Manoj Sharma, Gurdeep Singh and Keshava*
Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kapurthala - 144620, Punjab, India
The dairy farming is emerging in a big way in the recent years. Although production of milk has increased but productivity is still not up to the mark. To increase the productivity and sustain livelihood security the specialized training courses provided by Krishi Vigyan Kendras can play a pivotal role. Although vocational training in dairy farming provided by the KVK,Kapurthala has helped in increasing the knowledge, inculcating skills and improving socio-economic status of the rural poor. But the real impact of these training courses was rarely studied. During the year 2009, in-depth survey of 60 dairy trainees was done to know the impact of these specialized training courses on dairy farming. It was found that as a result of training the average herd size with dairy farmers increased from 7.68 to 9.21. Knowledge level of trainees in breed characteristics, disease management, feed management etc had increased. Number of trainees having knowledge about feed preparation technology increased from 6.67 to 100.00 per cent and average knowledge score of the trainees from 3.64 to 6.39. Not only there was gain in knowledge farmers actually applied that gained knowledge at their farms which resulted in enhancement of their daily income. None of the trainee used UMMB licks before the training while after training percentage of trainees using UMMB licks was 18.75 per cent. Thus, with along with gain in knowledge there was adoption of recent technologies among the dairy farmers. As a result of improved management at dairy farms the average milk production per animal per year increased from 6.76 to 6.93. The average reduction in cost of management of disease per animal per year was approximately Rs. 708.22. Increase in net profit per animal per year was Rs. 2607.82. Thus, it can be concluded that specialized training courses in dairy farming are proving to be beneficial to the dairy farmers by enhancing their socio-economic status. ___________________________________________________________________________

*Senior scientist, Zonal Project Directorate Zone 1 PAU, Campus, Ludhiana


In current scenario of Indian agriculture, there are innumerable challenges to raise production without putting pressure on land and water resources. Dairy enterprise can play a major role in this context. Dairy farming enterprise is emerging in a big way in the recent years as far as its contribution to agricultural GDP is concerned. According to the ministry of agriculture, the contribution of livestock to total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has increased from 4.8% during 1980-81 to about 6.5% during 2002-03 and is currently 5.3%. The contribution of livestock to agriculture GDP has gone up from 13.8% in 1981 to 23.8% during 2002- 2003. Moreover, over exploitation of the natural resources like soil and water has resulted in shift of concern of policy makers towards dairy farming. Although, India is largest producer of milk in the world but still productivity of livestock in India is dismally low. To enhance the productivity of animals breed improvement and better management practices are required. Specialized training courses to dairy farmers can enhance the productivity of animals which is dismally low in India as compared to other countries. The Farm Science Centres known as 'Krishi Vigyan Kendra' (KVK) are functional in various districts of India for imparting vocational training to different category of farmers. The main aim of KVK is to develop entrepreneurship amongst the rural people especially the farmers, farm-women rural youth and the entrepreneurs in different areas of agriculture, dairying, fisheries, bee-keeping and home science for enhancing productivity, increasing income and employment for the welfare of human beings. KVK, Kapurthala is working for the welfare and sustaining livelihood of the poor for last 17 year. This KVK conducts various need-based and skill-oriented training programmes for different target groups to enhance production in their mixed farming system of crop and dairy husbandry. Dairy farming which has immense potential for increasing income and employment in the rural areas and thus, generating livelihood for poor is backbone of poor in the district. KVK, Kapurthala has developed infrastructure to organise skill oriented training programmes through "Learning by Doing". After training, follow up extension programmes are


undertaken. After attending various training programmes in the area of scientific dairy farming, what change has been brought out by the dairy farmers in dairy occupation was not studied so far. How farmers in various villages of the district have benefited from the vocational training provided by the Krishi Vigyan Kendra ? This question needs to be answered. Although impact in terms of gain in knowledge was usually studied by the researcher but in current study attempt has been made to know change in management practices with application of gained knowledge and change in income of dairy trainees has been studied. In the present study survey of trainees was conducted with following objectives : 1. To know change in knowledge of trainees.
2. To know change in dairy management practices.

3. To know economic benefits gained by trainees.

Materials and Methods :
Sample Selection : In the present paper an attempt has been made to analyse the various training courses organized by the KVK, Kapurthala on dairy farming. This in depth survey of respondent was conducted during the month of October,2009. The trainees who acquired specialized vocational training on dairy farming during the years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09 were interviewed in order to assess the impact of training courses organized by the KVK Kapurthala. A total of 179 dairy farmers were imparted vocational training of 10 to 15 days duration during these years. Out of these, 60 ex-trainees were interviewed for the study purpose. Method of data Collection : The method used was face to face interviews with the ex trainees. The semi-structured interview schedule was developed to know change in number of trainees having knowledge about different aspect of dairy farming before and after the training. Similarly, change in type, breed and number of animals before and after training were also studied. To assess the gain


in knowledge, knowledge score of the trainees during pre test were compared with their current knowledge scores. Whether gained knowledge was applied at farmers’ field or not to know that, change in management practice by the trainees before and after the training were studied by using semi structured interview schedule as well as the practices at the farmer’s field were also observed by the surveyor. Similarly, change in number, type and breed along with economic benefits gained by training as a result of due to decrease in management cost and increase milk production were also calculated on prevalent cost basis. The data thus obtained was analysed by using frequencies and percentages to make generalizations about the impact of training programmes.

Results and Discussion
After imparting vocational trainings in the area of scientific dairy farming, a visible impact have been observed in the district Kapurthala. A large number of dairy farmers in various villages of Kapurthala district have been enormously benefited by attending these training programmes. It was found in recently conducted surveys in the district Kapurthala that a large number of dairy farmers have improved the quality of animals, some of the dairy cattle yielded up to 30 litres of milk per day. In a study conducted by the KVK, Kapurthala in various villages of the Kapurthala indicated that the increase in knowledge level leading to better management practices has resulted in improved socio economic status of rural poor. The detail of results has been discussed under following heads.

Effect on herd size and type of animals
It was recorded that before acquiring training in dairy farming, the average herd size available with the trainees was 7.68 animals per farmer which was increased to 9.21 animals per farmers after training. This showed that all the trainees were convinced with the scope and economics of livestock and were also


convinced that profitable herd size is of 10 animals. As a result of which they purchased some good animals to make this enterprise more profitable. It was also noticed that some farmers sold their buffaloes and purchased lactating cows and thus the average no. of buffaloes with the farmers decreased from 4.64 to 4.36. On the other hand no. of cows kept by the trainees increased from 4.38 to 6.38. At the same time there was a sharp increase in the no. of crossbred animals kept with the farmer and the value increased from 4.54 to 7.27 animals per farmer. This change shows that farmers were convinced that good quality animals have major role in increasing milk production.

Table 1 : Change in number, type and breeds of animals
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Indicator Before Average no. of Animals Average no. of Buffalo Average no. of Cows Average no. of crossbred animals 7.68 4.64 4.38 4.54 % Change After 9.21 4.36 6.38 7.27

The data thus made it evident that the vocational training imparted at the KVK level won the confidence of trainees who made some alterations in the number and type of animals available within their dairy farms (Table 1)

Effect on knowledge level
The data presented in table 2 clearly envisaged that there was considerable difference in knowledge of trainees during pre test and in current knowledge scores. Percentage of trainees having knowledge about breed characteristics increased by three times and average knowledge score of the trainees also increased from 4.44 to 6.32. Current average knowledge score of trainees in area feed management was 6.39 while earlier it was 3.64 only. Number of trainees having knowledge about feed preparation was only 6.67 per cent while during current survey 100.00 per cent of the surveyed trainees had knowledge about


feed preparation technique. Besides, dairy production technologies, trainees were interviewed about the loan facilities and in this aspect the number of trainees having knowledge about this aspect increased by about 22.00 per cent. Knowledge about mastitis, which is very prevalent in dairy animals, was also studied. Data elucidated that number of farmers having knowledge about cause of mastitis increased from 5.00 per cent to 83.33 per cent with average knowledge score of 5.87. While earlier, none of the trainees was aware about the prevention and control of this dreaded disease, after training 86.67 per cent of the trainees had knowledge about prevention and control of mastitis. Similarly, knowledge level as well as number of trainees having knowledge about breed characteristics, cause of diseases and their prevention, silage making etc. increased significantly.

Table 2 : Impact of Vocational Training in Dairy on knowledge of Trainees
Sl. No. Knowledge Indicator Before Training % age of Average trainees knowled having ge score knowledge (Pre test) about different aspect of dairy 25.00 6.67 0.00 0.00 5.00 0.00 18.33 4.44 3.64 1.22 1.19 1.26 1.13 3.47 After Training % age of Average trainees Knowledg having e score knowledge (Current about score) different aspect of dairy 75.00 100.00 50.00 50.00 83.33 86.67 40.00 6.32 6.39 6.62 5.35 5.87 6.54 4.06

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Breed Characteristics Feed Preparation Cause of Repeat Breeding Prevention and Control of RB Cause of Mastitis Prevention and control of Mastitis Loan Facilities



Silage Making





Effect on dairy management practices
The main purpose of imparting vocational trainings on KVKs campus is to impart practical skill so that after acquiring training the farmers can make changes in their routine working at their dairy farms. Hence, all trainees were interviewed through interview schedule and data were presented in table 3. It was noticed that 93.33 % of trainees never formulated feed at their farms before training but after training 56.67 % farmers started making compound cattle feed at domestic level, regularly. Similarly trainees were also informed and made aware about the role of minerals and vitamins in the daily feeding schedule of animals and the data showed that 81.67 % trainees were not using mineral mixture before training. Only 5.00 per cent of the trainees were using mineral mixture regularly but after words this percentage increased by more than seven times to 38.33 % of trainees made use of mineral mixture regularly without failure, whereas 6.67 % used sometimes. Hence, this single factor of improved and balanced feed resulted in loss attack of diseases as a result of which the cost of disease management reduced from Rs. 1662/animal/year to Rs. 954/- animals/year. The role of balanced feed and fodder feeding in successful dairy farming has been well established. Similarly, there was still a large number of dairy farmers who were reluctant to prepare feed at home and preferred to buy readymade cattle feed from the market. A newer concept about feeding of UMMB licks to lactating. Cows were demonstrated. As a result of which 36.67 % of trainees did not like it or used it, 48.33 per cent used sometimes and only 15.00 started using it regularly. The adoption level was found to be low due to fact that before attending training programme at KVK, none of the trainees was aware about the concept of UMMB feeding. Frequent availability of UMMB was major reason for non low adoption of this technology. Secondly, since it contains urea therefore some of the farmers became hesitant to feed it to their animals with the perception that fertilizer grade urea is a poison.


Table 3 : Change in Management Practices after Training
Sl. Indicator No. Before Training (%) Never 1. Feed Management Feed Preparation Use of MM Use of UMMB Silage 2. 93.33 81.67 100.0 0 100.0 0 0.00 13.33 0.00 0.00 6.67 5.00 0.00 0.00 36.67 0.00 36.67 100.0 0 6.67 61.67 48.33 0.00 56.67 38.33 15.00 0.00 Some Times Alway s After Training (%) Never Some Times Always

Disease Management Vaccination 10.00 15.00 75.00 0.00 1.68 98.33

In order to make dairy farming economical and more profitable, scientists claim that silage feeding is inevitable during lean periods. This topic was taught and demonstrated in detail during the training programmes but on reviewing, it was found that no farmer made silage and fed to their animals. Under Punjab conditions where scarcity of labour is becoming a hindrance in carrying out field and farm activities, may probably be the one reason that farmers themselves did not take initiative. At the same time, they were of the opinion that there is no increase in milk production on silage feeding as compared to green fodder feeding. Hence, they did not adopt this technology of silage feeding. As far as vaccination of animals was concerned it was found that considerable awareness was there among dairy farmers and 75.00 % farmers were getting their animals vaccinated regularly but as per recommendations


100% small as well as large animals should be got vaccinated. Therefore, it was emphasized loudly in the entire training course. On reviewing it was found that now 98.33 % trainees were getting their animals vaccinated regularly. Thus, there was good impact of the awareness as well as training imparted by KVK, Kapurthala during the last 2 years.

Effect of training programme on change in income from dairy
The only criterion for adopting any technology is its economic viability. Thus, it was planned to seed the impact on change in income of dairy farmers. From the data presented in table 4 it was evident that there was a considerable reduction in the cost of disease management. Farmer saved almost Rs. 700 per animal per year on disease management. At the sometime there was an increase in the cost of feed management probably due to the reason that when a farmers wants to prepare cattle feed at domestic level at smaller scale and get the feed ingredients in small quantity he spent more money as the material is procured at retail prices and not on

Table 4 : Change in Cost of disease management, Feed Management and Income
Parameter Cost of disease Management (Av. Cost /Animal/Year in Rs) Feed Management (Av. 20033.33 21566.27 Before 1662.5 After 954.28

Cost /Animal/Year in Rs) Income (Av. Cost 10982.58 13590.4

/Animal/Year in Rs)

whole sale price. This cost of locally made feed is on higher side. However, the response of homemade feed was so good that there was overall increase in milk production from 6.76 litres to 6.93 litres increase to the tune 2.51%. Average


milk production per farmer increased from 30.09 litres to 37.82 litres an increase of 25.69 per cent. In fact the increase in milk production/animal was found to be highest during summester (Table 5) i.e. 21.18%. The increase milk production resulted in increase income and therefore increased average income/animal from Rs. 10982/- to Rs.

Table 5 : Increase in milk production after vocational training
Sl. No. Parameter Change Before Average no. of milch animals Average milk production per farmer per day in summer Average milk production per farmer per day in winter Average milk production per farmer per day during year Average milk production in summer/animal/day Average milk production in winter/animal/day Average production/animal/day milk 4.45 24.82 36.45 30.09 5.57 8.18 6.76 After 5.45 37.41 46.00 37.82 6.75 8.43 6.93 22.47 50.73 26.20 25.69 21.18 3.06 2.51 % change

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

13590/-. It was thus inferred that farmers must acquire trainings before taking any entrepreneur in order to increase their income as well as net profit.

Based on the analysed data it was found that after attending the various training programmes there was gain in knowledge and skill of the beneficiaries.


After, adoption of the newer technologies learnt by the entrepreneurs they experienced significant increase in income. It is recommended that various KVK should plan and organise need based vocational training programmes for entrepreneurship development so that the rural people are benefited. Specialized dairy trainings will help in achieving the sustainable production and in turn will increase the income and employment in the rural areas. Thus, the socio-economic status of dairy farmers could further be improved by vocational trainings in dairy farming which can well supplement the agriculture in the current crisis situation of natural resource degradation.