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ce
Page(
s)
Publish
er
Website/email
Co
unt
ry
x
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Adams, C, M.,
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a
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Human-computer
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JISC Technology
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boroug
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displays in air traffic
avoidance
2000
Transportation Human
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cwickens@psych.usuc.edu US
x
Wickens, C. D.,
Alexander, A., L.,
thomas, L. C.,
Horrey, W. J.,
Nunes, A.,
Hardy, T. J.,
Zheng, X. S.
Traffic and Flight
Guidance Depiction on
a Synthetic Vision
System Display: The
Effects of Clutter on
Performance and
Visual Attention
Allocation
2004
AFHRD-04-
10/NASA(HPM)-04-1
1-36
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IL:
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e of
Aviatio
n, U of
IL
US
x
Wiegman, D. A.,
Overbye, T. J.,
Hoppe, S. M.,
Essenberg, G. R.,
Sun, Y.
Human Factors
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2006
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22
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al,
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c
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x
Wierwille, W. W.
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1993 Human Factors, 35 (2)
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Monica
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Wiese, E. E., Lee,
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2004 Ergonomics
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Wiese, E., Lee,
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Effects of multiple
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2001
Proceedings of the
45th Annual Meeting of
the Human Factors and
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1636
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Monica
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US
v
Wikstrand, G.,
Elg, F.
Determining workload
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e
x
Willems, B.,
Stein, E.
Controller workload
and visual scanning
during simulations
containing scripted
midair conflicts and
varied task load
2001
Proceedings of the
11th International
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bus,
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Ohio
State
Univer
sity
US
x x Wilson, G. F.
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cognitive activity.
1998
Proceedings of the
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of the Human Factors
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Monica
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x
Wilson, G. F.,
Hankins, T.
EEG and subjective
measures of private
pilot workload
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Proceedings of the
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Monica
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x x
Woolford, B.
Rathjen, T.
Whitmore, M.
Rajalu, S.
Novak, J. B.
McCandless, J.
Peacock, B.
Workload and stress
of configural displays
in vigilance tasks
2002
Proceedings of the
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the Human Factors and
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Monica
, CA:
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x
Woolford, B.,
Rathjen, T.,
Whitmore, M.,
Rajulu, S.,
Novak, J.,
McCandless, J.,
Peacock, B.
Space human factors
advanced
development project
2002
Proceedings of the
46th Annual Meeting of
the Human Factors and
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80
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Monica
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x
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AM
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x Worm, A.
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Monica
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x
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Proceedings of the
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Monica
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US
a
Xiao YM, Wang
ZM, Wang MZ,
Lan YJ.
English translation:
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of subjective workload
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Cheng
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a
Xie, B.,
Salvendy, G.
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Environments
2000
International Journal of
Cognitive Ergnonmics,
Vol. 4 (3)
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Navidzadeh, T.,
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Personality, divided
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predictors of
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2001
Proceedings of the
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bus,
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State
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Yeh, Y.-Y.,
Wickens, C. D.
Why do performance
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1984
Proceedings of the
28th Annual Meeting of
the Human Factors
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Stanton, N. A,
It's all relative:
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2002 Ergonomics, 45 (14)
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x x
Zachary, W. W.,
LeMentec, J-C.,
Iordonav, V.
Subjective workload
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x Zeitlin, L. R.
Estimates of driver
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1995 Human Factors, 37 (3)
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US
s
Zenz, H. P.,
Jakobi. J.
Test Plan and Test
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Document. Test
procedures for
Prague.
2002
Operational Benefit
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with an A-SMGCS
http://www.dlr.de/beta
Ge
r
x x
Zini, M. &
Parasuraman, R.
the effects of task
load on performance
and cerebral blood
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1998
Proceedings of the
42nd Annual Meeting
of the Human Factors
and Ergonomics
Society.
1890-
1894
Santa
Monica
, CA:
HFES
US
LP
Perf
Org
Fund
Org
Goal
Doma
in
Team
Rxy
w/
Task
Inter-
face
Mod
TLX
Utility
USG(NA
SA)
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
SA
Flyin
g
vis/
aud
Only SA and eye
scan meas signif;
neither SWAT, TLX
nor perf meas
discriminated
btwn
separate/combine
d vert & horiz
displ
U&I
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Lab
task
RTLX
cntxt
TLX not as
sensitive to
memory task as
other scales ('tho
still sig); Context
effect for weights
for both scales
('tho could be
'cause diff Ss),
Weights didn't
improve
sensitivity
U
USG(D
ARPA)
Model
valid
ation
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Auto Not stated
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
VR
Measures
recommended for
use by Eu for eval
IT products
I
I/USG(
CG)
Appli
catio
n
Mariti
me
Com
mand
Auto
Vis/
aud
wl of automated
sys in maritime
opns
U
Model
valid
ation
Medic
al
Surgi
cal
proce
dure
vis/
aud
sub
sig improvement
in relevant
subScales of new
drug display; no
OW computed
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Reducing boredom
reduced hi WL of
vigilance tasks
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Distr-
action
Drivi
ng &
Voice
entry
Showed effects of
concurrent cell
phone use on all
subScales
I I
Cert
Dsgn
Websi
te/
intern
et
Correlated indiv
scales w/download
fmts/delays
EU
Tool
Revie
w
Medic
al
Age
plans to meas perf
& experiences of
elderly workers
U
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Fatigu
e
Air/G
round
relationship btwn
WL & fatigue &
schedule
I
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Mil)
dual
task
# concurrent
tasks had more
influence on TLX
ratings than
resource combo,
exper, etc
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Measure
review/critique;
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Description,
review, references
for TLX in French
U
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Lab
tasks
sub
TLX incr sig w/incr
diff of simple math
task, nonsig w/
lifting incr weight;
impact of phys &
mental task diff on
ratings indep
USG(Ar
my)
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
HQ flying
vis/
aud
sig TLX diff among
RC flight control
modes &
symbology sets;
also used HQRs
(only sensitive to
flt cntrl mode)
USG(Ar
my)
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
HQ
Flyin
g
vis
sig Wl, HQ, perf
w/contact-analog
heading tape on
Comanche HIDSS
U Frgovt
Tool
evalu
ation
ATC
Traffic
Physio
Air/G
round
TLX Rxy w/
subjective part of
their traffic load
index, not physio
meas or # a/c
U
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Dual
Task
sig incr in TLX for
memory, tracking
& dual-task; perf
& cardiovacsular
meas were less
sensitive
U U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Physio
Dual
task
U U
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Physio
Air/G
round
RTLX
sig incr in
unweighted OW &
subScales w/ incr
diff of TRACON
game;
cardiovacsular
meas less
sensitive
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Traini
ng
Air/G
round
USG(FA
A)
Tool
evalu
ation
Meta
analy
sis
sub
Rxy
TLX subScales tap
1 or 2 underlying
construct(s); not
indep per factor
analysis of data
from 3 exp
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Traini
ng
Air/G
round
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Cars Traffic
Drivi
ng
Vis/
Aud
Only TLX showed
sig diff (2ndry &
P300 didn't)
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Cars
Drivi
ng
RTLX
sig diff for road
type, not visibility
w/ unweighted
OW
portal.acm.org
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(GA)
Flyin
g
svs
New SVS fmts
improved SA
w/out neg impact
on WL or perf; Hi-
time plts had
higher SA &
higher WL than
low-time plts, but
not better perf.
Raised new issue
U
Appli
catio
n
Soldie
rs
Trust
Decis
ion
Makin
g
vis/
aud
No OW or trust
diff, but diff in
strategy & task
completion times
U UKgovt
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Eye
mvmt
Data
entry
sub
sig TLX subScale
improvement for
multi-modal GUI
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Perf
Flyin
g
Compared TLX &
SWAT, in realistic
B727 sim; TlX
more sensitive,
less b-s
variability, better
test-retest
stability than
SWAT; both better
than perf
Appli
catio
n
Cars Traffic range
no sig effects, but
overall WL very
low throughout
U
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Flyin
g
Portu
gese
Portugese version
of NASA TLX
developed and
used to eval perf
of Brazil military
pilots
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Noise
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
impact of noise &
fbdk on low wkld
monitoring task
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Perf
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Appli
catio
n
Power
plant
opera
tors
Stress
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
mod
Developed and
tested "M-TLX" for
use in nuclear
cntrl rooms
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Medic
al
Perf
Dispa
tch
U
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Surgi
cal
proce
dure
U
Model
valid
ation
Const
ruct/
asmbl
y
Asse
mbly
Sche
d
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Perf
Data
entry
more sig than perf
meas
U UKgovt
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Tics
recommended use
of fewer intervals
(7) or l9 labeled
rather than 20
I
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
evalu
ation
Soldie
rs
Sim
Comb
at
Compared WL
meas; TLX very
sensitive
Appli
catio
n
CAW
S
U
Benc
hmar
k
Lab
tasks
Game
s
Benchmark: to
demonstrate
validity of 17-
dimension MRQ
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
cited only
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Sim
Comb
at
vis
WL sig for main
effects,
parallelling perf
results; no
subScale effects
I
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
Auto
Wx
sig diff for Wx, not
procedure; (ISSUE-
- WHY MAX
SCORE OF 120?)
USG(NA
SA)
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Flyin
g
Voice
I/O
auto
voice activation
aided hovering
perf but higher
rated WL
USG(NA
SA)
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Flyin
g
Voice
I/O
auto
Again, voice I/o
benefitted flight
control but higher
rated WL
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Game
Cited only;
Measure dvlpmt/
validation;
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Pers-
nlty
Stress
Flyin
g
less
sub-
scales
used just 4
subScales; few sig
diff due to
personality,
stress, WL not
reported
U
USG(Ar
my)
Benc
hmar
k
Soldie
rs
Stress
Sim
Comb
at
Benchmark:to
verify that diff
missions woud
impose diff TP
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Team
/org
beha
vior
Pers-
nlty
Stress
Flyin
g
less
sub-
scales
used 4 TLX sub
Scales to meas
stress; ID'ed 3
crew types using
Wl & RT
NOgovt NOgovt
Tool
evalu
ation
Power
plant
opera
tors
Team
/org
beha
vior
Contr
ol
Both scales valid,
but Task
Complexity Index
better predictior
of perf on complex
prob solv task
NOgovt NOgovt
Tool
evalu
ation
Power
plant
opera
tors
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
stronger criterion
validity for their
measure than TLX
I
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Physio
Data
entry
Seat
Dsgn
SWAT & TLX
differed; neither
sig related to chair
design;
U UKgovt
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Data
entry
vis/
aud
U UKgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
vis/
aud
more
subsc
ales
added subScales;
sound-enhanced
buttons decreased
overall WL
U UKgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
vis/
aud
TLX showed cost
of better perf.
With some
button/auditory
feedback config.
U CNgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
Vis/
Aud
Voc/
man
workload
reduction due to
button sounds to
supplement vis on
mobile computers
U UKgovt
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Data
entry
vis/
aud
more
sub-
scales
added annoyance
subScale; sig diff
w/sound-
enhanced menu &
sig effects for
some of the
subScales
U
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Cited only;
Measure dvlpmt/
validation;
U
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
2ndry
Drivi
ng
advantages of new
online wkld meas
M-SWAP vs TLX
demo'ed in
desktop driving
simulator
U
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
evalu
ation
Cars 2ndry
Drivi
ng
Cited only; tested
M-SWAP new scale
for real time use
I
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
SA
Trust
Flyin
g
In air/grnd search
& destroy mission,
autm'n relability
interacted w/trust
& workload; no SA
USG(NT
SB)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
Vis/
Aud
Voc/
man
U
GERgov
t
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
SA
Air/G
round
TLX ratings
decreased
w/training; lower
for control than
exp grp.
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Anti-
Terror
ism
Team
/org
beha
vior
Perf
Sim
Comb
at
sub
Found expected
sig. TP differences
in ratings, not perf
U UKgovt
How
to
Revie
w
Recommend TLX
for use
U
How
to
Cars
Remo
te
contr
ol
Vis/
Aud
Voc/
man
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Drivi
ng
Vis/
Aud
RTLX
RTLX discrim btwn
nav cndns
(distance to go vs
landmark)
I I
Appli
catio
n
Telec
om
opera
tors
Pers-
nlty
Telco
n
telco
m
less
sub-
scales
Modified TLX:
used weighted avg
of MD TP & Fr to
cluster call-takers
I I
Appli
catio
n
Telec
om
opera
tors
Pers-
nlty
Telco
n
telco
m
less
sub-
scales
Modified TLX:
used weighted avg
of MD TP & Fr to
cluster call-takers
I I
Model
valid
ation
Comp
uter
users
Telco
n
less
sub-
scales
Modified TLX:
used weighted avg
of MD TP & Fr to
cluster call-takers;
dvlpd model to
use in sys &
proced dsgn
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Trust
Flyin
g
Vis/
Aud
Found sig effect
for one variable &
relationship w/SA;
messy relationship
w/trust
U
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Perf
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
CAW
S
Sig TLX maiin
effects for alarm
sys & task
complex; WL perf
dissociation-
traded off one for
other
I
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
Revie
w
RTLX
Raw (unweighted0
TLX AS GOOD AS
WEIGHTED
U EU
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
sig interaction
btwn experience &
traffic density in
TRACON sim;
weaker cortisol,
perf, fatigue
effects
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Perf
Contr
ol
Vis
TLX distinguishes
btwn trk task diff
& dissoc w/perf
meas
U
USG(NI
H)
Appli
catio
n
Telec
om
opera
tors
Remo
te
contr
ol
Vis/
Aud
sig effects of vis
memory aid for
older adults on
WL, and for P
subscale for age &
media - no perf
diff
U
USG-
(NSERC
)
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Surgi
cal
proce
dure
Auto
TLX, not perf,
imprv by new nav
aid for
colonoscopy;
partial info worse
than none
U EU
Tool
Revie
w
Cars
Drivi
ng
reviewed theories,
tools for eval
driver safety
U UKgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cars Traffic
Drivi
ng
Auto
Frenc
h
sig diff for TP and
Fr scales with
intelligent speed
adaptation (NOTE
USED French
translation of TLX)
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
Pilot intent in "free
flight" env & wl
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Vis/
Aud
apparently
meaningful dis-
sociation btwn WL
& perf in vigilance
task
U SEgovt
Tool
evalu
ation
Cars
Drivi
ng
RTLX
some sig subScale
effects of in-
vehicle nav
systems; used
highly mod. Scale,
didn't compute
weighted avg, &
tried to use rating
variability as WL
indicator
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Drivi
ng
RTLX
RNASA-TLX
tailored for use in
cars using nav
sys;
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
UAV
opera
tors
Remo
te
contr
ol
vis sub
didn't compute
OW; meaningful
subscale results
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(GA)
Wx
Flyin
g
Vis/
Aud
sub
WL "similar to
actual flight";
subScales only:
Perf & Phys sig,
But seemed
strong relationship
btwn mental
effort, frustration,
& SA X display
cndn
FRgovt FRgovt
Tool
Revie
w
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
Recommend TLX
for use
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Data
entry
Voice
I/O
Sig subScale diff
using (not very
capable) voice I/O
system
U
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Exper
Data
entry
voc/
man
sig TLX diff among
keyboard
interfaces &
expertise, echoing
perf meas.
USG(US
AF)
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
conte
xt
context effects-
due to diff of
surrounding tasks
influences TLX &
SWAT; stndrdz
w/anchor tasks?
USG(NA
SA)
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
Vis/
Aud
Rxy with 2ndry
math task diff, not
displays designed
to reduce spat
disorientation
USG(NA
SA)
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
Voice
I/O
WL of auto speech
recognition sys
use depended on
recognition
accuracy
USG(NA
SA)
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Dual
task
I
USG(FA
A)
Tool
Revie
w
Flyin
g
Compared avail
WL meas in flight
sims; TLX
performed well
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Physio
Flyin
g
RTLX
2ndry task more
sensitive than
P300 or TLX
(unweighted avg)
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Traffic
Air/G
round
wl effect of
CTAS/FMS integr
USG USG
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
Recomm tool (and
info where to buy
sftwe/manuals)
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
TLX had broad
range of
sensitivity & good
diagnostic tool
Eurocon
trol
EU
How
to
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Physio
Air/G
round
U EU
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
Vis/
Aud
Traffic density
covaried w/TLX
ratings. Mode of
conrol did not.
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Fatigu
e
Spani
sh
Article in Spanish
describing
measures of WL
(TLX) & fatigue
U NEgovt
Tool
evalu
ation
Cars
Drivi
ng
Describes & eval
various WL meas
U
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Age
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
age & wl
correlates for low
wl task
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Medic
al
Data
entry
Develop way to
eval nursing
workload
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Civil)
SA
Flyin
g
sig WL effects for
phases of flight
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
U
Appli
catio
n
Websi
te/
intern
et
Disa-
bility
Data
entry
Voice
I/O
usability of
synthetic speech
for visually
impaired
computer users
U
Appli
catio
n
Power
plant
opera
tors
Perf
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Vis
Spani
sh
no sig diff among
pwr plnt cntrl
groups; usseful
subscale diff &
Rxy w/perf
U
Tool
Revie
w
Power
plant
opera
tors
Contr
ol
no TLX diff, but
many useful
subScale diff
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Perf
Physio
Lab
less
sub-
scales
RTLX
sig TLX diff for
mental and phys
loads; recalc
omitting PD; when
computed
unweighted avg,
no sig diff; TLX &
other scales, not
heart rate var,
were inter-Rxy;
TLX not sensitive
to phys load
U
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
Auto
effect of shifting
to another task
before
completing;
impact of
automation &
experience
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Readi
ng
RTLX
Better image
quality (font)
improved unwght
avg of 4 subScales
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Sex
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Interaction btwn
task type & sex
U
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Sex
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Interaction btwn
task type & sex
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Exper
Surgi
cal
proce
dure
U
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Super
visor
y
Contr
ol
vis/
aud
TLX diff in right
direction, non-sig
(but perf effects
weak too)
U
Appli
catio
n
Mariti
me
Nav auto
modCH & TLX
showed similar diff
for HMD cndns
(modCH more
sensitive); no
SWORD diff
I
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Soldie
rs
Com
m
Auto
TLX sensitive to
levels of wkld
created by task
and Adaptive
autom/n (manage
commo)
USG(US
AF)
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
SA
Remo
te
contr
ol
vis/
aud
modCH slghtly
more sig than TLX
for teleop displ
config; SWORD
and SA meas not
sig; perf effects
U
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
vis/
aud
Sig diff in WL
ratings between
anestheologists
using new display
& not
U
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Exper
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
vis/
aud
not stated (in Abs)
Cngovt Cngovt
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Downloadable TLX
user guide
U
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
voc/
man
sub
most subScales
showed benefit for
new cell phone
interface
U
Appli
catio
n
Sport
s

Info
Retri
eval
Vis/
Aud
sub
All subScales
showed clear
benefit for new
display except PD
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
SA
Air/G
round
obser
ver
compared
controller & SME
WL and SA
ratings; knowl of
present situation
didn't predict
overall perf
I&U
Appli
catio
n
Aviati
on
Physio Mx
a/c inspection
tasks had similar
impacts on WL as
fatigue &
discomfort due to
awkward postures
U
Appli
catio
n
Exper Nav
Vis/
Aud
better
w/experience
'cause could read
map while moving
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
Measure
review/critique;
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
Not stated
U
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
SA
Air/G
round
controller TLX
ratings > as free
flight level incr
I I
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
SA
Contr
ol
Auto
one of many
measures used to
eval levels of
autom'n;
unexpected Rxy
btwn SA & wlkd
I I
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
SA
Dual
task
Auto
TLX correlated
w/SAGAT &
showed benefits of
appropriate levels
of automation
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars SA
Drivi
ng
Auto
Higher SA w/
manual than
atomated sys
I I
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
WL related to
controller SA,
occurrence of
errors
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
Auto sub
controllers &
observers rated
WL & SA (SAGAT
& SART); only MD
sig differed betwn
baseline &
predictive display
(MD higher, SA &
perf better)
Tool
Revie
w
Websi
te/
intern
et
Review and
describe available
measures
appropriate for EU
ICT
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
Voc/
man
Voice entry for
error-correction
task didn't
improve perf or
WL
I
USG(Na
vy)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Team
/org
beha
vior
SA
Sim
Comb
at
more
sub-
scales
Added Team WL
subScale; negRxy
btwn team SA &
WL (WL quite low)
Eurocon
trol
EU
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
Eval new HSI
w/SW & DK CAA
U
USG(D
OE)
Appli
catio
n
Power
plant
opera
tors
Perf
Contr
ol
vis/
aud
perf diff among
displays (static vs
motion), WL in
right direction but
ns
Eurocon
trol
EU
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Review and
describe measures
recommended for
EU
USG(FA
A)
Cert
Dsgn
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Crew
size
Flyin
g
Listed as one of
meas to use to
demo Wl ok
USG(FA
A)
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
Flyin
g
Describe &
recommend tools
U UKgovt
Tool
evalu
ation
Cars
Drivi
ng
RTLX
Also found RTLX
(simple sum) to
be more sensitive
than weighted
average; OW for
drivers increased
when also having
conversation
I I
Benc
hmar
k
Monit
oring
Physio
Dual
task
Auto
range
;
RTLX
Benchmark: TLX
used to verify that
conditions did, in
fact have different
WL (Hi
WL=65/Low=48)
Used unweighted
ratings
U
Appli
catio
n
Desig
n
SA
Dual
task
CAW
S
Meaningful sig
results & Rxy
w/SART; context
effect of past
exper for both
ratings
Eurocon
trol
EU
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Physio
Air/G
round
sub
MDdecreased
w/training; OP
rated as better
(under heavy
traffic) than it
actually was
U EU
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Fatigu
e
Physio
Air/G
round
use of TLX
recomm as was
fatigue scale; use
of EEG, EOG &
Cortisol limited for
use in large-scale
ATC sim
ESA ESA
Appli
catio
n
Space
flight
vis/
aud
Operational HF
eval in parabollic
flight prior to Mir
use of restraint &
suction cup shoes
U
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Team
/org
beha
vior
SA
Air/G
round
D/L
Availability of
shared info did not
affect individual
WL or perf; mixed
opinions & some
changes in
behavior
CNgovt CNgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
voc/
man
Helio plts entered
data manually or
vocally; mixed
initial results
reported-used tlx
"like" scale
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Vis/
Aud
wl experienced by
users of personal
electronics
U
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
Vis/
Aud
Voc/
man
sig higher TLX w/
some eyes- &
hands-free mobile
digital electronics
interface
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Const
ruct/
asmbl
y
Remo
te
contr
ol
safety mechanism
increased RT, WL
&RMSe, but
reduced incorrect
inputs (as it was
designed to do)
I I
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Drivi
ng
sub
sig subScale
effects for #
controls,
functions/cntrl, op
modes (no OW
reported)
U&I
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
Flyin
g
cntxt
range
Did NOT find
context effects
[TLX may be less
sensitive to
context effects
than SWAT] BUT
"hi" wkld rated in
40s; rated in 60s,
and 70s in
previous, similar
sim exper.
CNgovt CNgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Distr-
action
Drivi
ng
sub
sig diff for
subScales found
due to driver
distraction; no OW
reported
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
SA
Desig
n
VR
Used TLX data to
eval HCI aspects
of VR design env.
U
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Perf
Flyin
g
In Swedish - -
used TLX and
other measures
I
USG(Na
vy)
Model
valid
ation
Militar
y C3I
Team
/org
beha
vior
Stress
Team
Dec
mak
Auto
more
sub-
scales
added subScales
to TLX: all
subScales but MD
& P showed sig
incr from low to hi
stress period of
scenairo
U GEgovt
Appli
catio
n
Lab
Tasks
Physio
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Focused on
underload; mainly
interested in ERPs
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
Tasks
Sche
dulin
g
Vis/
aud
auto
TLX (and subS)
ratings higher &
detection worse
for manual than
auto
U
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Flyin
g
Auto
perf & wl imprv
w/cockpit
enhancements
U
USG(Na
vy)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Perf
Flyin
g
Auto
perf imprv 38%,
WL decr 13%;
effectiveness incr
83% by enhanced
cockpit
U&I
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Distr-
action
Drivi
ng &
Voice
entry
vis/
aud
Sig higher WL
(driving vs
desktop sim); no
perf or WL diff
btwn cell phone
interfaces
U
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Mil)
SA
Trust
Flyin
g
auto
Compared perf,
SA, trust, tLX
meas; TlX hi Rxy
w/SA, trust,
confidence (TLX
diverged w/perf)
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Perf
Com
mand
Not stated
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Com
mand
vis
ratings and 2ndry
task perf
discriminated
main effects; SA &
perf didn't
USG(US
AF)
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Trust
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Auto
Imprv level of perf
w/no WL cost
w/valid,
automated
information
U
Appli
catio
n
Power
plant
opera
tors
Team
/org
beha
vior
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
vis
Lower WL & better
perr w/ecological
interface design
for team
U
Appli
catio
n
Websi
te/
intern
et
Info
Retri
eval
Vis/
Aud
sub
Sig effects on
subScales (didn't
report OW)
U
USG(N
SF)
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Exper
Surgi
cal
proce
dure
auto
hi variability, no
sig
I I
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Review and
describe measures
I I
Cert
Dsgn
Cockp
it
(GA)
Flyin
g
mentioned only
TLX and C-H as
measures of
workload
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Armor
ed
vehicl
es
Perf
Drivi
ng
vis/
aud
meaningful sig
TLX results; no sig
perf diff
USG(Ar
my)
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Soldie
rs
SA
Sim
Comb
at
Vis/
Aud
sub
Rxy
interaction btwn
subScales, perf &
display modality
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars Perf
Drivi
ng
driver TLX ratings
in several env;
countermeasures
for speeding
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Team
/org
beha
vior
Com
mand
sub
social network
distance
estimated by
number of TLX
scales upon which
were willing to
rate another
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Team
/org
beha
vior
Com
mand
Physical & social
distance predicted
degree of shared
mental model
(e.g., s/a WL
rating)
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Perf
Data
entry
sig TLX & perf
effect of new data-
entry sys for filling
prescriptions
U
USG(U
SAF)
Model
valid
ation
Revie
w
Lab
task
auto
Benchmark: 3 of 4
models correlated
well w/TLX; Use
models to provide
construct validity
for TLX?
U
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Lab
task
Cited only
U
USG(Ar
my)
Model
valid
ation
Law
Enfor
ceme
nt
Perf
Shoot
ing
less
sub-
scales
Rxy WL and
poorer shooting
perf (just mental
demand scale incr.
Predictive pwr of
model)
Eurocon
trol
EU
Appli
catio
n
Air
Traffic
Contr
ol
SA
Air/G
round
Delegation
showed lower WL
in one study,
higher in other
U
Appli
catio
n
Websi
te/
intern
et
Team
/org
beha
vior
Desig
n
conte
xt
used TLX to
estimate test-
retest
reliability/order
effects
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
mod
Tried new
combined TLX &
ZEIS measure,
found validated
measures (TLX
and ZEIS) worked
best
I
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Armor
ed
vehicl
es
Sim
Comb
at
voc/
man
Controllers said
WL should be less
with delegation,
but when
performed task,
TLX & ISA ratings
were higher
w/delegation
I I
Appli
catio
n
Armor
ed
vehicl
es
Sim
Comb
at
Voice
I/O
sub
Used subscales;
added useful info
to perf meas.
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
vis
Perf & WL better
w/successive than
simultaneous fmts
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
battery of meas to
ID job satisfaction
& stress - listed
proc & cons
U
USG(D
ARPA)
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Cited only
U
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
UAV
opera
tors
Remo
te
contr
ol
Vis/
Aud
Sensory display
fmt created better
perf, lower WL;
unusually low WL
ratings for
vigilance task
U
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
UAV
opera
tors
Fatigu
e
Sim
Comb
at
Compared avail
WL meas in field
artilery opns
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Distr-
action
Drivi
ng
sig differences
found for TLX for
all cognitive
complexity cndns
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Info
Retri
eval
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Soldie
rs

Sim
Comb
at;
Com
m
3D
Audio
spatial aud displ
led to better perf
(no TLx diff); TLX
higher for for
carrying heavier
loads
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Armor
ed
vehicl
es
Team
/org
beha
vior
Perf
Drivi
ng &
Voice
entry
3D
Audio
spatial aud displ
improved speech
understanding,
not output or WL;
TLX reflected
driving speed
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
TLX ratings were
more positive
toward benefits of
r e-sectorization
than real-time wl
ratings
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
SA
Air/G
round
controller TLX
ratings slightly
less, SA higher,
perf no worse w/
dynamic
resectorization;
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
Tasks
Physio
Contr
ol
Japan
ese
Weighted & un-
weighted vers of
Japanese TLX
sensitive to TD;
weights
themselves varied
by task
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Rail Physio
Contr
ol
Japan
ese
TLX & ERPs sig rel
to task diff, not
time on task
U
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
svs
SVS enhanced
perf a lot but
didn't reduce WL
(wl/perf tradeoff)
Didn't weight
before avg.
U&I
Appli
catio
n
Soldie
rs
Exper
Sim
Comb
at
VR
3D
Audio
also used Mod C-
H; TLX effects
were sig + value
of subscales
I USG
Tool
Revie
w
Militar
y C3I
SA
Info
Retri
eval
Vis/
Aud
sig Rxy w/SART &
wkld prediction
algorithm
I I
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(GA)
SA
Perf
Flyin
g
mod
hard to tell - -
wlkd, C-H, and SA
& perf differences
(modified TLX
don't know how)
CNgovt CNgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Fatigu
e
Flyin
g
vis/
aud
TLX showed sim
WL; hi in sim -
looked for other
sim sickness
correlates (e.g.,
fatigue)
I I
Model
valid
ation
Rail
Drivi
ng
Cognitive task
analysis (ATLAS)
WL predictions
validated using
TLX
U
Appli
catio
n
Desig
n
Team
/org
beha
vior
Desig
n
vis/
aud
WL of audio & vis
interface groups >
face-to-face
design teams
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Contr
ol
VR
non-linear pos Rxy
btwn TLX & trk err
for SWAT & TLX
U
USG(N
ASA)
Model
valid
ation
Lab
tasks
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
conte
xt
context effects on
subj ratings
U
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
SA
How and why to
measure WL & SA
CNgovt CNgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Distr-
action
Drivi
ng
RTLX
no weights; sig
WL diff for all
comparisons for 3
conditions
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Mil)
HQ flying new
Based new handl
qual rating scale
on C-H & TLX;
said it was more
valid, reliable,
diagnostic, than
CH for inflight
refueling test
I
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
Expert sys to help
users choose
meas for their
appl (it includes
TLX)
I
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
Expert sys to help
users choose
meas for their
appl (it includes
TLX)
USG(NA
SA)
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Perf
Dual
Task
Vis/
Aud
Early version of
TLX discriminated
sig among tasks &
stim modality
I I
Lab
tasks
Dual
Task
USG(Ar
my)
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Perf
Flyin
g
Voc/
man
Measured WL of
3/4-axis side stick
controllers & new
guidance displays
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Perf Lab
Voc/
man
Eval haptic input
devices; sig WL &
perf diff
I
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(RC)
SA
Flyin
g
Auto
Lower WL, better
SA with adv miss
eqpt pkg in RC Plt
Assoc (used
subScales too)
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
Auto
Vis/
aud
ATAAS tool led to
better perf, no
incr in WL
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Soldie
rs
Sim
Comb
at
CAW
S
not stated
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Soldie
rs
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
RTLX
Boring task rated
as stressful and
significantly
demanding;
CNgovt CNgovt
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
RTLX
uni-dim better if
need est of overall
demand;
unweighted sum
better than
weighted
CNgovt NATO
Tool
evalu
ation
Air
traffic
contr
ol
SA
Air/G
round
SART taps into WL
more than a
differend "SA"
variable
CNgovt CNgovt
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Review studies
eval TLX &
predictive models
CNgovt CNgovt
Model
valid
ation
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
2 model variables
(time avail vs time
rqd) accounted for
most TLX & perf
variability in sim
ATC task
U CNgovt
Model
valid
ation
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
2 model variables
(time avail vs time
rqd) accounted for
most TLX & perf
variability in sim
ATC task
I
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Exper
Sim
Comb
at
mod
used variant of
TLX to meas
individual & team
WL; good
agreement
between own &
team leaders'
ratings
I
USG(Na
vy)
Tool
evalu
ation
Militar
y C3I
SA
Com
mand
Auto
WL levels
moderate and
similar w/3
designs
I
USG(Na
vy)
Appli
catio
n
Mariti
me
Team
/org
beha
vior
SA
Com
mand
Auto
Vis/
aud
more
sub-
scales
Modified some
scales, added 4;
Non-sig WL & perf
diff .
I
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
Revie
w
Soldie
rs
Sim
Comb
at
TLX more
sensitive than
SWAT in several
env.
I
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
evalu
ation
Soldie
rs
Sim
Comb
at
Avail wkld meas
compared in
operational env
I
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
evalu
ation
Soldie
rs
Sim
Comb
at
Avail wkld meas
compared in
operational env
U
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
U
Model
valid
ation
Cockp
it
Flyin
g
review appl of TLX
in aviation, made
recomm
U SEgovt Plan Cars
Drivi
ng
Auto RTLX
planned to use
RTLX (per Biers);
no results yet
U Plan
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Trust
Flyin
g
Auto
Reviewed 6 prior
studies, presented
plan for his
Eurocon
trol
EU
Redli
ne
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Air/G
round
Vis/
Aud
sub
subScale Rxy
w/comm, spacing,
tolerance. THEy
DEVELOPED "RED
LINE"
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Physio
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Vis/
Aud
Monitoring for
absence of signal
higher WL than for
its presence; rxy
w/cerebral blood
flow
U
UGS(NI
A)
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
age
exper
Data
entry
voc/
man
non stated; seems
like perf/opinion
dissoc.
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars Perf
Drivi
ng
vis
TLX & perf better
w/ enhanced road
marking
U&I
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Drivi
ng
vis
OW reflected
display and
driving conditions
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Math
TLX used to
equate diff levles
of math & signal
detection tasks
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
evalu
ation
Armor
ed
vehicl
es
Drivi
ng
vis/
aud
TLx selected as
useful tool for
Army to meas
auditory wl
U
GERgov
t
Appli
catio
n
Air
Traffic
Contr
ol
Air/G
round
D/L sub
main datalink
effects found for
MD, E, TD scales
U
GERgov
t
Appli
catio
n
Air
Traffic
Contr
ol
Flyin
g
Vis/
Aud
TLX eval WL of
using tactical ATC
mssg displ in
A340 sim
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
Measure
review/critique;
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Physio
Appli
catio
n
U Gegovt
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)

Air/G
round
;
com
m
D/L
Germ
an
used German
version of
subScales; sig diff
due to datalink
U GEgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
DL
Germ
an
subScales showed
effects, no OW
NATO
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Mil)
SA
Flyin
g
Eurocon
trol
EU
Tool
evalu
ation
Cars
Distr-
action
Auto
Describes & eval
various WL meas
including TLX &
variants for use in
eval. driver wl
with IVIS and
ADAS
U
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Remo
te
contr
ol
no sig perf or WL
diff for new user
interface for
teleop
U
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
SA
Remo
te
contr
ol
TLX for enhanced
interface less; neg
Rxy btwn perf &
wl; lots of
subScale effects
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Soldie
rs
Fatigu
e
Sim
Comb
at
sub
As length of op
increased from 1-
72 hr, PD of firing
M16 incr (no other
sig effects)
USG(Na
vy)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Team
/org
beha
vior
Exper
Flyin
g
obser
ver
TLX ratings among
observers were
similar and
covaried w/cndns
I
USG(FA
A)
Benc
hmar
k
Air
traffic
contr
ol
SA
Contr
ol
Auto
SA probes might
have been
measuring wl (per
TLX results) not
just SA; Again,
TLX used as
benchmark to eval
new measure
portal.acm.org
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Data
entry
vis
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Distr-
action
Drivi
ng
concluded TLX is
useful tool for
driving env.
Appli
catio
n
Cars Perf
Drivi
ng
Voc/
man
Infra-red, hand-
held remote
control for car
stereo affected WL
& perf
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Info
Retri
eval
Key
TLX showed sig
diff related to
mental demands;
RPE to physical
demands (mouse
vs keyboard);
both sig affected
by HCI
Benc
hmar
k
Const
ruct/
asmbl
y
Physio
Asse
mbly
used TLX to est
validity of new
meas (OWL)
based on physio
meas to pred
workloace injuries
U
U/USG(
DoE)
Appli
catio
n
Nucle
ar
Remo
te
contr
ol
VR
U
U/USG(
DoE)
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Remo
te
contr
ol
VR
sig TLX diff due to
control latency &
rotational joint or
not
U
U/USG(
DoE)
Tool
evalu
ation
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Team
/org
beha
vior
Pers-
nlty
Desig
n
VR
ID'ed many
factors that affect
perf w/VR; large
indiv diff in WL &
SA a problem
U
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Team
/org
beha
vior
SA
Remo
te
contr
ol
Vis/
Aud
WL & perf diff for
cue cndns for
adaptive autm'n
for underwater
teleop mine
disposal
U UKgovt
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Exper VR
Use of VR for
providing fdbk in
embedded training
reduced WL
How
to
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Useab
ility
Spani
sh
Finn
Spanish trans of
Finish report on
ISO useability
standards & useful
meas (including
TLX)
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Info
Retri
eval
3D
Audio
RTLX
Didn't weight
subScales; OW
covaried w/RT
u
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
Visua
l
searc
h
Vis/
Aud
sub
Aud warning incr
phys wl &
frustration
UKgovt UKgovt
Tool
Revie
w
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
mod
Guidelines for
using or modifying
existing measures
(include TLX) for
use in ATM
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Dual
Task
Vis/
Aud
Ratings, perf meas
demo'ed
importance of
response strategy
vs resource
demands
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Dual
Task
Vis/
Aud
subScale
ratingsexplained
task perf
strategies
JPgovt JPgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Eye
mvmt
Drivi
ng
vis
Used TLX to
estimate when Ss
reached steady
state in perf
U
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Surgi
cal
proce
dure
TLX seemed to
have worked
better than 17-
dimension Multiple
Resource
Questionnaire
(Boles & Adair)
U
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
Voc/
man
Compared input
sys for Palm PDA;
no sig diff in perf,
usability, WL
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Game
TLX not sensitive
to smoothness of
comm btwn
operator and diital
agent
U
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Perf
Flyin
g
SVS
sig imprv in perf &
WLw/aug cntrl,
not aug displ
U
Model
valid
ation
Power
plant
opera
tors
SA
Perf
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
TLX sig Rxy w/
perf & teamwork;
Important
component of
battery of meas to
eval new sys;
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(GA)
Wx
Decis
ion
Makin
g
Vis/
Aud
sub
only OP affected
by aural vs
display+aural
cndns; lack of sig
for other scales
due to limitations
of study (plts
didn't actually fly)
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(GA)
Wx
Flyin
g
Vis/
Aud
sub
Only Pe & Ef
subscales affected
by vis/aud Wx
warning cndns
U
Appli
catio
n
Garm
ent
indust
ry
Asse
mbly
Used TLX to eval
physical workload
involved in
mfgrclothes
U USG
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
perf
Drivi
ng
Voice
I/O
speech-based
email system in
car > high wl,
drew attn away
from driving
USG(FA
A)
Tool
evalu
ation
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
less
sub-
scales
Used MD, TD, Ef,
modified Fr & Perf
The last 2
predcted "CARS"
scores. All were
sig in multiple Rxy
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
auto
useful to find that
controller's WL not
impacted
negatively by new
tool
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Physio
Stress
Flyin
g
Compared physio
& TLX in flight sim
context
U Frgovt
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
Frenc
h
Report on prelim
eval
U Cited
Meta
analy
sis
Team
/org
beha
vior
cited only
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Meta
analy
sis
Vario
us
sub
Rxy
Ef subscale most
highly Rxy w/OW
CNgovt CNgovt
Air
traffic
contr
ol
SA
Air/G
round
not stated
U
Model
valid
ation
Revie
w
Info
Retri
eval
used TLX to test a
wl model for
computer use
U CNgovt
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Perf
Info
Retri
eval
Re-designed
interface for
recovery-room
nurses improved
perf & WL
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Auto
Sche
d
Wl of diff aiding
sys for monitoring
tasks
U
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Super
visor
y
Contr
ol
Auto RTLX
Demo'ed value of
subScales,
weighting
procedure to
model mental
workload
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
perf
Dual
Task
Vis/
Aud;
voc/
man
Tasks that
demand s/a cog
resources impose
> wkld,
timeshared poorly
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
perf
Dual
Task
Vis/
Aud;
voc/
man
Vis scanning w/
spatial uncertainty
degraded perf on
vis tracking taks,
imposed >wkld
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Space
flight
SA
Flyin
g
Auto
Some sig. Effects;
WL ratings helped
interpret results
(not enuf training?
No WL cost for
better perf)
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Space
flight
Decis
ion
Makin
g
Auto
No WL effects, but
seems like also
weak effects of
fault mgmt
system &
strategies on perf
Appli
catio
n
Space
flight
Perf
Dual
Task
TLX and perf on
AGARD battery
tested in space for
Ger astronaut (8
Days) & Russian
cosmonaut (4 mo)
U
Tool
evalu
ation
mod
Dvlpd sort of
hybrid between
TLX & SWAT
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Math mod
Dvlpd sort of
hybrid between
TLX & SWAT
U
Appli
catio
n
Websi
te/
intern
et
Info
Retri
eval
SWAT and TLX
ratings used to
assess useability
of 2 University
web site interfaces
U
Appli
catio
n
Maint
enanc
e
Exper
Inspe
ction
sub
Rxy subScales
w/relevant perf
meas
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Decis
ion
Makin
g
OW affected by
cognitive feedback
(no other
variables were)
but not domain
knowledge
U
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Perf Sport
Vis/
Aud
WL not perf Rxy
w/"presence" in a
virtual env
U&USG(
NASA)
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
SA
Perf
Flyin
g
vis
Moving Map+HUD
improved taxi
perf, improved
SA, reduced WL
U Ukgovt
Stand
ards
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Perf
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
3D
Audio
RTLX
OW and
preference did not
discrminate
between ear buds,
OW & FR subS did
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Drivi
ng
vis
more
sub-
scales
TLX sensitive to
differences among
4 driving cndns;
added 3 subScales
relevant to driver
safety
UKgovt UKgovt
Tool
Revie
w
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
Recommended
TLX to eval
controller WL
CNgovt CNgovt
Appli
catio
n
Power
plant
opera
tors
SA
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
not stated; I
assume TLX was
one of the meas
used in the
(successful)
convergence
calculation
U
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Info
Data
entry
3D
Audio
U
USG(FA
A)
Tool
evalu
ation
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
obser
ver
Observer ratings;
clustered
subScales into
factors then
multiple
regression w/NAS
variables to ID WL
drivers
USG(FA
A)
Tool
evalu
ation
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
less
sub-
scales
Benchmark:
tested WL
estimates derived
from NAS data
w/observer
ratings; subscales
(notP) inter-
correlated; didn't
compute OW;
didn't work too
well
U
USG(N
ASA)
Model
valid
ation
Meta
analy
sis
Pers-
nlty
Trust
Auto
Recommended
TLX for use in eval
adv, adaptive,
autom'n, trust
U
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al:
Veteri
nary
Exper VR No results yet
U
Appli
catio
n
Telec
om
opera
tors
Pers-
nlty
Stress
Telco
n
TLX ratings
confirmed this was
a demanding task
U UKgovt
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Stress
Vario
us
Related subScale
levels to stress
coping styles
U
Appli
catio
n
Telec
om
opera
tors
Pers-
nlty
Telco
n
RTLX
Rxy(unweighted)
TLX & subScales
w/personality
variables
U
Appli
catio
n
Health
Contr
ol
sig WL effects of
task difficulty and
the common cold
U
Telec
om
opera
tors
Pers-
nlty
Stress
Telco
n
RTLX
Rxy avg ratings to
measures stress
ratings &
personality
U
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Distr-
action
Data
entry
Voice
I/O
WL effects of
manual vs hand-
free cell phone &
intelligibility
U
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Perf
Drivi
ng
Voc/
man
sig TLX and
subScales imprv
w/ "personal
hands-free" cell
phone
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Readi
ng
vis/
aud
not stated
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Data
entry
Key
TLX meas diff
btwn typing
w/standard & new
keyboard that
reduces
hand/finger
mvmts
U
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Pers-
nlty
Stress
Hypoglycemia
causes distraction
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
evalu
ation
Space
flight
SA
Flyin
g
CAW
S
TLX correlated
well w/SA, perf &
Bedford +
subScale info
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Stress
Com
mand
Auto
Only temporal
demand showed
effec of info
reliabilityt, no
trust diff, were
streee & perf diff
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Trust
Sim
Comb
at
Auto
no TLX or "trust"
differences 'tho
perf diff.
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Data
entry
vis/
aud
sub
No OW. Separate
analyses for ea
scale. Only Ef & Fr
sig reduced by
haptic cndn.
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Perf
Desig
n
TLX showed WL
cost of better perf.
And confidence w/
interface design
tool
U
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Perf
Flyin
g
svs
wl & perf Rxy w/
sVS
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
Auto
sig TLX diff due to
traffic density
(2ndrd task effect
too but not
physio)
U
Appli
catio
n
Mariti
me:
Subm
arine
Perf
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Vis/
Aud
sig TLX diff due to
display integration
levels
(simultaneous
more WL but
poorer perf)
U
Appli
catio
n
Mariti
me:
Subm
arine
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
vis
Consistent incr.
TLX ratings as
sources of info
incr.
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
conte
xt
context effect;
ratings on 2nd
task affected by
diff of 1st
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
I I
Tool
evalu
ation
Cars
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Used TLX as
benchmark for
physio meas
during tracking
(skin potential
level only physio
measure that
showed change)
Appli
catio
n
Cyclin
g
Physio Sport not stated
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Perf
Air/G
round
Auto
sig WL& perf
imprvmt w/ new
planning interface
for ATC
usg(FA
A)
usg(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Maint
enanc
e
Asse
mbly/
Mx
Voice
I/O
No diff in perf or
WL btwn paper or
voice technology
for Airways
Facilities Mx
Eurocon
trol
EU
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Fatigu
e
Air/G
round
Not sure what
they concluded - -
possibly that TLX
measured WL (as
it should), but
don't need all
subscales. Cortisol
measured stress
U
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
Revie
w
Speculated about
new uses &
extensiions for
TLX
U
USG(N
ASA)
Redli
ne
Lab
tasks
perf
Dual
Task
Vis/
Aud
Voc/
man

Identified point at
which WL was "too
high" w/different
meas of perf &
TLX
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Auto
Sche
d
Wl of diff aiding
sys for monitoring
tasks
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
Flyin
g
mod contexxt effects
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Flyin
g
looked for context
effects on TLX
ratings
I
USG(U
SAF)
Benc
hmar
k
Cockp
it
(Mil)
SA
Flyin
g
Auto
Vis/
aud
Used TLX to
match 2ndry task
levels before sim
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Perf
Flyin
g
RTLX
No sig diff btwn
weighted &
unweighted
averages using MS
Flight sim.
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
Flyin
g
RTLX
Weights not
necessary
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Traffic
Flyin
g
Auto
Traffic displ
w/most predictive
info improved perf
& wkld
USG USG
Tool
evalu
ation
Comp
uter
users
recommended TLX
for early eval of
sftwe for massive
db
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
SA
Flyin
g
D/L
D/L didn't improve
SA & caused
higher WL
leaonline.com
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Data
entry
Voice
I/O
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Physio
Contr
ol
heart rate
variability Rxy
w/effort subScale
in mental rotation
task
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
3D
Audio
sig TLX
improvement w/
spatially-enhanced
auditory cues
U
Model
valid
ation
Rail -
Dispa
tch
Team
/org
beha
vior
Crew
size
Dis-
patch
TLX-agreement
btwn raters &
experts, ID
variables that
influence #
personnel needed
USG(US
AF)
USG/U
SAF
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
Recomm tools for
design &
verification in C3I,
cockpits,
supervisory cntrl,
lab, etc
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
In German - -
listed 2 ratings
scales - - TLX &
SWAT
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
3D
audio
indiv
wxsu
b
no OW diff btwn
3D audio & cntrl;
sig effects for
weighted
subScales; no perf
or WL diff for
other variables
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
3D
audio
wl levels were
"moderate" and
didn't differ
between fixd &
3D;mixed results
for individual,
weighted subS
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Dual
Task
vis/
aud
indiv
w x
sub
sig OW diff for
some IV: sig task
x weighted
subScale
interaction; MD
showed sig effect
of 2ndry task
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Com
mand
3D
Audio
mod
Mod WL (50). No
effect (but may be
due to having to
rate whole
situation, not just
part related to
com)
I
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Space
flight
(Laun
ch
contr
ol)
Super
visor
y
Contr
ol
CAW
S
no TLX or
accuracy diff btwn
auditory alarm
fmts 'tho were RT
& 2ndry task diff
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
UAV
opera
tors
Perf
Remo
te
contr
ol
vis/
aud
TLX discriminated
mission difficulty
not display cndn
(same as perf &
SME ratings)
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Germ
an
German review of
wl meas include
TLX
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Paper
vs
comp
uter
compared results
with paper vs
computer
presentation
U CNgovt
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
SA
Air/G
round
Auto
Alludes to
workload
difference but
presents no data
U
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
Auto
sig TLX incr w/
traffic load; sig
reduced by
predictive aid
U
Tool
Revie
w
Meta
analy
sis
Tool
evalu
ation
Const
ruct/
asmbl
y
Physio
Asse
mbly
Compared task
difficulty meas in
assmbly line to
predict injuries
U
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Detailed
description of how
to use TLX
I
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
impact of CDTi &
new procedures
on wl
I
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
CDTI
TLX showed sig
imrpv when all a/c
had CDTI
U
USG(NI
H)
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Drivi
ng
mod
Significantly
modified TLX
subscales; discrim
experience-related
effects
U
Comp
uter
users
Desig
n
vis
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Space
flight
Team
/org
beha
vior
Stress
Team
Dec
mak
not stated
I I
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Perf
Data
entry
Vis/
Aud
Voc/
man
Good Rxy w/perf;
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Drivi
ng
RTLX
compared TLX, R-
NASA-TLX, SWAT,
MCH; RTLX had
higher factor
validity (because
definitions tailored
to that env)
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Drivi
ng
Vis/
Aud
Vis + aud info
reduced WL &
time looking at
nav display in cars
U
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
Voice
I/O
WL/perf of small-
screen graphical
user interface
I I
Tool
evalu
ation
Cars
Drivi
ng
DALI
developed new
version of TLX for
use in cars w/nav
sys: DALI-Driving
Activity Load
index
U SEgovt
Appli
catio
n
eye
mvmt
Disabi
litity
Drivi
ng
Vis/
Aud
sub
drivers with
disabilities drove
as well but
experienced
greater TP and
expended more Ef
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Perf Lab RTLX
Found predicted
TLX & perf ; "new
scoring method"
better than
original
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
Germ
an
Combined C-H like
decision tree
(ZEIS) w/ TLX;
eval both in sim flt
task
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
Germ
an
NASA-TLX more
sensitive for flt
cntrl tasks; NASA-
TLX ZEIS Only OK
for screening
Tool
evalu
ation
Germ
an
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Age Vis
Germ
an
TLX was reliable,
but less valid than
other subj
methods (?)
I
USG(Na
vy)
Tool
evalu
ation
Militar
y C3I
Team
/org
beha
vior
Desig
n
sub
IDed meas to eval
new info ctr dsgn;
found sig diff for
TLX subscales
btwn hi/lo wkld
periods
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Flyin
g
mod
Compared MRQ to
mod. Versions of
SWAT & TLX-
found no sig diff,
but MRQ slightly
better Rxy w/perf
I I
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Perf Auto
sig Rxy for TLX
w/RT & accuracy
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Rail
Eval what wkld
means in rail
industry and how
to measure it
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Disa-
bility
Data
entry
Voice
I/O
better perf, lower
Ef & MD w/ new
synthetic speech
aid for blind
computer users
I I
Appli
catio
n
Rail
Fatigu
e
Stress
Dis-
patch
unrelated to
fatigue, Rxy
w/#trains;preferre
d eTAWL (?)
U
Appli
catio
n
Physio Auto
sig TLX imprv w/
self-regulation
training; related
perf & EEG
effects; low wl
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Exper Math
sign TLx higher for
students who
learned stats
part>whole vs
whole>part and
for part vs whole
intn'n
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Physio
Dual
task
Auto
sig TLX
improvement w/
self-regulation
training; related
perf & EEG effects
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Physio
Dual
task
Auto
sig decrease in
TLX w/ adaptive
aiding; sig imprv
perf; also ERP
effects
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Sex
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Task-specific sex
diff in vigilance
perf & TLX
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Physio
Dual
Task
Auto
sig WL incr
w/negative fdbk &
in more difficult
trk & monitoring
tasks
U
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Perf
Air/G
round
;
com
m
D/L
nonSig higher TLX
w/ mixed voice
and D/L
interaction w/plts;
few perf
differences either
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)

Air/G
round
;
com
m
D/L
non-sig TLX Rxy
w/DL transmission
delays (maybe
because no actual
diff?)
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Exper
Decis
ion
Makin
g
Auto
nonSig WL diff
btwn exp & novice
plts emergency
planning
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
Auto sub
Sig diff for MD &
Fr scales
I
USG(D
ARPA)
Cited
Soldie
rs
Stress Auto Cited only
Appli
catio
n
Soldie
rs
Perf
Stress
Sim
Comb
at
TLX showed
impact of
performing in
MOPP gear in
hot/wet sim NBC
& non NBC env
USG(N
HTSA)
Benc
hmar
k
Cars
Distr-
action
Drivi
ng
used TLX to
compute WL of a
variety of tasks
that might be
done while driving
U
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol

Air/G
round
;
com
m
sig TLX interaction
btwn audio comm
x pilot delays but
lots of b-s
variability in perf
as well as ratings
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Athlet
e
Physio Sport
Rxy btwn
cardiovascular
activity & TLX
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Athlet
e
Physio Sport
Rxy btwn
cardiovascular
activity & TLX
U FRgovt
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Dual
Task
Diff
Comb
Algo
Experimental
validation of
different
combinatorial
models for
workload study
TLX & article in
French)
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Revie
w
Results of multiple
Rxy analysis of
TLX & other
variables to
predict WL
U Plan Cars Exper
Drivi
ng
No results yet
SEgovt SEgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Distra
ction
Drivi
ng
sub
Some decrements
in driving perf
w/vis nav system.
Only Fr scales
showed
differences
USG(FA
A)
Tool
Revie
w
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
FAA commissioned
CSERIAC to review
SoA in meas WL &
SA
USG(U
SAF)
Redli
ne
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Flyin
g
SWAT only;
redline can be
inferred for TLX
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Perf
Data
entry
no TLX or mood
effects as task
demands incr (and
perf declined) in
prescription entry
task
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Pers-
nlty
Stress
Readi
ng
Vis/
Aud
TLX Rxy w/stress
& consistent
w/info process
model pred.
I I
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
Germ
an
Describes use of
German version of
TLX in German
U
Appli
catio
n
Maint
enanc
e
Perf
Inspe
ction
sub
Phys demand,
performance,
overall workload
discriminated
btwn different
types of restriction
U
How
to
Described &
recomm TLX for
ordinary tasks
U
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Flyin
g
FoV
WL higher during
active than
passive cntrl
(interacted
w/FOV)
U
USG(N
SF)
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Exper
Remo
te
contr
ol
VR
sig improvement
in TLX ratings
w/map vs written;
sig Rxy btwn
"presence" & WL
(not what
expected)
I I
Appli
catio
n
Websi
te/
intern
et
Info
Data
entry
Vis/
Aud
meaningful OW
correlates w/info
overload/content
density & perf &
subScale effects
I I
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
Compared Fastap,
uniTap & T9 test
entry interfaces;
used subScales;
UniTap better
perf, less WL
Eurocon
trol
EU Plan
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
No results yet
Eurocon
trol
EU Plan
Air
traffic
contr
ol
SA
Traffic
Air/G
round
Frenc
h
Plan to measure
impact of
separation
assurance
schemes
U
USG(Ar
my)
Hi-
risk
env
Stress
Sim
Comb
at
Not stated
U
USG(Ar
my)
Soldie
rs
Pers-
nlty
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
not stated
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Air/G
round
auto
indiv
WxSu
b
Used TLX to ID
potential order
effects (none); sig
effects for OW and
relevant
subScales;
Reported
weighted subscale
analyses
I I
Appli
catio
n
UAV
opera
tors
SA
Remo
te
contr
ol
Auto
SA & TLX results
consistent w/other
meas & provided
add'l info
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Com
mand
Auto RTLX
RTLX; no sig btwn
manual & auto;
sig diff btwn auto
levels & auto
reliability levels;
perf effects
complex
U
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Physio
Traffic
Air/G
round
Vis/
Aud
MD subScale; sig
Rxy w/# of "free
flyers"; sig OW
diff for
complexity; HRVar
less sensitive
U
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Spani
sh
TLX, SWAT, WP
highly Rxy; SWAT
& TLX more
diagnostic; WP
more sensitive;
FRgovt FRgovt
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Frenc
h
TLX translated
into French; more
sensitive than
SWAT or WP &
Rxy w/perf
USG(U
SAF)
Redli
ne
Cockp
it
(Mil)

Crew
size
Flyin
g
auto
SWAT & SWORD
only; redline for
TLX only by
inference; TLX
cited
U
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
UAV
opera
tors
Trust
Remo
te
contr
ol
Auto
clear perf benefit
of aid, but WL,
trust, SA ineracted
sig w/other factors
U&I
Tool
evalu
ation
Websi
te/
intern
et
Trust
vis/
aud
sub
sig Rxy btwn TLX
subScales &
customer
satisfaction/trust
ratings
U
Model
valid
ation
Const
ruct/
assm
bly
asse
mbly
Validate mdl to
predict H/M
compatibility
U
USG(NI
H)
Plan
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Age Auto No results yet
I I
Tool
Revie
w
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
SWAT & TLX both
good tools to
meas WL in av
U
Tool
Revie
w
Meta
analy
sis
Cited only
I I Plan
Comp
uter
users
Data
entry
voc/
man
No results yet
I I
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Perf
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Vis
TLX, but not perf
showed effects of
vigilance
instructions
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Pers-
nlty
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
wl, personality
correlates for
vigilance
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Pers-
nlty
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
RTLX
Sig diff for TLX, Fr
and MD subscales
due to instructions
& personality
U Cited
Revie
w
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
U
USG(FA
A)
Cited
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Physio
Flyin
g
Auto cited only
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Pers-
nlty
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
RTLX
Unweighted avg +
analyses of each
scale; some sig
effects for OW; hi
WL of vigilance
tasks related to
boredom &
frusration
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Soldie
rs
Exper
Sim
Comb
at
range
sig reduction in
WL (and
subScales) w/ new
training for
adaptibility
(~33% had TLX
>90 w/trad train!)
Eurocon
trol
EU
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Voice
I/O
controller TLX
ratings not
sensitive to syntax
used for context-
sensitive speech
recog
Eurocon
trol
EU
Tool
Revie
w
Air/G
round
Lukewarm
recommendation
for use of TLX
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Armor
ed
vehicl
es
Sim
Comb
at
manned & auton.
opns were
successful, but WL
hi; topography,
Wx, man cntrl
affected WL; also
subScale effects
U
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
Revie
w
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
Listed TLX as one
of standard
measures they
use in sim
research
USG(D
ARPA)
Tool
Revie
w
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Remo
te
contr
ol
Recomm. TLX one
meas of when
human (or robot)
is overloaded
USG(N
RC)
Appli
catio
n
Power
plant
opera
tors
Team
/org
beha
vior
Data
entry
mod
Modified TLX-ME,
P, modified F
(MTLX) - no
weights. Strong
practice effect &
Rxy w/perf
(navigating
around large
displays) to
validate new
scale;
GEgovt GEgovt
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Team
/org
beha
vior
Flyin
g
mod
Produced a
combined
TLX/ZEIS scale
showed hig WL,
resulted in
recommended
changes
U
Appli
catio
n
Office
Team
/org
beha
vior
less
sub-
scales
removed PD
U GEgovt
Appli
catio
n
Desig
n
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
VR
Seemed to get
useful results from
OW- gaze-based
vis monitoring
U
Tool
evalu
ation
Germ
an
Reviews
val/rel/sens of
German-language
version of TLX
USG(N
ASA)
Model
valid
ation
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
less
sub-
scales
elim PhysEff scale;
OW decreased w/
use of project
scheduling
software
Appli
catio
n
Desig
n
Drivi
ng
RTLX
TLX vs SWAT vs
MCH vs RNASA-
TLX (MD, VisD,
AudD, TD, Diff in
Driving, Diff in
understanding);
RNASA-TLX more
sensitive than TLX
U
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Remo
te
contr
ol
VR
Interesting
relationships
between lag in
teleoperation &
telerototic cndns
(shared control)
CNgovt CNgovt
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Fatigu
e
Stress
TLX insensitive to
amphetemine
dose or fatigue
levels
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Dual
Task
Japan
ese
Time estimation,
TLX ratings Rxy
task diff & each
other (EF & MD
best subScales)
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Fatigu
e
Physio
Dual
Task
Japan
ese
TLX, ERP Rxy
w/task diff; NOT
sensitive to taks
duration/fatigue
USG(Ar
my)
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Perf
Physio
Flyin
g
TLX useful meas
of WL in flight;
discrim
maneuvers, flt seg
U/USG(
NIH)
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Age
Vis/
Aud
Implied that WL
benefitted from
audio & video
instruction for
telemedicine as
difficulty increased
U
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
used TLX to meas
perf of text entry
devices
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Distr-
action
Drivi
ng
WL incr as teens
perf diff tasks
while driving car;
driving perf stayed
same
Appli
catio
n
Health
U
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(GA)
Flyin
g
vis/
aud
Wkld ratings
showed > wkld
w/better displays
(novelty?) -2ndry
task appeared to
discrim better
U
Appli
catio
n
Desig
n
Team
/org
beha
vior
Data
entry
Auto
Vis/
aud
WL increased as
length of design
process incr & was
higher w/out
aiding
Cngovt Cngovt
Appli
catio
n
Mariti
me
Team
/org
beha
vior
Fatigu
e
Team
Dec
mak
used TLX to eval
effects of fatigue,
team structure
for naval
surveillance &
threat assmt task
U
Appli
catio
n
Office
Pers-
nlty
Data
entry
Interaction
between WL and
task absorption in
open fmt office
USG(Ar
my)
Model
valid
ation
Armor
ed
vehicl
es
Drivi
ng
vis/
aud
sub
Dvlpd model of
wkld using
factorial analysis
of TLX subScales,
SART, perf data >
simulated in
IMPRINT
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Armor
ed
vehicl
es
Drivi
ng
sig increase in TLX
w/indirect viz sys
for combat vehicle
USG(U
SAF)
Redli
ne
Cockp
it
(Mil)
SA
Flyin
g
SVS
Used SWORD, TLX
2ndry Task, &
SAGAT. SWORD &
TLX more
sensitive than
SAGAT (but didn't
agree) REDLINE
proposed for TLX
at ~50 (point at
which perf
deteriorated)
U
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(GA)
Pers-
nlty
Flyin
g
ideal cfi/student
combo based on
personality - HT,
TLX, pers all
related to perf
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
not stated in
abstract
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
;
com
m
Auto
Vis/
aud
No sig diff for OW
or subScales for
different comm
delays
U CNgovt
Appli
catio
n
Desig
n
Data
entry
Voice
I/O
sub
non sig but useful
subScale ratings
for vocal code
documentation
system
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Data
entry
Voice
I/O
Voice entry
generated more
documentation
entries w/no addl
OW or subScale
loads
USG(na
vy)
USG
Appli
catio
n
UAV
opera
tors
eval use of
"playbook"
interface for 4 or 8
vehicles in
simulated
Roboflag env.
U
Appli
catio
n
UAV
opera
tors
SA Game
Auto
Vis/
aud
mod
Used a scale "like
TLX" - - didn't say
what it was nor
results
U
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
SA
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Auto
Vis/
aud
only perf results
reported
U
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Air/G
round
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars SA
Drivi
ng
Voc/
man
driver use of
cruise cntrl sig
Rxy w/WL stress,
SA (SART) trust,
locus of control
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
svs
Sig OW effects
between and
within flight
difficulty, layout,
display cndns;
also analyzed
indiv. Scales (only
ME showed effect)
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Perf
Flyin
g
SVS
Sig TLX reduction
for tunnel
guidance sys;
smaller display =
less WL, better SA
U
Appli
catio
n
Perf
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
auto
not stated in
abstract
U
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
evalu
ation
Dual
Task
wl ratings based
on difficulty,
averaged across
time + dual-task
switching cost
U
Appli
catio
n
Disa-
bility
Math
Voice
I/O
Sig imrpv in OW
(and some
subScales) for
Mathtalk
U EU
Appli
catio
n
Medic
al
Disa-
bility
Readi
ng
Auto
Sig (but low) OW
diff forlearning aid
for blind;
subScales
analyses useful
Eurocon
trol
EU
Tool
evalu
ation
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
found TLX to be
useful but it
doesn't partition
MWL further; Also
liked MCH and
Bedford
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Perf
Flyin
g
Used TLX, SWAT &
Bedford in
complex mil flt
task; combined in
equation to
predict impact of
info complexity on
perf
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Data
entry
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Stress
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
sub
sig
personalityeffect
on OW, Fr & Pe in
vigilance task
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Vis/
Aud
sub
sig TLX diff for
task type (focused
vs integrated) and
displa. Sig effects
for most
subScales.
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Stress
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Vis/
Aud
sub
no sig OW effects;
only Fr showed sig
Rxy - - increased
as time on task
increased
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Flyin
g
svs sub
Only for Fr scale
did all 4 plts agree
about which night
vision sys was
better (no
statistical analyses
or cross-plt
averages)
I I
Appli
catio
n
Physio
Drivi
ng
Auto
CAW
S
imprv WL w/
Adaptive cruise
control and CAWs
I I
Tool
evalu
ation
Cars
Drivi
ng
Auto
TLx & 2ndry found
sig diff; physio
meas less
USG(N
ASA)
Plan
Cockp
it
(GA)
Physio
SA
Flyin
g
SVS No results yet
U
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Perf
Asse
mbly
VR
sig TLX diff among
VR for teaching
assembly tasks
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Flyin
g
3D
Audio

sig WL effects
showing benefits
of multi-sensory
cueing (non-cued
ratings ~50%
than any cued)
U
Tool
Revie
w
Cockp
it
(Civil)
flying
Appli
catio
n
Cars Perf
Drivi
ng
used to assess WL
of a variety of
driving tasks
U
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Fatigu
e
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
WL effects of long-
duration vigilance
U
Appli
catio
n
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Remo
te
contr
ol
Descrpition of
interface
performance
monitoring
features
U
USG(Na
vy)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(GA)
Perf
Flyin
g
Auto
TLX & 2ndry task
effects more sig
than perf for
levels of automn
in flight sim
U
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Exper
Drivi
ng
No sig diff due to
cell phone use,
forexper group,
was for inexp
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Disa-
bility
Drivi
ng &
Voice
entry
non sig TLX diff
between driving &
talking on cell
phone; sig diff due
to experience
U CNgovt
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Pers-
nlty
Game
no WL or game
perf differences
due to strategic
processing styles
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Power
plant
opera
tors
Exper
Contr
ol
vis/
aud
sig TLX
interaction;
combined display
modes &
experience, lower
WL
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Perf
Flyin
g
Vis/
aud
RTLX
Unweighted avg -
no clean display
effect 'cause order
of presentation
sig.
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
CAW
S
RTLX
sig unweighted
OW diff for
predictive info &
time to alert;
deciding what to
do caused WL
Relative mvmt on
polar star display
made deviation
monitoring easiest
U
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Measure
review/critique;
U
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Contr
ol
Auto
TLX disrcim btwn
low & hi wl
scenarios
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
Auto
tlx discriminated
btwn exp cndn
U&I
Appli
catio
n
Banki
ng
Trust
Info
Retri
eval
voice
I/o
"trust" related to
decreased
frustration, better
perf. Voice
interactive system
perf not related to
wkld
U
Appli
catio
n
Armor
ed
vehicl
es
Noise
Data
entry
Voice
I/O
used MCH & TLX
comparing noise
reduction of 2
microphones; sig
Rxy btwn scales
(no sig effects for
either)
U&I
Appli
catio
n
Militar
y C3I
Noise
Com
m
Voc/
man
Used MCH & TLX;
neither measure
sensitive
USG(Na
vy)
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
PC
versio
n
Downloadable
sftwe to run TLX
on PCs
U
Tool
Revie
w
Spani
sh
Spanish versions
of SWAT, TLX
reviewed
portal.acm.org
Appli
catio
n
Websi
te/
intern
et
Vis/
Aud
Voc/
man
WL/perf impacts
of different
interface designs
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Data
entry
WL/perf impacts
of different
interface designs
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Distr-
action
Drivi
ng
RTLX
Used RTLX &
subScales,
showing their
diagnostic value
Tool
evalu
ation
Cars Physio
Flyin
g
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Flyin
g
vis/
aud
sig improvement
in WL
w/integrated
alerting & warning
display
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Fatigu
e
Drivi
ng
not reported (abs
only)
USG(US
AF)
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
Revie
w
Cockp
it
(Civil)
SA
Vario
us
reviewed 18
studies that
compared SA &
WL (many of
which used TLX,
but no distinction
drawn)
Found dissociation
btwn WL & perf
predicted by MRM;
sig diff for flt
phase not cntrl
cndn
USG(NA
SA)
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Perf
Flyin
g
voice
I/o
Perf better w/
voive I/o for
advanced, single-
pilot scout/attach
helicopter, but
there was a WL
cost
USG(US
AF)
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Perf
Flyin
g
Vis/
aud
Voice
I/O
Compared OW,
TLX & Bedford
scales for
sensitivity
(Bedford most
sensitive to Flight
Phase, diagnoticity
(subScales
covaried for
phase, discrim
control config),
reliability (test re-
test so so for any)
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
evalu
ation
l
Dual
Task
Scale (that
became SWORD)
more valid &
reliable (e.g., high
Rxy w/trk perf)
than TLX
USG(US
AF)
USG(U
SAF)
Tool
evalu
ation
Cockp
it
(Mil)
Flyin
g
vis/
aud
U
Appli
catio
n
Comp
uter
users
Data
entry
vis/
aud
perf & WL neg Rxy
for aud vs vis vs
haptic fdbk for
drag & drop
computer task;
U
Tool
evalu
ation
lab
Dual
Task
conte
xt
Did NOT find
expected context
effects for ratings
I
USG(N
RC)
Model
valid
ation
Power
plant
opera
tors
SA
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
U
USG(Ar
my)
Appli
catio
n
Soldie
rs
Stress
Sim
Comb
at
vigilence causes
stress & hi wkld
esp. in war
U
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
auto
Sustained attn
creates hi WL that
can be lowered by
bettter dsgn
U
Appli
catio
n
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Cost of vigilance is
fairly hi WL (55-
70); workload
signature of
vigilance is due to
MD & Fr subScales
U
Appli
catio
n
Lab
tasks
Stress
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
olfactory
correlates on perf,
stress, wl in
vigilance task
U
USG(Ar
my)
Model
valid
ation
Lab
tasks
Noise
Dual
task
sub
Only reported on
results of 3
subScales (they
were sig)
U
Appli
catio
n
Cell
Phone
s,
PDAs,
etc
Pers-
nlty
Wood
work
less
sub-
scales
Used 4 scales
(MD, P, E, F)
sigbut different
effects for each
U SEgovt
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
Wl & perf for 3D
sim of airport
tower nonSig
better
U
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Measure
review/critique;
U
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
Measure
review/critique;
U
USG(N
ASA)
Model
valid
ation
Lab
tasks
Dual
Task
Vis/
Aud
Voc/
man
WL and perf
showed impact of
competition for
cog, vis, aud
resources
U
USG(N
ASA)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Traffic
Flyin
g
Auto
sig WL & perf
improvement as
more info
provided on
display; no 2ndry
task effect
U
USG(N
ASA)
Model
valid
ation
Cockp
it
(Civil)
Eye
mvmt
Flyin
g
SVS
D/L
Eye scan, perf
w/tunnel display,
traffic display
reported, TLX
wasn't
U
USG(N
SF)
Appli
catio
n
Power
plant
opera
tors
Perf
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
Vis/
aud
sub
OW didn't differ
btwn 2D & 3D
displays, found
subScales useful &
sig different
U
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars
Drivi
ng
CAW
S
small, predicted
negative Rxy btwn
urgency & WL
U
USG(FH
WA)
Appli
catio
n
Cars Perf
Drivi
ng
CAW
S
significant Rxy
btwn annoyance
(of audio alert) &
WL, no effect of
urgency
U
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
RTLX
reviews meas
including "RTLX"
(unwghtd avg)
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Traffic
Air/G
round
Vis/
Aud
sub
sig incr subScales
as traffic load incr
&
USG(US
AF)
USG(U
SAF)
Benc
hmar
k
UAV
opera
tors
Physio
Remo
te
contr
ol
TLX used as
benchmark to
verify "E" and "H"
tasks & to bin
physiological data
USG(US
AF)
USG(U
SAF)
Appli
catio
n
Cockp
it
Physio
Flyin
g
RTLX
RTLX results made
sense, also
analyzed subS; no
Rxy w/EEG meas
(index diff
things?)
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
evalu
ation
Space
flight
Stress
Monit
oring
/Vigil
ance
vis/
aud
USG(N
ASA)
Tool
evalu
ation
Space
flight
Plan to use TLX for
space-related
research
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Team
/org
beha
vior
Trust
Air/G
round
SEgovt SEgovt
Appli
catio
n
Hi-
risk
env
Team
/org
beha
vior
Stress
Com
mand
sig Rxy btwn WL,
time pressure, cog
complexity &
saliva
catecholamine
levels (stress) in
hi-risk env
U
USG(N
SF)
Appli
catio
n
Asse
mbly
VR
HMD (vs monitor)
resulted in better
perf time,
orientation
displacement, WL
U
Chinese
govt
Tool
evalu
ation
Meta
analy
sis
vario
us
Chine
se
SWAT & TLX
ratings from 1268
scientists had hi
reliability,
interscale &
intrascale Rxy;
recommended
both for use in
China
U
Model
valid
ation
Lab
tasks
2ndry
Dual
Task
WL pred by their
model Rxy well
w/TLX & perf
U
USG(FA
A)
Appli
catio
n
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Pers-
nlty
Game
wl differences
across MATB &
TRACON game
levels; some
cardio measures
also sig.; selection
mean non sig
U
USG(N
ASA)
Model
valid
ation
Lab
tasks
Perf
Dual
Task
vis/
aud;
voc/
man
Wl ratings
sensitive to
resource
competition but
less than perf
meas
U
Tool
Revie
w
Revie
w
no conclusions,
just philosophizing
I
USG(U
SAF)
Model
valid
ation
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
sub
Related TLX
subScales to
COGNET
constructs;
compared model's
assmt of its owm
wkld to human
ratings; good fit
except Fr
U
Appli
catio
n
Cars 2ndry
Drivi
ng
Secondary task
correlates;
Performance
correlates
Gegovt EU Plan
Air
traffic
contr
ol
Air/G
round
Plan to use TLX
among other
measures
U
USG(Ar
my)
Tool
evalu
ation
Lab
tasks
Physio
Contr
ol
Found expected
WL effects - -
more sensitive
than cerebral
blood flow
measure
Tool
evalu
ation
Robot
ics,
Teleo
ps,
VR
Japan
ese
Japanese version
of TLX & results
(in Japanese);
also eval fuzzy
scheme for avg
subS (Sugeno)