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PETE 411

Well Drilling

Lesson 15

Surge and Swab Pressures

2

Lesson 15 - Surge and Swab Pressures

N Surge and Swab Pressures

- Closed Pipe

- Fully Open Pipe

- Pipe with Bit

N Example

N General Case (complex geometry, etc.)

N Example

3

READ:

APPLIED DRILLING ENGINEERING

Chapter 4 (all)

HW #8

ADE #4.46, 4.47

due 10 –14 – 02

4

p c a ae

v K v v + =

5

Surge Pressure - Closed Pipe

Newtonian

The velocity profile developed for the slot

approximation is valid for the flow

conditions in the annulus; but the

boundary conditions are different,

because the pipe is moving:

2 1

f

2

dL

dp

2

c

y

c

y

V + + − =

µ µ

V = 0

V = -V

p

6

When y = 0, v = - v

p

,

When y = h, v = 0,

Substituting

for c

1

and c

2

:

p 2

v c − = ∴

p 1

f

2

v

µ

h

c

dL

dp

2µ

h

0 − + = ∴

2 1

f

2

c

µ

y

c

dL

dp

2µ

y

v + + − =

h

µ v

dL

dp

2

h

c

p

f

1

+ = ∴

( )

− − − =

h

y

1 v y hy

dL

dp

2µ

1

v

p

2

f

At Drillpipe

Wall

7

Velocity profile in the slot

∫ ∫ ∫

= = = vWdy vdA dq q

( )

− − − =

h

y

1 v y hy

dL

dp

2µ

1

v

p

2

f

∫

− = ∴

h

0

2

f

)dy y (hy

dL

dp

2µ

W

q dy )

h

y

1 ( W v

h

0

p

∫

− −

2

Wh v

dL

dp

12µ

Wh

q

p

f

3

+ = ∴

h

0

W

8

Changing from SLOT to ANNULAR

notation

A = Wh =

( )

2

1

2

2

r r ! −

) r r (

q

v

r r h

2

1

2

2

1 2

− π

=

− =

2

Wh v

dL

dp

12µ

Wh

q

p

f

3

+ =

Substitute in:

9

Or, in field units

( )

2

1 2

p

f

d d 1000

2

v

v

dL

dp

−

+ µ

=

( )

2

1 2

p

f

r r

2

v

v 12µ

dL

dp

−

+

=

or, in field units:

Frictional Pressure Gradient

Same as for pure slot flow if v

p

= o (K

p

= 0.5)

Results in:

10

How do we evaluate v ?

For closed pipe,

flow rate in annulus = pipe displacement rate:

p a

q q =

( )

=

−

4

d !

v d d

4

v

2

1

p

2

1

2

2 a

π

d

1

d

2

v

p

1

d

d

v

v

2

1

2

p

−

= ∴

11

Open

Pipe

Pulling out

of Hole

12

Surge Pressure - Open Pipe

Pressure at top and bottom is the

same inside and outside the pipe.

i.e.,

annulus

f

pipe

f

dL

dp

dL

dp

=

( )

( )

2

1 2

p

a

2

i

p i

d d 1000

2

V

v µ

d 1500

v v µ

−

+

=

+

∴

From Equations

(4.88) and

(4.90d):

13

a i

q q + =

t

q Also,

( ) ( )

− +

= −

2

1

2

2 a

2

i i

2

i

2

1 p

d d

4

!

v d

4

!

v d d

4

!

V

i.e.,

( )

( ) ( )

p

2

1

2

2

2

1 2

4

i

2

1 2

2

1

4

i

a

v

d d d d 4 6d

d d 4d 3d

v

− − − −

− −

= ∴

Surge Pressure - Open Pipe

Valid for laminar flow, constant geometry, Newtonian

14

Example

Calculate the surge pressures that

result when 4,000 ft of 10 3/4 inch OD

(10 inch ID) casing is lowered inside a

12 inch hole at 1 ft/s if the hole is filled

with 9.0 lbm/gal brine with a viscosity

of 2.0 cp. Assume laminar flow.

1. Closed pipe

2. Open ended

15

( )

2

1 2

p

a

f

10.75 12 1000

2

1

4.064 2

) d 1000(d

2

v

v µ

dL

dp

−

+

=

−

+

=

ft/s 4.064

10.75 12

(1) 10.75

) d (d

v d

v

2 2

2

2

1

2

2

p

2

1

a

=

−

=

−

=

1. For Closed Pipe

ft

psi

0.00577

dL

dp

f

=

psi 23.1 4,000 0.00577 "#

f

= ∗ =

1

d

d

v

v

2

1

2

p

a

−

= ∴

16

( )

( ) ( )

p

2

1

2

2

2

1 2

4

2

1 2

2

1

4

a

V

d d d d 4 d 6

d d d 4 d 3

V

− − − −

− −

=

sec

ft

0.4865

(1.0)

) 10.75 (12 10.75) 4(12 6(10)

10.75) (12 4(10.75) 3(10)

V

2 2 2 4

2 2 4

a

− =

− − − −

− −

=

2. For Open Pipe,

17

2. For Open Pipe,

ft

psi

0.00001728

10.75) 1000(12

2

1

0.4865 2

) d 1000(d

2

V

V µ

dL

dp

2 2

1 2

p

a

f

=

−

+ −

=

−

+

=

e) (negligibl psi 0.07

4,000 * 0.00001728 "#

f

=

=

18

Derivation of Equation (4.94)

From Equation (4.92):

2

1 2

2

p

a

p

i

2

1 2

p

a

2

p i

) d 2(d

d

2

v

v 3

v v

) d 1000(d

2

v

v µ

1500d

) v v µ(

−

+

= + ∴

−

+

=

+

19

2

1 2

2

p

2

a

2

1 2 p

i

) d 4(d

d 3v d v 6 ) d (d 4v -

v

−

+ + −

= ∴

Derivation of Eq. (4.94) cont’d

From Equation (4.93):

) d (d v d v ) d (d v

2

1

2

2 a

2

i

2 2

1 p

− + = −

Substituting for v

i

:

2

1 2

4

p

4

a

2

1 2

2

p

2 2

1 p

) d 4(d

d 3v d v 6 ) d (d d 4v

) d (d v

−

+ + − −

= −

) d (d v

2

1

2

2 a

− +

20

[ ]

[ ]

2

1 2

2

1

2

2

4

a

4 2 2 2

1

2

1 2 p

) d )(d d 4(d 6d v

3d ) d d (d ) d 4(d v

− − + =

− + − −

So,

p

2

1

2

2

2

1 2

4

4 2

1 2

2

1

a

v

) d (d ) d - 4(d 6d

3d ) d (d 4d

v

− +

− −

= ∴

i.e.,

p

2

1

2

2

2

1 2

4

2

1 2

2

1

4

a

v

) d (d ) d 4(d 6d

) d (d 4d 3d

v

− − − −

− −

=

21

Surge Pressure - General Case

The slot approximation discussed

earlier is not appropriate if the pipe ID

or OD varies, if the fluid is non-

Newtonian, or if the flow is turbulent.

In the general case - an iterative

solution technique may be used.

22

Fig. 4.42

Simplified

hydraulic

representation

of the lower

part of a

drillstring

23

General Solution Method

1. Start at the bottom of the drillstring and

determine the rate of fluid displacement.

( )

p

2 2

1 t

v d d

4

!

q − =

2. Assume a split of this flow stream with a

fraction, f

a,

going to the annulus, and

(1-f

a

) going through the inside of the pipe.

24

3. Calculate the resulting total frictional

pressure loss in the annulus, using the

established pressure loss calculation

procedures.

4. Calculate the total frictional pressure loss

inside the drill string.

General Solution Method

25

5. Compare the results from 3 and 4, and if

they are unequal, repeat the above

steps with a different split between q

a

and q

p

.

i.e., repeat with different values of f

a

, until

the two pressure loss values agree

within a small margin. The average of

these two values is the surge pressure.

General Solution Method

26

NOTE:

4The flow rate along the annulus need not be

constant, it varies whenever the cross-

sectional area varies.

4The same holds for the drill string.

4An appropriate average fluid velocity must be

determined for each section. This velocity

is further modified to arrive at an

effective mean velocity.

27

Fig. 4.42

Simplified

hydraulic

representation

of the lower

part of a

drillstring

28

Burkhardt

Has suggested using an effective mean

annular velocity given by:

Where is the average annular velocity

based on q

a

K

c

is a constant called the mud clinging

constant; it depends on the annular

geometry. (Not related to Power-law K!)

v

p c a ae

v K v v + =

a

v

29

The value of K

p

lies between 0.4 and 0.5

for most typical flow conditions, and is

often taken to be 0.45.

Establishing the onset of turbulence under

these conditions is not easy.

The usual procedure is to calculate surge

or swab pressures for both the laminar

and the turbulent flow patterns and then

to use the larger value.

30

K

c

K

c

31

For very small values of α αα α,

K = 0.45 is not a good

approximation

K

c

Fig. 4.41 - Mud clinging constant, K

c,

for computing surge-and-swab pressure.

K

c

32

Table 4.8. Summary of Swab Pressure

Calculation for Example 4.35

Variable

f

a

=(q

a

/q

t

)

1

0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692

(q

p

)

1

, cu ft/s 0.422 0.211 0.251 0.260

(q

p

)

2

, cu ft/s 0.265 0.054 0.093 0.103

(q

p

)

3

, cu ft/s 0.111 -0.101 -0.061 -0.052

33

Table 4.8 Summary of Swab

Pressure Calculation Inside Pipe

Variable

f

a

=(q

a

/q

t

)

1

……… 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692

∆p

BIT

, psi ……… 442 115 160 171

∆p

DC

, psi ……… 104 33 44 46

∆p

DP

, psi ……… 449 273 293 297

Total ∆p

i

, psi …… 995 421 497 514

34

Table 4.8 Summary of Swab

Pressure Calculation in Annulus

Variable

f

a

=(q

a

/q

t

)

1

0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692

0.422 0.633 0.594 0.585

0.012 0.223 0.183 0.174

104 139 128 126

335 405 392 389

Total ∆p

a

, psi 439 544 520 515

Total ∆p

i

, psi 995 421 497 514

psi p

psi p

cu q

cu q

a

a

,

,

ft/s , ) (

ft/s , ) (

dpa

dca

2

1

∆

∆

35

Table 4.8 Summary of Swab Pressure

Calculation for Example 4.35

( )

1.00 0.99 0.94 1.39 :

514.5

"# "#

2

1

a i

+

f

a

: 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692

36

v

p

37

VELOCITY

SURGE

PRESSURE

ACCELERATION

38

Inertial Effects

Example 4.36

Compute the surge pressure due to

inertial effects caused by downward 0.5

ft/s

2

acceleration of 10,000 ft of 10.75” csg.

with a closed end through a 12.25 borehole

containing 10 lbm/gal.

Ref. ADE, pp. 171-172

39

From Equation (4.99)

psi 271 "p

(10,000)

10.75 12.25

75) )(0.5)(10. 0.00162(10

"p

d d

d a 0.00162

dL

dp

a

2 2

2

a

2

1

2

2

2

1 p

a

= ∴

−

= ∴

−

=

ρ

Inertial Effects - Example 4.36

40

END of

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