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A nonzero column vector u in R

n

is called an eigenvector of

A if Au = u for some scalar .

The scalar is called an eigenvalue of A and u is said to be

an eigenvector of A associated with the eigenvalue .

is an eigenvalue of A if and only if det(I A) = 0.

The polynomial det(I A) is called the characteristic

polynomial of A.

The solution space E

eigenspace of A associated with the eigenvalue .

Every nonzero vector in E

is an eigenvector of A associated

with the eigenvalue .

Revision: Diagonalization

A square matrix A is called diagonalizable if there exists an

invertible matrix P such that P

1

AP is a diagonal matrix.

The matrix P is said to diagonalize A.

An n n square matrix A is diagonalizable if and only if A

has n linearly independent eigenvectors.

If u

1

, u

2

, ..., u

n

are linearly independent eigenvectors of A,

then P = (

u

1

u

2

... u

n

) diagonalizes A.

Suppose Au

i

=

u

i

for each i. Then

0

...

0

2

1

1

AP P

Matrix Multiplication in Blocks

Suppose A is an r m matrx, B is an r n matrx,

C is an s m matrx, D is an s n matrx,

E is an m t matrx, F is an m u matrx,

G is an n t matrx, H is an n u matrx.

Then

Warning: To do such a matrix multiplication, you need to

make sure that the sub-matrices can be multipied with each

other.

+ +

+ +

=

DH CF DG CE

BH AF BG AE

H G

F E

D C

B A

A Theorem (to replace Theorem 9.3.10)

Let T be a linear operator on a finite dimensional space V

and let C be an ordered basis for V.

Then a square matrix D is similar to [T]

C

if and only if

D = [T]

B

for an ordered basis B for V.

Proof

() It follows from Discussion 9.3.8.

A Theorem (to replace Theorem 9.3.10)

() (The proof is the same as the last paragraph of the proof

of Theorem 11.2.2 in p.109.)

Let C = { u

1

, u

2

, , u

n

} where dim(V) = n.

Suppose D = P

1

[T]

C

P where P = (p

i

j

) is an n n

invertible matrix.

Define B = { v

1

, v

2

, , v

n

} such that

v

j

= p

1j

u

1

+ p

2j

u

2

+ ... + p

n

j

u

n

for j = 1, 2, ..., n.

Using B as an ordered basis for V, we have [I

V

]

C, B

= P.

Then by Discussion 9.3.8, [T]

B

= P

1

[T]

C

P.

Triangular Forms

Let T be a linear operator on a finite dimensional space V

over F. Suppose the characteristic polynomial of T can be

factorized into linear factors over F.

Take any basis C for V.

Since the characteristic polynomial of the matrix [T]

C

can be

factorized into linear factors over F, we can find an

invertible matrix P such that P

1

[T]

C

P is an upper

triangular matrix

By the result we have just proved, there exists an ordered

basis B for V such that [T]

B

is an upper triangular matrix.

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