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COMPANY OVERVIEW

The story of one of India's favorite brands reads almost like a fairy tale.
Once upon a time, in 1892 to be precise, a biscuit company was started in a
nondescript house in Calcutta (now Kolkata) with an initial investment of
Rs. 295. The company we all know as Britannia today.

The beginnings might have been humble-the dreams were anything but. By
1910, with the advent of electricity, Britannia mechanized its operations,
and in 1921, it became the first company east of the Suez Canal to use
imported gas ovens. Britannia's business was flourishing. But, more
importantly, Britannia was acquiring a reputation for quality and value. As
a result, during the tragic World War II, the Government reposed its trust in
Britannia by contracting it to supply large quantities of "service biscuits" to
the armed forces.

As time moved on, the biscuit market continued to grow and Britannia
grew along with it. In 1975, the Britannia Biscuit Company took over the
distribution of biscuits from Parry's who till now distributed Britannia
biscuits in India. In the subsequent public issue of 1978, Indian
shareholding crossed 60%, firmly establishing the Indianness of the firm.
The following year, Britannia Biscuit Company was re-christened Britannia
Industries Limited (BIL). Four years later in 1983, it crossed the Rs. 100
crores revenue mark.

On the operations front, the company was making equally dynamic strides.
In 1992, it celebrated its Platinum Jubilee. In 1997, the company unveiled
its new corporate identity - "Eat Healthy, Think Better" - and made its first
foray into the dairy products market. In 1999, the "Britannia Khao, World
Cup Jao" promotion further fortified the affinity consumers had with 'Brand
Britannia'.


Britannia strode into the 21st Century as one of India's biggest brands and
the pre-eminent food brand of the country. It was equally recognized for its
innovative approach to products and marketing: the Lagaan Match was
voted India's most successful promotional activity of the year 2001 while
the delicious Britannia 50-50 Maska-Chaska became India's most
successful product launch. In 2002, Britannia's New Business Division
formed a joint venture with Fonterra, the world's second largest Dairy
Company, and Britannia New Zealand Foods Pvt. Ltd. was born. In
recognition of its vision and accelerating graph, Forbes Global rated
Britannia 'One amongst the Top 200 Small Companies of the World', and
The Economic Times pegged Britannia India's 2nd Most Trusted Brand.

Today, more than a century after those tentative first steps, Britannia's
fairy tale is not only going strong but blazing new standards, and that
miniscule initial investment has grown by leaps and bounds to crores of
rupees in wealth for Britannia's shareholders. The company's offerings are
spread across the spectrum with products ranging from the healthy and
economical Tiger biscuits to the more lifestyle-oriented Milkman Cheese.
Having succeeded in garnering the trust of almost one-third of India's one
billion populations and a strong management at the helm means Britannia
will continue to dream big on its path of innovation and quality. And
millions of consumers will savour the results, happily ever after.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Through this acknowledgment, we express our sincere
gratitude to Mr.Prakash Pandey, Regional HR Manager, &
Mr.Rana Roy , Factory Manager, Britannia Industries
limited for providing our an opportunity to do our
summer training . This project bears on imprint of many
peoples. We sincerely thank to our project guide Miss.
Mayuri, Mr C.N Nagesh, Regional Quality Assurance
Manager & Mr. Khokan Gautam, Ekorshi Sir, Chiranjib Sir&
other quality officers for guidance and encouragement in
carrying out this project work. we also wish to express our
gratitude to the officials and other staff members of
BRITANNIA INDUSTRIES LIMITED who rendered their
valuable time to help us during the period of our summer
training and made it a worthwhile experience & we extend
our thanks to the various people who have shared their
opinions and experiences through which we received the
required information crucial for this report. Our special
thanks to Jennifer Sawney, HR Dept. of the company for
their kind co-operation to the completion of our summer
training. Last but not least we wish to avail ourself of this
opportunity, express a sense of gratitude and love to our
teachers and our beloved parents for their manual
support, strength, and help and for everything.



CONTENTS

1) GENERAL STORE:
1.1) introduction
1.2) Purpose
1.3) Process flow
1.4) Work undergoing in the general store
1.5) Material receipt and issue
1.6) Storage condition of different material
1.7) Precautions to be taken in general store.

2) QUALITY CONTROL:
2.1) Test performed for raw materials
2.2) Finished products
2.3) Packaging materials
2.4) Determination of moisture
2.5) Determination of sedimentation value
2.6) Determination of ash content
2.7) Determination of alcoholic acidity
2.8) Determination of acid insoluble ash
2.9) Determination of germ oil acidity
2.10) Determination of dough raising capacity
2.11) Determination of peroxide value
2.12) Determination of iodine value
2.13) Determination of Free Fatty Acid
2.14) Quality analysis of laminate
2.15) Quality analysis of CBB

3) PROJECT REPORT ON VARIATION OF MOISTURE
CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF BISCUITS IN THE PROCESS
LINE

4) PRODUCTION:
4.1) Flow sheet
4.2) Mixing & mixers
4.3) Forming
4.4) Baking
4.5) Parameters
4.6) Changes during processing and baking
4.7) Biscuit processing:
i) Cream Cracker
ii) Marie Gold
iii) Tiger Crunch Choc chips
iv) Good Day Butter

5) PACKAGING:
5.1) Introduction
5.2) Flow sheet
5.3) Metal detector
5.4) Stacker
5.5) Feeding Chute
5.6) Horizontal flow wrap
5.7) Packing in CBB
5.8) Defects of biscuit packaging
5.9) Precautions taken during packaging

6) DESPATCH

7) CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION:
Before the dawn of reforms era, Indian farmers used to dream of
having a roof over their head. But, things are changing fast. Now,
Indias farming community wants a roof over their harvested and
milled crops. Lack of proper storage facilities leads to attacks by
pests and other organisms. The damage caused through such
infestations leads to a reduction in market value depending upon
the extent of damage. In some cases the produce is declared unfit for
consumption and has to be destroyed. This leads to huge loss for the
farmer. Ware housing and transportation forms the backbone supply
chain of all industries. Adequate storage capacity and strategic
location of the warehouse enables efficient functioning of supply
and distribution network and also provides strategic competitive
advantage to the business.

Proper material handling, storage conditions and timely movement of
goods are necessary as improper handling and prolonged storage
can deteriorate the quality of the stored product especially the
perishables goods, biological drugs and food stuffs. As commodities trade
entered a new phase in India, it is in the warehousing sector that
India is seeing a parallel boom. Thanks to huge demand for various
agricultural products due to increasing delivery system in market and
growth that is taking place across the country; warehousing
companies like CWC are not only increasing their capacity but scaling
up the quality of their storage space. Since warehouses need large tracts of
land, private investment is drying up. Losses during storage operation
accounts for 6-7 % of production in food grain and 20 to 30% in case of
flour.

PURPOSE:

Scientific storage of produce from the vagaries of weather,
rodents, insects and pests.
They prevent quality and quantity losses.
Meeting the financial needs of industry who store the produce
by providing value for the goods stored.
More goods from the buffer are released when supplies are
less and less is released when supplies are more in the production
area.
Materials or goods are also transferred from here for the purpose of
Inter Factory Transfer.

PROCESS FLOW:




OK NOT OK

NOT OK


OK


VENDOR
RAW/PACKING
MATERIAL
PHYSICAL INSPECTION OF
TRUCKS & RAW MATERIAL
MATERIALUNLOADED REJECTED
ANALYSIS AS PER
BIL STANDARD
ISSUED TO
PRODUCTION
PROCESSING

WORKS UNDERGOING IN THE GENERAL STORE:

There are a series of processes through which the raw material incoming
into the industry goes through before getting issued into the production.
They include the following steps:
1) RECEIVING
2) WEIGHMENT
3) STORAGE &
ISSUANCE
RECEIVING: - There is a particular unloading procedure for each and
every raw material coming into the factory. At first at least 5 random bags
are collected and are samples from them are tested in the quality control
laboratory of the factory, mainly flour are tested on the basis of the
presence of weevil or larvae, SV(sedimentation value) and moisture
content, Butter, FCCM (full cream condensed milk), and other liquid
materials are being tested for its acidity (mainly) & organoleptic qualities
and then on the basis of that report, further the total quantity of the
materials are unloaded and stored for further use.

WEIGHING: - There are two types of weighing procedure in this industry,
they are:
Weigh bridge: if the weight
(to be measured) is more than 30ton, this procedure is applied. Here
at first the truck along with the raw materials inside it is loaded onto
the weigh bridge and the reading is taken along with the truck
number and date. Next reading in the same process is taken after the
same truck is unloaded or emptied. Then both the readings are
subtracted along with the weight of the bags, and the net amount of
the raw materials are obtained. E.g. the weight of the flour, sugar, and
other solid raw materials are taken this way.
Weighing machine: in this
machine, raw materials less than 30ton are weighed and issued for
storage or process line. The procedure is simple as taking weight. E.g.
The weight of laminate rolls, CBB (card board boxes) & liners, tapes
etc.

STORAGE AND ISSUANCE: After they are tested ok by the receiving
and weighing processes, they are then stored for storage or issued as per
requirement to the production or packaging section of the industry. Other
materials not been required at that moment go for storage either into the
factory store, or CWC (Central Welfare Corporation) or sent as per
requirement for the IFT (Inter Factory Transfer).

MATERIAL RECIEPT AND ISSUE:
There are certain procedures for materials receipt and issue. The materials
before unloading undergo a pre-unloading inspection for raw materials.
They are as follows:

All the materials in the truck
should be properly covered with tarpaulin
Tarpaulin should also be
present at the bottom of the truck also.
Hygiene condition of the
truck should be neat
Tankers carrying edible oils
should not carry hazardous chemicals or petroleum products.
Trucks should have pollution
control check certificate.
All the materials should be
visually inspected for any physical damage/odour.
CBBs should be checked for
wet condition & damage.
Wrapper should be checked
for odour and damage.

STORAGE CONDITION OF RAW MATERIALS:
CLASS OF
ITEM
INGREDIENT NAME RECOMMENDED
STORAGE
TEMPERATURE
STORAGE
PERIOD
FLOUR



i)Wheat flour
ii)Rice flour
iii)Soya flour
iv)Vitacel
Room temperature
Ac condition
Ac condition
Ac condition
15 days
45days
2months
12months
STARCHES

i)arrowroot starches
ii)maize starches
Room temperature
Room temperature
3months
6months
FATS/OILS

RBD Palmolein bulk
& RPO
Ambient temperature 1month

SWEETENI
NG
AGENTS


i)crystal sugar
ii)PG sugar
iii)Jaggery
iv)Liquid glucose
Room temperature
Room temperature
Room temperature
Room temperature
24months
2months
2months
3months
CLASS OF ITEM INGREDIENT NAME RECOMMENDED
STORAGE
TEMPERATURE
STORAGE
PERIOD
YEAST/COLOU
RS /ENZYMES



i)Compressed yeast
ii)Pappain
iii)inactive dried
yeast
iv)Neutrase

3-7 degree Celsius
Ac room condition
Room temperature
25degree Celsius
5degree Celsius
5days
8months
6months
3months
12months
FLAVOURS








i)ethyl vanillin
ii)butter flavor
iii)cocoa extender
iv)synthetic flavor
v)coconut milk
powder
vi)Dessicated
coconut powder
vii) vanillin

Ac condition
Ac condition
Ac condition
Ac condition
Ac condition
Ac condition
Ac
condition

18months
6months
6months
12months
6months
6months

24months

EMULSIFIER



i)lecithin
ii)GMS
iii)Solbake
iv)Datem
Room temperature
Room temperature
Room temperature
Ac condition
6months
6months
12months
9months
ANTIOXIDANTS i)TBHQ
ii)BHA
Ac room condition
Ac room condition
36months
18months
DAIRY
FOOD
i)butter

ii)SMP
iii)condensed milk
iv)FCCM
v)whey powder
vi)butter oil
0 to 10degree Celsius
-15 to -20 degree Celsius
Room temperature
Room temperature
Ac condition
Room temperature
Room temperature
12 degree Celsius
1month
6months
9months
2months
3months
2months
3months
6months max
(in drums).

CHEMICAL &
AERATING
AGENTS

i)Ammonium
carbonate
ii)sodium carbonate

Room temperature

Room temperature

6months

6months

CHEMICALS





i)citric acid
ii)sodium
metabisulphite
iii)sodium chloride
iv)propylene glycol

Room temperature
Room temperature

Room temperature
Room temperature

24months
3months

6months
3months

OTHERS i)cashew pieces &
nuts

ii)all essences
Room temperature
or ac condition
Ac condition
3months

12months


COLD STORES: The storage of things in an artificially cooled place for
preservation which are of two types:-

a) Cold store having a temperature of 16-17 degree Celsius: Here the
essences, FCCM, other dairy products, emulsifier and sometimes formed
dough are also kept.

b) Cold store having temperature of 3-5 degree Celsius: here only
compressed yeast and Choc-chips are kept exclusively.





GENERAL PRECAUTIONS OF STORES:

1) Materials (ingredients, packaging material, finished goods) should not be
in direct contact on the floor and should be kept in a non-permeable
material (e.g. sheets or pallets) to prevent floor seepage.
2) Minimum 18inch gap between the wall & each stack should be
maintained.
3) Each consignment is identified with a a tag indicating the date of receipt,
variety, supplier name & quantity received.
4) All the stocks issued to mixing/packing floor & CP centers will be on the
basis of FIFO (first in first out) basis, except the wheat flour which is based
on the properties of the flour & not by receipt date.
5) Each consignment should be identified with paper tag inserted in a
metal/PVC frame/sticker.
6) Bulk storage tank cleaning of the oil stored tanks should be done once in
six months.
7) All the materials should be neatly & properly arranged, and proper
ventilation and humidity should also be maintained.
8) Pest menace and hygiene should be controlled effectively.


1.




2. QUALITY CONTROL
AND ANALYSIS LABORATORY

TESTS PERFORMED FOR THE VARIOUS RAW
MATERIALS:
FLOUR REFIN
ED
PALM
OIL
FULL
CREAM
CONDEN
SED
MILK
YEAST LACT
OSE
BUTT
ER
LECIT
HIN
SKIM
MILK
POWD
ER
CHOCOL
ATE
CHIPS
Moisture Free
fatty
acid
Moisture Moistu
re
Moistu
re
Moistu
re
Moistu
re
Moistu
re
Moisture
Sediment
ation
value
Peroxid
e value
Acidity Dough
raising
capacit
y
pH Acidity Acid
value
Titrabl
e
acidity
Count
per kg
Dry
gluten
Iodine
value
Ash Total fat
Ash Presenc
e of
TBHQ

Acid
insoluble
ash

Alcoholic
acidity
Germoil
acidity


TESTS PERFORMED FOR THE FINISHED PRODUCT:
BISCUIT
Moisture
Free fatty acid

TESTS PERFORMED FOR THE PAKAGING MATERIALS:
CBB LAMINATE
Physical parameters Physical parameters
Dimension Cut off &width
G.S.M G.S.M
Moisture Bond strength
Compression strength Tensile strength
Seal strength

AIM: DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE
PROCEDURE: About 5 g of the sample was weighed in to a petri plate
which was previously weighted. Then it was dried in an oven. The petri
plate was covered and was transferred to dessicator and weighed
quickly as possible as the dish was cooled. The heating and weighing
procedures was repeated until successive weight did not differ by more
than one milligram .Loss in weights were recorded.
Moisture % = [(M1 M2)*100]/M1 M
M1= weight in gm of petriplate with sample initially
M2=weight in gm of petriplate with sample after drying
M = weight in gm of sample taken
SIGNIFICANCE: It is determined to ensure its shelf life and the packaging. If
moisture content is beyond the limit, it is prone to chemical and microbial
spoilage. It also affects the organoleptic properties.


NAME OF ITEM WEIGHT OF
MATERIAL IN
GRAMS
TEMPERATURE
IN C
TIME IN HOURS
Wheat flour 5-10 130-135 1.5
Sugar 10-15 100-105 3.0
Refined oil 20 100-105 1.0
SMP 5-10 98 5.0
Biscuits 5-10 100-105 4.0

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS:


NAME OF
ITEM

Wheat
flour

Skim
milk
powd
er

Choco
late
chips

FCCM

Yeast

Lact
ose

Butt
er

Lecith
in

Biscuit

CBB

ACCEPTAN
CE
CRITERION

14%
max

5%
max

2%
max

29%
max

75%
max

0.5
%
max

16%
max

2%
max
Good day,
Tiger
crunch-
1.75+- 0.25
% max and
Cream
cracker-
2+- 0.25%
max

7-9%
max

AIM: DETERMINATION OF SEDIMENTATION VALUE
PROCEDURE: In a stoppered measuring cylinder (sedimentation shaker),
3.2 gm of flour was taken. To it added 50ml of Bromophenol Blue solution
and shake for 5mins. After that, 25ml of Isopropanol Lactic Acid solution
was added and shaken for another 5mins. Then kept the cylinder in a
standing position on a table for 5mins and noted the height of precipitate.
STANDARD SPECIFICATION: 19 to 25 is the acceptance criterion.

AIM: DETERMINATION OF GLUTEN CONTENT
PROCEDURE: Weighted accurately 25gms of sample in a 100ml beaker.
Made a round ball of dough using 15ml of distilled water. Transferred the
dough ball to a container filled with water and allow it to stand for an hour.
Remove the dough and wash it in a gentle stream of tap water over a sieve
of fine mesh till the water passing through the sieve is free from starch.
Then place the wet gluten in porcelain dish after cutting it into small pieces
and then dry it in a hot air oven at 135C for 2hrs. Cooled and weighted the
sample.
Dry gluten % = [(W2 W) x 100 x 100] / [25 x (100 M)]
W2 = weight of petriplate and gluten after drying
W = weight of petriplate
M = moisture percent of flour
STANDARD SPECIFICATION: 7.5gms minimum is the acceptance
criterion.

AIM: DETERMINATION OF ASH CONTENT
PROCEDURE: The empty silica crucible is weighted and 3-5gm of sample
was taken and weighted again. Then it was placed in muffle furnace at 550-
600C for 5-6hrs. Then sample is allowed to cool overnight in the furnace.
Placed the sample in the dessicator and then weighted. The difference in
weight of sample before and after ashing gives the ash content of the
sample.
Ash % = [100(W2 W1)]/W
W2= weight in gm of the dish with ash
W1=weight in gm of the empty dish
W =weight of the sample taken for the test

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS: 1% max for flour and 0.3% max for lactose
is the acceptance criterion.
SIGNIFICANCE: It is determined to check the presence of mineral and also
to check that no adulteration has taken place.


AIM: DETERMINATION OF ALCOHOLIC ACIDITY
PROCEDURE: Weighted 5gm of sample in a conical flask and add 50ml of
neutral alcohol. Closed the flask and allowed it to stand for 24hrs. Filter the
alcoholic extract through an ordinary filter paper. Titrate 10ml of filtrate
with standard N/10 NaOH using phenolphthalein as indicator. Calculate %
acidity in terms of Sulphuric acid.
Alcoholic acidity% = (24.52 x A x N)/W
A= Volume in ml of standard NaOH solution used in titration after deducing
blank for 10ml of alcohol
N= Normality of standard NaOH
W= Weight in gm of the material taken for the test
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS: 0.12% max for flour in the acceptance
criterion.

AIM: DETERMINATION OF ACID INSOLUBLE ASH
PROCEDURE: To the ash in the dish, 25ml 6(N) HCl is added. It is covered
and heated on water bath for 10mins. It is allowed to cool and the contents
are filtered through a gravimetric filter paper. The filter paper is washed
with distilled water till washing is free from acid. The filter paper is ashed
and weighted in the same dish.
Acid insoluble ash % = [100 x (W2-W) x 100]/[(W1-W) x (100-M)]
W2= Weight in gm of the dish with acid insoluble ash
W1= Weight in gm of the dish with material taken
W = Weight in gm of empty dish
M = Moisture % in sample
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS: 0.1% max for flour and for lecithin is the
acceptance criterion.
SIGNIFICANCE: Acid insoluble ash is determined to check the presence of
silica and heavy metal salt content.

AIM: DETERMINATION OF GERMOIL ACIDITY
PROCEDURE: 5gm of sample is weighted and added to an iodine flask
followed by 50ml petroleum ether. The flask is closed and allowed to stand
for 24 hrs. A conical flask is weighted and the contents of the iodine flask
are filtered in it. The conical flask is placed on the water bath for as long as
it is not free from petroleum ether. The flask is cooled and weighted to
know oil content. Neutral alcohol is added to the germ oil in conical flask
and titrated against N/10 NaOH using phenolphthalein indicator.
Germoil acidity% = [(T-B) x actual strength of NaOH x 28.2]/(W2 W1)
T= Titre for Germoil
B= Titre value for blank
W2-W1= Weight of Germoil extracted
STANDARD SPECIFICATION: 17.5% max for Good Day and classic cookies
and 20.0% max for others.

AIM: DETERMINATION OF DOUGH RAISING CAPACITY OF YEAST
PROCEDURE: About 1gm of dried yeast or 4gms of compressed fresh yeast
weighed accurately into a 100ml dry beaker. To that 1-1.5gm of sugar is
mixed and dissolved in 55ml of hot water maintained at 40C.
Dough is prepared by mixing the yeast suspension with 100gms of wheat
flour. The prepared dough is uniformly packed inside a 500ml dry beaker
dough height (A) is measured from the bottom and the allowance must be
given for the bottom thickness of the glass.
The beaker is covered with watch glass giving room for the dough to be
equilibrium with atmosphere for 1hr duration. After 1hr the increase in
height of the dough is measured.
Dough raising capacity= [(B A) *100]/A
A=Initial height
B=Final height of the raised dough.
STANDARD SPECIFICATION: 125min is the acceptance criterion

AIM: DETERMINATION OF PEROXIDE VALUE
PROCEDURE: About 2-3gms of the sample is accurately weighted in a dried
250ml Iodine flask. To that 25ml of the solvent (Mix 2 volumes of glacial
acetic acid and 1volume of chloroform) is added and mixed
homogeneously. 1ml of Potassium iodine solution is added and allowed to
stand in the dark for 1minute. After 1minute, 1ml of starch indicator is
added and the solution is diluted with 35ml of distilled water and titrated
against 0.002N solution of sodium thiosulphate from 10ml volumetric
burette. The end point is the disappearance of blue colour. A blank with
25ml of Chloroform- acetic acid mixture is carried out.
P.V= [1000(V1 V2) x N]/W
V1 = Volume in ml of sodium thiosulphate used in test
V2 = Volume in ml of sodium thiosulphate used in blank
N = Normality of sodium thiosulphate
W = Weight of sample
STANDARD SPECIFICATION: 1.5 max for Refined Palm Oil
SIGNIFICANCE: Peroxide value is the milli equivalent of peroxide per kg of
fat.



AIM: DETERMINATION OF IODINE VALUE
PROCEDURE: Hanus Iodine solution is prepared by dissolving 13.2gm pure
iodine in 1litre acetic acid. Then enough bromine is added to double
halogen content as determined by titration. The iodine may be dissolved by
heating, but the solution should be cold when bromine is added.
Around 0.2gm of oil is weighted into 250ml dried Iodine flask. The contents
are dissolved by adding 15ml chloroform to that solution, 25ml of Hanus
Iodine solution is added and allowed to stand in the dark at room
temperature for 1hour after closing the flask with the stopper. Under
similar condition a blank is prepared by adding 15ml chloroform and 25ml
of Iodine monochloride and kept inside dark at room temperature for
1hour. In the meanwhile a volumetric 50ml burette is fitted with 0.1N
thiosulphate solution and starch indicator solution is kept ready for the
titration. After 1hour standing one by one the flasks are removed from the
dark and titrated against thiosulphate solution from the burette after the
addition of 20ml of Potassium iodine and about 50ml of water and starch
indicator towards the end point of the titration. The titration is continued
till the disappearance of blue colour.
I.V = [12.69 x N x (V2 V1)]/W
V1 = Volume in ml of thiosulphate solution in test
V2 = Volume in ml of thiosulphate solution in blank
N = Normality of thiosulphate solution
W = Weight of sample
STANDARD SPECIFICATION: 45-56 is the acceptance criterion for RPO
SIGNIFICANCE: Iodine value is the grams of iodine or iodine compound
absorbed by 100gms of fat. It is the measure of the extent of unsaturation
present in fat.

AIM: DETERMINATION OF FREE FATTY ACID
PROCEDURE: Weighed 12-15gms of oil sample in a 500ml conical flask. To
it added 50ml neutral alcohol. The neutral alcohol is prepared by treating
200ml alcohol with five drops of 0.5% phenolphthalein and then adding
0.1N KOH drop by drop until a faint but permanent pink colour appears.
Then the mixture of oil and neutral alcohol is heated in a hot water bath.
Then titrate the hot solution (between 50and 60C) rapidly with 0.1N KOH,
to the first pink colour which remains for 15 seconds.
Free Fatty acid = [(V2 V1) x N x 56] /W
V1 = Volume in ml of KOH solution in test
V2 = Volume in ml of KOH solution in blank
N = Normality of KOH solution
W = Weight of sample
STANDARD SPECIFICATION: 0.10% max for RPO
SIGNIFICANCE: It is determined to check whether the sample is prone to
rancidity.
AIM: QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LAMINATE
PARAMETERS SAMPLE SIZE METHOD OF
CHECKING
ACCEPTANCE
CRITERION

General
characteristics

As per sampling
plan

Physical
observations/
organoleptic
evaluation
Should be free from
Hook mark, Core
damage, Pin hole,
Foreign odour and
should be food grade


Declaration of a) veg
logo
b)manufacturing
address
c)ingredients
d)best before




As per sampling
plan




Visual
a) Veg logo
should be
present
b) Ingredients
used should be
mentioned
c) To match with
approved
reference
sample
d) Best before
should be
present.
Dimension width x
cut off
As per sampling
plan
With calibrated
steel scale
As per specification


GSM


As per sampling
plan
Average weights of
wrapper pieces cut
by standard metal
template (10cm x
10cm)
Actual GSM beyond
standard GSM + 3%
subject to price
deduction and
beyond +- 5% subject
to rejection.

Bond strength

As per sampling
plan
By declaration of
vendor in test
certificate
80gm or 15mm
minimum
Seal strength Cut into 25mm x
100mm
By universal tensile
tester
300-500gm per 25m

AIM: QUALITY ANALYSIS OF CBB:
PARAMETERS SAMPLE SIZE METHOD OF
CHECKING
ACCEPTANCE
CRITERION

General
characteristics

As per sampling
plan

Physical
observations/
organoleptic
evaluation
Should be dry,free
from damage and
foreign odour
Declaration of a)
stacking norms
b) net weight
c) whole sale pack




As per sampling
plan




Visual
a) should be
present
b) should be
mentioned
c) should be
present
Dimension
CBB- LxWxH
As per sampling
plan
With calibrated
steel scale
Specification, +- 2mm
from each sie.
Dimension as per
package standard


GSM (both total GSM
and individual layer
GSM)


As per sampling
plan
Average weights
of board pieces
cut by standard
metal template
Min. value- standard
GSM ( - ) 5%

Compression
strength

As per sampling
plan
Compression
strength machine
For good day- 150-
155
For tiger krunch- 125-
120
For cream cracker-
120






PROJECT REPORT
ON
THE VARIATION OF
MOISTURE CONTENT AND
WEIGHT OF BISCUITS IN
THE PROCESS LINE






AIM:
TO DETERMINE THE VARIATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF BISCUIT IN
THE PROCESS LINE

THEORY:
Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a
material. Water content can be directly measured using a known volume of
the material, and a drying oven.
Moisture in inappropriate amounts and places is very damaging to the
useful life of food. Because of this, much effort is put into reducing the
water content of dry foods in order to prolong their shelf lives. Once it is
reduced to the desired level the product can then be packaged for storage.
Unfortunately, merely reducing moisture content is not always sufficient.
Environmental conditions can play a role as well.
Proper moisture maintenance is also important according to the company
standard so that there is correct weight of packaged biscuits and to ensure
that specified number of biscuits goes into each packet. Thus moisture is an
important quality parameter.
Proper moisture content is essential for maintaining fresh, healthy foods. If
a food is too moist or too dry, it may not be suitable to eat and will not taste
as good as it would if it had the correct moisture content. Also the size and
shape of the biscuit is dependent on the moisture content of the biscuit.
A typical defect of biscuit is cracking or checking, as a result of the moisture
gradient in the product after baking.



PROCEDURE:
1) To study moisture variation in the process line, we collected samples
from the Dough end, Oven end and the Packaging end.
2) First from the dough end, approximately 18 biscuit shaped doughs
are collected across the conveyor belt so that we can get samples
from working, non-working and the centre of the conveyor belt.
3) To mark the row from which we have collected from the dough end,
we place different shaped dough in that row. ( e.g. heart shaped
which is different from the shape of all the other doughs). This is
done so that the row is easily identifiable and collection of sample in
the successive process becomes easier.
4) The sample thus collected is quickly put into plastic bags so as to
prevent moisture intake from the surrounding.
5) It is then taken to the laboratory for moisture check as quickly as
possible.
6) Then from the oven end, approximately 18biscuits are collected
across the conveyor belt so that we can get samples from the
working, non-working and centre of the conveyor belt.
7) But this time we have to careful that we collect the sample only from
the row which is before or after the row from which the doughs were
collected. The row is marked by the different shaped biscuit.
8) The biscuit sample is quickly put into plastic bags and the mouth is
tightly tied to prevent absorption of external moisture.
9) It is brought to the lab and quickly placed in the dessicator and left
for some time to cool.
10) The biscuits are then collected from the packaging end, across
the conveyor belt so that we can get samples from the working, non-
working and centre of the conveyor belt.
11) This time also we have to careful that we collect the sample
only from the row which is before or after the row from which the
doughs were collected. The row is marked by the different shaped
biscuit.
12) The biscuit sample is quickly put into plastic bags and the
mouth is tightly tied to prevent absorption of external moisture.
13) It is brought to the lab and quickly placed in the dessicator and
left for some time to cool.
14) To determine the moisture from all the three process line we
followed the same procedure.
15) About 5 g of the sample was weighed in to a petri plate which
was previously weighted. Then it was dried in a hot air oven.
16) Then the petri plate with the dried sample was covered
and was transferred to dessicator and weighed quickly as
possible as the dish was cooled.
17) The heating and weighing procedures was repeated until
successive weight did not differ by more than one milligram .Loss in
weights were recorded.


FORMULA FOR MOISTURE DETERMINATION IS:
Moisture % = [(M1 M2)*100]/M1 M
M1= weight in gm of petriplate with sample initially
M2=weight in gm of petriplate with sample after drying
M = weight in gm of sample taken

OBSERVATIONS:
SAMPLE NAME: TIGER KRUNCH CHOCO CHIPS
DOUGH OVEN PACKAGING
DATE Working
side
Centre Non
Working
Side
Working
side
Centre Non
Working
Side
Working
Side
Centre Non
Working
Side
18/06 13.13 13.28 13.42 1.33 1.34 1.43 1.53 1.68 1.7
19/06 12.77 12.83 12.92 0.70 0.72 1.45 0.87 0.90 0.92
20/06 13.36 13.34 13.52 0.82 0.88 1.47 0.817 0.89 1.56


COMMENTS:
1) As we see from the chart the moisture content in the dough is directly
proportional to the final moisture content in the finished product.
That is the reason the moisture content of the biscuit on 19/06/2012
is less, both at oven end and at packaging section.
2) Also ambient moisture content influences the uptake of moisture at
packaging end resulting in higher moisture content of finished
product.
3) A temperature gradient is observed in the oven with the highest
temperature at the Working side and lowest in the Non-working side.
4) We see from the chart that moisture content in the dough end is
highest then at the packaging and then the oven end. This is because
there is a lot of moisture in the ingredients during mixing. After the
biscuits emerge from the oven it has the least moisture content as
most of it is evaporated due to the high heat in the oven. During the
journey of the biscuits from the oven end to the packaging section
through the conveyor belt, it takes up moisture from the surrounding
environment and hence its moisture content rises slightly.
5) Again we see from the chart that there is a variation of moisture from
the working end to the non working end. The non working end
having the maximum moisture content, then the centre and finally
the working side. This phenomenon may occur due to non uniform
heating in the oven, not proper maintenance of temperature in oven,
malfunction of the heating tubes etc.
6) Biscuit is a low moisture bakery product and its moisture content
varies widely, because of the variations in its thickness and weight
during forming and shaping.


AIM:
TO DETERMINE THE VARIATION OF WEIGHT OF BISCUIT IN THE
PROCESS LINE

THEORY:
In law and commerce, including product packaging and nutrition
labeling, weight means mass. In science and engineering, the weight of an
object is the force on the object due to gravity. Weight is measured by
Precision Weighing Scale, High Precision Laboratory Balance or Dhona
balance.
Weight loss is an index of moisture loss.
Weight is an important parameter which should be constant throughout
the process line such that the net weight of each product is maintained. If
the weight of each biscuit is less than the specified limit then more number
of biscuits will go into the packet. Hence the company will run at a loss. If
the weight of each biscuit is more than the specified limit then less number
of biscuits will go into the packet and there will be customer complain and
the companys reputation will be at stake.

PROCEDURE:

1) To study weight variation in the process line, we collected samples
from the Dough end, Oven end and the Packaging end.
2) First from the dough end, approximately 18biscuit shaped doughs
are collected across the conveyor belt so that we can get samples
from working, non-working and the centre of the conveyor belt.
3) To mark the row from which we have collected from the dough end,
we place different shaped dough in that row. (E.g. heart shaped
which is different from the shape of all the other doughs). This is
done so that the row is easily identifiable and collection of sample in
the successive process becomes easier.
4) The sample thus collected is quickly put into plastic bags so as to
prevent moisture intake from the surrounding.
5) It is then taken to the laboratory for weight and moisture check as
quickly as possible.
6) Secondly from the oven end, approximately 18biscuits are collected
across the conveyor belt so that we can get samples from the
working, non-working and centre of the conveyor belt.
7) But this time we have to careful that we collect the sample only from
the row which is before or after the row from which the doughs were
collected. The row is marked by the different shaped biscuit.
8) The biscuit sample is quickly put into plastic bags and the mouth is
tightly tied to prevent absorption of external moisture.
9) It is brought to the lab and quickly placed in the dessicator and left
for some time for it to cool.
10) Thirdly from the packaging end, approximately 18biscuits are
collected across the conveyor belt so that we can get samples from
the working, non-working and centre of the conveyor belt.
11) This time also we have to careful that we collect the sample
only from the row which is before or after the row from which the
doughs were collected. The row is marked by the different shaped
biscuit.
12) The biscuit sample is quickly put into plastic bags and the
mouth is tightly tied to prevent absorption of external moisture.
13) It is brought to the lab and quickly placed in the dessicator and
left for some time for it to cool.
14) To determine the weight from all the three process line we
followed the same procedure.
15) Place the biscuits from the working end on the balance and
record the weight.
16) Place the biscuits from the centre on the balance and record
the weight.
17) Place the biscuits from the non-working end on the balance and
record the weight.

OBSERVATIONS:
SAMPLE NAME: TIGER KRUNCH CHOCO CHIPS
DOUGH OVEN PACKAGING
WORKING NON-
WORKING
WORKING NON-
WORKING
WORKING NON-
WORKING
18/06 6.43 6.52 5.71 5.56 5.59 5.36
6.54 6.55 5.74 5.63 5.62 5.61
19/06 6.82 6.80 5.89 5.85 5.85 5.79
6.66 6.72 5.91 5.90 5.77 6.00
6.53 6.74 5.80 5.85 5.85 5.94


COMMENTS:
1) The weight is almost constant but sometimes there is a slight
variation from the working to the non working side.
2) The heat distribution is not uniform so there is a weight variation.
3) It also depends on the mode of heating.

PREMIXING
MIXING
FORMING
BAKING
COOLING
PACKAGING
4. BISCUIT PRODUCTION


FLOWSHEET:















MIXING:
This is a process where all ingredients are put together in right proportion
for
dough formation. These ingredients are then fed into Mixers where mixing
is done and dough is prepared for molding. Major ingredients are flour, fat,
sugar and others as per the product.
There are 3 types of mixing:
1. One stage mixing
2. Two stage mixing
3. Three stage mixing
One stage or All in One is type of mixing where all ingredients and water
are
added once. Mixing is allowed till satisfactory dough is prepared .Normally
this
type of mixing is used for hard Dough biscuits.

Two - Stage mixing:
Creaming: All ingredients are added with water and mixed 4-5 minutes
except for
flour.
2nd stage: Flour with chemicals are then mix with the creaming product to
form a
consistent dough.

Three- stage mixing:
Stage One: Fat, sugar with other ingredient like milk, chocolate, malt, honey
etc
are mixed and cream is prepared with portion of water.
Stage two: Salt, chemical and flavours with colors are mixed with water.
Stage three: Flour with water is then added to the prepared cream and
mixed till
satisfactory dough is prepared.
Four mixers in Britannia are:
1. 3SK Mixer
2. Prima New
3. Robinson Mixer
4. APV Mixer
3SK and Prima New Mixers are used for mixing short dough biscuits. E.g.:
Good Day, Tiger Crunch, Nice time.
Robinson and APV Mixers are horizontal mixers. So these mixers are
suitable for hard and cracker variety dough biscuits, especially for the
sponge and dough process. E.g.: Cream Cracker, Marie Gold.
Mixing process has following characteristics which are monitored:
1. Mixing time: Normally any mixing could be achieved within 15-25
minutes.
It generally depends on mixing speed of mixer, flour characteristics
or temperatures required for dough.
2. Dough Temperatures: The temperature usually ranges between 35-
42C as per biscuit variety.
3. Dough consistency: This is done manually by checking dough and
stretching the dough it should not break neither should it be so
elastic. These methods are mastered by bakers by trial and error
method.



FORMING:
In the forming sections the dough is passed through several rolls to form
sheets, these sheets are then converted into one uniform sheet of desired
thickness which is normally 5-6mm. Molders and cutters are used to cut
sheet or convert dough into desired shape and size.

Stages in forming:
1. Laminators: Dough after mixing is placed into laminators hoppers
with some mechanical /pneumatic tilting.

2. Gauge roll stands or Conveyer belts: Reduction in sheet is achieved
through numerous gauge roll stands. Generally three or four stand gauge
rolls are used. Reduction are achieved in stages as not to create too much
stress on the sheet , webs are provided in between for relaxation even an
additional web is provided prior to cutter to release stress from dough
sheet. Best results are achieved through four stand gauge rolls. These gauge
roll are of different diameters depending upon the plant capacity. Speed is
set as per plant and cutter rpm. Gauge roll speed has to be increased in
every stand so as to maintain the flow of sheets.

3. Dough sheet conditioning: Dough sheet conditioning is done as per the
ambient conditions in the plant. The different methods used are:

Steam spray - to moist the web surface
Blower: to dry the dough surface.
Flour dusting: to dry the wet surface of the dough.

4. Toppings: Toppings are done through mechanical, vibratory or sprays.
The toppings could be milk, salt,
sugar or cashew, pista bits.

5. Metal Detector: It is placed prior to cutters and molders for any damage
to the molding unit.

6. Rotary cutter: Rotary cutter consists of cups which are attached to the
cutter shell. This shell is then fixed to the shaft and drive mechanism.
Knives are provided at these molders to scrap through the dough so that
we get flat and uniform biscuits.

7. Molding Roller: It is applied for short dough. The dough is prepared in
lumps these are then fed to die roll through either reciprocating conveyor
to the hopper or a rotary conveyor which allows these dough crumbs to
spread uniformly on the die roller surface. These die roller have dies
engraved into it. Dough pieces are then released by feed roller which
pushes the dough into the dies.


BAKING:

Wet dough pieces of desired weight and shape are then passed on to
oven band through swivel panner web. Ovens are of different types
classified into following categories:

a. Type of heating: Heating is done by conduction, convection and
radiation. No direct heating is used.
b. Type of fuel: Fuels generally used are coal gas and diesel.
c. Type of design: Cyclotherm heating system and turbulence system
d. Width of oven band: Oven band transports the product through the
oven. It is supported by mechanisms at the feed end and the delivery
end.
e. Number of zones: 5-6 zones are usually used.



BAKING CHAMBER:

The baking chamber is classified into 6 zones. The first 2 zones are the
rising zones which work on indirect convection heating. Each zone is 6.3
metres long. The next 4 zones are baking and colouring zones, where
cyclotherm heating takes place. The zones are respectively 8.4, 12.6, 14.6
and 16.8 metres long. Air turbulence can be introduced to zones 3, 4, 5 and
6. Each zone has a control panel and a set of dampers. The baking
temperature and atmosphere can be controlled. Each zone of the oven is
heated independently. This enables the heat applied to the product to be
different in each zone, so that the following stages of the biscuit can be
controlled:
1. Development
2. Moisture removal
3. Colouring
Within each zone the ratio of top to bottom heat can be controlled. This
gives further heat control of the heat applied to the product at each stage of
the baking process. Top heat is applied to the top of the oven band. Bottom
heat is applied to the underside of the oven band. Zone 1 will therefore be
set with low % top heat and high % bottom heat. At the end of the oven the
colour of the biscuit is being develop, which requires high top heat. Zone 6
will be set with a % top heat, and a low % bottom heat. Five flame
impingement burners are fitted at the feed and extension to pre-heat the
oven band. Each impingement burner is rated at 27,720kcal/hr.




COOLING:

Cooling process is as important as any other process. When biscuits come
out from the oven, the temperature of biscuits are around 70-95C. These
biscuit can be cooled by letting it travel for distance of 1.5 times of baking
time. So when the length of oven is 200 ft then cooling conveyor length
would be approx 300 350ft. In some places forced cooling is also done
due to space constrain or for special features .Cooling brings temperatures
to room temperature for handling of biscuit for packaging.



DIFFERENT PARAMETERS CHECKED DURING BISCUIT
PROCESSING:
1. Dough consistency
2. Metal detector
3. Dough weight
4. Shape of dough pieces
5. Sprinkling (Sugar/ Cashew; dryness; granularity; uniformity)
6. Band spacing
7. Baking profile
8. Baking time
9. Biscuit colour




PARAMETERS CHECKED AT OVEN END:
1. Baking profile
2. Colour
3. Size
4. Shape
5. Surface finish
6. Gauge weight






GRAPH SHOWING CHANGES DURING BAKING:



Different biscuits and their processing in Britannia:

CREAM CRACKER: It is a fermented or cracker type biscuit. The process
flow diagram for Cream Cracker is as follows:

















Flour sieving and
weighing; sol
bake, malt and
sugar added
Sponge
Preparation
Dough
Preparation

Cutting
ough
preparation











There are 3 stages in mixing of Cream Cracker biscuit:
1. Sponge formation: It
is done at a temperature of 25-26.6 Celsius for around 5 minutes. 3
minutes of fast mixing is followed by 1 minute of slow mixing.
Standing time for sponge is 1hrs and 30 minutes.
2. Dough formation: It
is done at 33.3-36 degree Celsius for 10 minutes. Standing time is 1
hours and 30 minutes.
3. Final dough: The
dough obtained after keeping for 1.5 hours is called the final dough.
Ingredients:
For sponge preparation:
1. Wheat flour: 450kg
2. Gluten: 2.5kg
3. Yeast: 5kg
4. Water: 50 litres
5. Malt: 675gm
6. Dusting sugar: 7kg
Layering
Sheeting
Cutting
Transferring
Baking
Cooling and
transferring
Packaging
For dough preparation:
1. Fat (generally palm
oil): 40kg
2. Water: 20 litres
3. Wheat flour: 450kg
4. Yeast: 1kg
5. Salt: 4kg 50gm
6. Solbake: 7kg
7. Spray
For Spray preparation:
1. FCCM: 10kg
2. Water: 50kg
Specific gravity: 1.035-1.040
Standard diameter is 56-57mm.
Temperature variation in different zones of the oven: (Baking time:
5.61minutes)
Zone 1
(10C)
Zone 2
(10C
)
Zone 3
(10C)
Zone 4
(10C)
Zone 5
(10C)
Zone 6
(10C)
225 C 330 C 340 C 295
C
295C 220C


MARIE GOLD: Marie Gold is a hard dough biscuit. It is prepared in the
same procedure as Cream cracker but fermentation is not carried out.
Spray Preparation:
1. FCCM: 10kg
2. Water: 37.5kg
3. Caramel: 100ml
4. EMGC: 50ml
5. Invert syrup: 3.5kg
Specific Gravity: 1.055-1.060
Standard diameter is 62.5mm.
Average weight of 37 biscuits is 201gm.

Temperature variation in different zones of the oven: (Baking time:
5.51minutes)
Zone 1
(10C)
Zone 2
(10C)
Zone 3
(10C)
Zone 4
(10C)
Zone 5
(10C)
Zone 6
(10C)
190 C 280 C 300 C 285 C 285 270C

GOOD DAY BUTTERBITES: It is a soft dough biscuit.
There are 2 stages of mixing:
1. Creaming for 4-8mins
2. Formation of dough
(3-8 minutes)
Dough temperature is 30-35C.
The ingredients required for the preparation of dough: (per 2.25sack)
1. Flour:285.75kg
2. Lawn Sugar: 108kg
3. Palm oil:86.4kg
4. Butter: 22.5kg
5. Lecithin: 0.78kg
6. GMS Paste: 4.05kg
7. SMP (dry): 9kg
8. Whey powder: 2.25kg
9. Salt: 2.25kg
10. Soda: 0.675kg
11. M/Sugar: 1.13kg
12. ESS/Butter F: 2203: 112.5ml
13. Flavour BS: 337.5ml
14. Flavour MM: 56.25ml
All the ingredients are mixed together and creaming is done. Finally
flour is added to prepare the final dough.
Temperature variation in different zones of the oven: (Baking time:
5.48minutes)
Zone 1
(10F)
Zone 2
(40F)
Zone 3
(10F)
Zone 4
(10F)
Zone 5
(10F)
Zone 6
(10F)
400F 465 F 490 F 440 F 435 F 160 F

Standard diameter of Good Day is 52mm.
Weight of 25 biscuits is 231gm.

TIGER KRUNCH CHOCOCHIPS: It is a soft dough biscuit. Mixing is
done in 2 steps:

1. Creaming: Creaming is
done with biscuit dust for 8 minutes.
2. Final Dough: Finally
the flour is added and mixed for 5 minutes (3 minutes high
speed followed by 2 minutes slow speed) to prepare the final
dough.
Ingredients for the preparation of dough: (Per 2.25sack)
1. Wheat flour: 285.75kg
2. Lawn sugar: 96.75kg
3. Palm oil: 88.31kg
4. Lecithin: 0.9kg
5. Liquid glucose:
11.25kg
6. Solbake paste: 5.063kg
7. Sweetened condensed
milk: 4.5kg
8. Salt: 3.38kg
9. Cocoa powder: 9kg
10. Chocochips: 45kg
11. Soda: 1.35kg
12. M/Sugar: 6.75kg
13. Dicalcium phosphate: 0.27kg
14. Ferrous fumumarate: 110.25gm
15. Folic acid: 0.27gm
16. D.S Caramel: 0.74kg
17. Flavour chocolate: 0.608kg
18. Ammonium
bicarbonate: As per required
At first Palm oil is added followed by lawn sugar. Then lecithin and Solbake
paste are added. Then sweetened condensed milk and other flavouring
substances are added. Finally flour is added with the Chocochips.
Temperature variation in different zones of the oven: (Baking time:
5.50minutes)
Zone 1
(10F)
Zone 2
(40F)
Zone 3
(10F)
Zone 4
(10F)
Zone 5
(10F)
Zone 6
(10F)
390F 450 F 490 F 445 F 420 F 190 F

Standard weight for 20 biscuits is 113gm.

TROUBLESHOOTINGS FOR THE DEFECTIVE BISCUITS AT THE
OVEN END:
1. When baking is not
proper the temperatures at different zones are adjusted.
2. When colour is light or
dark compared to the original colour, the temperature of 5
th
and 6
th

zone of baking oven is adjusted.
3. Shape and size is
adjusted by final gauge roller. The oven steam damper, which is
present in zone 2 and 3 of baking oven are also adjusted.
4. Surface finish is made
proper by preparing a proper spray and varying the ingredients of
the dough and flour dust.
5. If excess water is used
the biscuit becomes soft, elongated and curling. Thus proper quantity
of water is used.
6. When the biscuit does
not meet any of the parameters, it is either rejected or recycled.

5. BISCUIT PACKAGING

Introduction
Packaging is an important part of processing & distributing foods.
Whereas preservation is the major role of packaging, there are several
other functions of packaging.
1) Packaging must protect from any mechanical damage to the product
2) Packaging must have all information about the product for
consumers. Most of the countries have laws for food packaging
3) Packaging should help consumer carry, store and handle easily.
Features like tear tape may be used.
4) Colors and layout of product packaging are tools for advertisement
for manufacturers.
5) Maintain shelf life of products.
6) Packaging acts as barriers to heat, moisture, aroma etc.
Environmental factors such as oxygen, water vapor will spoil foods if they
are allowed to enter packages freely.
7) Packaging must protect against a variety of assaults including
chemical attack and contamination from biological vectors including
microorganisms, insects and rodents.

Generally packaging materials can be divided into two types:-
Primary packaging materials
Secondary packaging materials

Primary Packaging Materials- Primary packaging materials are the
packaging materials which are in direct contact with food (in this case
biscuits). Primary packaging materials must be non toxic, compatible with
the biscuits and should cause no color, flavor or other chemical reactions.
These packaging materials are supplied as rolls to the product
manufacturers as it is easier to put roll into packing machine.
Laminates are primary packaging materials.

Secondary Packaging Materials- Secondary packaging materials are
those which are not in direct contact with the food (in this case biscuits).
Incase of packaging of biscuits Card Board Box (CBB) is used as secondary
packaging materials. CBB are made of Kraft papers generally. Secondary
packaging materials must protect the primary packages from damage
during transportation and storage. It also prevents dirt and contaminants
from soiling the primary packages.

Britannia biscuits are available in Family Pack and Pillow Pack.

Process flow sheet of packaging of biscuits:-














Metal Detector
Stackers
Feeding Chute
Horizontal Flow Wrap
(Horizontal Form, Fill and Seal
machine)
Packing in CBB
Baking Oven
Cooling Conveyor
Baking oven to cooling conveyor- Biscuits that come out from the
baking oven are then transferred to the cooling conveyor for cooling of hot
biscuits. Cooling brings temperature of the biscuits to room temperature
for handling of biscuits for packaging. Length of the cooling conveyor is
1.5times the length of the oven.

Metal Detector- Biscuits are next passed through metal detector which
will detect presence of both ferrous and non-ferrous particles. If metal is
detected, then the biscuits in that zone are discarded.

Stackers- In the stacker a brush is present which constantly rotates and
allows only a single biscuit to pass to each channel. Main aim of the stacker
is to achieve proper distribution of biscuits into packing machines.

Feeding Chute- From the stacker the biscuits are manually put in the
feeding chute. Feeding chute carries the biscuits to the horizontal form-fill-
seal machine.
Horizontal Flow Wrap-



The machine is designed with automatic feeding arrangement to precisely
take the required stack length with the help of inline pusher and transfer
the biscuits smoothly into the main feeding conveyor with the help of cross
pusher. During this process, nylon lugs carry the biscuits with wrapping
material to the main wrapping unit through the easy adjustable forming
box for different varieties, through the pair of hot body sealing rollers for
body seal. The final end sealing and cutting is done by the rotating hot
cutter.

Packing in CBB- Finally the biscuits are manually packed in Card Board
Boxes and tapped. While packing in each card board box 10 liners are used.
Paper liners are used for products in CBBs to protect them from damages
during shipments .The liners are kept between the packets to provide
added protection against excessive pressure on them which may results
breaking of biscuits.
Defects of Packaging:-
1> Off centre packet
2> Off coding packet
3> Loose packet
4> Weak seal packet
5> Less weight biscuit packet
6> Leaky packet

Precautions Taken During packaging:-
1> the biscuits should be cooled properly before packing for ease of
handling during packaging and if hot biscuits are packed then moisture will
condense inside the packet affecting the shelf life.
2> the metal detector should function properly or any foreign particle may
enter the stacker.
3> the operators hand should be kept clean as the biscuits are manually
put in the feeding chute.
4> in the horizontal flow wrap heating and sealing of the packed biscuits
should be maintained at a particular temperature or biscuits packets could
not be formed.
5> the fingers should be kept out of the horizontal flow wrap machine or
any danger might occur.
6> Containers should not be filled either too loosely or too tightly for
best results. Loose products may vibrate against others and cause
bruising, while over packing results in compression bruising.






6. DESPATCH

Process Flow Sheet of S&F (Stock and Forwarding):-







Packaging
section
Stock as
per plan
Depot







Precautions:-
1) The trucks are inspected. The platform should be uniform, chassis
should be smooth, should be free from odor and there should be
tarpaulin spread.
2) The CBBs in the stock are not kept on the ground so as to ensure that
is no damage from rodents, insects and water on the floor.
3) Most work is done by conveyors and machines so as to reduce
handling to ensure low labor cost, damage of biscuits and saving of
time.
4) CBBs should be placed in the truck in a slanted manner.
5) For covering the biscuits after loading in the truck, tarpaulin sheet is
spread and tied using ropes. These ropes are passed over the angles
so as to prevent damage of CBBs and hence the biscuits.




Authorized
wholesaler
Retailer
Customer







7. CONCLUSION

Finally completing 21 days summer training in Britannia Industries Limited
we are highly benefited. Before this training we used to have a limited
theoretical knowledge about biscuit manufacturing. But through this
training we have acquired practical knowledge about the biscuit
manufacturing. It became easy for us to understand all the processes
clearly when we observed them occurring in front of us and when we are
allowed to perform various tests with our own hands. We are now able to
relate our theoretical knowledge with the practical knowledge that we have
gained. We are guided to each and every section of this factory and are
explained every processes clearly by various officers to whom we are very
thankful to. Friendly nature of all the officers and other staff members in
this factory has helped us to interact with them to clear our doubts.
Through this training we have also been benefited for our future when we
ourselves will work in an industry. Our overall training experience in
Britannia Industries limited is memorable.