Curious Design Consultants Information report


Table of contents
List of figures Abstract Body a. b. c. d. e. f.

.3 .4 .5

Uses Recording Manipulation Transfer Devices Benefits File Formats .9 .9

Conclusion Sources


List of figures
Uses.......................................................... ...5 Recording................................................. ...5 Manipulation............................................ ...6 Transfer..................................................... ..6 Devices..................................................... ...7 Benefits.................................................... ...7 File Formats................................................8


Digital audio has emerged because of its usefulness in the recording, manipulation, mass-production, and distribution of sound. Modern distribution of music across the internet through on-line stores depends on digital recording and digital compression algorithms. Distribution of audio as data files rather than as physical objects has significantly reduced costs of distribution. However, it has brought about a rise in music sharing through peer to peer networks, which is illegal in many countries as copyright infringement. The Recording Industry Association of America and other organizations claim that music sharing severely harms the profitability of their business.


Digital audio can be used for many reasons some include: • Music • Voice transfer • Recordings • Tanning • tutorials • Communications And other things because audio has become so increasingly popular in embedding it with in a range of programs, it is a good tool to have so that communication can be easily accomplished, as well as being used for interactive and enjoyment purposes, the use of audio in websites can give it an extra element of interactive ness.

Music, and audio can be recorded with many different programs and most are easy enough to get and use, there ale also free versions of audio capture software on the internet such as: • • • • Audacity Audio Record wizard MP3 Audio Sound recorder Windows Movie maker

And there are hundreds more ways to record audio all you need is a microphone and the software on a computer to record, all you do is hit record and speak away.



An audio file can be edited by using most sound recording programs as well, it can be modified in many ways like lapping music or other audio filed over one another cutting pieces out, adjusting and manipulating voices as well as adding sound affects. There is a lot of free software for this and usually come with a recorder with in them so that recording and manipulating is made easer, there are programs such as: • • • Windows Movie maker Audacity Audio Record wizard

Programs that are free can be useful but may not always satisfy the need that you may want but they are fine for small edits suck as cutting out and adding other effects.

The great thing about digital audio is that it’s really east to transfer ether over the internet threw a removable device or by CD, because most audio files are usually small they are easy and fast to transfer over the inter net either by uploading them or transferring them threw e-mail, by uploading to a site such as Odeo you can even get your own mini player to play online and share with any one who visits the site you have embedded it in or just yourself.


Generally speaking, digital audio players are portable and use headphones, although users often connect players to car and home stereos. Some DAPs also include FM radio tuners and/or microphones for voice recording. Many players can encode audio directly to MP3 or other digital audio formats directly from a line in audio signal. Most have semipermanent rechargeable batteries while others have conventional battery bays for disposable or rechargeable batteries. Most audio formats can be played by allot of devices including computers, MP3’s, phons, Stereos and other audio devices listed above.

The greatest benefit of using audio is the ability to be able to listen to something easy and straight forward and also that you can go back and re listen to it whenever you like, and depending on what you are listening to it can be enjoyable. Apart from the facts stated in this report there are plenty more reasons to use audio in whatever you are doing, by using it in a website people can ether hear music or get information off a form of pod cast or audio file, this also makes it easier for people to understand instructions or type of conversation you were meaning to have, also creating your own sound files have proven to be a good way of advertising a product or become recognised to other people.


File format
A file format is a particular way to encode information for storage in a computer file. Since a disk drive, or indeed any computer storage, can store only bits, the computer must have some way of converting information to 0s and 1s and vice-versa. There are different kinds of formats for different kinds of information. Within any format type, e.g., word processor documents, there will typically be several different formats. Sometimes these formats compete with each other.

Identifying the type of a file
Since files are seen by programs as streams of data, a method is required to determine the format of a particular file within the file system —an example of metadata. Different operating systems have traditionally taken different approaches to this problem, with each approach having its own advantages and disadvantages. Of course, most modern operating systems, and individual applications, need to use all of these approaches to process various files, at least to be able to read 'foreign' file formats, if not work with them completely.

Free and Open File Formats
Wav Standard audio file format used mainly in Windows PCs. Commonly used for storing uncompressed (PCM), CD-quality sound files, which means that they can be large in size - around 10MB per minute of music. A free, open source container format supporting a variety of codecs, the most popular of which is the audio codec Vorbis. Vorbis offers better compression than MP3 but is less popular. A lossless compression codec. You can think of lossless compression as like zip but for audio. If you compress a PCM file to flac and then restore it again it will be a perfect copy of the original. The standard audio file format used by Apple. It is like a wav file for the Mac A raw file can contain audio in any codec



Aiff Raw


but is usually used with PCM audio data. It is rarely used except for technical tests.


Sound recording and reproduction is the electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, usually used for the voice or for music. An audio file is a great way to allow information to the community as well as a great way to conduct forms of enjoyment and levels of business work, using audio in websites and other multimedia products you can greatly increase the success of the product.

Source .1 Source .2 Source .3 Source .4


Digital Photogra phy


Table of contents
List of figures .12 Abstract .13 Body .14

a. Multi functionality and Performance metrics b. Performance metrics c. Resolution d. File types and data storage formats e. Comparison with film cameras f. Recent research and innovation
Conclusion .17 Sources .17


List of figures
Multi functionality and Performance metrics….14 Performance metrics…………………… ………14 Resolution............................................... .............14 File types and data storage formats…… ……….15 Comparison with film cameras...........................15 Recent research and innovation……… ………..16


Digital photography, as opposed to film photography, uses electronic devices to record and capture the image as binary data. This facilitates storage and editing of the images on personal computers, and also the ability to show and delete unsuccessful images immediately on the camera or software itself. Digital cameras now outsell film cameras and include features that are not found in film cameras such as the ability to shoot video and record audio. Some other devices, such as mobile phones, include digital photography features.


Multi-functionality and connectivity
Except for some linear array type of cameras at the highestend and simple web cams at the lowest-end, a digital memory device (usually flash memory; floppy disks and CD-RWs are less common) is usually used for storing images, which may then be transferred to a computer later. Digital cameras can take pictures and sometimes additionally record sound and video. Some can be used as webcams, some can use the Pict-Bridge standard to connect to a printer without using a computer, and some can display pictures directly on a television set. Similarly, many camcorders can take still photographs, and store them on videotape or on flash memory cards.

Performance metrics
The quality of a digital image is the sum of various factors, many of which are similar to film cameras. Pixel count (typically listed in megapixels, millions of pixels) is only one of the major factors, though it is the most heavily marketed. Pixel count metrics were created by the marketing organizations of digital camera manufacturers because consumers can use it to easily compare camera capabilities. It is not, however, the major factor in evaluating a digital camera. The processing system inside the camera that turns the raw data into a color-balanced and pleasing photograph is the most critical, which is why some 4+ megapixel cameras perform better than higher-end cameras.

Resolution provides an indication of the amount of detail that is captured, but, like the other metrics, resolution is just another factor out of many in determining the quality of an image. Furthermore, different methods of creating an image make it impossible to compare the resolutions of cameras simply based on the number of pixels produced by the image sensor. As a case in point, the Sigma SD14 camera uses Foveon technology, which is quite different from almost all other digital cameras. The Sigma SD14 is 16

billed as being a 14 megapixel camera, but is generally judged to have detail-capturing capabilities roughly equivalent to 9 megapixels in terms of Bayer sensors. Another factor to be taken into consideration is that the relative increase in detail resulting from an increase in resolution has to be judged based on the square roots of the resolutions. For example, increasing resolution from 8 megapixels to 10 megapixels does not give an increase in perceived detail of 25% as one might expect.

File types and data storage formats
Exchangeable image file format is a set of file formats specified for use in digital cameras. This specifies the use of TIFF for the highest quality format and JPEG as a spacesaving but lower quality format. Many low-end cameras can deliver only JPEG files. Another format, particularly found on digital SLRs and other high-end digital cameras, is the RAW image format, which is not standardized. A large variety of data storage device formats are used in consumer digital cameras:
• • • • • • • • •

Secure Digital card (SD) CompactFlash (CF-I and CF-II) Memory Stick Multimedia Card (MMC) Smart Media xD-Picture Card (xD) MiniSD Card microSD card USB flash drive

Most manufacturers of digital cameras do not provide drivers and software to allow their cameras to work with Linux or other free software. Still, many cameras use the standard USB storage protocol, and are thus easily usable. Other cameras are supported by the gPhoto project.

Comparison with film cameras
The advantages of digital photography over traditional film include:

Instant review of pictures, with no wait for the film to be developed: if there's a problem with a picture,


• • • •

• •

• •

the photographer can immediately correct the problem and take another picture. Only successful pictures need to be printed. This allows one to take numerous shots of the same scene with slightly different settings, then choose the best one. This review and revise process is impossible with traditional film because such film requires time and equipment to develop. Minimal ongoing costs for those wishing to capture hundreds of photographs for digital uses, such as computer storage and e-mailing, but not printing. If one already owns a newer computer, permanent storage on digital media is considerably cheaper than film. Images may be copied from one medium to another without any degradation. Pictures do not need to be scanned before viewing them on a computer. Ability to print your own pictures using a computer and consumer-grade printer. Ability to print your own pictures using printers that can communicate directly with the camera, or its memory card, for computer-less printing. Digital cameras can be much smaller than film cameras of equivalent quality. Ability to embed metadata within the image file, such as the time and date of the photograph, model of the camera, shutter speed, flash use, film speed, and other similar items, to aid in the reviewing and sorting of photographs. Film cameras have limited ability to handle metadata, though many film cameras can "imprint" a date over a picture by exposing the film to an internal LED array (or other device) which displays the date. In camera electronics allow many features and effects which would be impossible with film. Ability to capture and store hundreds of photographs on the same media device within the digital camera; by contrast, a film camera would require regular changing of film (typically after every 24 or 36 shots). • Many digital cameras now include an AVout function (and cable) to allow the reviewing of photographs to an audience using a television. Digital photography enables you to experiment with the camera settings, different styles of images can be tried out, learnt from and techniques improved all without the expense of film processing.


Recent research and innovation
Lighting, optics, sensors, processing, storage, and display, with software weaving them together, are all advancing. Here are a few examples.

3D models can be created from collections of normal images. The resulting scene can be viewed from novel viewpoints, but creating the model is very computeintensive. Microsoft's Photosynthesis is available with models of famous places. High Dynamic Range cameras and displays are commercially available. >120 decibel sensors are in development. You can create your own HDR images, with a non-HDR camera, by combining multiple exposures. Motion blur can be dramatically removed by a flutter shutter (a flickering shutter which adds a signature to the blur, which post processing, can recognize). It is not yet commercially available. An object's specular reflection can be captured using computer controlled lights and sensors. This is needed to create attractive images of oil paintings, for instance. It is not yet commercially available, but is starting to be used by museums. Other areas of progress include enlarged gamut sensors, software, and displays; and computer controlled lighting.


Throughout the history of photography, technological advances in optics, camera production, developing, and imaging have had an effect on the way people view images. Prior to the 1970s, most people in the United States used slide or chrome film and viewed the images with a slide projector. After that, people began to make prints from color negatives. The simultaneous increased use of the Internet and email, relatively cheap computers and digital cameras led to a tremendous increase in the number of photographic images in digital formats. In the early part of the 21st century, the dominant method of viewing still images has been on computers and, to a lesser extent, on cellular phones (although people still make and look at prints). These factors have led to a decrease in film and film camera sales and film processing, and has had a dramatic effect on companies such as Fuji, Kodak, and Agfa. In addition, many stores that used to offer photofinishing services or sell film no longer do, and those that do have seen a tremendous decline.

Sources Source .1 nctionality_and_connectivity

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Source .3


Digital Video


Table of contents
List of figures .20 Abstract .21 Body .22

a. Description b. Characteristics of video streams c. Video formats d. Storage e. Editing
Conclusion .25 Sources .25


List of figures
Description…………………………… ………..….22 Characteristics of video streams ……… …………..22
Number of frames per second 22 Aspect ratio 22 Video quality 23 Video compression method (digital only) 23

Video Formats ...........................................................23 Storage……………………………… …..…….…….24 Editing..................................................... ...................24


Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. Video technology was first developed for television systems, but has been further developed in many formats to allow for consumer video recording. Video can also be viewed through the Internet as video clips or streaming media clips on computer monitors.


The term video commonly refers to several storage formats for moving pictures: digital video formats, including DVD, QuickTime, and MPEG-4; and analog videotapes, including VHS and Betamax. Video can be recorded and transmitted in various physical media: in magnetic tape when recorded as PAL or NTSC electric signals by video cameras, or in MPEG-4 or DV digital media when recorded by digital cameras. Quality of video essentially depends on the capturing method and storage used. Digital television (DTV) is a relatively recent format with higher quality than earlier television formats and has become a standard for television video.

Characteristics of video streams
Number of frames per second
Frame rate, the number of still pictures per unit of time of video, ranges from six or eight frames per second (fps) for old mechanical cameras to 120 or more frames per second for new professional cameras.

Video resolution
The size of a video image is measured in pixels for digital video, or horizontal scan lines and vertical lines of resolution for analog video. In the digital domain (e.g. DVD) standard-definition television (SDTV) is specified as 720/704/640×480i60 for NTSC and 768/720×576i50 for PAL or SECAM resolution. However in the analog domain, the number of visible scanlines remains constant (486 NTSC/576 PAL) while the horizontal measurement varies with the quality of the signal: approximately 320 pixels per scanline for VCR quality, 400 pixels for TV broadcasts, and 720 pixels for DVD sources. Aspect ratio is preserved because of non-square "pixels".

Aspect ratio
Aspect ratio describes the dimensions of video screens and video picture elements. The screen aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4:3, or 1.33:1. High definition televisions use an aspect ratio 25

of 16:9, or about 1.78:1. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack (also known as "Academy standard") is around 2.37:1.

Video quality
Video quality can be measured with formal metrics like PSNR or with subjective video quality using expert observation. The subjective video quality of a video processing system may be evaluated as follows:
• • • • • •

Choose the video sequences (the SRC) to use for testing. Choose the settings of the system to evaluate (the HRC). Choose a test method for how to present video sequences to experts and to collect their ratings. Invite a sufficient number of experts, preferably not fewer than 15. Carry out testing. Calculate the average marks for each HRC based on the experts' ratings. any subjective video quality methods are described in the ITU-T recommendation BT.500. One of the standardized method is the Double Stimulus Impairment Scale (DSIS). In DSIS, each expert views an unimpaired reference video followed by an impaired version of the same video. The expert then rates the impaired video using a scale ranging from "impairments are imperceptible" to "impairments are very annoying".


Video compression method (digital only)
A wide variety of methods are used to compress video streams. Video data contains spatial and temporal redundancy, making uncompressed video streams extremely inefficient. Broadly speaking, spatial redundancy is reduced by registering differences between parts of a single frame; this task is known as intraframe compression and is closely related to 26

image compression. Likewise, temporal redundancy can be reduced by registering differences between frames; this task is known as interframe compression, including motion compensation and other techniques. The most common modern standards are MPEG-2, used for DVD and satellite television, and MPEG-4, used for home video.

Video formats
Video display standards • New digital: o ATSC (USA, Canada, etc.) o DVB (European, Digital Video Broadcasting) o ISDB (Japanese, Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting) • Old analog: o MAC (Europe - Obsolete) o MUSE (Japan-analog HDTV) o NTSC (USA, Canada, Japan, etc.) o PAL (Europe, Asia, Australia, etc.)

Video files can be easily stored on any computer, removable disc CD or DVD, in a file format like above, by storing the video on to a PC or Mac it can be edited by many variations of software to produce the feature you are looking for then you are able to transfer the video file via any of those devices and do with what you wish including uploading to the internet and viewing on a website.

Video editing is the process of re-arranging or modifying segments of video to form another piece of video. The goals of video editing are the same as in film editing — the removal of unwanted footage, the isolation of desired footage, and the arrangement of footage in time to synthesize a new piece of footage. Early video recorders were very expensive, and the quality loss of copying was so great, that 2 inch Quadruplex videotape was edited by visualizing the recorded track with ferrofluid, cutting with a razor blade or guillotine cutter and splicing with tape. Improvements in quality and economy, and the invention of the flying erase head, allowed new video


to be inserted cleanly into an existing tape. This technique was referred to as linear editing. If an early scene needed to be lengthened, all the later scenes would need to be added again. Multiple sources could be played back simultaneously through a vision mixer to be mixed or keyed.

Video can be a very useful tool in the digital media industry, it can be used to advertise your product show the world something new and create a new world of awareness and understanding for the people whom interact with it and clients

Source .1 Source .2


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