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PETE 411
Well Drilling
Lesson 17
Casing Design
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Casing Design
N Why Run Casing?
N Types of Casing Strings
N Classification of Casing
N Wellheads
N Burst, Collapse and Tension
N Example
N Effect of Axial Tension on Collapse Strength
N Example
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Read Applied Drilling Engineering, Ch.7
HW #9 Due 10-18-02
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Casing Design
Why run casing?
1. To prevent the hole from caving in
2. Onshore - to prevent contamination of
fresh water sands
3. To prevent water migration to
producing formation
What is casing?
Casing
Cement
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Casing Design - Why run casing, cont’d
4. To confine production to the wellbore
5. To control pressures during drilling
6. To provide an acceptable environment for
subsurface equipment in producing wells
7. To enhance the probability of drilling to total
depth (TD)
e.g., you need 14 ppg to control a lower zone,
but an upper zone will fracture at 12 lb/gal.
What do you do?
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Types of Strings of Casing
1. Drive pipe or structural pile
{Gulf Coast and offshore only}
150’-300’ belowmudline.
2. Conductor string. 100’ - 1,600’
(BML)
3. Surface pipe. 2,000’ - 4,000’
(BML)
Diameter Example
16”-60” 30”
16”-48” 20”
8 5/8”-20” 13 3/8”
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Types of Strings of Casing
4. Intermediate String
5. Production String (Csg.)
6. Liner(s)
7. Tubing String(s)
7 5/8”-13 3/8” 9 5/8”
Diameter Example
4 1/2”-9 5/8” 7”
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Example Hole and String Sizes (in)
Structural casing
Conductor string
Surface pipe
IntermediateString
Production Liner
Hole Size
30”
20”
13 3/8
9 5/8
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Pipe Size
36”
26”
17 1/2
12 1/4
8 3/4
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Example Hole and String Sizes (in)
Structural casing
Conductor string
Surface pipe
IntermediateString
Production Liner
Hole Size
30”
20”
13 3/8
9 5/8
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Pipe Size
36”
26”
17 1/2
12 1/4
8 3/4
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Example Hole and String Sizes (in)
Structural casing
Conductor string
Surface pipe
IntermediateString
Production Liner
250’
1,000’
4,000’
Mudline
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Classification of CSG.
1. Outside diameter of pipe (e.g. 9 5/8”)
2. Wall thickness (e.g. 1/2”)
3. Grade of material (e.g. N-80)
4. Type to threads and couplings (e.g. API LCSG)
5. Length of each joint (RANGE) (e.g. Range 3)
6. Nominal weight (Avg. wt/ft incl. Wt. Coupling)
(e.g. 47 lb/ft)
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σ σσ σ
ε εε ε
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Length of Casing Joints
RANGE 1 16-25 ft
RANGE 2 25-34 ft
RANGE 3 > 34 ft.
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Casing Threads and Couplings
API round threads - short {CSG }
API round thread - long {LCSG }
Buttress {BCSG }
Extreme line {XCSG }
Other …
See Halliburton Book...
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API Design Factors (typical)
Collapse 1.125
Tension 1.8
Burst 1.1
Required
10,000 psi
100,000 lbf
10,000 psi
Design
11,250 psi
180,000 lbf
11,000 psi
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Normal Pore Pressure Abnormal Pore Pressure
0.433 - 0.465 psi/ft g
p
> normal
Abnormal
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Design from bottom
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X-mas Tree
Wing Valve
Choke Box
Master
Valves
Wellhead
•Hang Csg. Strings
•Provide Seals
•Control Production
from Well
Press. Gauge
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Wellhead
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Wellhead
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Casing Design
Burst: Assume full reservoir pressure all along the wellbore.
Collapse: Hydrostatic pressure increases with depth
Tension: Tensile stress due to weight of string is highest at top
STRESS
Tension
Burst
Collapse
Collapse
Tension
Depth
Burst
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Casing Design
Collapse (from external pressure)
N Yield Strength Collapse
N Plastic Collapse
N Transition Collapse
N Elastic Collapse
Collapse pressure is affected by axial stress
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Casing Design - Collapse
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Casing Design - Tension
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Casing Design - Burst
(from internal pressure)
4Internal Yield Pressure for pipe
4Internal Yield Pressure for couplings
4Internal pressure leak resistance
p
p
Internal
Pressure
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Casing Design - Burst
Example 1
Design a 7” Csg. String to 10,000 ft.
Pore pressure gradient = 0.5 psi/ft
Design factor, N
i
=1.1
Design for burst only.
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Burst Example
1. Calculate probable reservoir pressure.
psi 000 , 5 ft 000 , 10 *
ft
psi
5 . 0 p
res
= =
2. Calculate required pipe internal yield
pressure rating
psi 500 , 5 1 . 1 * 000 , 5 N * p p
i res i
= = =
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Example
3. Select the appropriate csg. grade and wt.
from the Halliburton Cementing tables:
Burst Pressure required = 5,500 psi
7”, J -55, 26 lb/ft has BURST Rating of 4,980 psi
7”, N-80, 23 lb/ft has BURST Rating of 6,340 psi
7”, N-80, 26 lb/ft has BURST Rating of 7,249 psi
Use N-80 Csg., 23 lb/ft
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30
23 lb/ft
26 lb/ft
N-80
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Collapse Pressure
The following factors are important:
4The collapse pressure resistance of a pipe
depends on the axial stress
4There are different types of collapse
failure
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Collapse Pressure
N There are four different types of collapse
pressure, each with its own equation for
calculating the collapse resistance:
4Yield strength collapse
4Plastic collapse
4Transition collapse
4Elastic collapse
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Casing Design
Collapse pressure - with axial stress
1.
¹
)
¹
`
¹
¹
¹
¹
´
¦
|
|
.
|

'


(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

'

− =
P
A
2 / 1
2
P
A
P PA
Y
S
5 . 0
Y
S
75 . 0 1 Y Y
Y
PA
= yield strength of axial stress
equivalent grade, psi
Y
P
= minimum yield strength of pipe, psi
S
A
= Axial stress, psi (tension is positive)
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Casing Design - Collapse
2. Calculate D/t to determine proper equation
to use for calculating the collapse pressure
Yield Strength
Collapse :
Plastic Collapse:
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

'

'

=
2
p YP
t
D
1
t
D
Y 2 P
C B
t
D
A
Y P
p p

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

.
|

\
|
=
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Transition
Collapse:
Elastic
Collapse:
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸


|
.
|

\
|
= G
t
D
F
Y P
p T
2
6
E
1
t
D
t
D
10 X 95 . 46
P
(
¸
(

¸


|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Casing Design - Collapse, cont’d
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If Axial Tension is Zero:
Yield Strength Plastic Transition Elastic
→ ) t / D (
J -55 14.81 25.01 37.31
N-80 13.38 22.47 31.02
P-110 12.44 20.41 26.22
Casing Design - Collapse
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Example 2
Determine the collapse strength of 5 1/2”
O.D., 14.00 #/ft J -55 casing under zero
axial load.
1. Calculate
the D/t ratio:
( )
book n Halliburto From

54 . 22
012 . 5 500 . 5
2
1
500 . 5
t
D

=

=
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Example 2
2. Check the mode of collapse
Table on p.35 (above) shows that,
for J -55 pipe,
with 14.81 < D/t < 25.01
the mode of failure is plastic collapse.
54 . 22 =
t
D
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Example 2
The plastic collapse is calculated from:
206 , 1 0541 . 0
54 . 22
991 . 2
000 , 55
C B
t / D
A
Y P
p p

(
¸
(

¸

− =

.
|

\
|
− =
psi 117 , 3 P
p
=
Halliburton Tables
rounds off to 3,120 psi
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Example 3
Determine the collapse strength for a 5 1/2” O.D.,
14.00 #/ft, J -55 casing under axial load of 100,000
lbs
The axial tension will reduce the collapse pressure
as follows:
P
p
A
2
p
A
PA
Y
Y
S
5 . 0
Y
S
75 . 0 1 Y
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|

'

|

'

− =
( )
psi
Area
F
S
A
A
820 , 24
012 . 5 5 . 5
4
000 , 100
2 2
=

= =
π
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Example 3 cont’d
The axial tension will reduce the collapse
pressure rating to:
psi 216 , 38
000 , 55
000 , 55
820 , 24
5 . 0
000 , 55
820 , 24
75 . 0 1 Y
2
PA
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|

|
¹
|

\
|
− =
Here the axial load decreased the J-55
rating to an equivalent “J-38.2” rating
P
p
A
p
A
PA
Y
Y
S
Y
S
Y
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
− = 5 . 0 75 . 0 1
2
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Example 3 - cont’d
551 , 2 43 . 700 10 x 557 . 4
54 . 22
945 . 2
216 , 38
C B
t / D
A
Y P
2
PA p
= −
(
¸
(

¸

− =

|
.
|

\
|
− = ∴

psi 550 , 2 P
p

…compared to 3,117 psi with no axial stress!
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