You are on page 1of 23

he longest chapter in SPM Physics and it will surely be asked in SPM since it will be link to

the next chapter, pressure and in form 5. So, you must do well in force and motion. By saying
the word longest, most of you would have certainly drop your senses. o not be afraid, force
is the most easy to understand chapter.
Before i start this chapter, please burn these few new terms in your brain as it plays a massive
role in your whole physic life.
isplacement is the shortest distance between the initial point and the destination point.
istance is the total path took to travel form the initial point to the destination point. "mage
above, red line is the displacement and the black line is the distance.
Speed and #elocity
Speed$distance divided by time
#elocity$displacement divided by time.
%cceleration and deceleration.
&his is a very important concept that you must understands between acceleration and
%cceleration means getting faster and faster.
eceleration means getting slower and slower. 'negative acceleration(
%lright, have you memori)ed them* "f yes, then you can proceed.
Ticker Tape
"n this chapter, you will start with ticker tape. &icker tape is a long strip of paper, with a width
of the kind of paper you used to fold stars, at least + meters long, and white in colour, of
course. "n the ticker tape experiment, you will need a ticker timer. &icker timer is an
instrument that has a strip of metal that will vibrate up and down with a fre,uency of 5-.),
'/ust for your info, 5-.) because &0B provide 5-.) power supply only. 1S% is 25.), 3hina
is 55.).( that can produce a chain of dot on the strip of ticker tape.
Basically, you must know how to interprete the ticker tape.
"nterval between two consecutive 'side by side( dot4
Short$slow movement
5ong$fast movement
6verall motion4
same length between all the dots$constant velocity'not speed( or )ero acceleration
Short to 5ong $acceleration
5ong to Short $deceleration
%ll calculations about ticker timer is advisable that you ask someone to show you. "t is too
difficult to explain in words. But i will still try to explain to you.
%fter all the hectic arrangement for the cut ticker tape on a piece of graph paper, you will see
a shape in the graph.
% stage like graph$constant velocity, )ero acceleration.
% step up staircase graph$acceleration
% step down staircase graph$deceleration
2 Golden Equation of Motion
"f you wish to continue on physics in tertiary education'%!level, S&PM and so!on(, you must
remember them. "f you wish to score an % in physics, you must know how to use them.
s$78+ ut978+ at:+
"n you text book, you will see 2 e,uation, actually only two will be useful. ;ith only these
two, you can do all the ,uestion, is /ust the matter whether you can apply it or not.

<ead 1sers= 3omments '-(

INT!"#$TI!N !% &'()I$)
Posted in > at 774+? PM
!"n this chapter, you are re,uired to know what is the differences between Base ,uantities and
derived ,uantities
!between vector and scalar ,uantity.
!.ow to use measuring instruments and their sensitivity
!.ow to identify errors'Systemic and <andom(*
!%ccuracy, consistency and sensitivity.
!Steps involve in scientific investigation.
B%S@ %0 @<"#@
B%S@ Auantities
"n colours, you have learn about base colours, which are red, blue, and yellow. ;hy
do we called them base colours* Because they can=t be form from combining any
colours. "n other words, they are the basic of all colours.
&his applies to base ,uantities in physics as well. Base ,uantity cannot be formed
from any other ,uantities.
Base ,uantities are Ma&i5@&, Mass'kilogram8kg(, &ime'second8s(, 5ength'meter8l(,
@lectric current'ampere8%(, &emperature'Belvin8B(.
@<"#@ Auantities
Cust like colours, when you combine Blue and <ed, it will turn Purple. ;hen you
combine length and time, it will become speed. .owever, in colours, you mix them up
with a brush, in physics, physicists mix the base ,uantities with mathematics notation
such as times, divide, power, exponent, logarithm and many more. But be thankful,
they won=t ask you on these except for times and divide.
So, in your level, the definition for derived ,uantity is ,uantity derived from a
combination of base ,uantities through multiplication and division.
@xamples of derived ,uantities are area'l x l(, volume'l x l x l(, density'kg8l x l x l),
speed(l 8s( and many more.
So, the tips of memorising derived ,uantities is by memorising base ,uantity'there is only 5
base ,uantities in you syllabus(. %nything that is not a base ,uantity must be a derived
S3%5%< %0 #@3&6<
S3%5%<'in other word, the value do not have negative or absolute values(.
Scalar'in 5atin, it means amount( ,uantity mean ,uantity that only have magnitude.
Dor example, distance, when you measure the side of a triangle with a ruler, do you
ever put negative* " don=t think you will. 0o matter how the side started from, left to
right or right to left, you will still put positive values.
&ime, is there such things as negative time or travel back time* So far, no. So =time= is
a Scalar ,uantity.
Mass, if there is nothing,- kg of mass, if there is something, & kg of mass. &hen what
is negative mass, do not give me craps such as ghost, supernatural phenomenon, or
antiparticle. "t is not in your syllabus. So, mass is a scalar.
@nergy'Coule8C(, it is either you have energy or you don=t have energy. &here is no
such thing as negative energy. &hink about it, in <PE games such as final fantasy,
when you have no energy, you die. 0egative energy** "s there anything beyond
&emperature'Belvin8B(, the most trickiest of all. Many of you will think that
temperature have negative value like !7FG degrees or carbon dioxide turns into solid
at !2- degree celcius. But have you guys reali)e, have you ever seen !7--- degree
celcius* 0o. ;hy* Simple. &emperature in celcius has a minimum of !+GF d3 only,
which is - Belvin'the actual S" unit for temperature(. "n - Belvin'absolute
temperature(, the particle of the substance has no energy in it'- Coule( at all. Since
there is no negative energy, there is no negative Belvin.
&here are many more scalar ,uantity, these are the most common.
#@3&6<'means direction and amount.(
6ne particular day, you were stuck with an awful stomachache. o you ever ask
H.ow far is the toilet*H* &here correct ,uestion will be H;here is the toilet*H. " am
sure the answer of the ,uestion will be H "t is few meters in front.H. =Dew meters= is the
distance, =in front= is the direction. So the definition of vector ,uantity is ,uantity with
magnitude and direction.
@xample of vector is displacement. "t is the shortest distance between two location.
;hen you ride an aeroplane, do planes follow roads* 0o. &hey follow bearing, which
is the direction of where the location is.
Dorce, momentum, velocity'speed with direction(, and acceleration are also vector.
&hese are new terms to you, but i=m sure you will understands why they are vector
,uantities, not scalar. So, i won=t explain like what i explained on scalar. Dor now, /ust
memori)e them.
.ere is a tip, all base ,uantities are scalar ,uantities.
Measuring instruments.

meter rule'it is spelled as rule, it is not a typo(

measuring tapes

vernier calipers
micrometer screw gauge
Iou are re,uire to know only this 2 instruments.
Meter rule!measure length more than 7 mm. 0ot accurate.
Measuring tape!measure length that is more that a centimete. 0ot accurate.
#ernier!measure!length more than -.7 mm accurately.
Micrometer scew gauge!the highest accuracy of all the above instruments. -.-7mm accuracy.
Systemic'repeating error(
"t can be due to wrong calibration of the measuring instruments. Dor example, a meter
ruler may look fine, but actually it is wrong as its interval of 7cm is not accurately
Jero error. Dor example, a vernier calipers when completely close, do not shows a
)ero. &he make the measurement with the vernier calipers either slightly more than
the actual value or less.
<andom'wrong without you notice.(
Parallax error because of the position of your eye is wrong, you read the value
@nvironment factor such as gravity, friction, air resistance,pressure magnetic field,
ambient radiation.
.ow to reduce error*
1se appropriate instrument. eg. ;hen measuring a diameter, it is better to us a vernier
calipers than a meter ruler. ;hen, measuring height of a man, it is better to measure
with a meter ruler that a vernier calipers.
<epeat the experiment many times and deduce the mean'average( value for it.
<educe parallax error. eg. 1se the mirror in the volt meter to identify parallax error.
%331<%3I!the ability to measure something nearest to the actual value.
360S"S&@03I!the ability to a,uire the same value many times, not necessary that they are
S@0S"&"#"&I! the ability to detect small changes. "n other words, the smaller the scale
interval of the instrument, the more accurate the reading. Dor example, an electronic balance
can is more sensitive than a triple beam balance because of the smallest scale for electronic
balance is -.-7gram wheares triple beam balance can only measure up to -.5gram accurately
.ave you ever read the word micrometer'um(, centimeter'cm(, megatonne'Mt(,
gigaher)s'E.)(, terrabytes'&b(* &hese words were added with prefixes. Prefixes make
spelling for scientist more easier. <ather than spelling 57+ millions bytes, they can spell as
Megabytes, or even shorter, Mb. %nother reason is that it makes writting down =unit= such as
cm, EPa, &0 and many more in a very simple manner.&he below prefixes will be needed in
any field of science. But do not worry about memori)ing them, you will get them eventually.
pico8p '7-:!7+
nano8n '7-:!L(
micro8u '7-:!M(
milli8m '7-:!F(
centi8c '7-:!+(
deci8d '7-:!7(
kilo8k '7-:F(
mega8M '7-:M(
giga8E '7-:L(
terra8& '7-:7+(
M"3<6M@&@< S3<@; E%1E@
Iou are re,uire to know every part of the MSE. Since the picture is not that clear, " will spell
out the parts for you. %nvil, Drame, Spindle, Sleeve, &himble and <atchet. &he scale on the
sleeve is the main scale, wheares the scale on the thimble is called the thimble scale.
%ccuracy of MSE is up to -.-7mm. &he function of <atchet will always be asked. "t is to
prevent overturn of the thimble that might cause the thickness to deform.
.6; &6 1S@* " recomend you to watch at youtube because it is difficult to explain with
words. Same goes for vernier calipers.
#@<0"@< 3%5"P@<S
7( external /aw!measure extenal diameter
+( internal /aw!measure internal diameter
F( depth measuring blade!measure depth
2( main scale
5( not in your syllabus
M( vernier scale
G( not in your syllabus
?( thumb ad/uster
Dor more in,uiry, please e!mail me, "f you have any ,uestion,
or comment, or to inform me of what " missed in the chapter, please comment under this

<ead 1sers= 3omments '-(

%orm * topical review+
Posted in > at F4+M PM
Dorm 2,
"ntro of physics
Dorce and motion,
force and pressure
"ntro of Physics,
!#erneir calipers, and micrometer screwgauge,
!#ector and Scalar
!%ccuracy and 3onsistency
!Eraph, irectly proportional, inversily and so on
!Measuring instrument
!.ow to calibrate a thermometer.
Dorce and motion
!F 0ewton laws of motion
!Principle of 3onservation of @nergy'"=ll type as P3@(
!Priciple of conservation of Momentum'same, "=ll type as P3M(
!<esolving force.
Dorce and pressure
!Solid pressure
!5i,uid pressure
!%rchimedes= priciple
!Bernoulli=s principle
!Pascal principle
!Pressure meter
!Specific .eat 3apacity'S.3(
!Boyle=s, 3harles= and Eas 5aws
!.eat energy and temperatue
!.eat transfer
!<eflection of light
!<efraction of light
!Microscope and telescope

Pkxmccgxm0cmka PQ)oknm Ro hgPnS aR >kxm) h)Ry R) hg)xCmxxm) )mocmnxgRaS
kcbRPx TLL! )mnmyxgRa)mnmgvm /w ommh fR)a$$UBRhgogmh xfm Pcghm y)RemnxR) xfkx
ammh xR /m ycknm ga PnfRRc fkcc kah nka /m Pmma /wbkaw PxQhmax >gxf ncmk)m)
gbklmUPQllmPxgRaM yckgakxgRaVPm fglfm) yR>m) /Qc/Dglfm) gaxmaPgxw Ro cglfx R)
bR)m cglfx y)RhQnmh Kfm ogckbmax Ro xfm /Qc/ gP kx xfm oRnQPyRgax Ro xfm nRankvm
bg))R) Kfm cglfx oRnQPmP kx Ram yRgaxU 88 yk)kccmc )kwnka /m R/xkgamh koxm)
)mocmnxgRa /w nRankvmbg))R)BR)m nQ)vkxQ)mBR)m cglfx xR /m )mocmnxmh WQy>k)h= 88
cmPP cglfxxR>k)h Rxfm) hg)mnxgRa Rxfm) xfka Qy>k)h3maP /mx>mma o kah 4oKR y)RhQnm
)mkc kal mack)lm R) /gllm) gbklmPEan)mkPm xfm hgPxkanm R) oQ)xfm) k>kw
xfmPn)mma3k)lm) gbklm y)RhQnmhMcmnx)gn oka Rym)kxmP hQ)gal kah koxm) xfmckby
gP P>gxnfmP Ra0RRcgal PwPxmb xR Pxk/gcgumh xfm xmbym)kxQ)mWfmkx mam)lw
y)RhQnmh /w ogckbmax /Qc/= xRgan)mkPm xfm y)RemnxR) cgomxgbmVPm nRahmaPm)
bg))R)KR nRanmax)kxm bR)m cglfx xR xfm PcghmVPm k nRankvm bg))R) gaPxmkh Ro
yckambg))R)6RnQP xfm cglfx hg)mnxcw xR xfm cmaP 88 gan)mkPmxfm gaxmaPgxw Rl
cglfxIcknm xfm ogckbmax kx nmax)m Ro nQ)vkxQ)mRo xfm nRavm)lgal bg))R) 88 QPm
fglfyR>m)mh cmaP3glfx lRmP hg)mnxcw o)Rb xfm ckby kah )mocmnx/knd Ra xfm Pkbm
ykxf 88 gan)mkPm xfm gaxmaPgxwRo cglfx xR>k)h xfm x)kaPyk)manw 88 xR lmx/)glfxm)
gbklmVPm fmkx ogcxm)KR k/PR)/ m nmPP fmkx xR xfm x)kaPyk)manw$*U.mxm)bgam
kah m yckga xfm /Qgch Ro xmcmPnRym QPgal cmaP @ kah >gxf cmaP gP xfgndm)xfka
cmaP @ >fgnf y)RhQnm /gllm) kah ncmk)m) gbklmU
:QllmPxgRa MvykckakxgRa
0 fRRPm cmaP kP mwmygmnm cmaP3maP gP xfgndm) xfka cmaP @
3glfx )kw gP )mo)knxmh bR)m ga cmaP xfkacmaP @S oRnkc cmalxf Ro cmaP gP
PfR)xm) xfkacmaP @
Kfm)moR)m xfm xfgndm)xfm cmaPS xfm l)mkxm)xfm )mo)knxgRa Ro cglfx kah >gxf xfkx
xfmPfR)xm) xfm oRnkc cmalxf Ro k cmaP >gcc /m
0fRRPm cmaP @ kP R/emnxgvm cmaPVPm /gllm) hgkbmxm) cmaP kP
R/emnxgvmcmaP0fk)knxm)gPxgnP Ro R/emnxgvm cmaP oR) xmcmPnRymgP
DkP ck)lm) PQ)oknm k)mk >fgnf kccR>bR)m cglfx maxm)
DkP k cRalm) oRnkc cmalxfVPm cR> yR>m) nRavm cmaP kP xfmR/emnxgvm cmaP
BklagognkxgRa Ro xmcmPnRym +oL8om3R> yR>m) cmaP fkP k cRalm) oRnkc cmalxf
SoRfglfm)S bklagognkxgRa fglfm)VPm fglf yR>m) nRavm cmaP kP xfm mwmcmaPDglf yR>
m) cmaP fkP k PfR)xm) oRnkc cmalxfSomfglfm)S bklaagognkxgRa fglfm)VPm /gllm)
hgkbmxm) Ro R/emnxgvm cmaPBR)m cglfx ym)bgxxmh xR maxm) xfm xmcmPnRymkah k
ncmk)m) gbklm gP Pmma
$YU.mPgla k lRRh /mknf

:QllmPxgRa MvyckakxgRa
amk) xfm /kwhgvm)lmanm Ro xfm >kvmP mam)lw 8nkcbm)Dglf )mxkgagal >kccPOvm)
ocR> KR )mocmnx xfm >kvmP o)Rb xfm PfR)mJmhQnm hg)mnx gbyknx Ro xfm >kvmP Ra
xfmPfR)mZkcc o)Rb nRan)mxm)mhQnm m)RPgRa k)m /Qgcx0Ran)mxm /k))gm) Px)QnxQ)m >
gxf k lkyZkvmP ykPPgal xf)RQlf xfm lky >gcc /mhgoo)knxmh ga xfm nfgch)ma[P
k)mkUH)mhQnm kbycgxQhm Kkb/kd ckQx PQykwk cm/gf nmxmdJmhQnm PymmhBR)m
aQb/m) Ro x) RnnQ) >gcc )mhQnm xfk kbycgxQhmVamvma PQ)oknm Ro
)mxkgagal >kccJmhQnm mam)lw
:QllmPx kah m yckga fR> R)hgak)w ogPfgal /Rkx nka /m Qyl)khm xR xfm am> /Rkx>fgnf
nRbycmxm m\Qgybmax xR hmxmnx xfm n)R>h Ro ogPfU
:QllmPxgRa MvyckakxgRa
Bxxknf )khk) PwPxmb xR xfm Pfgyk=Vcx)kPRagn x)kaPbgxxm) KfgP m\Qgybmax ammhP
xR hmxmnx n)R>h Ro ogPfkah oR) bmkPQ)mbmax xfm hmyxf Ro xfm n)R>hRo ogPfHVPm xR
y)RhQnm Qcx)kPRagn yQcPmPk=Bgn)RoRam )mngmvm)KR hmxmnx Qcx)kPRagn
yQcPmP/=0JOHKR bmkPQ)m xfm hmyxf Ro ogPf /w nkcnQckxgalh+vx842 h+hmyxfS
v+vmcRngxwS x+xgbmVPm Qcx)kPRagn >kvmHVcx)kPRQah aRx y)RhQnm PRQahHVcx)kPRagn >
kvm fkP fglfm) o)m\QmanwS bR)mmam)lwS PR gx nka bRvm oQ)xfm)VPm fglf mam)lw >
kvmKfm ymamx)kxgal yR>m) gP fglfm)$GUM yckga xfm PQgxk/cm hmPgla R) bmxfRh xR
/Qgch \Qkcgxw nRanm)x fkccU
:QllmPxgRa MvyckakxgRa
0Rvm) xfm fk)h >kcc >gxf PRox /Rk)h R)xfgnd nQ)xkga:Rox PQ)oknm nka k/PR)/ PRQah kah
)mhQnm)mocmnxgRa Ro PRQahIcknm xfm >kcc >gxf fRcm R) mll nk)xRahmPgla0ka )mhQnm
)mocmnxgRa Ro PRQah PR PRQah >gcc/m ncmk)m)8)mhQnm mnfR6g mh 4 cRQh Pymkdm) ga
nRanm)x fkcc3RQh Pymkdm) nka knx kP nRfm)max PRQ)nmP oR)nRaPx)Qnxgvm
gaxmom)manmB))kalmh xfm Pgx kx kaxgaRhkc ycknm :x)Ral PRQah nka /m fmk)hVPm
lckPP R) bg))R) fkcc >fgnf gP xfm xwym>fgnf k)m aRx mkPgcw /)Rdma:RQah >gxf fglf
o)m\Qmanw bglfx /)mkd xfmlckPPVPm Pymngkc nRbyQxm) xR lmam)kxm PRQah>kvm >fgnf
y)RhQnm hmPx)Qnxgvmgaxmom)manmBQhgmanm nka maeRw /mxxm) y)mPmaxkxgRa>
gxfRQx hgPxQ)/kanm*LUM yckga xfm PQgxk/cm hmPgla Ro )mxkgagal >kcc xR y)Rxmnx
xfm Pfgy kx xfm fk)/R)
:QllmPxgRa MvyckgakxgRa
CQgch nRan)mxm )mxkgagal >kcc0ka >gxfPxkah gbyknx Ro xfm >kvmS hgoognQcx
xRn)kndJmxkgagal >kcc PfRQch /m nQ)vmh kahQamvma PQ)oknmI)mvmax )mocmnxgRa Ro >
kvm /knd xR xfm PfgyCQgch )mxkgagal >kcc ga o)Rax Ro xfm /kwKfm >kvm k)m nkcbm) kx
xf) )mlgRaJmxkgagal >kcc fkP >gcc RnnQ) Kfm lky kx )mxkgagal >kcc
gPak))R>W Pbkccm) xfka >kvm cmalxf= Kfm l)mkxm) xfm nQ)vkxQ)m Ro >kvmo)Rax >
gccRnnQ)U BbycgxQhm koxm) ykPPgal lky gP Pbkccm) Kfm)m k)m PcRym kx xfm /RxxRb Ro
)mxkgagal>kccBx PfkccR> )mlgRaS xfm >kvmcmalxf Ro >kvm gPPbkccm)S PR xfm vmcRngxw
Ro xfm >kvm Pbkccm)Jmxkgagal >kcc PfRQch /m /Qgch fglfm)KR maPQ)m aR Pygcc Rvm) Ro >
kvmCQgch xfm emxxw kx /kwKfm >kvm kx /kw gP nkcbm)*TUM yckga xfm
nfk)knxm)gPxgnP Ro yk)k/Rcgn )khk) PwPxmb xR hmxmnx Pglakc o)Rb

:QllmPxgRa MvyckakxgRa
3k)lm hgkbmxm) Pgum Ro yk)k/Rcgn hgPnB/cm xR )mnmgvmP bR)m mcmnx)gn
Pglakc Kwym Ro >kvm x)kaPbgxmh gP Bgn)R>kvmDkP fglf o)m\QmanwS fglf mam)lwS
PfR)x>kvmcmalxf PR gx gP mkPw xR /m )mocmnxmh Kfm hgPxkanm Ro xfm Pglakc
)mnmgvm) o)Rbxfm nmax)m Ro yk)k/Rcgn hgPn gP xfm Pkbm kPxfm oRnkc cmalxf Kfm
Pglakc nka /m oRnQP xR xfm nmax)m Ro xfmyk)k/Rcgn hgPnIcknm yk)k/Rcgn hgPn fglfm)
o)Rb xfml)RQah Kfm Pglakc >gxf aRx /m /cRnd /w x)mmP R)kawxfgal kah xfm Pglakc mkPw
xR /m hmxmnxmhIcknm yk)k/Rcgn hgPn kx ncmk)ycknm%R Pglakc hgPxQ)/kanm
*4U:QllmPx xfm PQgxk/cm ckby xfkx nka /m QPm ga xfm cg/)k)wS nfmkym) wmx /mnRbm
xfm)RRb /)glfxm)
:QllmPxgRa MvyckakxgRa
3kby >gxf yk)kccmc ng)nQgxEo kaw ckby >m)m /Q)a RQxS Rxfm)P nka Pxgcc
/mQPmhBxxknf Pfgaw )mocmnxR)0ka )mocmnx cglfx bR)mS aR ammh xR gaPxkcc
bR)mckbyS xfm )RRb >gcc /mnRbm /)glfxm)U3R> yR>m) ckby:kom nRPxDglf moogngmanw
ckby 88 ocQR)mPnmaxKfm )RRb cRRdP /)glfxm)3Ral cgom Pyka ckby%R ammh xR )mycknm
Roxma3R> y)gnm ckby:kvm bRamw*]UM yckga xfm bRhgognkxgRa Ro bmaxfRc /Qc/ ckby xR
moogngmax ckby xR /m QPm ga PxQhw)RRbU
:QllmPxgRa MvyckakxgRa
VPm xfm ocQR)mPnmax ckby aRx kogckbmax /Qc/6cQR)mPnmax ckby QPm cmPP yR>m) kah
mnRaRbgnWnRaPQbm cmPP yR>m)= nRbyk)m xR ogckbmax /Qc/UCgllm) nRvm) >gxf >fgxm
nRcRQ)3mPP )mocmnxgRa Ra mwmP kah k/PR)/ cmPP fmkxmam)lw kah lRRh fmkx
)mocmnxR)VPm xfm kheQPxk/cm Pxkah R) yR)xk/cmKfm fmglfx Ro xfm ckby nka /m
kheQPxmh nka /mQPmh kaw>fm)m0Raamnx >gxf xfm mk)xf >g)mBvRgh PfR)x ng)nQgx kah
hkbklm Ra xfm /Qc/VPm ka mam)lw Pkvm) ckbyI)RhQnm Pkbm /)glfxamPP >gxf cmPP yR>
m)nRaPQbyxgRa*?U:QllmPx xfm PQgxk/cm hmPgla Ro oQPm xR y)Rxmnx ka mcmnx)gnkc
m\Qgybmax >fgnf gP ck/mc4?LNS4?LLZ
:QllmPxgRa MvyckakxgRa
Kfga oQPm >g)m3mPP Pyknm8xR nk))w k cgbgxmh mcmnx)gnkcnQ))max8cmPP bkPP
fmanm cR> fmkx nkykngxw8PfR)xm)xgbm xR fmkx Qy xR bmcxgal yRgax kah /cR>0m)kbgn
nk)x)ghlm0ka >gxfPxkah fglfm) xmbym)kxQ)m /mnkQPm Pyk)dn)mkxmh /w fglf
vRcxklmU4?LN nka /m fQlm6QPm )kxgal gP T]BBk gbQb )kxgal bQPx /m Pcglxfcw fglfm)
xfkaaR)bkc nQ))max3R> bmcxgal yRgax6R) okPx /cR>8bmcxgal okPxm) >fma
m nmPPgvmnQ))max ocR>8mkPw xR nQx xfm nQ))max ocR>3R> Pymngogn fmkx nkykngxw
Kfm oQPm >g)m mkPgcw fmkxmhSbmcx kah /)mkd xfmng)nQgxBmxkc gP QPmh5RRh
mcmnx)gn nRahQnxR)JmPgPxkanm xR R ghkxgRa.RmP aRx gaxm)oknm >gxf Rxfm)
oQanxgRa*$U;RQ fkvm xR nfRRPm Ram Ro xfm nk/cmP xR /m QPmh ga xfm %kxgRakc 5)gh
%mx>R)dU M yckgaxfm PQgxk/gcgxw Ro mknf Ro xfm nfk)knxm)gPxgnP Ro xfm nk/cmPU
:QllmPxgRa MvyckakxgRa
.gkbmxm) PfRQch /m ck)lmKR )mhQnm xfm )mPgPxkanm Ro xfm nk/cmhmaPgxw PfRQch
/m cR>Kfm nk/cmP >gcc /m cglfxm) kah nka /m