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PETE 411
Well Drilling
Lesson 15
Surge and Swab Pressures
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Lesson 15 - Surge and Swab Pressures
N Surge and Swab Pressures
- Closed Pipe
- Fully Open Pipe
- Pipe with Bit
N Example
N General Case (complex geometry, etc.)
N Example
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READ:
APPLIED DRILLING ENGINEERING
Chapter 4 (all)
HW #8
ADE #4.46, 4.47
due 10 –14 – 02
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p c a ae
v K v v + =
5
Surge Pressure - Closed Pipe
Newtonian
The velocity profile developed for the slot
approximation is valid for the flow
conditions in the annulus; but the
boundary conditions are different,
because the pipe is moving:
2 1
f
2
dL
dp

2
c
y
c
y
V + + − =
µ µ
V = 0
V = -V
p
6
When y = 0, v = - v
p
,
When y = h, v = 0,
Substituting
for c
1
and c
2
:
p 2
v c − = ∴
p 1
f
2
v
µ
h
c
dL
dp

h
0 − + = ∴
2 1
f
2
c
µ
y
c
dL
dp


y
v + + − =
h
µ v
dL
dp
2
h
c
p
f
1
+ = ∴
( )






− − − =
h
y
1 v y hy
dL
dp

1
v
p
2
f
At Drillpipe
Wall
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Velocity profile in the slot
∫ ∫ ∫
= = = vWdy vdA dq q
( )






− − − =
h
y
1 v y hy
dL
dp

1
v
p
2
f

− = ∴
h
0
2
f
)dy y (hy
dL
dp

W
q dy )
h
y
1 ( W v
h
0
p

− −
2
Wh v
dL
dp
12µ
Wh
q
p
f
3
+ = ∴
h
0
W
8
Changing from SLOT to ANNULAR
notation
A = Wh =
( )
2
1
2
2
r r ! −
) r r (
q
v
r r h
2
1
2
2
1 2
− π
=
− =
2
Wh v
dL
dp
12µ
Wh
q
p
f
3
+ =
Substitute in:
9
Or, in field units
( )
2
1 2
p
f
d d 1000
2
v
v
dL
dp









+ µ
=
( )
2
1 2
p
f
r r
2
v
v 12µ
dL
dp










+
=
or, in field units:
Frictional Pressure Gradient
Same as for pure slot flow if v
p
= o (K
p
= 0.5)
Results in:
10
How do we evaluate v ?
For closed pipe,
flow rate in annulus = pipe displacement rate:
p a
q q =
( )








=







4
d !
v d d
4
v
2
1
p
2
1
2
2 a
π
d
1
d
2
v
p
1
d
d
v
v
2
1
2
p









= ∴
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Open
Pipe
Pulling out
of Hole
12
Surge Pressure - Open Pipe
Pressure at top and bottom is the
same inside and outside the pipe.
i.e.,
annulus
f
pipe
f
dL
dp

dL
dp






=






( )
( )
2
1 2
p
a
2
i
p i
d d 1000
2
V
v µ
d 1500
v v µ









+
=
+

From Equations
(4.88) and
(4.90d):
13
a i
q q + =
t
q Also,
( ) ( )






− +






= −
2
1
2
2 a
2
i i
2
i
2
1 p
d d
4
!
v d
4
!
v d d
4
!
V
i.e.,
( )
( ) ( )
p
2
1
2
2
2
1 2
4
i
2
1 2
2
1
4
i
a
v
d d d d 4 6d
d d 4d 3d
v






− − − −
− −
= ∴
Surge Pressure - Open Pipe
Valid for laminar flow, constant geometry, Newtonian
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Example
Calculate the surge pressures that
result when 4,000 ft of 10 3/4 inch OD
(10 inch ID) casing is lowered inside a
12 inch hole at 1 ft/s if the hole is filled
with 9.0 lbm/gal brine with a viscosity
of 2.0 cp. Assume laminar flow.
1. Closed pipe
2. Open ended
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( )
2
1 2
p
a
f
10.75 12 1000
2
1
4.064 2
) d 1000(d
2
v
v µ
dL
dp







+
=









+
=
ft/s 4.064
10.75 12
(1) 10.75
) d (d
v d
v
2 2
2
2
1
2
2
p
2
1
a
=

=

=
1. For Closed Pipe
ft
psi
0.00577
dL
dp
f
=
psi 23.1 4,000 0.00577 "#
f
= ∗ =
1
d
d
v
v
2
1
2
p
a









= ∴
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( )
( ) ( )
p
2
1
2
2
2
1 2
4
2
1 2
2
1
4
a
V
d d d d 4 d 6
d d d 4 d 3
V








− − − −
− −
=
sec
ft
0.4865
(1.0)
) 10.75 (12 10.75) 4(12 6(10)
10.75) (12 4(10.75) 3(10)
V
2 2 2 4
2 2 4
a
− =






− − − −
− −
=
2. For Open Pipe,
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2. For Open Pipe,
ft
psi
0.00001728
10.75) 1000(12
2
1
0.4865 2
) d 1000(d
2
V
V µ
dL
dp
2 2
1 2
p
a
f
=







+ −
=









+
=
e) (negligibl psi 0.07
4,000 * 0.00001728 "#
f
=
=
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Derivation of Equation (4.94)
From Equation (4.92):
2
1 2
2
p
a
p
i
2
1 2
p
a
2
p i
) d 2(d
d
2
v
v 3
v v
) d 1000(d
2
v
v µ
1500d
) v v µ(









+
= + ∴









+
=
+
19
2
1 2
2
p
2
a
2
1 2 p
i
) d 4(d
d 3v d v 6 ) d (d 4v -
v

+ + −
= ∴
Derivation of Eq. (4.94) cont’d
From Equation (4.93):
) d (d v d v ) d (d v
2
1
2
2 a
2
i
2 2
1 p
− + = −
Substituting for v
i
:
2
1 2
4
p
4
a
2
1 2
2
p
2 2
1 p
) d 4(d
d 3v d v 6 ) d (d d 4v
) d (d v

+ + − −
= −
) d (d v
2
1
2
2 a
− +
20
[ ]
[ ]
2
1 2
2
1
2
2
4
a
4 2 2 2
1
2
1 2 p
) d )(d d 4(d 6d v
3d ) d d (d ) d 4(d v
− − + =
− + − −
So,
p
2
1
2
2
2
1 2
4
4 2
1 2
2
1
a
v
) d (d ) d - 4(d 6d
3d ) d (d 4d
v








− +
− −
= ∴
i.e.,
p
2
1
2
2
2
1 2
4
2
1 2
2
1
4
a
v
) d (d ) d 4(d 6d
) d (d 4d 3d
v








− − − −
− −
=
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Surge Pressure - General Case
The slot approximation discussed
earlier is not appropriate if the pipe ID
or OD varies, if the fluid is non-
Newtonian, or if the flow is turbulent.
In the general case - an iterative
solution technique may be used.
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Fig. 4.42
Simplified
hydraulic
representation
of the lower
part of a
drillstring
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General Solution Method
1. Start at the bottom of the drillstring and
determine the rate of fluid displacement.
( )
p
2 2
1 t
v d d
4
!
q − =
2. Assume a split of this flow stream with a
fraction, f
a,
going to the annulus, and
(1-f
a
) going through the inside of the pipe.
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3. Calculate the resulting total frictional
pressure loss in the annulus, using the
established pressure loss calculation
procedures.
4. Calculate the total frictional pressure loss
inside the drill string.
General Solution Method
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5. Compare the results from 3 and 4, and if
they are unequal, repeat the above
steps with a different split between q
a
and q
p
.
i.e., repeat with different values of f
a
, until
the two pressure loss values agree
within a small margin. The average of
these two values is the surge pressure.
General Solution Method
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NOTE:
4The flow rate along the annulus need not be
constant, it varies whenever the cross-
sectional area varies.
4The same holds for the drill string.
4An appropriate average fluid velocity must be
determined for each section. This velocity
is further modified to arrive at an
effective mean velocity.
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Fig. 4.42
Simplified
hydraulic
representation
of the lower
part of a
drillstring
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Burkhardt
Has suggested using an effective mean
annular velocity given by:
Where is the average annular velocity
based on q
a
K
c
is a constant called the mud clinging
constant; it depends on the annular
geometry. (Not related to Power-law K!)
v
p c a ae
v K v v + =
a
v
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The value of K
p
lies between 0.4 and 0.5
for most typical flow conditions, and is
often taken to be 0.45.
Establishing the onset of turbulence under
these conditions is not easy.
The usual procedure is to calculate surge
or swab pressures for both the laminar
and the turbulent flow patterns and then
to use the larger value.
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K
c
K
c
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For very small values of α αα α,
K = 0.45 is not a good
approximation
K
c
Fig. 4.41 - Mud clinging constant, K
c,
for computing surge-and-swab pressure.
K
c
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Table 4.8. Summary of Swab Pressure
Calculation for Example 4.35
Variable
f
a
=(q
a
/q
t
)
1
0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692
(q
p
)
1
, cu ft/s 0.422 0.211 0.251 0.260
(q
p
)
2
, cu ft/s 0.265 0.054 0.093 0.103
(q
p
)
3
, cu ft/s 0.111 -0.101 -0.061 -0.052
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Table 4.8 Summary of Swab
Pressure Calculation Inside Pipe
Variable
f
a
=(q
a
/q
t
)
1
……… 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692
∆p
BIT
, psi ……… 442 115 160 171
∆p
DC
, psi ……… 104 33 44 46
∆p
DP
, psi ……… 449 273 293 297
Total ∆p
i
, psi …… 995 421 497 514
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Table 4.8 Summary of Swab
Pressure Calculation in Annulus
Variable
f
a
=(q
a
/q
t
)
1
0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692
0.422 0.633 0.594 0.585
0.012 0.223 0.183 0.174
104 139 128 126
335 405 392 389
Total ∆p
a
, psi 439 544 520 515
Total ∆p
i
, psi 995 421 497 514
psi p
psi p
cu q
cu q
a
a
,
,
ft/s , ) (
ft/s , ) (
dpa
dca
2
1


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Table 4.8 Summary of Swab Pressure
Calculation for Example 4.35
( )
1.00 0.99 0.94 1.39 :
514.5
"# "#
2
1
a i
+
f
a
: 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692
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v
p
37
VELOCITY
SURGE
PRESSURE
ACCELERATION
38
Inertial Effects
Example 4.36
Compute the surge pressure due to
inertial effects caused by downward 0.5
ft/s
2
acceleration of 10,000 ft of 10.75” csg.
with a closed end through a 12.25 borehole
containing 10 lbm/gal.
Ref. ADE, pp. 171-172
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From Equation (4.99)
psi 271 "p
(10,000)
10.75 12.25
75) )(0.5)(10. 0.00162(10
"p
d d
d a 0.00162

dL
dp
a
2 2
2
a
2
1
2
2
2
1 p
a
= ∴

= ∴

=
ρ
Inertial Effects - Example 4.36
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END of
Lesson 15
Surge and Swab