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by
Akshoy Ranjan Paul
Assistant Professor
Email: arpaul2k@gmail.com
DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED MECHANICS
MOTI LAL NEHRU NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MOTI LAL NEHRU NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ALLAHABAD ALLAHABAD
Fluid Fluid Mechanics ( Mechanics (AM1401) AM1401)
B B Tech. Tech. Mech.& Prod. (4th semester Mech.& Prod. (4th semester))
Chapter: Dynamics of Fluid Flow Chapter: Dynamics of Fluid Flow
• Euler’s equation of motion.
• EULER’S Equation along a streamline and Derivation from the Euler’s
equation. i.e Bernoulli’s Equation.
• The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy Equation.
• Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line.
• Losses in pipe due to Geometric changes.
• Measurement of flow in pipes
• Measurement of velocity.
• Notch and weirs.
Dynamics of Fluid Flow Dynamics of Fluid Flow
Contents Contents
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MomentumEquation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation MomentumEquation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation
•Euler’s Equation
Continuity
MomentumEquation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation
•Rectangular Coordinates
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EULER’S Equation along a streamline: EULER’S Equation along a streamline:
• Euler’s equation along a streamline is derived by Newton’s law of motion
to a fluid element moving along a streamline.
• Consider gravity as the only body force component acting vertically
downward.
• Consider the small fluid particle of size osby on in the plane of the figure
and oynormal to the figure as shown in the freebody diagram below. For
steady flow, the components of Newton’s second law along the streamline
and normal directions can be written as following:
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The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy Equation
1. No Shaft Work
2. No Shear Force Work
3. No Other Work
4. Steady Flow
5. Uniform Flow and Properties
•Basic Equation of Energy:
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The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy Equation
Assumpti on 6: Incompressi ble
Hence
Assumpti on 7:
The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy Equation
•“Energy Equation”
1. No Shaft Work
2. No Shear Force Work
3. No Other Work
4. Steady Flow
5. Uniform Flow and Properties
6. Incompressible Flow
7. u
2
– u
1
– dQ/dm = 0
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Energy Grade Line (EGL) and Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL):
•Energy Equation
Above expression consider as the total mechanical energy
head per unit weight of the fluid.
Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line
•Energy Grade Line (EGL)
Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL)
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Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line
Forces on confinement:
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Losses Due to Geometric Changes Losses Due to Geometric Changes
1. Pipe entrance or exit
2. Sudden expansion or contraction
3. Bends, elbows, tees, and other fittings
4. Valves, open or partially closed
5. Gradual expansions or contractions
1. Losses of head due to sudden enlargement of the flow:
applying Bernoulli’s equation at 11 and 22 we get,
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g v v h
e
2 / ) (
2
2 1
÷ =
After solvingwe get,
Tryto solve the equation
2. Losses head due to sudden contraction:
C
c
=coefficient of venacontracta.
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3. Loss of head at the entrance of the pipe.
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4. Loss of head at the exit of the pipe
5. Loss of head due to an obstruction in a pipe:
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6. Loss of head due to bend in pipe:
7. Loss of head in various pipe fittings:
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Measurement of flow in pipes
• Venturimeter
• Orificemeter
• Nozzlemeter or flow nozzle
• Rotameter
Measurement of velocity in pipes
• Pitottube
Notches and Weirs
Hydraulic coefficients:
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Venturimeter
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Advantages of Venturimeter:
1. high pressure recovery is attainable as head loss due to its installation is
small.
2. Because of its smooth surface, the venturimeteris not much affected by
wear and abrasion.
3. Less likelihood of becoming clogged with sediments.
4. Ideally suited for large flow of water, process fluids, wastes, gases and
suspended solids.
limitations of Venturimeter:
1. long laying length; space requirements are more.
2. Quite expensive in installation and replacement.
3. Difficult to construct.
Orifice meter or Orifice plate
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here,
After applying Bernaulli’s equation at section 11 and 22 we get,
v c d
IDEAL c
ACT c
c
C C C
V
V
C
× =
=
) (
) (
.
contracta vena at velocity flow Ideal
contracta vena at velocity flow actual
÷
÷
=
Cv velocity, of t coefficien


.

\

÷
A


.

\

÷
=
1
2
2
2
1
1 2
A
A
C
h g
C A C Q
o
c
m
v o c
Advantages of orificemeter:
1. Low initial cost.
2. It requires less space.
3. It can be used in wide ranges of pipe sizes (1.25cm to 150cm)
Limitations of orifice meter:
1. Pressure recovery is poor. The overall pressure loss varies
from 40% to 90% of differential pressure.
2. C
d
has a low value ranging between 0.6 to 0.65.
3. Orificemeter tends to clog; hence not suitable for slurries or
entrained particles.
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Nozzlemeter or flow nozzle:
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Rotametersare a variable area device. The float moves
up and down in proportion to the fluid flow rate and the
annular area between the float and the tube wall. As the
float rises, the size of the annular opening increases. As
this area increases, the differential pressure across the
float decreases. The float reaches a stable position when
the upward force exerted by the flowing fluid equals the
weight of the float. Every float position corresponds to a
particular flow rate for a particular fluid's density and
viscosity. For this reason, it is necessary to size the
rotameterfor each application. When sized correctly, the
flow rate can be determined by matching the float
position to a calibrated scale on the outside of the
rotameter. Many rotameterscome with a builtin valve
for adjusting flow manually.
Pi tot Tube
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Pitottube
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Advantages of pitot tube:
• Essentially no pressure loss in the flowing stream.
• Economical and easy to install and remove from the pipelines.
• Sensitive to upstream disturbance to Reynoldno. changes and to
dimensional errors.
Limitation of pitot tube:
• Poor accuracy.
• Not applicable to dirty or sticky fluids
• Fluid must be moving with relatively high velocities in order to
generate measurable pressure difference.
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Miscellaneous Flow Meters
•Turbine, vortex shedding flow meters.
•Mass meters include Coriolis and thermal types.
•HotWire Anemometer: Electrically heated, fine platinum wire
immersed in flow Wire is cooled as flow is increased Measure
either change in wire resistance or heating current to determine
flow
•Electromagnetic Flowmeter: Electromotive force induced in
fluid as it flows through magnetic field and measured with
electrodes which is proportional to flow rate
•Ultrasonic Flow equipment: Uses Doppler frequency shift of
ultrasonic signals reflected off discontinuities in fluid
•Laser Doppler Anemometer which employ Doppler effect
and Hetrodyningof two signals
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