

distribution over its surface area 4(pi)r^2 and take into account that

about 30% of that is reflected back into space, so the effective

radiation hitting the Earth's surface is about 70% of the incoming

radiation reduced by four. Radiative energy is equal to temperature

to the fourth power by the Stefan-boltzmann constant. However, the

effective incoming radiation is also trapped by greenhouse gases and

emitted down towards the surface of the earth (as well as emitted up

towards space from this lower atmosphere called the troposphere),

the most powerful greenhouse gas being CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) and

most abundant and important is water vapour. This doubles the

radiation warming the surface of the planet. The atmosphere is

predominately Nitrogen gas (N2) and Oxygen gas (O2), about 95

percent. These gases, however, are not greenhouse gases. The

greenhouse gas CO2, though only exists in trace amounts, and water

vapour, bring the temperature of the Earth up from minus 18 degrees

centigrade (18 below freezing) to an observed average of plus 15

degrees centigrade (15 degrees above freezing). Without these

crucial greenhouse gases, the Earth would be frozen. They have this

enormous effect on warming the planet even with CO2 existing only

at 400 parts per million. It occurs naturally and makes life on Earth

possible. However, too much of it and the Earth can be too warm,

and we are now seeing amounts beyond the natural levels through

anthropogenic sources, that are making the Earth warmer than is

favorable for the conditions best for life to be maximally sustainable.

We see this increase in CO2 beginning with the industrial era. The

sectors most responsible for the increase are power, industry, and

transportation. Looking at records of CO2 amounts we see that it

was 315 parts per million in 1958 and rose to 390 parts per million in

2010. It rose above 400 in 2013. Other greenhouse gases are

methane (CH4) and Nitrous Oxide (N2O). Agricultural activities

dominate emissions for nitrous oxide and methane. A healthy earth

is one that is in radiative equilibrium, that is, it loses as much

radiation as it receives. Currently we are slightly out of radiative

balance, the Earth absorbs about one watt per square meter more

18

than it loses. That means its temperature is not steady, but

increasing.

Ian Beardsley

July 11, 2014

19

Computer Science 01

CS50X Journal Of Ian Beardsley

2014

(Online Version)

20

Variables

(float %f, %d)

(int %i,%d)

(char%s, %c)

21

22

23

Learning Computer Science at Harvard

By

Ian Beardsley

Copyright 2014 by Ian Beardsley

24

I decided to take the online introduction to computer science at

Harvard, called CS50x because I was interested in Artificial

Intelligence (AI). The idea that we could understand our mind and

how thought could have originated through creating artificial

intelligence with electronics and computer programming I find

fascinating.

To get started in computer science, you need a compiler. When you

take the free online classes at Harvard, they provide you with a

compiler. It puts your source code (programming instructions) into

zeros and ones, the language that computers understand. Under the

hood a computer is a series of switches that are either on or off. Off

is zero and on is one. With zeros and ones you can create any

number:

0 = 0

1 =1

10 = 2

11 = 3

100 = 4

101 = 5

110 = 6

111 =7

And so on,

With numbers in binary you can represent any character on your

keyboard, numbers or letters. The numbers assigned to characters,

from which your source code is built, are defined in the ASCII tables,

the standardized tables of the language of computer scientists.

In the introduction to computer science at Harvard you start out by

learning the language called C. It begins with learning how to use the

printf() and scanf(), although their compiler has a library that

understands a function they substitute for scanf() that makes things

easier in the beginning. They are called the GetInt(), GetFloat() or

GetString() functions. However a standard C compiler that you buy

wont have these functions and I dont think programs you write with

them will run on most computers. That is why I have learned the

scanf() and written some programs with it (provided here) to get a

25

grasp of how it works. So I dont use any functions that are in the

CS50 library in those programs. I use the standard io library that all C

compilers have and I am sure will run on any computer. I imagine we

will learn the scanf() function as the class proceeds. I am about three

weeks into it.

Actually the first thing you learn is not print(f) and scan(f) but that at

the top of every program you first define the library you are going to

use and put the main() function, which tells the computer where your

program begins:

#include <stdio.h>

int main (void)

Ian Beardsley

January 24, 2014

26

Actually, Problem Set 0, the first problem set in the course, was a lot

of fun.

My solution to problem 5 in Problem Set 0

A banana =1

6 is an orange and two bananas

An orange is worth half a mango

What is two mangos, an orange, and a banana?

Solution:

If two mangos is four oranges, we have:

4 oranges + 1 orange + 1 banana =

5 orange + 1 banana

6 = 1 orange + 2 bananas (from above)

4 bananas = 1 orange

(4)(5) + 1 = 20 +1 = 21

21 is the answer.

27

The basic formula for your first program is:

Declare a variable

Prompt the user with a printf() function

Get the users value for that variable and give it to the computer with

a scanf() function

Tell the computer what do with that value

Then output the result to the user with a printf() function

28

learning scanf

#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)

{

int age;

printf("What is your age? ");

scanf("%d", &age);

printf("You said your age was: %d\n", age);

return 0;

}

running learning scanf

jharvard@appliance (~): cd Dropbox/pset1

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset1): ./age

What is your age? 48

You said your age was: 48

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset1):

29

The basic formula for your second program is (booleans):

Prompt the user

Get the users value for the variable

Test it by asking if one thing about it is true. If true, then do

something. If not, then do something else.

30

Learning Booleans

#include <stdio.h>

int main (void)

{

char name [15];

printf("What is your first name?: ");

scanf("%s", name);

printf("you said your name is: %s\n", name);

int n;

printf("Is this correct yes=1 no=0? ");

scanf("%d", &n);

if (n==1)

{

printf("thank you\n");

}

else

{

printf("leave the room\n");

}

}

Running Learning Booleans

jharvard@appliance (~): cd Dropbox/pset1

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset1): make name

clang -ggdb3 -O0 -std=c99 -Wall -Werror name.c -lcs50 -lm -o

name

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset1): ./name

What is your first name?: Ian

you said your name is: Ian

Is this correct yes=1 no=0? 1

thank you

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset1): ./name

What is your first name?: Ian

you said your name is: Ian

Is this correct yes=1 no=0? 0

leave the room

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset1):

31

The basic formula for your third program is (loops):

Repeat a command until something is true, even iterate it according

to a pattern that fits your objective.

32

Learning Looping

#include <stdio.h>

int main (void)

{

int n;

do

{

printf("give me a positive number: ");

scanf("%d", &n);

}

while (n<0);

for (int i=1; i<n+1; i++)

{

printf("%d\n", i);

}

printf("you promted the user for a number and counted to it with a for

loop!\n");

}

Running Learning Looping

jharvard@appliance (~): cd Dropbox/pset1

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset1): ./looping

give me a positive number: -1

give me a positive number: 5

1

2

3

4

5

you promted the user for a number and counted to it with a for loop!

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset1):

33

One of my first assignments at harvardx was to write a program that

uses what is called a Greedy algorithm. The idea is to have the user

tell you how much money they are owed, then give them change in

quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, such that you use the least

number of coins. My program not only tells how many coins to give

the user, but how many of each kind. Greedy algorithms are any

programs that calculate how to achieve the most with the least for

any given scenario.

34

Greedy 07: It is actually this one that works!

#include <cs50.h>

#include <stdio.h>

int main (void)

{

printf("amount owed: ");

float amount= GetFloat();

float cents= 100.0*amount;

float quarter= 0;

float dime= 0;

float nickel= 0;

float penni= 0;

while (cents>0)

if (cents>=25.0)

{

cents=cents-25.0;

quarter=quarter+1;

}

else if (cents>=10.0)

{

cents=cents-10.0;

dime=dime+1;

}

else if (cents>=5.0)

{

cents=cents-5.0;

nickel=nickel+1;

}

else if (cents>=1.0)

{

cents=cents-1.0;

penni=penni+1;

}

printf("%f %f %f %f

%f\n",quarter,dime,nickel,penni,quarter+dime+nickel+penni);

}

35

Running Greedy

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset1): ./greedy

amount owed: 1.73

6.000000 2.000000 0.000000 3.000000 11.000000

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset1):

That says if you owe someone a dollar seventy three, give them six

quarters, two dimes, zero nickels, and three pennies, eleven coins in

total.

36

Arrays

This is where Computer Science really starts to become interesting,

because you start to have some practical applications. With arrays

you dont just ask the user to give you a value for a variable, but ask

them for a number or of variables, or declare an array in other words.

Here is the story of my program Discover.

37

While I had planned to major in physics, this simple, but interesting

discovery has pulled me into the direction of including computer

science in my studies, more deeply, if not delving more deeply, as

well, into Artificial Intelligence.

38

We show how Artificial Intelligence (AI) would have inherent in it, if it

is silicon based, the golden ratio conjugate, which could imply that it

was meant to happen all along through some unascertainable Natural

Force, because, the golden ratio conjugate is found throughout life.

39

Back in 2005, as I did my research, I developed a different

convention for rounding numbers than we use. I felt I only wanted to

use the first two digits after the decimal in processing data using

molar masses of the elements. This I did, unless a fourth digit less

than five followed the third digit in my calculations, then, I would use

the first three digits for greater accuracy. Now I am taking the

introductory class in computer science at Harvard, online, CS50x.

Working in binary, where all numbers are base two, I see that it was

no wonder I got the results I did, on the first try when I wondered if

the golden ratio conjugate, 0.618 to three places after the decimal

would be in artificial intelligence (AI) since it is recurrent throughout

life.

I was taking polarimetric data on the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae

at Pine Mountain Observatory in the 1980s, for which there was a

paper in the Astrophysical Journal upon which my name appears as

coauthor, while studying physics at The University of Oregon. As well

I was studying Spanish, and in an independent study project through

the Spanish Department, I left the University to live of among the

caves of the Gypsies of Granada, Spain. In doing as such, I

disappeared from the entire world, only to return from another kind of

life finding the world was now a much different place. Around 2005, I

enrolled in chemistry at Citrus College in Southern California, when I

did the following:

If the golden ratio conjugate is to be found in Artificial Intelligence, it

should be in silicon, phosphorus, and boron, since doping silicon with

phosphorus and boron makes transistors.

We take the geometric mean between phosphorus (P) and Boron (B),

then divide by silicon (Si), then take the harmonic mean between

phosphorus and boron divided by silicon:

40

Arithmetic mean of these two numbers: (0.65 + 0.57)/2 = 0.61

0.61 is the first two digits of the golden ratio conjugate.

41

Now the golden ratio conjugate is in the ratio of a persons height and

the length from foot too navel, and is in all of ratios between joints in

the fingers, not to mention that it serves in closest packing in the

arrangement of leaves around a stem to provide maximum exposure

to sun and water for the plant. Here we see that the golden ratio is

not in artificial intelligence which is 0.62 to two places after the

decimal, but that the numbers in its value are in artificial intelligence

0.61, which is 0.618 to three places after the decimal. That is, if we

consider the first two digits in the ratio. If we consider the golden

ratio conjugate to one place after the decimal, which is 0.6, then we

say artificial intelligence does have the golden ratio in its transistors.

I like to think of I, Robot by Isaac Asimov, where in one of that

collection of his short stories, robots are not content with what they

are, and need more: an explanation of their origins. They cant

believe that they are from humans, since they insist humans are

inferior. Or, I like to think of the ship computer HAL in 2001, he

mimics intelligence, but we dont know if he is really alive. Perhaps

that is why to two place after the decimal, AI carries the digits, but is

not the value.

In any case, I have written a program called Discover that would

enable one to process arithmetic, harmonic, and geometric means for

elements or whatever, because someone, including myself, might

want to see if there are any more nuances hidden out there in nature.

I have already found something that seems to indicate

extraterrestrials left their thumbprint in our physics. I even find

indication for the origin of a message that would seem they

embedded in our physics. That origin comes out to be the same

place as the source of the SETI Wow! Signal, Sagittarius. The Wow!

Signal was found in the Search For Extraterrestrial Intelligence and a

possible transmission from ETs. But that is another subject that is

treated in my book: All That Can Be Said at,

http://issuu.com/eanbardsley/docs/allsaidonline

I now leave you with my program, Discover in the language C, with a

sample running of it:

42

The Program Discover

#include <stdio.h>

#include <math.h>

int main(void)

{

printf("transistors are Silicon doped with Phosphorus and Boron\n");

printf("Artificial Intelligence would be based on this\n");

printf("the golden ratio conjugate is basic to life\n");

printf("The Golden Ratio Conjugate Is: 0.618\n");

printf("Molar Mass Of Phosphorus (P) Is: 30.97\n");

printf("Molar Mass Of Boron (B) Is: 10.81\n");

printf("Molar Mass Of Silicon (Si) Is: 28.09\n");

int n;

do

{

printf("How many numbers do you want averaged? ");

scanf("%d", &n);

}

while (n<=0);

float num[n], sum=0.0, average;

for (int i=1; i<=n; i++)

{

printf("%d enter a number: ", i);

scanf("%f", &num[n]);

sum+=num[n];

average=sum/n;

}

printf("sum of your numbers are: %.2f\n", sum);

printf("average of your numbers is: %.2f\n", average);

float a, b, product, harmonic;

printf("enter two numbers (hint choose P and B): \n");

printf("give me a: ");

scanf("%f", &a);

printf("give me b: ");

scanf("%f", &b);

product = 2*a*b;

sum=a+b;

43

harmonic=product/sum;

printf("harmonic mean: %.2f\n", harmonic);

double geometric;

geometric=sqrt(a*b);

printf("geometic mean: %.2f\n", geometric);

printf("geometric mean between P and B divided by Si: %.2f\n",

geometric/28.09);

printf("harmonic mean between P and B divided by Si: %.2f\n",

harmonic/28.09);

printf("0.65 + 0.57 divided by 2 is: 0.61\n");

printf("those are the the first two digits in the golden ratio

conjugate\n");

}

44

Running Discover

jharvard@appliance (~): cd Dropbox/pset2

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset2): ./add

transistors are Silicon doped with Phosphorus and Boron

Artificial Intelligence would be based on this

the golden ratio conjugate is basic to life

The Golden Ratio Conjugate Is: 0.618

Molar Mass Of Phosphorus (P) Is: 30.97

Molar Mass Of Boron (B) Is: 10.81

Molar Mass Of Silicon (Si) Is: 28.09

How many numbers do you want averaged? 2

1 enter a number: 9

2 enter a number: 5

sum of your numbers are: 14.00

average of your numbers is: 7.00

enter two numbers (hint choose P and B):

give me a: 30.97

give me b: 10.81

harmonic mean: 16.03

geometic mean: 18.30

geometric mean between P and B divided by Si: 0.65

harmonic mean between P and B divided by Si: 0.57

0.65 + 0.57 divided by 2 is: 0.61

those are the the first two digits in the golden ratio conjugate

jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox/pset2):

45

Physics 01

46

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54

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56

57

58

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74

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