PETE 411
Well Drilling
Lesson 17
Casing Design
2
Casing Design
N Why Run Casing?
N Types of Casing Strings
N Classification of Casing
N Wellheads
N Burst, Collapse and Tension
N Example
N Effect of Axial Tension on Collapse Strength
N Example
3
Read Applied Drilling Engineering, Ch.7
HW #9 Due 101802
4
Casing Design
Why run casing?
1. To prevent the hole from caving in
2. Onshore  to prevent contamination of
fresh water sands
3. To prevent water migration to
producing formation
What is casing?
Casing
Cement
5
Casing Design  Why run casing, cont’d
4. To confine production to the wellbore
5. To control pressures during drilling
6. To provide an acceptable environment for
subsurface equipment in producing wells
7. To enhance the probability of drilling to total
depth (TD)
e.g., you need 14 ppg to control a lower zone,
but an upper zone will fracture at 12 lb/gal.
What do you do?
6
Types of Strings of Casing
1. Drive pipe or structural pile
{Gulf Coast and offshore only}
150’300’ belowmudline.
2. Conductor string. 100’  1,600’
(BML)
3. Surface pipe. 2,000’  4,000’
(BML)
Diameter Example
16”60” 30”
16”48” 20”
8 5/8”20” 13 3/8”
7
Types of Strings of Casing
4. Intermediate String
5. Production String (Csg.)
6. Liner(s)
7. Tubing String(s)
7 5/8”13 3/8” 9 5/8”
Diameter Example
4 1/2”9 5/8” 7”
8
Example Hole and String Sizes (in)
Structural casing
Conductor string
Surface pipe
IntermediateString
Production Liner
Hole Size
30”
20”
13 3/8
9 5/8
7
Pipe Size
36”
26”
17 1/2
12 1/4
8 3/4
9
Example Hole and String Sizes (in)
Structural casing
Conductor string
Surface pipe
IntermediateString
Production Liner
Hole Size
30”
20”
13 3/8
9 5/8
7
Pipe Size
36”
26”
17 1/2
12 1/4
8 3/4
10
Example Hole and String Sizes (in)
Structural casing
Conductor string
Surface pipe
IntermediateString
Production Liner
250’
1,000’
4,000’
Mudline
11
Classification of CSG.
1. Outside diameter of pipe (e.g. 9 5/8”)
2. Wall thickness (e.g. 1/2”)
3. Grade of material (e.g. N80)
4. Type to threads and couplings (e.g. API LCSG)
5. Length of each joint (RANGE) (e.g. Range 3)
6. Nominal weight (Avg. wt/ft incl. Wt. Coupling)
(e.g. 47 lb/ft)
12
σ σσ σ
ε εε ε
13
Length of Casing Joints
RANGE 1 1625 ft
RANGE 2 2534 ft
RANGE 3 > 34 ft.
14
Casing Threads and Couplings
API round threads  short {CSG }
API round thread  long {LCSG }
Buttress {BCSG }
Extreme line {XCSG }
Other …
See Halliburton Book...
15
API Design Factors (typical)
Collapse 1.125
Tension 1.8
Burst 1.1
Required
10,000 psi
100,000 lbf
10,000 psi
Design
11,250 psi
180,000 lbf
11,000 psi
16
Normal Pore Pressure Abnormal Pore Pressure
0.433  0.465 psi/ft g
p
> normal
Abnormal
17
Design from bottom
18
Xmas Tree
Wing Valve
Choke Box
Master
Valves
Wellhead
•Hang Csg. Strings
•Provide Seals
•Control Production
from Well
Press. Gauge
19
Wellhead
20
Wellhead
21
Casing Design
Burst: Assume full reservoir pressure all along the wellbore.
Collapse: Hydrostatic pressure increases with depth
Tension: Tensile stress due to weight of string is highest at top
STRESS
Tension
Burst
Collapse
Collapse
Tension
Depth
Burst
22
Casing Design
Collapse (from external pressure)
N Yield Strength Collapse
N Plastic Collapse
N Transition Collapse
N Elastic Collapse
Collapse pressure is affected by axial stress
23
Casing Design  Collapse
24
Casing Design  Tension
25
Casing Design  Burst
(from internal pressure)
4Internal Yield Pressure for pipe
4Internal Yield Pressure for couplings
4Internal pressure leak resistance
p
p
Internal
Pressure
26
Casing Design  Burst
Example 1
Design a 7” Csg. String to 10,000 ft.
Pore pressure gradient = 0.5 psi/ft
Design factor, N
i
=1.1
Design for burst only.
27
Burst Example
1. Calculate probable reservoir pressure.
psi 000 , 5 ft 000 , 10 *
ft
psi
5 . 0 p
res
= =
2. Calculate required pipe internal yield
pressure rating
psi 500 , 5 1 . 1 * 000 , 5 N * p p
i res i
= = =
28
Example
3. Select the appropriate csg. grade and wt.
from the Halliburton Cementing tables:
Burst Pressure required = 5,500 psi
7”, J 55, 26 lb/ft has BURST Rating of 4,980 psi
7”, N80, 23 lb/ft has BURST Rating of 6,340 psi
7”, N80, 26 lb/ft has BURST Rating of 7,249 psi
Use N80 Csg., 23 lb/ft
29
30
23 lb/ft
26 lb/ft
N80
31
Collapse Pressure
The following factors are important:
4The collapse pressure resistance of a pipe
depends on the axial stress
4There are different types of collapse
failure
32
Collapse Pressure
N There are four different types of collapse
pressure, each with its own equation for
calculating the collapse resistance:
4Yield strength collapse
4Plastic collapse
4Transition collapse
4Elastic collapse
33
Casing Design
Collapse pressure  with axial stress
1.
¹
)
¹
`
¹
¹
¹
¹
´
¦


.

'
−
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

'
− =
P
A
2 / 1
2
P
A
P PA
Y
S
5 . 0
Y
S
75 . 0 1 Y Y
Y
PA
= yield strength of axial stress
equivalent grade, psi
Y
P
= minimum yield strength of pipe, psi
S
A
= Axial stress, psi (tension is positive)
34
Casing Design  Collapse
2. Calculate D/t to determine proper equation
to use for calculating the collapse pressure
Yield Strength
Collapse :
Plastic Collapse:
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
'
−
'
=
2
p YP
t
D
1
t
D
Y 2 P
C B
t
D
A
Y P
p p
−
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
.

\

=
35
Transition
Collapse:
Elastic
Collapse:
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−

.

\

= G
t
D
F
Y P
p T
2
6
E
1
t
D
t
D
10 X 95 . 46
P
(
¸
(
¸
−

¹

\


¹

\

=
Casing Design  Collapse, cont’d
36
If Axial Tension is Zero:
Yield Strength Plastic Transition Elastic
→ ) t / D (
J 55 14.81 25.01 37.31
N80 13.38 22.47 31.02
P110 12.44 20.41 26.22
Casing Design  Collapse
37
Example 2
Determine the collapse strength of 5 1/2”
O.D., 14.00 #/ft J 55 casing under zero
axial load.
1. Calculate
the D/t ratio:
( )
book n Halliburto From
54 . 22
012 . 5 500 . 5
2
1
500 . 5
t
D
↑
=
−
=
38
Example 2
2. Check the mode of collapse
Table on p.35 (above) shows that,
for J 55 pipe,
with 14.81 < D/t < 25.01
the mode of failure is plastic collapse.
54 . 22 =
t
D
39
Example 2
The plastic collapse is calculated from:
206 , 1 0541 . 0
54 . 22
991 . 2
000 , 55
C B
t / D
A
Y P
p p
−
(
¸
(
¸
− =
−
.

\

− =
psi 117 , 3 P
p
=
Halliburton Tables
rounds off to 3,120 psi
40
Example 3
Determine the collapse strength for a 5 1/2” O.D.,
14.00 #/ft, J 55 casing under axial load of 100,000
lbs
The axial tension will reduce the collapse pressure
as follows:
P
p
A
2
p
A
PA
Y
Y
S
5 . 0
Y
S
75 . 0 1 Y
(
(
(
¸
(
¸

'
−

'
− =
( )
psi
Area
F
S
A
A
820 , 24
012 . 5 5 . 5
4
000 , 100
2 2
=
−
= =
π
41
Example 3 cont’d
The axial tension will reduce the collapse
pressure rating to:
psi 216 , 38
000 , 55
000 , 55
820 , 24
5 . 0
000 , 55
820 , 24
75 . 0 1 Y
2
PA
=
(
(
¸
(
¸

¹

\

−

¹

\

− =
Here the axial load decreased the J55
rating to an equivalent “J38.2” rating
P
p
A
p
A
PA
Y
Y
S
Y
S
Y
(
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

−


.

\

− = 5 . 0 75 . 0 1
2
42
Example 3  cont’d
551 , 2 43 . 700 10 x 557 . 4
54 . 22
945 . 2
216 , 38
C B
t / D
A
Y P
2
PA p
= −
(
¸
(
¸
− =
−

.

\

− = ∴
−
psi 550 , 2 P
p
≈
…compared to 3,117 psi with no axial stress!
43
44