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© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

DRILL STRING DESIGN
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 2
Drill String Design
Common grades of drill pipe with
yield strength
Grade
Minimum Yield
psi
Maximum Yield
psi
Tensile Strength
psi
E
75,000
(517 MPa)
105,000
(724 MPa)
85,000
(586 MPa)
X
95,000
(655 MPa)
125,000
(862 MPa)
105,000
(724 MPa)
G
105,000
(724 MPa)
135,000
(931 MPa)
115,000
(793 MPa)
S
135,000
(931 MPa)
165,000
(1138 MPa)
145,000
(1000 MPa)
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 3
Drill String Design
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 4
Drill String Design
The API recognizes four classes
of drill pipe
New
Premium Class
Class 2
Class 3
Pipe is rarely considered new
If it has been run in the hole, it is
considered premium class
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 5
Drill String Design
The DS-1 standard has an
additional class of drill pipe
It is premium class, reduced TSR
The tool joints do not meet the
standards for API tool joints and have
a reduce torsional strength
Pressure and tensile ratings are the
same, but torsional strength is lower
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 6
Drill String Design
Premium class assumes that
there is 80% wall thickness
remaining on the tube and that
the reduction in wall thickness
comes from the outside diameter
of the tube
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 7
Drill String Design
A reduction in outside diameter
removes the most steel and
results in the lowest strength
5”, 19.5# A
s
= 5.2746 in
2
20% outer wall A
s
= 4.1538 in
2
20% inner wall A
s
= 4.2855 in
2
5” by 4.276”
4.8552” by 4.276”
5” by 4.4208”
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 8
Drill String Design
The worn OD can be determined
from the following formula


The worn OD can be used to
calculate tensile strength and
combined torsion and tension
limits
( )
D D D t D
pw p i h i
= ÷ × +
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 9
Drill String Design
Class 2 has at least 70% of the
wall thickness remaining with
the loss on the OD
Class 2 is seldom used for
drilling except small rigs with
limited hook load capability
Class 3 is less than 70% wall
thickness remaining and is
considered junk
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 10
Drill String Design
Drill string design starts at the
bottom of the hole with the BHA
The drill collars must provide
enough weight for the bit with
the top of the drill collars
remaining in tension (not
buckled, the top of the drill
collars are actually not in axial
tension)
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 11
Drill String Design
A design factor (DF) is used to
make sure sufficient drill collars
are available for estimated
weight on bit
Typical design factors are 10% to
15% or 1.10 to 1.15 in equation
10-43
( )
B W
DF W
L
f
c
=
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 12
Drill String Design
Example shows how to determine the
number of drill collars
Maximum anticipated weight on 8 3/4 inch
(222.3 mm) bit is 50,000 lbs (22,400 daN)
Drill collar size is 6 1/2 inch (165.1 mm) by 2
13/16 inch (71.4 mm)
Mud weight is 11.5 ppg (1380 kg/m
3
)
Excess collars should be 10% (DF = 1.10) to
insure the drill pipe remains in tension
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 13
Drill String Design
The number of 30 foot (9.14 m)
collars to be run
First determine the weight per
foot of the drill collars in air
( )
2 2
67 . 2
i p f
D D W ÷ =
( )
m kg W
W
f
f
/ 665
foot per lbs 92 8125 . 2 5 . 6 67 . 2
2 2
=
= ÷ =
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 14
Drill String Design
Determine the buoyancy factor


Calculate the length of the drill
collars
( )
m
B µ 015 . 0 1÷ =
( )( ) 83 . 0 5 . 11 015 . 0 1 = ÷ = B
( )
B W
DF W
L
f
c
=
( )
( )( )
( ) m 219.5 feet 720
83 . 0 92
10 . 1 50000
= =
c
L
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 15
Drill String Design
Determine the number of collars
and weight of collars in drilling
fluid
720/30 = 24 drill collars
daN 643 , 24
979 , 54 83 . 0 92 30 24
=
= × × × =
tc
tc
W
lbs W
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 16
Drill String Design
Drill collars
Neutral Point
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 17
Drill String Design
With BHA components, most of
the bending will occur in the
connections
BHA connections are subjected
to bending and fatigue from
buckling
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 18
Drill String Design
The BSR is a ratio of the relative
stiffness of the box and pin for a
given connection
A typical target BSR is 2.5, +/-
0.25
Graphs showing the BSR can be
found in the API RP 7G
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 19
Drill String Design
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Bending Strength Ratio
O
u
t
s
i
d
e

D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
,

i
n
c
h
e
s
8 5/8 H90
NC 77
8 5/8 REG
7 5/8 H90
NC70
7 5/8 REG
6 5/8 FH
5 1/2 IF
7 H90
NC 61
5.25
5.75
6.25
6.75
7.25
7.75
8.25
8.75
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Bending Strength Ratio
O
u
t
s
i
d
e

D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
,

i
n
c
h
e
s
6 5/8 H90
6 5/8 REG
5 1/2 FH
NC56
5 1/2 H90
5 1/2 REG
NC50
5 H90
4 1/2 H90
NC46
4 1/2 FH
NC44
4 H90
NC40
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 20
Drill String Design
The BSR for a given connection
is a function of the ID of the pin
and OD of the box
In theory, high BSR’s will cause
accelerated pin failures and low
BSR’s will cause accelerated box
failures
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 21
Drill String Design
The DS-1 standard gives the following
recommended BSR’s

Drill Collar OD
Traditional
API BSR
Range
DS-1
Recommended
BSR Range
< 6 inches (152
mm)
2.25 to 2.75 1.80 to 2.50
6 to 7 7/8 inches
(152 - 200 mm)
2.25 to 2.75 2.25 to 2.75
> or = to 8 inches
(203 mm)
2.25 to 2.75 2.50 to 3.20
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 22
Drill String Design
Many operators will place
approximately 6 joints of HWDP
on top of the drill collars as a
transition to the drill pipe
It may help reduce drill pipe
failures at the top of the drill
collars
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 23
Drill String Design
HWDP
Drill collars
Neutral Point
Other
operators
will rotate
the drill
pipe from
the top of
the drill
collars on
trips
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 24
Drill String Design
If jars are placed in a vertical
well, they are at the top of the
collars and then additional
collars (3 to 4) are run above the
jars
In a vertical well, the jars should
not be run in compression
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 25
Drill String Design
Jars are often
run in
compression in
directional wells
HWDP
Drill collars
Neutral Point
Jars
Drill collars
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 26
Drill String Design
Drill pipe is usually designed
with a design factor plus
overpull
A normal design factor is 1.10 or
10%
Overpull can range from 50,000
to 100,000 lbs (22,411 – 44,822
daN)
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 27
Drill String Design
The overpull is the amount that
can be pulled on the pipe over
and above the drill string weight
If the drill pipe consists of more
than one weight or grade of pipe,
the overpull is balanced between
the two strings
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 28
Drill String Design
Example 6 shows how to design the
drill string
Well depth is 12,000 feet (3658 m)
Drill pipe:
5”, 19.50#/ft (127.0 mm, 29.02 kg/m),
Grade E, Premium Class and
5”, 19.50#/ft (127.0 mm, 29.02 kg/m),
Grade G, Premium Class
Design factor is 1.10
Over pull is 100,000 pounds (44,822 daN)
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 29
Drill String Design
Calculate the worn OD of the drill
string


Calculate the cross sectional
area of the drill pipe
( )
i h i p pw
D t D D D + × ÷ =
( ) mm) (123.32 " 855 . 4 276 . 4 80 . 0 276 . 4 5 = + × ÷ =
pw
D
( )
2 2
4
i pw s
D D A ÷ =
t
( ) ) mm 2679 ( in 152 . 4 276 . 4 855 . 4
4
2 2 2 2
= ÷ =
t
s
A
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 30
Drill String Design
Calculate the tensile strength of
the grade E pipe


Calculate the tensile strength of
the grade G pipe
s p st
A Y T × =
( ) kg 141,067 pounds 000 , 311 152 . 4 000 , 75 = × =
st
T
( ) kg 197,767 pounds 000 , 436 152 . 4 000 , 105 = × =
st
T
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 31
Drill String Design
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 32
Drill String Design
The maximum pull on the grade
E with the 1.10 design factor
would be:
DF
T
P
st
=
max
kg) (128,367 pounds 000 , 283
10 . 1
311000
max
= = P
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 33
Drill String Design
The maximum weight of grade E
that can be used with 100,000
pounds over pull is:

The maximum length of grade E
drill pipe that can be used is:
( ) kg 58,069 lbs 021 , 128 100000 54979 283000
max
= ÷ ÷ = W
m) (2001 feet 6565
50 . 19
128021
max
= = L
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 34
Drill String Design
The maximum pull on the grade
G with the 1.10 design factor
would be:
( ) kg 179,623 pounds 000 , 396
10 . 1
436000
max
= = P
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 35
Drill String Design
The maximum weight of grade G
that can be used with 100,000
pounds over pull is:
kg 266 , 51
pounds 021 , 113 128021 100000 54979 396000
max
max
=
= ÷ ÷ ÷ =
W
W
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 36
Drill String Design
The maximum length of grade G
drill pipe that can be used is:
( ) m 1766 feet 5795
50 . 19
113000
max
= = L
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 37
Drill String Design
The drill string would consist of
the following:
720 feet of drill collars (219.5 m)
6565 feet (2001 m) of 5”, 19.50#/ft,
(127.0 mm, 29.02 kg/m) grade E drill
pipe and
4715 feet (1437 m) of 5”, 19.50#/ft,
(127.0 mm, 29.02 kg/m) grade G drill
pipe
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 38
Drill String Design
Drill Pipe
Drill collars
HWDP
Neutral Point
Top of Grade E
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 39
Drill String Design
Class Problem – Design the drill string
Drill 12 ¼” (311.2 mm) hole to 10,000’ (3048 m)
Maximum bit weight is 65,000 lbs (29,000 daN)
Collars 8” OD (203.2 mm) by 2 13/16” ID (71.4
mm)
4 ½”, 16.60 (114.3 mm, 24.7 kg/m) Grade E,
Premium
4 ½”, 16.60 (114.3 mm, 24.7 kg/m) Grade S-
135, Premium
Use 1.10 design factor for collars
Design factor of 1.10 with overpull of 75,000 lbs
(34,000 daN) for drill pipe
Mud weight is 9.5 ppg (1140 kg/m
3
)
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 40
Drill String Design
The drill string would consist of
the following:
570 feet (173.7 m) of drill collars (19)
5300 feet (1615 m) of 4 1/2”,
16.60#/ft (114.3 mm, 24.7 kg/m),
grade E drill pipe and
4130 feet (1259 m) of 4 1/2”,
16.60#/ft (114.3 mm, 24.7 kg/m),
grade S drill pipe
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 41
Drill String Design
First determine the weight per foot
of the drill collars in air
( )
2 2
67 . 2
i p f
D D W ÷ =
( ) kg/m) (223 lbs/ft 150 8125 . 2 8 67 . 2
2 2
= ÷ =
f
W
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 42
Drill String Design
Determine the buoyancy factor


Calculate the length of the drill
collars
( )
m
B µ 015 . 0 1÷ =
( )( ) 86 . 0 5 . 9 015 . 0 1 = ÷ = B
( )
B W
DF W
L
f
c
=
( )
( )( )
m) (168.9 feet 554
86 . 0 150
10 . 1 65000
= =
c
L
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 43
Drill String Design
Determine the number of collars
and weight of collars in drilling
fluid
554/30 = 18.5 drill collars
Use 19 drill collars


Get the tensile strength of pipe
from the API spec
( ) kg 353 , 33 lbs 530 , 73 86 . 0 150 30 19 = × × × =
tc
W
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 44
Drill String Design
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 45
Drill String Design
The maximum pull on the grade
E with the 1.10 design factor
would be:
DF
T
P
st
=
max
kg) (107,281 pounds 513 , 236
10 . 1
165 , 260
max
= = P
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 46
Drill String Design
The maximum weight of grade E
that can be used with 75,000
pounds over pull is:


The maximum length of grade E
drill pipe that can be used is:
kg 908 , 39
pounds 983 , 87 000 , 75 530 , 73 513 , 236
max
max
=
= ÷ ÷ =
W
W
( ) m 1515 feet 5300
60 . 16
983 , 87
max
= = L
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 47
Drill String Design
The maximum pull on the grade
S with the 1.10 design factor
would be:
kg 106 , 193
pounds 725 , 425
10 . 1
297 , 468
max
max
=
= =
P
P
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 48
Drill String Design
The maximum weight of grade S
that can be used with 75,000
pounds (34,019 kg) over pull is:
kg 825 , 85
pounds 212 , 189 983 , 87 000 , 75 530 , 73 725 , 425
max
max
=
= ÷ ÷ ÷ =
W
W
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 49
Drill String Design
The maximum length of grade S
drill pipe that can be used is:
( ) m 3474 feet 398 , 11
50 . 16
212 , 189
max
= = L
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 50
Drill String Design
The drill string would consist of
the following:
570 feet (173.7 m) of drill collars (19)
5300 feet (1615 m) of 4 1/2”,
16.60#/ft (114.3 mm, 24.7 kg/m),
grade E drill pipe and
4130 feet (1259 m) of 4 1/2”,
16.60#/ft (114.3 mm, 24.7 kg/m),
grade S drill pipe
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 51
Drill String Design
In directional wells, the pipe
weight available for bit weight is
a function of the inclination
W
Inclination, I
Bit Weight
= W cos I
Normal Force
= W sin I
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 52
Drill String Design
Most of the drill
collars are often
replaced by hevi-
wate drill pipe
(HWDP).
Helps reduce torque
and drag by reducing
string weight
Fewer drill collar
connection failures
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 53
Drill String Design
÷The body of a drill collar is
stiffer than the connection
and bending occurs in the
connection
÷In HWDP, bending occurs
in the body and not at the
connection, so fewer
connection failures are
experienced
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 54
Drill String Design
Frequently, the drill pipe is also
run in compression for bit weight
In a vertical well, drill pipe will buckle
with little or no compressive load
Buckling will create bending stresses in
the drill pipe which can lead to fatigue if
the bending stresses are high enough
In a directional well, the compressive
load must exceed the critical buckling
load in order to buckle the drill pipe
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 55
Drill String Design
Therefore, drill pipe can be run in
compression in a directional well
without causing buckling provided the
compressive load is less than the
critical buckling load

 Basic Units


 English Units
F
E Ag I
r
crit
= 2
Iµ sin
) (
sin ) / )( ( 10 82 . 9
4 4 5
OD D
I B f t Wt ID OD
F
h
crit
÷
÷ ×
=
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 56
Drill String Design
The critical buckling load is a function of
the pipe size, inclination and radial
clearance
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 57
Drill String Design
-
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Inclination
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

L
o
a
d
,

l
b
f
4 1/2" in 8 1/2" Hole
4 1/2" in 12 1/4" Hole
5" in 8 1/2" Hole
5" in 12 1/4" Hole
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 58
Drill String Design
Buckling is actually a little more
complicated
It also depends upon the curvature of
the wellbore, internal pressure and
external pressure
The DS-1 Standard has more detailed
buckling calculations
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 59
Drill String Design
The pipe weight and grade can be
identified by the pin end, tool joint
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 60
Drill String Design
Pipe weight
codes can be
found in Table
17
Grade Grade Code
E-75 E
X-95 X
G-105 G
S-135 S
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 61
Drill String Design
Pipe Weight Code
Pipe Grade Code
Pipe Weight Code
Pipe Grade Code
Pipe Weight Code
Pipe Grade Code
Standard Weight
Grade E Drill Pipe
Heavy Weight
Grade E Drill Pipe
Standard Weight
High Strength Drill Pipe
Heavy Weight
High Strength Drill Pipe
Old API markings for tool joints
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 62
Drill String Design
Mill slot and groove method of drill string identification
Standard Weight Grade E-75 Drill Pipe Standard Weight Grade X-95 Drill Pipe
Standard Weight Grade G-105 Drill Pipe Standard Weight Grade S-135 Drill Pipe
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 63
Drill String Design
Mill slot and groove method of drill string identification
Heavy Weight Grade S-135 Drill Pipe Heavy Weight Grade G-105 Drill Pipe
Heavy Weight Grade E-75 Drill Pipe Heavy Weight Grade X-95 Drill Pipe
Pipe Weight Code
Pipe Grade Code
Drill pipe identification is not strictly
followed and you have to look
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 64
Drill String Design
Combined torque and tension
When torque is added to the drill
pipe, the tensile strength is reduced
At low values of torque, the tensile
strength does not change
substantially
As torque increases, the tensile
strength decreases
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 65
Drill String Design
The equation for calculating the
maximum allowable torque
based on tension is as follows:

English

SI
5 . 0
2
2
2
096167 . 0
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
p
pw
T
A
T
Y
D
J
Q
5 . 0
2
2
2
6
) 9800 ( 10 1536 . 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
÷
s
p
pw
T
A
T
Y
D
J
Q
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 66
Drill String Design
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000
Tension, pounds
T
o
r
q
u
e
,

f
t
-
l
b
s
Grade E Grade X Grade G Grade S
250,000 lbs (112,000 daN)
19,242 ft-lbs (26,119 N-m)
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 67
Drill String Design
Drill string inspection
Periodically the drill string must be
inspected to make sure that the pipe
and BHA components are still fit for
purpose
There are no API standards for drill
string inspection; however, some of
the industry uses the inspection
standards in the DS-1
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 68
Drill String Design
Service Category 1
Very shallow, very routine wells in
well-developed areas
When drill stem failures occur, failure
costs are so minimal that the cost of
extensive inspection would not have
been justified
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 69
Drill String Design
Service Category 2
Routine drilling conditions where the
established practice is to perform
minimal inspection and failure
experience is low
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 70
Drill String Design
Service Category 3
Mid-range drilling conditions where a
standard inspection program is
justified
If a failure occurs, the risk of
significant fishing cost or losing part
of the hole is minimal
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 71
Drill String Design
Service Category 4
Drilling conditions more difficult than
Category 3
Significant fishing cost or losing part
of the hole is likely in the event of a
drill stem failure
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 72
Drill String Design
Service Category 5
Severe drilling conditions
Several factors combine to make the
cost of a possible failure very high
The service category is selected
by the operator depending upon
their risk analysis
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 73
Drill String Design
Directional wells will have a
higher service category than
vertical wells
Very deep, very high pressure
and sour wells are beyond the
scope of the DS-1 Standard
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 74
Drill String Design
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 75
Drill String Design
The BHA components should be
inspected before they are picked
up
After the components have been
picked up, additional inspections
should be carried out at regular
intervals
© 2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 76
Drill String Design