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Chapter 1: Project Outline
1.1. Background
With the development of digital technologies in recent decades, there has been drastic
change in the mode of communication and usages of digital accessories in our day to
day lives. It is sure that invention of mobile phone/smart phone has enhanced our life
standard and made life easier. A smart phone is a mobile phone built on a mobile
operating system, with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than a
feature phone. The first smart phones combined the functions of a personal digital
assistant (!A" with a mobile phone. #ater models added the functionality of
portable media players, low$end compact digital cameras, poc%et video cameras,
&luetooth and '( navigation units to form one multi$use device. )any modern
smart phones also include high$resolution touch screens and web browsers that
display standard web pages as well as mobile$optimi*ed sites. +igh$speed data access
is provided by Wi$,i and mobile broadband. In recent years, the rapid developments
of mobile app mar%ets and of mobile commerce have been drivers of (martphone
adoption.
A mobile application (or mobile app" is a software application designed to run on
(martphone, tablet computers and other mobile devices. They are usually available
through application distribution platforms, which are typically operated by the owner
of the mobile operating system, such as the Apple App (tore, 'oogle lay, Windows
hone (tore and &lac%&erry App World. The term -app- has become popular, and in
./1/ was listed as -Word of the 0ear- by the American !ialect (ociety. In .//1,
technology columnist !avid ogue said that newer smart phones could be nic%named
-app phones- to distinguish them from earlier less$sophisticated smart phones.
)obile apps were originally offered for general productivity and information
retrieval, including email, calendar, contacts, and stoc% mar%et and weather
information. +owever, public demand and the availability of developer tools drove
rapid e2pansion into other categories, such as mobile games, factory automation, '(
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and location$based services, ban%ing, order$trac%ing, and tic%et purchases. The
popularity of mobile applications has continued to rise, as their usage has become
increasingly prevalent across mobile phone users. A )ay ./1. com(core study
reported that during the previous 3uarter, more mobile subscribers used apps than
browsed the web on their devices4 51.16 vs. 71.86 respectively.
,ig 14 'raph showing use of android phone
Android is a #inu2$based operating system designed primarily for touch screen
mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers. Initially developed by
Android, Inc, which 'oogle bac%ed financially and later bought in .//5, Android
was unveiled in .//9 along with the founding of the :pen +andset Alliance4 a
consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to
advancing open standards for mobile devices. The first Android$powered phone was
sold in :ctober .//8.
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1.2. Introduction
<ltra =ommunicator for android mobile :( (<=$roid" is a mobile application which
is designed to wor% on android operating system. This application is used for
accessing the data of other mobile or any other devices (e. g laptop, =" which has
support to &luetooth connectivity. (ince the cra*e of mobile phones especially smart
phones is growing eagerly every year, in the same ratio the development of mobile
application to support those phones is also growing. The basic idea of the application
is to establish the connection between mobiles and have a full access to the data e.g.
files, e$boo%s, images, documents, music files etc. :nce connected, you can e2plore
all your Android videos, photos, and music on the laptop wirelessly.
Bluetooth/Wi-Fi
,ig .4 = e2plorer
Bluetooth
,ig ;4 &luetooth chat
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The additional function of the application is to provide communication i.e. chat
(te2t/voice" between the connected devices. With the help of application one can view
as well as play the media file in his device.
Working Principle:
The application is installed in phone and it as% re3uest for connection to other phones,
in case of pc or laptops their operating system have default service to connect those
devices. Any &luetooth device in discoverable mode will transmit the following
information on demand4
> !evice name
> !evice class
> #ist of services
> Technical information (for e2ample4 device features, manufacturer, &luetooth
specification used, cloc% offset"
Any device may perform an in3uiry to find other devices to connect to, and any
device can be configured to respond to such in3uiries. +owever, if the device trying
to connect %nows the address of the device, it always responds to direct connection
re3uests and transmits the information shown in the list above if re3uested. <se of a
device?s services may re3uire pairing or acceptance by its owner, but the connection
itself can be initiated by any device and held until it goes out of range. (ome devices
can be connected to only one device at a time, and connecting to them prevents them
from connecting to other devices and appearing in in3uiries until they disconnect
from the other device.
@very device has a uni3ue 78$bit address. +owever, these addresses are generally not
shown in in3uiries. Instead, friendly &luetooth names are used, which can be set by
the user. This name appears when another user scans for devices and in lists of paired
devices.
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1.3. Objectives
i. To utili*e the strong &luetooth connectivity power of android smart phones
ii. To access data li%e images, documents, media files, e$boo%s etc without
being transferred from one phone to other phone.
iii. To establish the connection between android phones and =/laptops and
facilitate communication via te2t/voice i.e. chat.
iv. To communicate between two outrange device with one intermediate host
v. To capture wifi networ% and spread hotspot.
1.. !eatures
<ltra =ommunicator is android application designed to run on smart phones, which
supports most of the features related in the field of communication. The main
remar%able features are4$
o &luetooth chat
(Te2t/voice chat"
o ,ile sharing
,ile transfer and access authority
(@g.pdf documents, Apeg, word, e$boo% etc"
o (pread hotspot
(=aptures wifi and spread virtual networ%"
o :utrange communication with the aid of intermediate host
(It helps to e2tend the range of &luetooth"
o <ser friendly interface
,ully secured (It as%s user authority to access the files"
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Chapter 2: "iterature #evie$
2.1. "iterature #evie$
The mobile applications mar%et is currently undergoing rapid e2pansion, as mobile
platforms continue to improve in performance, and as the usersC need for a wide
variety of mobile applications increases. The latest mobile platforms allow for
e2tensive utili*ation of networ% resources, and thus offer a strong alternative to
wor%stations and associated software.
%ndroid is a mobile operating system that is based on a modified version of #inu2. It
was originally developed by a start of the same name, android, Inc. 'oogle wanted
android to be open and freeD hence, most of the android code can do so by
downloading the full android source code. The main advantage of adopting android is
that it offers a unified approach to application development. Android application is
developed in android software development %it ((!E". It contains a debugger,
libraries, an emulator, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. Android
development tools (A!T" plug$in for @clipse is an e2tension to the @clipse I!@ that
supports the creation and debugging of android application. In case of android, the
most recommended integrated development environment is @clipse, which is a multi$
language software development environment featuring an e2tensible plug$in system.
The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the release of
the Android beta in Fovember .//9. The first commercial version, Android 1./, was
released in (eptember .//8. !ifferent versions of android by its AI are listed as4
&ersions
Android (1./$1.1$1.5$1.B",
Android (../$../.1$..1$...$....;$..;$..;..$..;.;$..;.9",
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Android (;./$;.1$;.." and Android (7./$7./..$7./.;$7./.7$7.1$7.. Gelly &ean, AI
level 19"
When we come in the part of layout design '(" is mostly recommended for the
android platform. It is a mar%up language that defines a set of rules for encoding
documents in a format that is both human$readable and machine$readable. Android
provides a straightforward H)# vocabulary that corresponds to the Iiew classes and
subclasses, such as those for widgets and layouts. The advantage of declaring <I in
H)# is that it enables to better separate the presentation of application from the code
that controls its behavior. In case of programming language Gava is used for the
development of android apps because it is well %nown by developers, open source,
secured, faster, platform independent.
Wi)!i is a popular technology that allows an electronic device to e2change data
wirelessly (using radio waves" over a computer networ%, including high$speed
Internet connections. The Wi$,i Alliance defines Wi$,i as any wireless local area
networ% (W#AF" products that are based on the Institute of @lectrical and @lectronics
@ngineers? (I@@@" 8/..11 standards. A device that can use Wi$,i (such as a personal
computer, video$game console, (martphone, digital camera, tablet or digital audio
player" can connect to a networ% resource such as the Internet via a wireless networ%
access point. (uch an access point (or hotspot" has a range of about ./ meters (B5
feet" indoors and a greater range outdoors. +otspot coverage can comprise an area as
small as a single room with walls that bloc% radio waves or as large as many s3uare
miles.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for e2changing data over short distances
(using short$wavelength radio transmissions in the I() band from .7//J.78/ )+*"
from fi2ed and mobile devices, creating personal area networ%s (AFs" with high
levels of security. =reated by telecom vendor @ricsson in 1117, it was originally
conceived as a wireless alternative to K($.;. data cables. It can connect several
devices, overcoming problems of synchroni*ation. &luetooth operates in the range of
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.7//J.78;.5 )+* (including guard bands". This is in the globally unlicensed
Industrial, (cientific and )edical (I()" ..7 '+* short$range radio fre3uency band.
&ersion *ata rate (a+i,u, rate
Iersion 1.. 1 )bit/s /.9 )bit/s
Iersion ../ L @!K ; )bit/s ..1 )bit/s
Iersion ;./ L +( .7 )bit/s
Iersion 7./
Bluetooth Protocol -tack:
&luetooth is defined as a layer protocol architecture consisting of core protocols,
cable replacement protocols, telephony control protocols, and adopted protocols.
)andatory protocols for all &luetooth stac%s are4 #), #.=A and (!. In addition,
devices that communicate with &luetooth almost universally can use these protocols4
+=I and K,=:)).
Kadio ,re3uency =ommunications (K,=:))" is a cable replacement protocol used
to create a virtual serial data stream. K,=:)) provides a simple reliable data stream
to the user, similar to T=. )any &luetooth applications use K,=:)) because of
its widespread support and publicly available AI on most operating systems.
Additionally, applications that used a serial port to communicate can be 3uic%ly
ported to use K,=:)).
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2.2. (ethodolog.
Android development is a comple2 process, the successful implementation of
Android )obile Application !evelopment proAects by and large depends on the
development approach itself. We at this level strongly believe in following a
systematic and professional development approach.
%gile (ethodolog.4
Agile methods represent a relatively new approach to software development,
becoming wide$spread in the last decade. The ideas behind these methods originate
from the principles of #ean )anufacturing (in the 117/s" and Agile )anufacturing
(111/s", which emphasi*ed the adaptability of enterprises to a dynamic environment
((alo,.//B". The uni3ue features of agile methods derive from the list of principles
found in the MAgile )anifesto 4 individuals and interactions are more important than
processes and tools, wor%ing software is more valuable than comprehensive
documentation, customer collaboration is preferred over contract negotiation, and
adaptability is valued higher than creating and following a plan (Agile Alliance,
.//1".
Agile !evelopment )odel is based on iterative development, wherein the entire
software development life$cycle is bro%en down into smaller iterations (or parts". The
proAect scope and re3uirements are clearly laid down, at the start of the development
process. This type of model is best suited for large si*e proAects as it helps to
minimi*e the overall ris% and lets the proAect adapt to changes 3uic%ly.
,ig 74 Agile model
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Chapter 3: Progress to date
3.1. Work %cco,plished
#ist of wor% that we have carried out during the time of proposal submission to till
date are briefly described below. We are on the schedule and have tried to meet the
committed activities that were mentioned in the proposal.
Preli,inar. #esearch and -tud.
(ince study and research has no any end and ta%es much time .We are almost at the
end of the proAect re3uirement analysis part. We have wor% through different
development tools and too% the suggestion about android development, problems that
may encounter from the e2pertise. !uring research we have much spent time in
learning to use A!E (Android !evelopment Eit" in @cllipse. (ince @cllipse provides
an environment for android developer. Android application development is the most
growing technology in the recent IT field. This research has motivated us for further
development.
/ser Inter0ace design
We have designed the <I of application with the help of H)# which is %nown as
Activity in Android. This method greatly simplifies the <I design process, moving
much of the static creation and layout of user interface controls and definition of
control attributes, to the H)#, instead of littering the code. It creates a potential
distinction between <I designers (who concern themselves more with layout" and
developers (who %now Gava and implement application functionality". !evelopers can
still alter the content of a screen programmatically when necessary. =omple2
controls, li%e #istIiew or 'ridIiew, are usually populated with data
programmatically. H)# layout resources are stored in the /res/layout proAect
directory.
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The interface of the application is fancy and user friendly. (ince our proAect is still in
development so we have used Android Iirtual !evice to mitigate the running
environment of the application in smart phone. =hat message bo2 window have been
developed successfully. <nli%e other modules are also in developing phase. (imilarly
to carry out the functional wor% Aava class file and Aava code essential in our proAect.
,ig 54 <ser Interface
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*evelop,ent
We use @clipse I!@ as development tool which provides the integrated development
environment for android proAect development and re3uirements are coded in Gava
programming language. Gava programming language is used to code functional code
whereas H)# code for layout. We have learned to use @clipse and Android (!E.
*atabase design
,or database we use (N#ite which is the light weight database used in small proAects
and also in android proAect development. The (N#ite database is used in Android for
storing and managing application data. The (N#ite database is an open source
lightweight transaction (N# database engine. There are other means of storing
application data in Android rather than a database (they are %nown as references",
but those are more often used to store a very small amount of information, li%e
usernames and passwords, so that users are not prompted for their credentials every
time the application is started.
Co,,unication and connection:
Any &luetooth capable device is able to discover new device in a networ% on demand
by providing information such as4 device name, device class and other technical
information. A &luetooth device is able to connect with the help of <<I!(universal
uni3ue identifier" of neighbour device. <<I! helps to uni3uely identify device in a
networ%. )ost commonly used identifier by the manufacturer of device is 78$bit
)A= address.
Application is capable of discovering device in networ% and establishing connection
between them. ,urther it successfully transmits a message through &luetooth. Two
way &luetooth chat can be made when message is typed in a chat bo2.
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3.2. Work #e,aining
To ma%e our proAect complete and running some of the maAor wor%s is to be done and
the wor%s to be accomplished in coming future are listed below4
1nhancing the /I (<ser Interface"
To ma%e the fancy loo% of the application we are planning to change the
designing to meet the standard of the mar%et.
1+plore co,puter
The main aim of our proAect is to e2plore pc via &luetooth with help of
application. When two android devices are connected wirelessly, with limited
access privilege one can e2plore = data e.g. te2t documents, image, videos,
df files, music etc.
Wi)!i tethering
Tethering refers to connecting one device to another. In the conte2t of mobile
phones or Internet tablets, tethering allows sharing the Internet connection of
the phone or tablet with other devices such as laptops. =onnection of the
phone or tablet with other devices can be done over wireless #AF (Wi$,i",
over &luetooth or by physical connection using a cable for e2ample, through
<(&. If tethering is done over Wi$,i, the feature may be branded as a )obile
+otspot. The Internet$connected mobile device can thus act as a portable
wireless access point and router for devices connected to it.
2est in real devices
The final step of our proAects is to publish our full complete proAect, test it in
all devices.
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*ocu,entation
(oftware documentation is the formal te2t written document which either
e2plains how it operates or how to use it, or may mean different things to
people in different roles. It includes different information about the proAect
e.g4 re3uirement statements, system specification, technical statement and user
manual.
(ince up to till date we have completed the basic architectural design part of the
application. We have to go through the detailed interior and e2terior design of the
application. We were able to establish the &luetooth connection between the devices
and able to send and receive message. &luetooth 7./ is the latest version which is said
to be low energy consuming technology and in near future most of the (martphone
are going to integrate this technology. :ur application is to wor% as communication
media using the recent technology
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. Proble,s 1ncountered
@very new proAect when we get involved in is li%ely to throw up different issues and
challenges but it is difficult to assume in advance what %ind of problems will
percolate during a particular proAect. (ome of the problem that encountered during
development phase is listed briefly as below4$
1,ulator
An emulator is hardware or software or both that duplicates (or emulates" the
functions of one computer system in another computer system (the host", different
from the first one, so that the emulated behavior closely resembles the behavior of the
real system. The Android (!E includes a mobile device emulator O a virtual mobile
device that runs on our computer. The problem with android AI! is that it doesnCt
support &luetooth and hence it has created a problem to test our applications without
using a physical device.
2esting in real device
The maAor problem we encountered during course of our proAect development is with
the proAect testing. (ince the Android @mulator does not support &luetooth it was had
for us to try test our code for (witching, &luetooth connection and paring devices.
(ince our application is targeted for android version 7./ and above, so device with
this configuration is still in the process of procurement at department.
Bugs and errors
(oftware bugs and errors are very common in the Aargon of software development.
We cannot neglect those errors but should handle carefully. A software bug is an
error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that produces an
incorrect or une2pected result, or causes it to behave in unintended ways. !ue to our
ine2perience in development of android application, we have to come through
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enormous bugs and errors. (ome of them were easily recoverable while others created
a serious problem and too% lots of time to recover them.
*esign
The overall system design is the creative part of the proAect and it ta%es much
brainstorming of the team members. It is really a challenging tas% to meet the system
re3uirements with best designing. !ue to ine2perience in our wor%, it was difficult to
finali*e the best design.
3uidance and -upport
(ince android development is a comple2 process and it was not a common proAect.
Android is upcoming technology, so e2pert in it are very less in number and we could
not get proper guidance. )any bugs and errors created an ambiguity during the
development, which sometimes made us hopeless.
2i,e ,anage,ent
Time has great significance in every aspects of our life, it is the %ey factor for the
success. !uring our academic life it is very difficult to manage time. And at the
proAect development phase it was a maAor problem that we couldnCt meet the
committed time period as mentioned in proposal.
2ea, coordination
:bviously all team members are not always available due to their own personal
circumstances. Also all members are not e3ually talented.
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4. Conclusion
+ence, at the time of preparation of this progress report we have come up to the (5/$
B5" 6 of the proAect. (ince developing a Android application is not a regular tas% for
us as we are new at this and we need to develop our base in developing Android
application its been hard but interesting and a opportunity to learn and enter in a new
field of software application development. We have designed the graphic <I in H)#
since it is the most convenient and maintainable way to design application user
interfaces is by creating H)# layout resources. Application is designed for smart
phone so we created fancy icons, buttons, chat bo2 for the fancy loo%.
The main problem was we had a hardware inconvience for testing the proAect.
Android emulator doesnCt support for &luetooth connectivity and pairing of devices.
!espite of several limitations and comple2ity we are eagerly wor%ing hard in proAect
and will meet our commitment in the stated time.
=oncluding to the report we have included all our proAect activity up to now, tas%
remaining, problem encountered and theories related to our proAects.
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#e0erences
www.wro2 .com , ; ,eb, ./1;
www.androidd eveloper. c om , 1/ )arch, ./1;
w w w. a ndroidb i g r e sour ce .c o m , 5 Gune, ./1;