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MODELS

OF
COMMUNICATION
A. LINEAR MODELS

 1. Aristotle

SPEAKER SPEECH AUDIENCE

Key points of Aristotle’s model:

• ETHOS – source credibility


• PATHOS – understanding the audience
• LOGOS – message design and strategy, particularly
for persuasive communication
2. Harold Lasswell’ Formula

THROUGH
WHO SAYS WHAT WHICH TO WHOM
MEDIUM

UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES?


FOR WHAT PURPOSE?
WITH WHAT EFFECT?

BRADDOCK’S EXTENSION OF THE LASSWELL FORMULA


3. Shannon and Weaver’s
General Model of Communication

Mass medium
device

Information
Message Channel Receiver Destination
source

NOISE
Examples of NOISE:

 A loud motorbike roaring down


the road while you’re trying to
hold a conversation
 Your little brother standing in
front of the TV set
 Smudges on a printed page
NOISE can be in the form of:

 DISTRACTION
 What happens when you
communicate to a physically
attractive person?
 DIFFERENCES IN THE USE
OF CODE
 Isthere communication when you
speak to a Korean using the
Filipino language?
 EMPHASIZING THE WRONG
PART OF THE MESSAGE
 Anadvertising campaign can be
successful but this can make the
viewers not to pay attention to the
product.
 “Nasasabik sa unang araw ng
eskwela, taas kamay with
confidence... “
 Brainy High
 MVP High
 Sosy High
 Nice Guy High
 ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE
SENDER
 Ex:If you don’t like the person
you’re talking to, conversation
may go wrong.
 ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE
MESSAGE
 You like your friend but you don’t
like what he/she says about God’s
existence. You’ll just tune out.
CHANNEL

SOURCE MESSAGE Seeing RECEIVER


Hearing Comm. Skills
Comm skills Content Touching Knowledge
Knowledge Treatment Smelling Social system
Social system Code Tasting

Key points of Berlo’s Model:

3. Two are encoding skills: SPEAKING & WRITING


4. Two are decoding skills: LISTENING & READING
5. The fifth is crucial to both encoding and decoding:
THINKING or REASONING
1. Source and receiver
characteristics affect each
other even if the message is
received as intended.

5. The social system/culture


serves as the context within
which the source and receiver
create and interpret
messages.
• Charles Osgood and Wilbur
Schramm’s CIRCULAR
MODEL (1954)

DECODER/
MESSAGE INTERPRETER/
ENCODER

ENCODER/
INTERPRETER/ MESSAGE
DECODER
 Keypoints in Osgood-Schramm
model:
 FEEDBACK is part of the
communication process
 Forms:
 Reply
 Question
 Shrug
 Any facial expression
 Applause
 Communication is NOT LINEAR
 The roles of sender and receiver cannot
be clearly distinguished because they
swap roles.
6. GEORGE GERBNER’S
Model of Communication

Event as M ev
e nt
perceived E1
Statement as
perceived Rain
Source E

Destination
Condensation
of moisture
In the air
voice
MEANS
T N T
M2 EN E
SE1 EM EV
A T UT
“It’s raining” ST O
AB
Language sequence
(Form)
“It’s raining” to M2
ca t es
c o m mun i
e w e ather
M
p t i o n of th
A perc e
Key points in Gerbner Model:
 Communication is a process
PERC EPTI ON-PR ODUCTI ON-
PERC EPTI ON
 Perception involves active interpretation
 The human communication process
is subjective, selective, variable, and
unpredictable.
 The way E is perceived will be
determined by a variety of factors, such
as attitudes, beliefs, experience of M
(the source)
Other factors affecting
perception:
 SELECTION
 Gatekeeping
 CONTEXT
 Shouting and raving indicate that a
person is very angry in one context, but
psychotic or crazy in another
 AVAILABILITY
 How many Es are there around?
 When are we more likely to pay
attention to Es?