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How to Pronounce -ed in English

The past simple tense and past participle of all regular verbs end in -ed. For example:
base verb
past simple
past participle
work worked worked
In addition, many adjectives are made from the past participle and so end in -ed. For
I like paint ed furniture.
The question is: How do we pronounce the -ed?
The answer is: In 3 ways - / Id/ or / t/ or / d/
I the base verb ends in one o
these sounds!
e"ample base
the -ed!
unvoiced t want wanted Id yes
voiced d end ended
unvoiced p hope hoped t no
f laugh laughed
s fax faxed
! wash washed
t! watch watched
k like liked
voiced all other sounds,
for example...
play played d
allow allowed
beg begged
" note that it is the sound that is important, not the letter or spelling. For example, #fax#
ends in the letter #x# but the sound s$ #like# ends in the letter #e# but the sound k.
The following %ed words used as ad&ectives are pronounced with Id:
Ininitive %ast %articiple &i'niicado
'ccept 'ccepted 'ccepted 'ceptar
'ct 'cted 'cted 'ctuar
'chieve 'chieved 'chieved (ograr, 'lcan)ar
'dmire 'dmired 'dmired 'dmirar
'dvise 'dvised 'dvised 'conse&ar
'ffect 'ffected 'ffected 'fectar
'gree 'greed 'greed 'cordar
'ma)e 'ma)ed 'ma)ed 'sombrar
'muse 'mused 'mused *ivertir
'nswer 'nswered 'nswered +esponder
'ppear 'ppeared 'ppeared 'parecer
'rrange 'rranged 'rranged 'rreglar, *isponer
'rrive 'rrived 'rrived (legar
'sk 'sked 'sked ,reguntar
'ttack 'ttacked 'ttacked 'tacar
-ake -aked -aked .ornear
-ehave -ehaved -ehaved /omportarse
-elieve -elieved -elieved /reer
-elong -elonged -elonged ,ertenecer
-lame -lamed -lamed /ulpar
-orrow -orrowed -orrowed ,edir prestado
-other -othered -othered 0olestar
/all /alled /alled (lamar
/ancel /anceled /anceled /ancelar, !uprimir
/arry /arried /arried (levar
/ause /aused /aused /ausar
/elebrate /elebrated /elebrated /elebrar
/lean /leaned /leaned (impiar
/lear /leared /leared 'clarar
/limb /limbed /limbed Trepar
/lose /losed /losed /errar
/ompare /ompared /ompared /omparar
/ompete /ompeted /ompeted /ompetir
/omplete /ompleted /ompleted /ompletar
/ontain /ontained /ontained /ontener
/ontinue /ontinued /ontinued /ontinuar
/ook /ooked /ooked /ocinar
/orrect /orrected /orrected /orregir
/ough /oughed /oughed Toser
/ount /ounted /ounted /ontar
/rash /rashed /rashed /hocar
/reate /reated /reated /rear
/ross /rossed /rossed /ru)ar
/urse /ursed /ursed 0aldecir
/hange /hanged /hanged /ambiar
/hase /hased /hased ,erseguir
/hat /hatted /hatted /harlar
/heck /hecked /hecked 1erificar
*amage *amaged *amaged *a2ar
*ance *anced *anced -ailar
*ate *ated *ated !alir con, ,ololear
*ecide *ecided *ecided *ecidir
*eliver *elivered *elivered 3ntregar
*epend *epended *epended *epender
*escribe *escribed *escribed *escribir
*esign *esigned *esigned *ise2ar
*estroy *estroyed *estroyed *estruir
*icrease *icreased *icreased *isminuir
*ie *ied *ied 0orir
*isagree *isagreed *isagreed 3star en desacuerdo
*iscover *iscovered *iscovered *escubrir
*iscuss *iscussed *iscussed *iscutir
*isturb *isturbed *isturbed 0olestar
*ress *ressed *ressed 1estir
*ry *ried *ried !ecar
3liminate 3liminated 3liminated 3liminar
3nd 3nded 3nded Terminar
3n&oy 3n&oyed 3n&oyed *isfrutar
3ntertain 3ntertained 3ntertained 3ntretener
3xcuse 3xcused 3xcused 3xcusar
3xercise 3xercised 3xercised 3&ercitar
3xhibit 3xhibited 3xhibited 3xhibir
3xpect 3xpected 3xpected 3sperar
3xpress 3xpressed 3xpressed 3xpresar
Film Filmed Filmed Filmar
Fill Filled Filled (lenar
Fish Fished Fished ,escar
Fix Fixed Fixed 'rreglar, Fi&ar
Follow Followed Followed !eguir
Free)e Free)ed Free)ed /ongelar
Fry Fried Fried Freir
4reet 4reeted 4reeted !aludar
4uess 4uessed 4uessed 'divinar, !uponer
.ail .ailed .ailed 4rani)ar
.andle .andled .andled 0ane&ar
.appen .appened .appened !uceder
.ate .ated .ated 5diar, /argarle a uno
.elp .elped .elped 'yudar
.ope .oped .oped 3sperar
.unt .unted .unted /a)ar
Identify Identified Identified Identificar
Ignore Ignored Ignored Ignorar
Imagine Imagined Imagined Imaginar
Impress Impressed Impressed Impresionar
Improve Improved Improved 0e&orar
Include Included Included Incluir
Increase Increased Increased 'umentar
Interview Interviewed Interviewed 3ntrevistar
Introduce Introduced Introduced Introducir, ,resentar
Invite Invited Invited Invitar
6og 6ogged 6ogged Trotar
6oin 6oined 6oined 6untar, 7nir, 'compa2ar
6ump 6umped 6umped !altar
8nock 8nocked 8nocked 4olpear
(abel (abeled (abeled +otular, 3tiquetar
(and (anded (anded 'terri)ar
(ast (asted (asted *urar
(earn (earned (earned 'prender
(ike (iked (iked 4ustarle a uno
(ink (inked (inked 7nir, 1incular
(ist (isted (isted (istar
(isten (istened (istened 3scuchar
(ive (ived (ived 1ivir
(ocate (ocated (ocated 7bicar
(ook (ooked (ooked 0irar, ,arecer
(ove (oved (oved 'mar, 3ncantarle a uno
0anage 0anaged 0anaged 0ane&ar, *irigir
0ark 0arked 0arked 0arcar
0atch 0atched 0atched 7nir, 'pare&ar
0easure 0easured 0easured 0edir
0ention 0entioned 0entioned 0encionar
0iss 0issed 0issed ,erderse, 3char de menos, ,erder
0ove 0oved 0oved 0over, Trasladar, /ambiarse
9ame 9amed 9amed 9ombrar
9eed 9eeded 9eeded 9ecesitar
9ote 9oted 9oted 9otar
9otice 9oticed 9oticed 9otar, Fi&arse
9umber 9umbered 9umbered 9umerar
5ffer 5ffered 5ffered 5frecer
5pen 5pened 5pened 'brir
5rder 5rdered 5rdered 5rdenar
5rgani)e 5rgani)ed 5rgani)ed 5rgani)ar
,ack ,acked ,acked 3mpacar
,aint ,ainted ,ainted ,intar
,amper ,ampered ,ampered +egalonear
,ardon ,ardoned ,ardoned ,erdonar
,ark ,arked ,arked 3stacionar
,articipate ,articipated ,articipated ,articipar
,ass ,assed ,assed ,asar, 'probar
,erform ,erformed ,erformed +eali)ar, 3&ecutar
,ersuade ,ersuaded ,ersuaded ,ersuadir
,ick ,icked ,icked +ecoger
,lan ,lanned ,lanned ,lanear
,lay ,layed ,layed 6ugar, Tocar,
,lease ,leased ,leased /omplacer
,ractice ,racticed ,racticed ,racticar
,redict ,redicted ,redicted ,redecir
,refer ,referred ,referred ,referir
,resent ,resented ,resented ,resentar
,rogram ,rogrammed ,rogrammed ,rogramar
,rotect ,rotected ,rotected ,roteger
,rovide ,rovided ,rovided ,roporcionar
,urchase ,urchased ,urchased /omprar
,ush ,ushed ,ushed 3mpu&ar
+ain +ain +ain (lover
+eceive +eceived +eceived +ecibir
+ecommend +ecommended +ecommended +ecomendar
+elate +elated +elated +elacionar
+elax +elaxed +elaxed *escansar
+elease +eleased +eleased !oltar, ,roducir
+emember +emembered +emembered +ecordar
+epair +epaired +epaired +eparar
+epeat +epeated +epeated +epetir
+esist +esisted +esisted +esistir
+est +ested +ested *escansar
+eturn +eturned +eturned 1olver
+eview +eviewed +eviewed +evisar
!ail !ailed !ailed 9avegar
!ave !aved !aved 'horrar, !alvar
!can !canned !canned 3xaminar
!care !cared !cared 'sustar
!hare !hared !hared /ompartir
!hop !hopped !hopped /omprar
!hout !houted !houted 4ritar
!kate !kated !kated ,atinar
!ki !kied !kied 3squiar
!low !lowed !lowed *isminuir
!nee)e !nee)ed !nee)ed 3stornudar
!now !nowed !nowed 9evar
!olve !olved !olved +esolver
!pell !pelled !pelled *eletrear
!tart !tarted !tarted 3mpe)ar
!tep !tepped !tepped ,isar
!top !topped !topped *etener
!tress !tressed !tressed 'centuar
!tudy !tudied !tudied 3studiar
!ubstitute !ubstituted !ubstituted !ustituir
!uggest !uggested !uggested !ugerir
!urprise !urprised !urprised !orprender
Talk Talked Talked .ablar
Taste Tasted Tasted ,robar
Terrori)e Terrori)ed Terrori)ed 'terrori)ar
Thank Thanked Thanked 'gradecer
Touch Touched Touched Tocar
Travel Traveled Traveled 1ia&ar
Try Tried Tried Tratar
Tune Tuned Tuned !intoni)ar
Turn Turned Turned 4irar
7nderline 7nderlined 7nderlined !ubrayar
7se 7sed 7sed 7sar
1ary 1aried 1aried 1ariar
:ait :aited :aited 3sperar
:alk :alked :alked /aminar
:ant :anted :anted *esear
:arn :arned :arned 'dvertir
:ash :ashed :ashed (avar
:atch :atched :atched 1er, 1igilar
:ater :atered :atered +egar
:elcome :elcomed :elcomed +ecibir
:ish :ished :ished *esear
:itness :itnessed :itnessed !er testigo
:ork :orked :orked Traba&ar, funcionar
:orry :orried :orried ,reocuparse
:restle :restled :restled (uchar