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Gerson Therapy Handbook

Companion workbook to "A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty
Cases"
Practical guidance, resources, and recipes for following the
Gerson Therapy
Revised Fifth Edition
Gerson™ Therapy Handbook Revised Fifth Edition
ISBN: 0-967 7526-4-
A Companion to A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases, by Max Gerson, M.D.
! "99#-"999 The Gerson $nstitute% &ll 'ights 'eser(ed% The infor)ation contained in this *oo+ is *ased on original research,
e)pirical o*ser(ation and other infor)ation de(eloped and,or co)piled *y The Gerson $nstitute, its associated practitioners
and researchers and on independent research and,or e)pirical o*ser(ations conducted and,or co)piled *y other indi(iduals
and,or organi-ations% The ad(ice and suggestions descri*ed herein should not under any circu)stances *e relied upon as the
sole )eans of deter)ining appropriate treat)ent or inter(ention% The Gerson $nstitute, its staff, and au.iliary faculty do not
prescri*e or reco))end treat)ent, and cannot *e held responsi*le or lia*le for the use or )isuse of any infor)ation contained
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Please notify us in writing of any deficiencies or discrepancies so that corrections )ay *e )ade in future editions%
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The na)es /0a. Gerson,/ /Gerson,/ and /Gerson Therapy/ as associated with any )ethod or protocol for )edical or treat)ent
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Introduction
Throughout our lives our bodies are being filled with a variety of disease and cancer causing pollutants. These
toxins reach us through the air we breathe, the food we eat, the medicines we take and the water we drink. As
more of these poisons are used every day and cancer rates continue to climb, being able to turn to a proven,
natural, detoxifying treatment like the Gerson Therapy is not only reassuring, but necessary.
The Gerson Therapy is a powerful, natural treatment that boosts your body's own immune system to heal cancer,
arthritis, heart disease, allergies, and many other degenerative diseases. One aspect of the Gerson Therapy that
sets it apart from most other treatment methods is its allencompassing nature. An abundance of nutrients from
thirteen fresh, organic !uices are consumed every day, providing your body with a superdose of en"ymes,
minerals and nutrients. These substances then help the body to break down diseased tissues, while enemas aid in
eliminating the lifelong buildup of toxins from the liver.
#ith its wholebody approach to healing, the Gerson Therapy naturally reactivates your body's magnificent
ability to heal itself with no damaging sideeffects. Over $%% articles in respected medical literature, and
thousands of people cured of their &incurable& diseases document the Gerson Therapy's effectiveness. The
Gerson Therapy is one of the few treatments to have a '% year history of success.
Although its philosophy of cleansing and reactivating the body is simple, the Gerson Therapy is a complex
method of treatment re(uiring significant attention to detail. #hile many patients have made full recoveries
practicing the Gerson Therapy on their own, for best results, we encourage starting treatment at a Gerson
)nstitutecertified treatment center.
*ince the original publication of A Cancer Therapy. Results of 50 Cases in +,-., many developments have taken
place in the medical world, including the widespread use of /toxic0 chemotherapy, the standardi"ation of heart
lung and liver transplants and a rising incidence of cancer in well over a third of our population. At the same
time, we have witnessed the emergence of a host of new and often &unexplainable& chronic diseases, such as
12* /1hronic 2atigue *yndrome0, lupus /*340, 3egionnaire's disease, A)5*, osteoporosis, and Al"heimer's.
As conventional medicine unearths more clues about the nature of chronic, degenerative disease, evi dence has
increasingly pointed toward the scientific validity of 5r Gerson's principles. 6irtually all research that has been
done in the area of nutrition in the past -% years has tended to confirm 5r Gerson's empirical findings. This
comes as no surprise to us. #here traditional treatments have failed, we have found that both old and new
illnesses alike have proven remarkably susceptible to treatment with the Gerson Therapy.
#hether you intend to beat your &incurable& disease at home or at a Gerson certified clinic, this Gerson Therapy
an!book is intended as a userfriendly companion guide to the deservedly more famous but more technical A
Cancer Therapy: Results of 50 Cases" by 7ax Gerson, 7.5. The latter book contains, in a remarkably
condensed form, the accumulated wisdom of -% years of clinical experimentation in 4urope and the 8nited
*tates by 5r Gerson, who counted heads of state and at least one 9obel laureate among his cured patients. )f you
plan to undertake the Gerson Therapy we suggest you read both volumes as they work together to provide you
with the information you need to begin and maintain the Gerson healing process.
The Gerson Therapy an!book has been organi"ed so that you can find answers (uickly and begin the healing
process immediately. )n the following chapters you will find everything you need to know about the Gerson
protocol, from !uicing schedules and enema formulas, to the interpretation of lab results. This Gerson Therapy
an!book will alert you to crucial healing reactions and it will explain several ad!uvant therapies that you may
pursue in con!unction with the Gerson Therapy. #e have also selected some important articles from issues of the
Gerson :ealing 9ewsletter that discuss coffee enemas, pesticides and the merits of organic food in greater
detail.
As you face perhaps the greatest challenge of your life we would like to reassure you that there is both hope and
an alternative to the so called cures of traditional medicine. )f you have any (uestions after reading this Gerson
Therapy an!book that remain unanswered, please do not hesitate to contact our staff at the Gerson )nstitute.
#e wish you well.
The Gerson nstit!te
The Gerson )nstitute /a.k.a. 1ancer 1uring *ociety0 is a nonprofit organi"ation dedicated to healing and
preventing chronic, degenerative diseases based on the vision, philosophy and the successful work of 5r 7ax
Gerson.
2ounded in +,;. by 1harlotte Gerson /daughter of 5r Gerson0 the Gerson )nstitute provides a range of
programs designed to inform and educate the general public and health care practitioners about the benefits of
the Gerson Therapy.
#hether you are interested in an alternative treatment for your &incurable& disease, or simply wish to adopt a
healthier lifestyle for yourself and your family, the Gerson )nstitute can help.
1ontact our offices by telephone, fax, email or via the internet to find out more about these and other programs
that are offered by the Gerson )nstitute<
'eferral to a 4icensed Gerson 5linic
Practitioner Training Progra)
Practitioner 'eferral 4ist
5are-gi(ers Training 6ee+end
Gerson 7upport Groups
8ree 9rochures
'eco(ered Patient 'eferral 4ist
'eco(ered Patient 7upport :etwor+
6e* 7ite 5hat 'oo)s
7pea+er;s 8oru)
<utreach Progra) =schools and *usinesses>
0e)*ership
7u*scription to the Gerson Healing Newsletter
&d(ertising ? 7ponsorship <pportunities
5alendar of @(ents
:ational ? $nternational 7e)inars and 6or+shops
The Tree of 4ife
9oo+s ? Tapes
4i*rary Aonation Progra)
= >rograms will change from time to time. >lease contact the Gerson )nstitute for current information.
Max Gerson, M.D. and the Gerson Therapy
7ax Gerson, 7.5. was born October +., +..+ in #ongrowit", Germany. :e attended the universities of
?reslau, #uer"burg and ?erlin, eventually graduating from the 8niversity of 2reiburg. *uffering from severe
migraines, 5r 7ax Gerson focused his initial dietary experiments on preventing these debilitating headaches. )t
was discovered in the course of treatment with this special &migraine diet&, that one of 5r Gerson's patients was
cured of his skin tuberculosis. This discovery led to further studies of the diet, and to 5r Gerson successfully
treating many more tuberculosis patients.
After some time, his work came to the attention of famed thoracic surgeon, 2erdinand *auerbruch, 7.5. #ith
the help and supervision of 5r *auerbruch, Gerson established a skin tuberculosis treatment program at the
7unich 8niversity :ospital. )n a carefully monitored clinical trial, @@' out of @-% skin tuberculosis patients
treated with Gerson's dietary regimen, experienced complete recoveries. 5r *auerbruch and 5r Gerson
simultaneously published articles on the study in a do"en of the world's leading medical !ournals, establishing
the Gerson treatment as the first cure for skin tuberculosis.
Through his work with tuberculosis, 5r Gerson attracted the friendship of 9obel >eace >ri"e recipient, Albert
*chweit"er, 7.5. At the time, 5r *chweit"er's interest in Gerson was prompted by conventional methods having
failed to cure his wife, :elene *chweit"er?resslau /+.;,+,-;0, of lung tuberculosis. )n +,A%, after suffering
her tuberculosis for seven years, :elene was admitted to 5r Gerson's clinic and cured after , months. The two
doctors shared a good friendship for the rest of their lives. )t came to pass that even *chweit"er's own advanced
/Type ))0 diabetes was cured by Gerson's nutritional therapy. *chweit"er followed Gerson's progress over the
years, seeing the dietary therapy successfully applied further to heart disease, kidney failure, and then finally
cancer.
To escape Adolf :itler's reign in 4urope, 5r Gerson moved with his family to America, where they took up
residence in 9ew Bork. )n +,A., 5r Gerson passed his medical boards and was then licensed to practice
medicine in the state of 9ew Bork. 2or twenty years, he treated hundreds of cancer patients who had been given
up to die after all conventional treatments had failed. )n +,@', 5r Gerson demonstrated some of these recovered
patients before the >epper9eely 1ongressional *ubcommittee. The committee was holding hearings on a bill to
fund research into cancer treatment. Although only a handful of peerreviewed !ournals were receptive to
Gerson's then &radical& idea of diet affecting health, he continued publishing articles on his therapy in 4urope
and presenting case histories of his healed patients. )n +,-., after thirty years of clinical experimentation,
Gerson published A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases. This medical monograph details the theories,
treatment, and results achieved by a great physician. )n +,-, 5r 7ax Gerson died.
)t was -% years ago that 5r Gerson promoted better health through nutrition. Although ridiculed in his time,
today, we are shown proof in countless articles and studies, that he was merely ahead of his time. As better diet
proves to be the answer to healing more and more of our health problems, the words of 5r Gerson's good friend
carry a deeply prophetic ring.
&) see in him one of the most eminent geniuses in the history of medicine. 7any of his basic ideas have been
adopted without having his name connected with them. Bet, he has achieved more than seemed possible under
adverse conditions. :e leaves a legacy which commands attention and which will assure him his due place.
Those whom he has cured will now attest to the truth of his ideas.&
- :o*el Pri-e 4aureate and healed Gerson patient, Ar &l*ert 7chweit-er, in eulogy of 0a. Gerson, 0%A%
The Gerson Therapy
The Gerson Therapy is a state of the art, contemporary, holistic and natural treatment which utili"es the body's
own healing mechanism in the treatment and cure of chronic debilitating illness. #hen it was introduced to the
world by 7ax Gerson, 7.5., the dietary therapy was so far ahead of its time that there were almost no rationales
available in the scientific literature to explain how it could produce cures in chronic as well as infectious
diseases. ?ut, because it did cure many cases of advanced tuberculosis, heart disease, cancer and numerous
lesser conditions, the Gerson Therapy was established as a ma!or contribution to the medical field, through the
publication of hundreds of articles in peer reviewed medical literature. Gerson first published on the topic of
cancer in +,@-, almost forty years before the adoption of the current official 8.*. 9ational 1ancer )nstitute pro
gram on diet, nutrition, and cancer. Today, leaders in the medical establishment predict a -%C reduction in
cancers by the year $%%% through educating the public in dietary methods of preventing cancer.
)t is rare to find cancer, arthritis, or other degenerative diseases in cultures considered &primitive& by #estern
civili"ation. )s it because of dietD The fact that degenerative diseases appear in these cultures only when modern
packaged foods and additives are introduced would certainly support that idea. 7ax Gerson said &*tay close to
nature and its eternal laws will protect you.& :e considered that degenerative diseases were brought on by toxic,
degraded food, water and air.
The Gerson Therapy seeks to regenerate the body to health, supporting each important metabolic re(uirement by
flooding the body with nutrients from almost $% pounds of organically grown fruits and vegetables daily. 7ost
is used to make fresh raw !uice, one glass every hour, +A times per day. Eaw and cooked solid foods are
generously consumed. Oxygenation is usually more than doubled, as oxygen deficiency in the blood contributes
to many degenerative diseases. The metabolism is also stimulated through the addition of thyroid, potassium and
other supplements, and by avoiding heavy animal fats, excess protein, sodium and other toxins.
5egenerative diseases render the body increasingly unable to excrete waste materials ade(uately, commonly
resulting in liver and kidney failure. To prevent this, the Gerson Therapy uses intensive detoxification to
eliminate wastes, regenerate the liver, reactivate the immune system and restore the body's essential defenses
en"yme, mineral and hormone systems. #ith generous, high(uality nutrition, increased oxygen availability,
detoxification, and improved metabolism, the cells and the body can regenerate, become healthy and prevent
future illness.
Dr Patricia Spain Ward,
History of the Gerson Therapy, 19
)t is one of the least edifying facts of recent American medical history that the profession's leadership so long
neglected as (uackish the idea that nutrition affects health #$A%A +,@', +,@,, +,;;F *himkin, +,;'0. )gnoring
both the empirical dietary wisdom that pervaded western medicine from the pre1hristian :ippocratic era until
the late nineteenth century and a persuasive body of modern research in nutritional biochemistry, the politically
minded spokesmen of organi"ed medicine in the 8.*. remained long committed to surgery and radiation as the
sole acceptable treatments for cancer. This commitment persisted, even after sound epidemiological data showed
that early detection and removal of malignant tumors did not &cure& most kinds of cancer /1rile, +,-'F updated
by 1airns, +,.-0.
The historical record shows that progress lagged especially in cancer immunotherapy including nutrition and
hyperthermia because power over professional affiliation and publication /and hence over practice and
research0 rested with men who were neither scholars nor practitioners nor researchers themselves, and who were
often une(uipped to grasp the rapidly evolving complexities of the sciences underlying midtwentieth century
medicine.
9owhere is this maladaptation of professional structure to medicine's changing scientific content more tragically
illustrated than in the American experience of 7ax ?. Gerson /+..++,-,0, founder of the bestknown
nutritional treatment for cancer of the premacrobiotic era. A scholar's scholar and a superlative observer of
clinical phenomena, Gerson was a product of the German medical education which Americans in the late +,th
and early $%th centuries considered so superior to our own that all who could afford it went to Germany to
perfect their training /?onnier, +,'A0.
As a medical graduate of the 8niversity of 2reiburg in +,%,, Gerson imbibed all of the latest in scientific
medicine, with the emphasis on specificity which bacteriology had brought into #estern medical thought in the
preceding decades. Gerson subse(uently worked with leading German specialists in internal medicine, in
physiological chemistry, and in neurology /8.*. 1ongress, +,@', ,.0. The historical record does not tell us
whether his medical education in Germany /where much of the early work in nutritional chemistry took place0
included a study of diet, a sub!ect neglected in American medical schools after the germ theory gained
acceptance.
#e do know that by +,+,, when Gerson set up a practice in internal and nervous diseases in ?ielefeld, he had
devised an effective dietary treatment for the migraine headaches which fre(uently disabled him, despite the
best efforts of his colleagues. )n +,$%, while treating migraine patients by this saltfree vegetarian diet, he
discovered that it was also effective in lupus vulgaris /tuberculosis at the skin, then considered incurable0 and,
later, in arthritis as well /8.*. 1ongress, +,@', ,.0.
Trained in the theories of specific disease causation and treatment that began to dominate western medicine for
the first time in history as bacteriological discoveries multiplied in the late nineteenth century, Gerson was at
first uneasy about using a single therapy in such seemingly disparate conditions. ?ut he was committed to the
primacy of clinical evidence, which he liked to express in Gussmaul's dictum< &The result at the sickbed is
decisive& /(uoted in Gerson, +,-., $+$0.
- Ar Patricia 7pain 6ard, History of the Gerson Therapy, "9%
!hapter 1" Procedures #sed Whi$e in the Hospita$
%ne&as
Getting started
2ollowing admission, under physicians orders, you should have been issued<
H >lastic enema bucket with plastic hose
H Iar of coffee
H 5istilled water dispenser
H >ad to place under you while taking enemas
H 6aseline
H :otplate
!o''ee %ne&as
()e'erence" A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases, pp. 19*, +,-.. Timing and fre(uency of enemas will
vary throughout the entirety of your therapy. Bour physician will instruct you and answer (uestions concerning
use of coffee enemas.
He$p'u$ Hints"
B &lways +eep the pot with the distilled water on the war)er% $t will not *oil and will always *e ready%
B $f your *uc+et;s plastic hose *eco)es +in+ed, run a s)all a)ount of hot water through it to soften it%
General Procedure for 5offee @ne)as
The coffee solution should be used at body temperature. Eun a little of the solution through the tube into the
toilet to warm the tube and get rid of the airF close the stopcock. 3ubricate rectal or enema tube for about $& at
end with petroleum !elly. :ang the enema bucket not more than two feet above you. 3ying on your right side,
draw both legs close to the abdomen, relax and breathe deeply.
)nsert the tube into your rectum -& to .&. Open the stopcock and allow fluid to run in very slowly to avoid
cramping. Eetain the solution for +$+- minutes.
)f you have trouble retaining or taking in the full A$ o"., lower the bucketF if you feel spasms, lower the bucket
to the floor to allow the flow to back up a bit to relieve the pressure. After +$$% seconds, slowly start raising the
bucket toward its original level. Bou can also control the flow of solution by pinching the tube with your fingers
or ad!usting the plastic ring in a partially closed position. Bou will (uickly learn what works best for you.
Ceep your eDuip)ent cleanE
5on't place the tube back into the bucket until after you have thoroughly cleaned both the tube and the bucket.
8se a biodegradable, fooduse detergent andJor hydrogen peroxide and rinse well. Einse at least once a day with
hydrogen peroxide AC. The bucket and the tube are very good growing grounds for bacteria.
8reDuency of @ne)as
2re(uency of enemas is increased with symptoms of toxicity such as headache, fever, nausea, intestinal spasms
and drowsiness. 8pon awakening in the morning if headache and drowsiness are experienced, an additional
enema is recommended during the following night.
:ourish first - then deto.ify%
As a general rule, eat some raw or steamed fruit before your first coffee enema of the day to activate the upper
digestive tract. A small piece of fruit is sufficient. This rule applies whenever considerable time has elapsed
since the last meal, !uice or snack.
:elpful hints
2ital sign records
$t is i)portant to learn to +eep records of your own (ital signs =te)perature and pulse>% Four pulse and te)perature should *e
ta+en daily *efore you get out of *ed and )o(e a*out% Ceep the ther)o)eter right ne.t to your *ed% $f your pulse should near
"20,)in, the thyroid dosage )ay need to *e reduced% &n increase in te)perature can *e a sign of an i)pending /flare-up%/
Ceep food in your roo)
B & fruit plate is deli(ered to your roo) daily% Please as+ for )ore if you need it%
B Ceep ther)oses of hot pepper)int tea prepared =especially at night>%
B Aon;t drin+ water that )ay co)pete with the 3uices%
B Ga(e enough coffee in your roo) to ta+e ene)as during the night and in the early )orning *efore *rea+fast%
!astor /i$ Treat&ent
5astor oil *y )outh
/Eeference< A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases" pp. .+, $@;0. 4very other day, $ tablespoons of castor oil
are given by mouth at about -<A% A7, followed by a cup of black coffee with raw brown sugar. The coffee
serves to stimulate the musculature of the stomach to empty the castor oil into the small intestine, thus lessening
the discomfort of the castor oil.
To avoid stuffiness and cramping with castor oil by mouth, eat fre(uently and drink peppermint tea. >lease see
footnote +,, pp. $@;$@., A Cancer Therapy & Results of 50 Cases.
5astor oil ene)a
/Eeference< A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases" pp. +,+, $@;0. At about +%<A% A7, - hours after your
castor oil by mouth, the castor oil enema will be brought to your room to be administered. The castor oil should
be mixed first with +J$ tsp. Oxbile powder, then with the coffee for optimum results. ?ecause oil and water
normally separate, you need to swish a bar of soap /not detergent &bar&0 around briefly in the coffee to help the
two li(uids mix. ?e careful not to get too much soap into the coffee, since soap can irritate the colon. Add the
castor oil to the solution, and stir. The solution should be stirred continuously
Medications
()e'erence" A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases, pp. +01,+02,+02b.. 4ach morning, the nursing staff
will supply you with your daily medications in a plastic box divided into compartments marked with the hour of
the day each pill is to be taken.
>lease return your medication box to a nurse after dinner. )t will be refilled and returned to you.
0ealti)e )edications
H Acidol pepsin before each meal.
H >ancreatin tablets when the meal is completed.
H Other medications during the meal.
3nnotated hour$y schedu$e
(Written 'or the 0rd edition o' A Cancer Therapy -Results of 50 Cases.) >atients and assistants should read
and understand pages +.;$@. and Appendix )) of A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases before attempting
to reproduce the treatment at home.
!3#TI/4" The above schedule reflects normal diet and dosages for the initial weeks of treatment. As
suggested by the following note, it is essential that the diet and dosages be regularly ad!usted by a physician
trained in the Gerson Therapy.
5all your Gerson consulting physician to discuss ad3ust)ents to your schedule%
Aiet and HuicesI
The diet and !uices are described on pp. 1-519*, +01, and +0-5+,1 o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty
Cases. The diet must be modified during reactions and flareups (pp. 19*, +*15+*0 o' A Cancer Therapy:
Results of Fifty Cases). *oured, nonfat dairy proteins /yogurt and unsalted, nonfat pot cheese0 should be added
at /not before0 the 'th to .th week according to the physician's !udgement /pp. *, 1,1, 1,2, +01 o' A Cancer
Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases).
%xceptions" use churned, not cultured buttermilk. ?ecause low nutrient levels and pesticide content of
commercial produce may prevent healing, organically grown produce is extremely important (pp. 1,25111, 12-5
11, ++*, ,1* o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases).
8la. 7eed <il =a%+%a% 4inseed <il>I
9ever fry, cook, or heat oil. 1old pressed flax seed oil plays an important role in the therapy and should be
included. 1old pressed oil must be used because heating changes chemical composition, making it damaging to
the body. 3inseed oil assists the body in utili"ing 6itamin A, a fat soluble vitamin. )t is a source of linoleic acid,
as well as lacking in cholesterol and effective in lowering cholesterol in the blood. 5uring the first month of
therapy, two tablespoons of flaxseed oil per day are given. 2ollowing the first month and during the balance of
the therapy the use is limited to one tablespoon per day. 2ollow your physician's orders. 2or more detailed
information, see the Gerson Healing e!sletter, 4o. ++5+0, 19" 67ats that Hea$, 7ats that 8i$$.6
&cidol PepsinI
capsules are the source of supplemental hydrochloric acid and pepsin, a digestive en"yme, used by 5r Gerson.
Take ?42OE4 meal.
Potassiu)I
/+%C solution, see p9. +,2 o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases) & 5osage /first A@ weeks0< @ tsp.
solution in each of +% orange, carrotJapple, and green!uices /+%x@ tsp. daily0. Thereafter, the physi cian will
normally reduce the dosage to +%x$ tsp. for $% weeks, then .x$ for +$ weeks, and 'x$ for the duration of
treatment. :owever, more fre(uent ad!ustments by the physician are common (pp.+*-5+*, +01, +,2, 090, ,*9,
,1* o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty !ases.. #hen you arrive home, place one +%% gm. container of
potassium compound salts into a one (uart glass !ar and fill to the top with distilled water. *tore bottle in a dark
place. 5oes not need refrigeration.
4ugol;s 7olutionI
/halfstrength0 5osage /first A@ weeks only0< A drops in each of ' orange and carrotJapple !uices /'xA daily0. Do
not put :u9o$;s in 9reen <uice. Thereafter, the physician will normally reduce the dosage to 'x+ for . weeks,
and Ax+ for the duration of treatment. 3ugol's solution is a +%C solution of +% gm. potassium iodide and - gm.
iodine in water to total +%% ml. of solute. The 3ugol's *olution for Gerson patients is premixed half strength
/-C solution0. 8se 3ugol's as supplied. 5o not dilute /pp. 0+, +*1, +01, +,2, ,*9 of A Cancer Therapy: Results
of Fifty !ases..
ThyroidI
5osage /first A@ weeks only0< -x+ grain daily. )n the example case on pa9e +01 o' A Cancer Therapy: Results
of Fifty Cases, the dosage was reduced to Ax+J$ grain for . weeks, then Ax+J@ grain for +@ weeks. 7ore
fre(uent ad!ustments by the physician are common. Tachycardia /pulse over +$%0 may indi cate overdosage.
5iscontinue temporarily during menses (pp. +*1, +*2, +01, +,2, ,*9 o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty
Cases).
:iacinI
5osage< -% mg at least ' times daily for ' months. )n advanced cases, 5r Gerson used -% mg. every hour around
the clock /Eev. Gastroenterol, +$/'0<@+,, +,@-0. Eeactions /flushing< hot, red skin0 are temporary and harmless.
7inor bleedings are no cause for concern, but discontinue during menses or in case of hemorrhage. 9iacinamide
is not allowed. 8se only niacin (pp. 99, +*9,+01,+,2 o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases).
PancreatinI
5osage< A tablets @ times daily, or according to patient's needs. A few patients do not tolerate pancreatin well,
but most benefit with less digestive trouble, gas spasms, and less difficulty gaining weight and strength (pp. +11,
+1+, +01, +,2, ,11 o' 3 Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases).
'oyal HellyI
"optional) & 5osage< +%% mg. in capsules or honey, one hour before breakfast. 5o not take with hot food.
Available from some health food stores /pp. +**, +01 o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases).
4i(er @.tract =crude> and 9
"2
I
"#y in$ection): 5osage< A cc liver and %.+ cc ?+$ combined in a single syringe, in!ected into gluteus medius daily,
for @' months or more. The physician will normally reduce fre(uency gradually over the course of therapy (pp.
*5+, 192, +1*5+11, +01, +,*, +,2, 090, ,*-, ,*9, ,11, ,1+ o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases).
5offee @ne)asI
(p9. +,- o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases) & 5osage /first ' weeks minimum0< #hile lying on right
side, retain for +$+- minutes 464EB 2O8E :O8E*. 2or limited periods of time, against severe pain, coffee
enemas may be used as fre(uently as every two hours. :owever, physician must monitor serum electrolytes
fre(uently.
5astor oilI
5osage< $ Tbsp. by mouth and five hours later a castor oil and soap enema (p9. +,- o' A Cancer Therapy:
Results of Fifty Cases) 464EB OT:4E 5AB. 3ater, as necessary or as prescribed, (pp. 1, 122, 19*5191, 19,
+*15+*0. +*2. +01, 090, ,*25,1*, ,125,1 o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases).
TestsI
?lood 1hemistry, 1omplete ?lood 1ount, TA, T@, 8rinalysis All tests should be taken before beginning
treatment and at @' week intervals for at least the first ' months. Test results may be affected by healing
reactions and flareups (pp. +01, ,11 o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases). "%ee Appen&i' (: )a#
Tests, for a *ore in &epth &escription of tests, +g. ,,). ote: 'lease mail or fa( copies of all bloo! work to
your Gerson consultin) physician.
&ll other 0edicationsI
5o not abruptly discontinue any medications you are taking prior to using the Gerson Therapy. )n certain cases,
Gerson trained physicians will advise gradual discontinuance.
2ita)in 5 =&scor*ic &cid>
This substance is employed in the Gerson Therapy during infections. A crystalline /powdered0 form such as
?ronson's is preferred. The Gerson diet contains large amounts of natural 6itamin 1, so routine daily
supplementation should not be necessary.
9ee pollenI
This is an addition to the Gerson program that can be employed in cancer from about the tenth to twelfth week.
9oncancer patients can start earlier, about the sixth week. *ome patients may have allergies to bee pollen. The
initial dosage is +J$ tsp. per day.
4i(er 3uiceI
3iver Iuice has been discontinued. *ubstitute< 1arrot !uice plus $ liver capsules for each liver !uice. ()e'erence,
3 !ancer Therapy" )esu$ts o' 7i'ty5!ases, 3ppendix III, p9. ,+1.
3d<u=ant Therapies
?ecause the Gerson Therapy is your primary management, any agent, material, techni(ue, or procedure added to
the Gerson Therapy must be characteri"ed as ad!uvant, or supportive in nature, e.g.< when a Gerson patient
elects to use laetrile, the new material cannot replace the central and continuous work of the Gerson Therapy.
The Gerson Therapy must not be altered in the hope of improving the performance of the laetrile /some laetrile
therapists recommend dietary measures which would be counterproductive if introduced into the Gerson
Therapy0. Always consult your Gerson Therapy >hysician with regard to A9B promising new addition to your
treatment.
The following procedures and materials are among those that are available at Gerson facilities in a form
compatible with the Gerson Therapy. )t is important to remember that each Gerson Therapy 1enter is separately
owned and operated under the certification guidelines of the Gerson )nstitute. The following or additional
therapies may be available at any given facility. Bour Gerson physician may choose to recommend the addition
of one or more additional procedures to your therapy.
&)ygdalin,4aetrileI
3aetrile is the purified form of amygdalin, also called vitamin ?+;, which occurs naturally in the pits of
apricots and in some other foods. 3aetrile is a cyanogenic glycoside /containing cyanide0. #hile we believe
laetrile to be nontoxic, laetrile by itself does not cure. )t has been used at some Gerson Therapy facilities as an
analgesic /for pain relief0. 3aetrile has other purported anticancer properties. Gerson patients may re(uest
laetrile from their physician, but it is not part of the routine Gerson Therapy.
Polari-ing Treat)entI
One addition to the Gerson therapy protocol is the polari"ing treatment pioneered by 5r 5emetrio *odi>allares,
a noted 7exico 1ity cardiologist and researcher. :e was formerly director of the 7exican 7edical Association
and the 9ational )nstitute of 1ardiology of 7exico 1ity. :e is the author of several books and many articles on
cardiology. :e places nutrition in its proper role for prevention and treatment of disease.
The basic >olari"ing solution /GG)0 can be found in %erck*s %anual of +tan!ar! %e!ical 'roce!ures" a
standard medical text. *odi>allares found that in many patients who are deficient in potassium, it is necessary
to provide a transport mechanism to help potassium travel through the cell membrane. :e achieved this by using
a potassium solution /G0 together with glucose /G0 and a tiny bit of insulin /)0 which is given together
intravenously.
>olari"ing treatment promotes healing in the diseased heart, and in tissues damaged by cancer and other
degenerative diseases. >atients with edema /excess fluids in feet, abdomen0 note a rapid reabsorption and release
of the fluids from the body.
<.ygen therapyI
>reliminary clinical studies indicate that oxidative therapy might produce desirable results in cancer treatment.
7ost hostile microorganisms probably re(uire lower oxygen levels than the body's cells. ?oosting serum
oxygen levels may revitali"e normal cells while damaging some viruses and other pathogens. Two basic types of
oxygen therapy are o"one therapy and the absorption of hydrogen peroxide at very low concentrations.
:ydrogen peroxide /:$%$0, is produced when o"one /%A0 contacts water. )t can be taken orally if diluted with
water /+J$C or less0, absorbed through the skin by bathing in it /from @- pints of AC :$%$ in a standard si"e
bathtub0, used topically, or taken rectally. Ambient air o"one generators are used to benefit patients. )n addition
to the intensive Gerson Therapy, some ad!uvant procedures are being made available to patients. These are
scientifically based additions to the Gerson Therapy to add to the patients' ability to heal. >atients should discuss
these additions to their treatment with their Gerson physician. Also extra charges will apply, conse(uently please
check with the hospital office.
3d<u=ant Treat&ents
There is much evidence that increasing the patient's blood oxygen level helps fight tumor tissue and increases
the body's immune system response.
>hagocytic leukocytes /white blood corpuscles0 are the first and most important line of defense against
infection. )n the daily care of patients, physicians and surgeons usually assume that granulocyte function is
normal unless they have evidence to the contrary. :owever, data now clearly show that the killing capacity of
granulocytes is normal only to the degree to which oxygen is available to them. This is probably the basis for the
ageold observation that local immunity is proportional to blood supply.
9ormally, leukocytes move and digest bacteria e(ually well by using anaerobically or aerobically derived
energy. :owever, the capacity of leukocytes to kill bacteria depends largely on molecular oxygen. ?acterial
killing is usually conceived of as comprising two ma!or components. The first involves degranulation and
ingestion of the bacteria. The second mechanism, called &oxidative killing,& depends on molecular oxygen,
which is captured by leukocytes and converted to highenergy radicals such as superoxide, hydroxyl radicals,
peroxides, aldehydes, hypochlorite and hypoiodite which are toxic to bacteria in varying degrees. The rate of
production of toxic radicals and hence the ade(uacy of oxidative bacterial killing is directly proportional to
local oxygen tension.
The 'o$$o>in9 or9anis&s ha=e been 'ound direct$y susceptib$e to oxidati=e ki$$in9"
*taph aureus :ohn, *urg 2orum, +,;'
>roteus vulgaris 7andel G., )nfec )mmun,
+,;@
*almonella
typhimurium
7andel G., )nfec )mmun,
+,;@
Glebsiella pneumonia 7andel G., )nfec )mmun,
+,;@
*erratia marcescens 7andel G., )nfec )mmun,
+,;@
*taph albus 7cEipley EI, I ?act,
+,';
>seudomonas
aeruginosa
7cEipley >I, I ?act,
+,';
4schericha coli *elvera! 9I, 9ature, +,'%
!onc$usions"
B 6ell-o.ygenated leu+ocytes are far )ore efficient than hypo.ic leu+ocytes%
B 5linically, sufficient hypo.ia can occur to inhi*it leu+ocytes and sufficient hypero.ia can easily *e achie(ed to facilitate 695
function%
B The i))unological *enefits of raising tissue pGJ out of the /critical -one/ is roughly eDui(alent to the effects of anti*iotics%
B The effects of o.ygen and anti*iotics are eDui(alent%
These experiments show that oxygen effects are not only clinically evident, but are clinically important. /The
above was taken from the notes of the #inter *ymposium on ?aromedicine, Ianuary +$+-, +,,@, by Eobert
?artlett, 75, 2A14>0.
<-oneI
another form of oxygen, is offered by rectal insufflation. About A%cc of o"one is inserted into the rectum from
where it is easily absorbed into the blood stream. O"one is not well tolerated by tumor tissue, while nor mal
tissue is supported by extra oxygen.
4aetrile =a)ygdalin>I
Another treatment which has been used for a number of years is 3aetrile. This material is present in as many as
$,@%% common foods, grains and grasses. 2or medicinal purposes, it is extracted mainly from apricot pits. )t
contains a fraction which helps the body to destroy tumor tissue but is harmless to normal cells. )t has been
shown that 3aetrile, when given to cancer patients, increases the temperature around the tumor part of its
capability of fighting cancer.
GydrotherapyI
2or this treatment, the patient is immersed in a bathtub containing water above body temperature. This will
cause a mild induced fever. #hen 3aetrile has already been in!ected prior to the bath, the temperature at the
tumor site is further increased which gives the body a still better opportunity to destroy the tumor tissue. 9ormal
healthy body tissue can easily withstand temperatures up to +%@K 2, however tumor tissue cannot.
2ita)in 5I
6itamin 1 is another addition to the ad!unctive treatment protocols. )t has numerous beneficial effects. )t can be
used orally and rectally. One protocol uses 3aetrile and 6itamin 1 for the treatment of patients that have
previously had chemotherapy.
6o*e 0ugosI
These are highly concentrated pancreatic en"ymes. The basic Gerson Therapy contains a fair amount of
pancreatin. This helps to dissolve and digest tumor tissue. )n some patients, especially if they carry a heavy
tumor load, the additional intensive pancreatin /#obe7ugos0 has improved the patient's ability to digest and
destroy tumor tissue.
Tahe*o Tea =also +nown as Pau d;&rco> and @ssiac TeaI
These are certain herb combinations which have been used by native )ndians of the Americas and have been
shown to have anticancer properties. These teas may be available at your Gerson hospital.
4i(e 5ell TherapyI
This therapy is much more effective after good detoxification and should not be tried during the initial stages of
Gerson Therapy. )t may be available on re(uest from your Gerson Therapy facility.
3d<u=ant Therapeutic Procedures
Pain 'elief
>ain medications are often toxic and may interfere with the Gerson diet therapy. #henever possible, use non
toxic methods to reduce and control pain.
0ore freDuent ene)asI
5uring reactions, pain can be caused or worsened when substantial amounts of toxins are circulating throughout
the blood system. They irritate the nerves in damaged and diseased areas of the body. ?y lowering toxic levels,
this irritation and pain can be lessened. This is done by more fre(uent enemas.
Eesearch has shown that the body has its own natural pain killers. )t is thought that some factor in the coffee
enema may stimulate the release of these pain killers. 7ost patients can testify to the fact that enemas relate
directly to lowered pain levels.
Pain triadI
The triad should be used sparingly. 5o not exceed ' dosages in a $@ hour period unless prescribed by your
physician.
H -% mg. 9iacin
H -%% mg. Ascorbic Acid
H - gr. Aspirin
The >ain triad becomes progressively more effective as the body undergoes detoxification. )t can be used at
bedtime to assist in going to sleep for those patients with substantial pain.
5astor oil pac+I
+. *oak A pieces of white flannel with castor oil s(uee"e out excess castor oil.
$. >lace flannel pack over liver or other affected area.
A. >lace slightly larger sheet of plastic over the flannel.
@. 8se medium temperature heating pad over area. 5on't let the pack get cold or uncomfortably hot.
-. Geep on ++J$ hoursF apply every four hours. Bou can reuse the castor oil pack.
The castor oil pack is used during severe flareups involving liver pain, bile system spasms, or severe pain at
other sites. This procedure can also be used by arthritic patients over swollen, painful !oints. )t is a bit messy
when used over hands and feet, but effective.
Hydrotherapy
:ydrotherapy /hot tub bath, hot fomentation0 is one of the best remedies for pain. )t dulls and calms the pain.
:ydrotherapy is also a great assist to detoxification by improving the circulation of the blood and lymphatics.
+atients !ith ner-ous syste* &isease such as .% shoul& not #e su#$ecte& to high te*perature. Cool
co*presses are *ore #eneficial for these patients.
The Theory 9ehind Gydrotherapy
:ydrotherapy may be defined as the use of water in any of its three forms, solid, li(uid, or vapor, internally or
externally, in the treatment of disease or trauma. :yperthermia is the application of heat, hot tub bath, hot
fomentations, hot foot baths, etc.
:eat treatments play an important role as an ad!unct to the Gerson program. Treatments increase heart rate and
respiratory rate, increase metabolism important for healing, and increase perspiration which assists in
detoxification. Treatments stimulate an increase in leukocytes /white blood cells0 and neutrophils, thus
mobili"ing the body's defenses against disease. The resultant increased blood flow brings about greatly
improved oxygenation necessary for proper healing. Oxygenation assists in the fight against cancer which does
not like an oxygenated environment. 1ongestion of internal organs, such as the liver, gall bladder, kidneys, etc.,
is relieved. >oor circulation is improved. :eat often assists in pain relief. )ncreased circulation lowers toxin
levels thereby reducing the nerve irritation which causes pain. Treatments aid in repair of diseased tissues. They
affect not only the immediate skin areas, but also exert reflex effects elsewhere in the body through the nervous
system. 2or instance, heat over the abdominal wall decreases spasms of the intestinal tractF heat over kidneys
and lower abdomen increases urine production.
The treatments are nontoxic and safe. 1ontraindications may be seen in patients with multi ple sclerosis /cold
hydrotherapy is more beneficial0, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart and vascular diseases. These patients will
need prior medical review.
2or the cancer patient there is an additional important benefit in the hot water treatments. 7any types of cancer
cells are much more sensitive to heat than are normal cells. )f temperatures can be raised high enough /+%@K 2 or
more0 and long enough, death of cancer cells may result. Eesearch has shown that following intravenous or
rectal application of laetrile there may be a temperature increase in the tumor mass of @K-K 2. #hen this
locali"ed increase is added to total body hyperthermia many benefits have been noted, including tumor
shrinkage and stimulation of detoxification.
8eep records o' a$$ procedures, inc$udin9 date, ti&e, and
reactions"
Gyperther)ia treat)ent Got tu* *ath Procedure
2ull treatments should not be taken during healing reactions, though relaxing baths at lower temperatures are
allowed. >atients will need to have a medical examination and 4GG in preparation. The accompanying person is
invited to attend the treatments to observe the procedures so they can be continued in the home environment. /o
not use chlorinate& !ater for this treat*ent.
Preparing for and 1ndergoing Gydrotherapy
1. Don;t eat" >atient should eat nothing for A@ hours before treatment. 3i(uids L!uices, tea, etc.0 can be con
tinued. )f the patient is scheduled soon after a meal, only a light meal may be taken.
+. !o''ee ene&a" One hour before scheduled treatment a coffee enema is taken.
A. Sho>er" At this time a thorough cleansing shower is to be taken.
,. :aetri$e treat&ent" Those patients taking laetrile will have it applied +- minutes before the scheduled
treatment.
1. Herb tea" +- minutes before the treatment a cup of hot herb tea is given.
2. ?athin9 suit" 8pon arrival in the department the patient changes into a bathing suit.
;. Tub" 2rom the hot shower, the patient goes to the tub. The tub is entered slowly, submerging until the
shoulders are covered and a comfortable position found.
.. Tea" A second cup of herbal tea is taken upon entering the tub.
9. !o=er head >ith to>e$" The head will be covered by a towel to limit heat loss.
1*. Monitor te&perature and pu$se" Temperature and pulse will be monitored fre(uently as the body
temperature increases.
++. )e$ax" The patient is encouraged to relax. As the temperature increases, breathing exercises are used, e.g.<
breathe in through the nose, pulling the air in with the &stomach muscles,& then out through the mouth. *wab the
face, and fan with a wash cloth.
+$. Ti&e" $%A% minutes< )t takes about $%A% minutes for the average patient to reach +%AK +%@K 2. On the
first treatment a lower temperature is attempted /+%+K +%$K0 to begin acclimati"ation. The final temperature is
determined by what the patient feels he can tolerate.
+A. Heat the bed" >reheat the patients bed using an electric blanket over the other blankets. :elp the patient
into the warmed bed and disconnect the electric blanket.
1,. Stay in >ar& bed" The body temperature is maintained in the bed for another +-$% minutes at which time
the blankets are slowly removed, one by one. This coolingoff process will take about another $% minutes. 8pon
leaving the tub and entering the bed, sips of hot herb tea are given. As the coolingoff process continues, cooler
fluids /never cooler than room temperature0 can be given until, at the time of completion, several glasses of
orange !uice are recommended.
11. Sho>er" #hen the patient returns to his room, a lukewarm shower should be used to further assist in
washing off the skin. A restful afternoon is indicated. 7any patients sleep for several hours following treatment.
Eegular meals and !uices need not be interrupted.
I&portant Points To ?e /bser=ed With 3$$ Hydrotherapy
Treat&ents"
B The roo) should *e war) and free of drafts%
B Protect *edding, furniture, rugs, etc% with waterproof sheets%
B &sse)*le 7upplies *efore starting procedures%
B 1se care when adding hot or cold water% &(oid chilling% Patient should *e dry and war) after treat)ent%
C"ay po!"ti#e
AefinitionI
A soft composition, usually heated and spread on a cloth, and applied to a sore or inflamed part of the body.
@ffectsI
1lay powder has an adsorptive effect like that of charcoal and aids detoxification.
$ndicationsI
5iarrhea, poison, gastrointestinal problems, inflammation, insect bites, swellings from arthritis, pain.
Procedure
"% Prepare enough war) water to )i. needed a)ount of clay powder into a paste%
2% &pply Duic+ly to sDuare of clean )uslin to pre(ent cooling%
#% Place on area to *e treated%
4% 5o(er with plastic and wool cloth%
5% Pin in place% 4ea(e on o(ernight or until dry%
6% 'e)o(e - ru* cold wet cloth o(er part%
7% 'epeat as needed%
!hapter +" Goin9 Ho&e, The Gerson Househo$d
7o$$o>5up &edica$ care and $aboratory &onitorin9
7edical consultations and the monitoring of laboratory studies are of utmost importance. Through this means,
the Gerson physician can be kept up to date as he assists the patient in ad!usting the various medications and the
diet, and evaluating the body's response to the therapy. 1ontinued communication with the Gerson physician
also keeps the patient abreast of advances in the Gerson program.
7edical guidance is provided to the Gerson patient through your Gerson hospital's consulting office. Telephone
and fax numbers will be provided through the hospital office.
ote: Time !oes not usually allow correspon!ence in writin) re)ar!in) test result information. 'lease use the
telephone consultation pro)ram.
$aboratory monitorin%
7onitoring of blood and urine values on a continual basis is important. These laboratory tests should be
repeated about every six weeks, depending upon the severity of the disease process. )n the early stages with the
debilitated patient, every four weeks is recommended. ?efore you leave the Gerson hospital your doctor will
suggest a time for your next tests to be done. 1opies of results should be sent to your Gerson consulting doctor.
These la*oratory studies )ust includeI
"% 5o)plete *lood count =595> with differential
2% 9lood che)istry panel =70&5-24 or 70&-2", etc%>
#% &nalysis of urine =1,&>
These studies are monitored primarily to screen for possible infections, determine time to introduce the dairy
proteins, and evaluate general organ functions such as kidney, liver and pancreas.
A single laboratory result is not definitive. A series of three results may show a trend. Eoutine laboratory studies
have been shown not to be valid during or !ust after a healing reaction. The chemistry of the blood can be altered
during the healing reaction. #ait at least seven to ten days after the healing reaction has cleared to have new
laboratory tests done.
&!tpatient fo""o'(!p #he#k"ist
Approximately five weeks after you arrive home, have the following blood and urine work done<
B 595 differential
B 70&5-2" =5o)prehensi(e 0eta*olic Panel 9lood 5he)istry Test>
B 1,& =1rinalysis>
*end lab rest results to your Gerson consulting physician by mail or 2ax.
:ave your (uestions and concerns written down on paper next to the phone to save time. :ave blank paper and
a pen handy to write down your doctor's suggestions it is not easy to remember details later.
ote: factors for a!,ustment an! mo!ification of !iet" me!ication" enemas" etc.:
"% 4ength of ti)e on therapy
2% 4a* e(aluation
#% 5linical infor)ation =)edical>
Medication supp$ies
Ee(uired items for A month supply *everal days in advance of departure, please arrange with the hospital
office for your order. >lease take inventory of items before departure.
+ )tem Mty. 5escription
*yringes ,% Acc with $$ or $A gauge
N needle x +&
9eedles ,% $- gauge x +&
1rude 3iver $; +%cc bottles for
in!ection
6it. ?+$ A%cc bottle for in!ection
Thyroid grain /A$.@ mg0,
+%%% count tabs
3ugol's bottle of +J$
strength 3ugol's
solution
>enicillin bottle of +%% tablets
>otassium
1ompound
+$ bottles, +%% grams each
>otassium
Gluconate
bottle
Acidol - bottles of +%% caps each
9iacin bottle of +%%% tabs, -%
mg. each
>ancreatin bottle of +%%% caps, A$-
mg. each
3iver 1aps bottle of +%%% caps, -%%
mg. each
Ox?ile bottle
)on 7in bottle ion 7in 1lay
powder
4nema ?uckets $ extra enema buckets
1astor Oil pint
1astile *oap bar of soap
2laxseed Oil . O bottles
2oley 2ood 7ill + two (uart si"e
9onre(uired but recommended items<
H pancreatinextra strength, + $%% mg
H #obe en"ymes
H nelaton enema catheter
H hydrogen peroxide A%C
H organic coffee + kg. bags
H charcoal tablets
H water distiller
H home o"one generator
H electric hot plate
H vaseline
Instructions 'or 9i=in9 in<ections
#hen you return home, you will probably be administering your own in!ections. 5uring your stay at The
Gerson Therapy 1enter, in!ections are administered by your medical staff. 3earn how to give your own
in!ections by observing, experiencing, and asking (uestions.
+. Assemble items needed<
&lcohol
5otton
7yringe
4xtra 9eedle
5rude li(er e.tract
2ita)in 9-"2
$. ?ottle< Eemove protective metal covers from rubber stopper.
A. #ith alcohol swab, clean tops of bottles.
@. Geep needle and syringe sterile /do not touch0.
-. Turn ?+$ bottle upside down and push syringe needle through stopper. >ull out %.+ cc /!ust a few drops, to the
first small line on the barrel of the syringe0. #ithdraw needle from ?+$F. 5raw Acc of air into syringe. Turn the
crude liver bottle upside down and push needle up through center of stopper. Geeping the liver extract bottle in
an upsidedown position, push some air into the crude liver bottle and pull some liver extract out, repeating this
process until you have pulled out Acc of liver extract /pull plunger to first line below Acc marking to allow for
?+$0.
'. Eemove and discard needle. )t is now too dull for in!ection use.
;. *crew new needle into syringe. /8se $- gauge -J.& or +& needle.0 Gently tap the side of the syringe to gather
bubbles to the top of the syringe. #hen bubbles are gathered, press plunger until a tiny bit of fluid spurts from
the needle. *yringe is now ready to be used. />ut needle cover on loosely.0
.. 1lean in!ection area well with alcohol and cotton.
:ocatin9 In<ection area" 3ocate the ridge of your hip bone /iliac crest0 where your side pants seam runs,
roughly in the middle of your side. 7easure down the width of two fingers and back one inch /+&0. That is
where the needle goes. The needle should go through the fatty tissue into the muscle. Alternate sides with each
in!ection.
Ganson;s 0odification of 5lassic 0ethod of 4ocating 1pper <uter Kuadrant
,. *pread skin and push needle in.
+%. >ush plunger down slowly.
++. >ull needle out and rub area with alcohol for A% seconds. )f bleeding occurs, press cotton to wound. )t will
stop bleeding very shortly.
+$. ?reak needle and disassemble syringe. Geep broken needles in a small cardboard box. Tape box shut when
full and discard.
+A. 1lean open liver and ?+$ bottles with alcohol and store in refrigerator. >rotect with fresh baggie after each
use. *tore unopened liver extract bottles in refrigerator.
7indin9 or9anica$$y 9ro>n 'ood
1heck the local yellow pages for health food stores and coops. 1all and ask if they supply organically grown
produce. They may know where you can go.
1ontact O2>A9A, ?ox +%;., Greenfield, 7A, 1*0*1, /@+A0 ;;@;-++. Ask them for the names, addresses, and
phone numbers of the organi"ations in your area /O1)A, 11O2, T)3T:, etc.0 Ask about distributors, growers,
and possible retailers.
Order the -r)anic .holesaler*s /irectory An! 0earbook from 1ommunity Alliance with 2amily 2armers. )t has
an indepth list of organic wholesalers by *tate. Once you contact the wholesalers, you can learn who their
retailers are. Bou can contact them at ?ox @'@, 5avis, 1A ,-'+;, /,+'0;-'.-+..
Americans 2or *afe 2ood, 1enter for *cience in the >ublic )nterest has an organics mail order list available,
should you need to order organic produce through the mail. Bou can contact them at +.;- 1onnecticut Ave 9#,
*uite A%%, #ashington, 51 $%%%,, Tel< /$%$0 AA$,++%, 2ax< /$%$0 $'- @,-@,
Get certi'ication@ )f produce is not clearly marked with a printed label, it is probably not organic. 5emand
proof.
/r9anic co''ee in'or&ation
)t is !ust as important to use organic coffee as to use organic fruits and vegetables. )f organic coffee is not used,
any toxic material in the coffee such as pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, or chemical fertili"er will be readily
absorbed rectally direct into the blood system. :arbor :ouse 1offee /Organic 1offee0, +$-.' 7oothi$$ ?$=d.,
?ox +.;,, 1learlake Oaks, 1A ,-@$A. Telephone /;%;0 ,,.@'-@, Tollfree< +...,%$'AAA.
The Gerson househo$d" kitchen supp$ies
The following checklist will be found useful in arranging a household to accommodate the Gerson patient. 7ost
items may be purchased locally at a general department store, health food store or gourmet shop.
Water
Gerson patients need pure water, especially for coffee enemas. 7ost cities have bottled water businesses that
deliver purified and distilled water to homes. #ater can also be purified at home with reasonably priced
e(uipment that may be purchased or rented.
#ater purification e(uipment is everywhere now. Bou can get reverse osmosis units, distillers, carbon filters and
more from !ust about anyone. >eople go door to door selling all sorts, si"es and combinations. 2luoride can only
be removed by distillation. Bou should only use reverse osmosis if your tap water is not fluoridated.
Gard*all sales pitch
7aybe you've seen the guy who takes a glass of your regular tap water and tests it with a &special chemical& that
causes gobs of white grungy looking stuff to appear and settle to the bottom. 9ow he informs you that you can
get all that poison out with a carbon filter, and he proves it by filtering your water and repeating the test. 6oilaO
9o grunge.
)n a well researched article in their Consumer Reports: 1223 4uyin) Gui!e 5ssue" 1onsumers 8nion /180 staff
members explained that the &special chemical& is doubtless a flocculating agent that causes harmless minerals in
water to precipitate. 8nscrupulous sellers use this bogus water test to convince potential buyers of the
unpotability of tap water in their homes.
1nsafe tap water
)n fact, your tap water may be teeming with ha"ards, none of which would be recogni"ed by such a &test.&
According to 18 writers, there are more than ;%,%%% recogni"ed water contaminants ranging from industrial or
agricultural wastes to heavy metals and radon. 7icrobes are also known to flow from the household tap. )f your
municipal water supply is fluoridated, it is imperative that you use distilled water for all patient intake< soup,
cooking, teas and coffee for enemas and drinking after castor oil.
4a*s that test water
2or the Gerson household, it is probably unnecessary to carry out lab tests for contaminants because of the
demand for really pure water. :owever, friends and relatives interested in water (uality issues may wish to use
one of these 18 listed labs<
:ational Testing 4a*oratories 6"5" 6ilson 0ills 'oad 5le(eland, <G 44"4# Tel%I 00-45-###0
6ater Testing 4a*oratories 4600 Cut-town 'd% Te)ple, P& "9560 Tel%I 00-4##-6595
6aterTest
## 7% 5o))ercial 7t% 0anchester, :G 0#"0" Tel%I 00-426-#7
These tests are expensive, ranging easily up to P$%%.
18 writers were most concerned about lead, radon, and nitrate as water contaminants. There are good reasons to
remove added fluorides and chlorine, as well.
:o single )achine does it all
The big surprise is that no single form of water purification, tested by 18 was able to remove all contaminantsF
not distillersF not reverse osmosis unitsF and not carbon filters.
In order to 9et rea$$y pure >ater, it;s necessary to co&bine techniAues. Bou ha=e t>o choices"
"% 5ar*on filtration with re(erse os)osis
2% 5ar*on filtration with distillation
7trengths and wea+nesses
2or practical purposes, distillers are better at organic health ha"ards than reverse osmosis units, but they miss the
volatile ones like ben"ene, carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene. These minor differences disappear when
either type of water purification is coupled with carbon filtration.
Only carbon filtration is able to remove chlorine, ben"ene, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and radon.
1arbon filters sound pretty good so far, but they fall apart when they get to the inorganic health ha"ards.
Only distillers or reverse osmosis units will take out arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, fluoride, lead,
nitrate, and selenium.
9uy or rentL
)f you are in a locale that is not serviced by a reputable water company, e.g.< 1ulligan, you may have to purchase
e(uipment. Bour costs may run from P-%% to P+,@%% for either of the effective combinations. Also, bear in mind
that your costs won't end with your purchase.
5istillers typically draw +-%% #atts, and electricity is expensive. 4xtrapolating 18 writers' numbers, it looks
like five gallons of water will cost P+.-% on the utility bill. 2or patients, the electricity cost alone may run
approximately PA% per month.
1arbon filters are replaced fre(uently, on the order of every six months for high volume usage. Eeplacement
costs run from P- to P+%%.
Eeverse osmosis units allow up to .%C of water to flow by the membrane and down the drain. #hen it's time to
replace the membrane, usually once a year, costs range from P@- to P$A@.
)f, after reading the above, you still want to own your own gear, we recommend that you use the 18 ratings
guide to make good choices within a reasonable budget.
Fou )ay choose to rent
On the other hand, you may choose to rent. 7any companies rent and maintain an underthesink combination
reverse osmosis and carbon filtration unit. The customer pays no replacement costs for filters or membranes. A
test light signals when the unit needs servicing. 7ost units make plenty of water, allowing up to five gallons per
day when needed.
8inding a (endor
#ater companies can be found in the Bellow >ages and most offer a filtration service.
The Aua$ity o' tap >ater a$&ost e=ery>here, is $ess than acceptab$e 'or the Gerson Therapy. 7ortunate$y,
puri'ication units are a=ai$ab$e, a''ordab$e, and e''ecti=e.
Schedu$e 'or the day
The following is an example of one way to arrange your schedule to do the Gerson Therapy at home. This
schedule was set up for a regular day on full therapy including +A !uices and - coffee enemas. #hoever is doing
the kitchen work should allow about +%+- minutes to prepare a !uice and to clean up the !uicer, so start making
the !uices about +- minutes before the hour. Iuices are followed in this list by the medications /in parentheses0
which may be added. >lease do not exceed daily total medication levels prescribed by your physicians.
Gettin9 or9aniCed
)f at all possible, have someone at home organi"e things before you leave the Gerson hospital. They will need
to<
"% 4ocate and purchase organic produce%
2% 4ocate and purchase organic coffee%
#% 7et up the Huicer%
4% 'eorgani-e the +itchen =see list> paying special attention to re)o(e all sprays, poisons, perfu)ed ite)s, and alu)inu) pots
and pans%
5% 5lear the counters% Get e(erything off *ut the 3uicer and the cutting *oards%
6% Cni(esI Fou will *e doing a lot of cutting so )a+e sure the +ni(es are sharp%
7% Purified 6aterI 7ee pre(ious page "5 for infor)ation on o*taining purified water%
% Fou )ay need to rearrange the *edroo) and *athroo) to acco))odate coffee ene)as% & *ench will *e necessary if
)o(e)ent is i)paired%
!hapter 0" Genera$ Procedures, !o&&on )eactions and
Persona$ !are
%ne&a )ecipes
)t is very important for all fluids that are placed in the rectum to be sterile. 8se boiled water onlyO ?e sure you
allow fluids to cool to body temperature before placing in rectum. (7or 'urther in'or&ation, see pp. +,-5+,,
A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases)
)ecipe" !o''ee %ne&a, )eco&&ended
This recipe is used full strengthI do not diluteE
B # 'ounded T*sp% coffee grounds =not instant>
B " Kuart distilled water
9oil # )inutes unco(ered to dri(e off oilsJ then co(er, lower heat and si))er an additional "5 )inutes% 7train and allow to cool%
&dd distilled water to )a+e a full Duart% 1se at *ody te)perature%
)ecipe" !o''ee %ne&a, !oncentrate
Place in saucepan
B " 5up coffee grounds =not instant>
B " Kuart distilled water
9oil # )inutes unco(ered% 5o(er, lower heat and si))er for "5 )inutes% 7train into " Duart 3ar, allowing grounds to drain well%
&dd distilled water to )a+e a full Duart% For #onvenien#e) 0ar+ the 3ar indicating " 5up incre)ents% Di"!tin%) This recipe
)a+es enough concentrate for 4 ene)as =" cup concentrate plus # 5ups *oiled,distilled water> *tora%e) This concentrate will
+eep in a refrigerator for up to 2 days%
ote: The physicians recommen! that coffee concentrate be use! only as an alternati6e to the abo6e recipe for
con6enience when tra6elin).
3pp$y ene&a 'o$$o>in9 instructions on pa9e 191 o' A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases, or see pa9e
19 in this handbook.
5ha)o)ile Tea @ne)aI
8se full strength and according to your doctor's advice. Eetain the tea enema for about five minutes. After
release, immediately start the coffee enema. )n severe problems, chamomile concentrate can be added to all
coffee enemas.
)ecipe" !ha&o&i$e %ne&a, Sin9$e
B 4 T*sp% 5ha)o)ile flowers , dried
B " Kuart distilled water
9oil 5 )inutes, and strain%
1se when cooled to *ody tern perature%
)ecipe" !ha&o&i$e !oncentrate
B " 5up 5ha)o)ile flowers, dried
B 2 5ups distilled water
7i))er "0 )inutes in co(ered saucepan% 7train and press cha)o)ile flowers to e.trude fluid% $f so)e has *oiled away, add
distilled water to )a+e " pint% *tora%e) Ceep in co(ered glass *ottle no longer than # days% To +se) Pour 4 o-% concentrate into
ene)a *uc+et and fill with distilled water% Re#ipe makes eno!%h #on#entrate for , enemas.
7-T8: +ome confusion has e(iste! because of an apparent contra!iction between chamomile enema instructions on pa)e
129 an! pa)e 39: of Gerson*s A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases. Actually" the recipes are consistent. 'a)e 129
inclu!es instructions for use of a chamomile concentrate as well as !irections for preparation of a sin)le !ose. 'a)e 39:
contains instructions for both preparation an! use of chamomile concentrate . 5n both cases" the ratio of chamomile flowers
#in tablespoons; to total ounces of water will be the same: 9 Tbsp. < =3 o>. enema.
'lease un!erstan! that the concentrate is prepare! by usin) 1 Tbsp. of chamomile flowers for each ounce of water: one cup
#1? Tbsp.; chamomile flowers boile! in 1 pint #1? o>; water makes four !oses. Gerson*s ")lass" e@uals : o>" ,ust as with
your ,uices. -ne half )lass e@uals 9 o>.
%ne&a Procedure
AefinitionI
An enema by definition, is the introduction of solutions into the rectum and colon in order to stimulate bowel activity and to
cause emptying of the lower intestine.
1offee enemas should be administered by having the patient lie on the right side.
To connect bucket, tube and connector"
The enema bucket comes with a clear plastic hose which has a hole at the front and one on the side. Bou cut off
the tip to eliminate the side opening.
Bou order a small plastic connector plus a soft rubber tube /catheter0 both available from *TAT. *.A. >ut one
end of the connector onto the cut end of the plastic enema tube< the other end into the wide opening of the
rubber catheter.
*ome patients find it difficult to retain A$ o". of the li(uid, you may want to start with $@ o". and later, slowly
increase the amount of fluid.
?efore you start your coffee enema, eat a small piece of fruit to activate the gastric tract )f enema is taken on an
empty stomach, some people may experience problems.
ote: %ore information on enemas is a6ailable in A 1ancer Therapy< Eesults of 2ifty 1ases on pa)es 121 an!
39A an! in Gerson :ealing 9ewsletter Bol. 10" 7o. 9" p). ?" an! Gerson ealin) 7ewsletter C1=" p). 1.
%ne&a )eactions and )e&edies
$ntestinal 7pas)s and 5ra)pingI
These fre(uently painful symptoms are caused by strong irritation to the intestinal tract and lead to problems
with the enemas. )t becomes difficult to instill the full A$ o". of coffee solution, difficult to hold the enema the
full +$+- minutes or, on the other hand, the enema becomes trapped and cannot be released. 2ollowing is a list
of possible remedies which have proved useful to patients<
5hec+ The @ne)a TechniDueI
?e sure that the tip of the enema tube is inserted five to eight inches past the anal sphincter. 5o not try to force
the tube into the colon. The temperature of the enema solution must be body temperature. 5on't raise the enema
bucket too high. )f the flow is too rapid it can set up spasms. About eighteen to twentyfour inches is the correct
bucket height. 4ven at that height, spasms can occur. )f so, immediately lower the bucket to allow the flow to
back up a few inches into the tube to relieve the pressure. After $% to A% seconds slowly start raising the bucket
toward the original level. The flow can also be controlled by pinching the tube with your fingers or ad!usting the
plastic ring to a partially closed position. )t may take some time to get the enema completely instilled, but this is
acceptable.
Geat <(er The &*do)enI
This can be applied by a heating pad. 7ild heat has a calming effect on the irritated, hyperactive intestinal tract.
&dd Potassiu) 5o)pound To The @ne)aI
>otassium compound solution helps relieve spasms by supplying potassium to the depleted intestinal tract. )t can
also help to promote bile flow when given rectally. This solution is the same as that used in the !uices. The
dosage is two Tbsp. in each enema. >rocedure should be discontinued after +% days to $ weeks.
4ower The AosageI
This can be accomplished by either using less coffee concentrate in each enema, or by using only part of a
prepared enema. >lease consult with physician.
9ac+ To 9ac+ @ne)asI
#hen the first enema is &clutched& and the abdomen congested, a second enema may be taken &back to back&
with the first. >otassium compound solution /see above0 may be added to the second enema to promote
effectiveness. Another potentially valuable aid is hydrogen peroxide /+$ tsp. of AC0 added to the second enema.
1hamomile concentrate may be added to counter the irritating effects of either peroxide or potassium taken by
rectum.
CA0T(1: (f you run into chronic pro#le*s, please &o not resort to a long series of consecuti-e ene*as "use
no *ore than 2 #ac3 to #ac3). At least four hours *ust #e allo!e& #et!een #ac3 to #ac3 ene*as in *ost
cases. +lease #e in touch !ith your physician.
Castor 1il 4ne*a: may also be use! in some cases if a back to back enema is "clutche!." Castor oil enemas
are e(tremely pushy an! shoul! be use! cautiously &)enerally only one in a 39 hour perio!. Consult your
physician.
Go$ds and 7Ius
There is (uite a serious problem presently in the general population, consisting of depressed immune systems.
#e are seeing a constant increase in infections that were virtually unknown two decades ago< A)5*, 'chronic
fatigue syndrome' /12*, or 4pstein?arr0, genital herpes, hepatitis of all kinds and 1andida /yeast infections0.
Other infectious diseases that once seemed to have almost disappeared, such as tuberculosis, and even syphilis,
are making a threatening comeback.
)t must be assumed that our poor general nutrition, together with excess consumption of fats, proteins and salt,
has caused this health problem. Obviously, patients suffering from cancer have a seriously weakened immune
system since a fully functioning immune response is capable of protecting the body from ever developing
cancer. *o, we know that in all cancer patients, we have a problem if they 'catch' cold or develop a flu. 4ven
after a few months on the Gerson Therapy, which among other things restores the immune system, the former
cancer patient does not yet have a good defense against cold and flu viruses. 2or that reason, much care has to
be taken to protect the recovering patient from visitors, children or other household members who have colds.
They should be completely segregated from the patient. 2riends or visitors with colds should be urgently
re(uested not to visit, or, if they have come into the house, the patient should (uietly, even unsociably disappear
behind hisJher bedroom door.
)f a recovering patient does develop a cold or flu, at the very first signs, he should take penicillin /other
antibiotics if he is allergic to penicillin0 together with the 'triad' /one Aspirin, one -% mg. 9iacin, one -%% mg.
6itamin 10, at least once every six hours for as long as symptoms are present, plus one day. )t is also wise to
gargle with chamomile tea in which you use +J$ ounce of a AC solution of hydrogen peroxide, at least three
times a day. A very warm bath with at least @ pints of AC hydrogen peroxide twice a day is extremely helpful.
?e sure that the patient is not chilled upon leaving the bath and immediately goes into a warm bed. A cold
should be treated with great respect since it can cause recurrence of tumors. )f you report to your Gerson
consulting doctor with possible regrowth of tumors, be sure you mention whether or not you had a cold or flu in
the recent past, and whether you have overcome it.
?ecause of the seriousness of possible colds, it is suggested on the list of medications to take home, that you
take penicillin with you. )f, at the very first symptoms of a cold, you first have to go to a doctor for a
prescription, or ask for penicillin to be mailed to you it will be much too late to take it. )t is mainly used to
avoid opportunistic germs from aggravating the virus infection but you need to have it on hand in case of need.
5o not use it for any other reason.
%xercise
5r Gerson felt very strongly that a cancer patient !ust starting on the therapy, urgently needs rest. :e even had
patients who were not particularly debilitated, stay in bed for a full six weeksO The Gerson Therapy itself speeds
up the metabolism, and that re(uires energy. This extra energy re(uirement often causes patients starting the
treatment to be tired. This is an urgent message from the body to restO 5o not force exercise when you are tired.
)t will not 'build you up' at allF on the contrary, it will slow down or stop the healing process if you waste your
energy.
4arly on in the treatment, it is a good practice to do some trampolining. A little 'rebounder' is (uite inexpensive,
and can be very helpful. )n the beginning, use it only by lifting your heel and bending your knees don't !ump.
Also, it is best to use it for only A% seconds at a time, but several times a day as often as -' times. This very
mild exercise stimulates lymphatic circulation and also helps to overcome pain, especially bone pain. ?ut, again,
don't overdo or exhaust yourself.
#hen patients first return home, they usually feel much better, but not yet strong. )t is extremely important that
they do not immediately !ump into their !obs or housework since the Therapy with all the foods and !uices is
very labor intensive. The patient needs continued rest and :43>. 8sually, after about three months, energy
returns. That, too, can be a period of danger< when the patient is recovering and feels energy again, heJshe may
well begin strenuous activities overexerting himself, and stopping the healing. 5o not overdo. As your energy
returns, you can begin some very mild exercise< a five minute walk /not in extreme heat or cold0. This can soon
be extended to .+% minutes, but, if the patient is very tired, stop, and go back to the last amount of walking that
didn't exhaust you. )ncrease the time for a walk very slowly if you can easily handle it. 7ore strenuous exercise
/tennis, s(uash0 must be avoided for a year or so. Try to avoid walking on or near a golf course, as the grass is
heavily sprayed with toxic chemicals. *wimming is a problem< all chlorinated pools must be completely avoided
and ocean water is too salty for the patient. *o what remainsD A clean mountain stream or lake. &1lean& means
that there are no factories that drain chemicals into the water above the place where you swim. And, of course,
the weather must be mild or warm, so the patient is not chilled. One of our recovered breast cancer patients in
1armel, 1alifornia, after two years on the therapy and total recovery, won several tennis tournaments. Iust be
patient and heal firstO
7$are5ups and reactions
7otes from a lecture by /r /an Ro)ers" %./. De'inition o' 7$are5upD)eaction" A response by the body in
general, and the immune system in particular, causing an increase in detoxification and healing processes.
!auses" The causes can be manyF the body's attempt to rid itself of dead and diseased tissue and cells, eliminate
toxins of all types, and rebuild healthy cells and tissues.
7$are5ups &ay inc$ude any o' the 'o$$o>in9 sy&pto&s"
8lu-li+e sy)pto)sI
General aches and pains, sore muscles and !oints, or an &achy all over feeling& are fairly common in most
patients. The duration of these symptoms is usually $@@. hours. 8sually selflimited, but may re(uire mild
definitive treatment.
Ex< Treat symptomatically including clayJcastor oil packs, pain triad, hydrotherapy, andJor bed rest.
:auseaI
This reaction may be intense, lasting for several days. 8sually selflimited.
Ex< Treat symptomatically. )ncrease intake of peppermint tea and oatmeal. 7ay need to decrease oral solid
intake or exchange it for raw grated apples, applesauce, raw grated carrots, mashed banana, watermelon, etc.
Also, change !uice composition by adding up to -%C gruel per !uice. 7ay also give gruel straight.
2o)itingI
5oes not occur in most cases. )f it does occur it usually lasts $@ hours or less. *ome cases can be intense and of
longer duration, re(uiring definitive treatment, especially when complicated by other body fluid loss /such as
diarrhea0, or in a patient with reduced body mass /i.e. child, cachexia, etc.0.
Ex< )ncrease peppermint tea intake to as much as + gallon or more and substitute oatmeal for regular meals
when needed. 7ay need to decrease oral solid intake or exchange it for raw grated apples, applesauce, raw
grated carrots, mashed banana, watermelon, etc. Also change !uice composition by adding up to -%C gruel per
!uice. 7ay also give gruel straight. Iuices not taken orally can be given rectally as a retention enema. )f emesis
lasts longer than $@ hours, or if severe, definitive treatment may be re(uired including antiemetics /oral, ).7., or
).6.0, and ).6. fluids. *erum electrolyte and acidJbase levels need to be carefully monitored. )f vomiting bile
/green, bitter0 reduce coffee enemas to + or $ a day and take chamomile enemas between coffee enemas.
AiarrheaI
2re(uent passage of unformed, watery bowel movements. )f it occurs it is usually selflimiting, lasting $@@.
hours. )f it persists any longer, definitive treatment may be re(uired, especially when complicated by other body
fluid loss such as vomiting, or in a patient with reduced body mass /i.e.< child, cachexia, etc.0 Ex< Treat
symptomatically. As an initial measure, combine +J. tsp. potassium gluconate and +J@ tsp. clay in peppermint
tea, to be taken every $@ hours. )f particularly severe or lasting longer than $@@. hours, antispasmotics /i.e.<
polvo mixto, lomotil, etc.0 may be needed. Also, routinely do lab testing, e.g. ova and parasites, stool culture and
sensitivity, serum electrolytes, etc. ).6. fluids may be necessary, especially if diarrhea is complicated by
increased loss of other body fluids.
PainI
7ay be prodromal /i.e.< signaling a flareup0 starting as much as @.;$ hours prior to reaction. 8sually self
limiting. 5uration up to ;$ hours post reaction. 7ay re(uire definitive Ex.
Ex< Treat symptomatically. 8se increased enemas, clayJcastor oil packs and pain triad as first treatment of
choice. 3aetrile /Amigdalin0 is a good Ex alternative especially with bony metastases. :ydrotherapy works well
with many types of pain. Acupuncture, 9eural therapy with lidocaine also works well. 7ay need triad /+
Aspirin, + 9iacin -% mg., + 6itamin 1 -%% mg.0, etc., depending upon the type of pain and location.
5hills and 8e(erI
7ay last $@@. hours, usually selflimited. 2or the most part should be treated with physical means. Areas of
precaution include high fevers /greater than +%@K 2.0 for a period greater than $ hours, and patients with reduced
body mass /i.e.< child, cachexia, etc.0.
Ex< 2or chills, use physical means as first treatment of choice. >ut the patient to bed, warm patient with
blankets, pa!amas, etc. 7ay also en!oy warm bath, hot herb tea, etc. ?ed rest is re(uired.
2or fever, also use physical means as first treatment of choice. Eeduce amount of constrictive clothing, remove
most blankets, but maintain normal environmental temperatures. 8se vinegarJalcohol rub down, cool water rub
down, damp cloth on neckJforehead, etc. ?ed rest is necessary. )f the patient's temperature continues to rise, cool
chamomile teaJcoffeeJwater enemas may be needed. Also, cool baths with up to full body immersion may be
used. )f fever is still rising, the pain triad, with emphasis on aspirin, may be employed. Try to avoid the use of
any stronger antipyretic agents, except for very unusual circumstances. 1areful monitoring of the patient is
4**49T)A3 if physical means are to be successful in controlling fever, especially if body temperature remains
at +%@K 2 or more. )f physical means plus aspirin and careful monitoring do not control fever at a manageable
level, definitive treatment must be employed.
8oul s)ellsI
This general category includes breath, body odor, smelly enemas, etc. At least one of these symptoms is fairly
common in patients during their first reactions. They are selflimiting, lasting the duration of the reaction, and
up to @. hours post reaction. 9o special precautions need to be taken, except for the comfort of the patient and
any visitors.
)x" 5reath: brush teeth several times per day. 4at garlic. 5rink extra !uiceJtea. 5o&y 1&or: bathe and change
clothes often. 6inegarJalcohol rubdown. 5rink extra !uiceJtea. 4ne*a o&or: increase number of enemas,
including castor oil /check with your physician0. )nstruct everyone to leave the room at enema time and open the
bathroom windows, even in the winter. 7ay need to repaint the room.
AepressionI
This symptom is very common to many patients, especially during the first several reactions. )t is due in part to
the toxins released into the blood, reacting in the brain and effecting its functions. )t may be a prodromal sign of
an upcoming reaction, occurring as much as ;$ hours before the reaction starts. )t worsens as the reaction
occurs, and may last up to ;$ hours following the flareup. )t is usually selflimiting. The patient especially
needs as much extra T31 /tender loving care0 as possible at this time. Ex< Treat symptomatically. 3ots of
support, T31, encouragement, companion and family support are especially critical here.
HaundiceI
5uration usually limited to @. hours, post flareup. Ex< 9o definitive treatment. )ncrease !uices and enemas.
ote: Remember flare&ups can consist of one or more of the abo6e symptoms" an! perhaps all of them.
:aboratory Test !han9es
Almost any lab value is susceptible to change during flareups. 4specially sensitive to change are serum values
such as electrolytes, Alkaline >hosphatase, GGT, GG>, *GOT, etc. A complete blood count and differential may
show a relatively higher number of leukocytes and an increase in the lymphocyte count if it was low before the
flareup began, or a decrease in the lymphocyte count if it was high before the reaction started. Also, urinalysis
shows trace amounts of albumin and a greater amount of sodium excretion. )f your bloodJurinalysis tests were
done within A days of a reaction, be sure to tell your doctor. Bour doctor may otherwise misinterpret the results.
!os&etics and Sunscreen
5os)etics
All substances which go on the skin, at best clog pores, keeping the skin from breathing and eliminating toxins.
At worst, these materials are absorbed into the blood stream and damage the patient. #hile on the intensive
therapy, the patient should refrain from using any skin lotions, creams, and ointments whatsoever. 4specially,
women need to refrain from using lipstick which is regularly licked off the lips and therefore ingested.
*ometimes, women complain that their lips are dry or raw if they do not use lipstick. This is often due to the
lipstick. )f the patient refrains from its use for a few days, and instead uses a little 6aseline, the lips 'heal' and
will feel normal.
#e feel very strongly about any underarm antiperspirant or deodorant. All these are harmful, even if purchased
in a 'health food store.' 7any contain aluminum, and other chemicals which should never go to block lymph
passages underarm. They not only block but are absorbed and toxic. The passages should be clear and open for
elimination of toxic perspiration. )f sweat is smelly, wash fre(uently and keep the lymph passages open. To
block them is to force the toxic materials back into the lymph passages, causing new harm. Once the body is
well detoxified, it will not have any unpleasant smell.
9ail polish keeps the nails from breathing. 5o not use it while on the Gerson TherapyF nor any artificial nails. )f
you are wearing it at the hospital, a nurse will provide you with nail polish remover.
#e need not mention permanents or hair dyes, since these are mentioned on the list of forbidden items in A
Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases, p. +0. :owever, hair sprays, lac(uers with acetone solvents, are also
very harmful and have to be avoided. On the therapy, your hair will become healthier and have natural 'body'.
Bou will not need some of the toxic cosmetics.
7unscreen
5r Gerson did not want patients to be exposed to sun, nor to sunbathe. 5uring the last few years, it has become
fashionable to recommend 'sunscreen' because many doctors claim sunlight can cause skin cancer. 5r Gerson's
reason for recommending patients avoid sunlight is that it is radiation, it is wearying and irritatingF so the patient
must avoid it. *unscreen is not the answer. On the contrary< the latest information has it, the sunscreen which
people are supposed to use and put on their children's skin becomes a carcinogen /cancer causing agent0 when
exposed to the sunO )f you are going out, wear a longsleeved shirt, preferably white cotton, or a blouse. 8se a
hat with a wide brim or visor to protect your face. Bou need not stay indoors altogether when the weather is
sunny. Iust don't expose yourself without clothes, to 'sunbathe'. )t is always suggested that you take in fresh air,
in the shade, under a tree or umbrella. )f you are using the sun 'to warm you', rather use extra covers, sweaters,
coats or blankets, but stay in the shade.
Denta$ Hy9iene and care
Toothpaste
4'tre*ely (*portant: 4e=er use toothpaste >ith '$uoride or bakin9 soda@
Aental &*scesses
A very important consideration for success on the Gerson Therapy is the need to clear any possible dental root
abscess. *ometimes, these abscesses cause no symptoms and the patient is not aware of them. Also some
patients are overly concerned about Qrays, to the point that they even refuse the small amount of radiation used
to diagnose possible dental problems. That is a mistake. The amount of radiation is not harmfulF but the possible
existence of dental root canal infections or abscesses will negate the effectiveness of the Gerson Therapy.
*ometimes seriously damaged or infected teeth have to be removed in order to eliminate the constant re
infection caused by these toxins in the mouth. >lease check your teeth and make sure that there are no dental
problems as you start on the Therapy.
7il(er-0ercury &)alga) 8illings
7any of our patients and readers are informed about the dangers of silveramalgam fillings. These consist of a
mixture of metals that can contain up to -%C mercury. The problem, of course, is that mercury is a highly toxic
heavy metal, with a powerful effect on the central nervous system. Over the course of $% years, it has been
shown that up to ,-C of the mercury can leach out of the fillings into the system and into circulation. *ome
people are a great deal more sensitive to this circulating mercury than others. )t has been shown to cause
7ultiple *clerosis in some patients. #hen the silver amalgam fillings were removed, the patients recovered.
Other people have had silver fillings in their teeth for many years with no apparent problems.
9a+ing 7oda
Bour dentist can cause you considerable trouble if he recommends that you brush your teeth with baking soda.
The chemical name for baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. *odium is readily absorbed through the mucus
membranes in the mouth and (uickly enters the blood stream. A patient who came to us with colon cancer was
completely cleared of cancer after about ten months on the therapy. *he continued the therapy faithfully, as she
had been instructed. 9evertheless, after another six months or so, she had a new malignant lesion in her colon.
#hen she returned to the Gerson Therapy hospital, upon intensive (uestioning, it turned out her dentist had
suggested she brush her teeth with baking soda. *he did and her tumor returned. #hen she stopped this
practice, she healed againO
#e need to warn our patients not to follow such dentists' instructions. Also, please note that 3 !ancer Therapy"
)esu$ts o' 7i'ty !ases, on p. +0, states on the list of forbidden items not to use baking soda also for gargling,
etc. The above patient did not remember or check on this before following her dentist's instructions. >lease also
note that many brands of toothpaste presently contain baking soda since dentists recommend it. >lease do not
use such toothpastes.
'oot 5anals
An entirely different situation exists when patients have been treated by their dentist with &root canal& fillings.
)n order to treat the root, the dentist has to drill any loose or infected material from the canal which houses the
nerve. ?ut when the nerve is dead and removed, the tooth also dies. A wonderful book called The Root Canal
Co6er&Dp" published by 5r George 4. 7einig, 55*, 2.A.1.5. in +,,A gives the extensive and detailed research
done by 5r #eston A. >rice, 55*, 2.A.1.5., early this century. 5r 7einig for many years headed the group of
dentists engaged in doing root canals. :e also states he did many hundreds himself. :owever, when he became
aware of the dangers inherent in this treatment, he incorporated his new findings in his practice and now spends
his time and energies in making the public, as well as dentists, aware of the research.
The first indication of problems due to root canals came from a patient who was bedfast and virtually paraly"ed
due to rheumatoid arthritis, for some reason, her root canal filled tooth was removed, although it looked healthy,
and after some months, she could walk and her health was totally restored. ?ut 5r >rice took the extracted tooth,
sterili"ed it thoroughly, and implanted it under the skin of a rabbit. #ithin - days, the rabbit was suffering with
severe rheumatoid arthritis, and in +% days it died of the disease.
*ubse(uently, many other patients had root canal filled teeth extracted< some suffering from kidney disease,
others from heart disease, and many more with arthritis. )n virtually all cases, the patients showed considerable
improvement, to even total recovery, after the offending teeth were removed. ?ut, again, many more times. 5r
>rice implanted the teeth under the skin of rabbits. )n each case, the tooth removed from the patient caused the
patient's disease in the rabbit. 5r >rice went even further to try to clear the apparently infectious material from
the extracted teeth< he autoclaved them /sterili"ed by steam pressure, usually at $-% degrees 2 or +$+K10. This
made no difference< the rabbits with the sterili"ed tooth implanted still developed the disease and died, usually
within +% days. Then 5r >rice implanted a healthy tooth under the skin of a rabbit. The rabbit lived without
showing any signs of problems for about +- years, its normal life span.
The underlying problem is very interesting< when the nerve is removed from a tooth, it is no longer living, nor is
it supplied with nutrients. )t is dead. :owever, the normal structure of the tooth includes tiny 'canules' /similar to
capillaries in every human tissue0 that carry nutrients to the living tooth. Once the tooth is dead, nutrients stop
circulating through these canules, instead they become infested with germs and viruses. 9ot only that, but the
filling of the nerve canal shrinks a tiny little bit, enough for more bacteria and viruses to lodge there, too. 9one
of this shows on Qrays. A dead tooth is thus a potent source of bacterial and viral toxins and infections that can
spread throughout the system. 7any people with a good immune system and powerful defenses, can live with
this constant source of trouble without showing any symptoms. 1areful Qrays in many cases show that with
time &cavitation& /hollowing out of the surrounding !aw bone0 occurs around the root canal treated tooth. As the
resistant patient ages or is weakened by accidents, colds and flu, or severe stress, the ability to overcome this
'focal infection' is reduced and can either cause or contribute to cause severe chronic disease.
)n view of the above, it will not come as a surprise that we urgently suggest patients remove any tooth /or teeth0
with root canal fillings.
A German physician. 5r Iosef )ssels, heard a lecture by 5r Gerson back in the +,-%'s and subse(uently
successfully used alternative treatments in helping many cancer patients. 5r )ssels spent some time at the
Gerson Therapy 1enter and also pointed out the severe damage caused by root canal fillings. :e further stated
that he refused to treat any cancer patient who did not allow all 'devitali"ed' /dead0 teeth to be removed. :e
explained that he could not obtain good results without this procedure.
As this is something that is appearing more and more often in our patients, we recommend that this be discussed
with your physician if you have had root canal work done in the past.
*ome dentists are now claiming that newly available materials they use in the root canal are &safe.& 5o not
allow any root canals to be performed, as it is not the dental material, but the dead tooth that causes the problem.
Aental &nesthesia for the Gerson Patient
There are several things to remember when it comes to dental anesthesias. On the one hand, the Gerson patient
since sJhe is well detoxified, has a higher threshold of pain so average pain 'doesn't hurt as much'. On the other
hand, a Gerson patient is also much more sensitive to drugs and, under certain circumstances, the full average
dose /$cc0 of Qylocaine /or other pain killer drug0 could cause serious problems. )t is important that the patient
advise his dentist as follows<
"% 5o)pound the anesthesia drug without epinephrine
2% 1se no )ore than ",# of the a(erage dose
#% 7tart to wor+ pro)ptly% $f a 20 )inute wait is allowed for the drug to ;ta+e; it will ha(e worn off%
Mi$k Proteins
After a period of about ' weeks on the full intensive therapy, 5r Gerson allowed cancer patients to add modified
milk proteins to their diet. Bour Gerson doctor may suggest a different amount of time before allowing the
addition of milk products.
$t is i)portant that )il+ products *eI
"% 8at free =not low fat>
2% 7oured =pre-digested, such as in yogurt or ;pot cheese;>
#% 7alt-free
)n his book, A Cancer Therapy" Results of Fifty Cases" 5r Gerson describes these milk proteins as 'buttermilk
and pot cheese'. 8nfortunately, at the present time, these products are not readily available as originally
prescribed. 1onse(uently, the currently available products cannot be used by patients on the Gerson Therapy.
The buttermilk which 5r Gerson prescribed was true, churned buttermilk. This was totally fatfree through the
churning process, and contained no additives. This type of buttermilk is no longer available anywhere, as far as
we know. On the other hand, present day buttermilk is 'cultured' and is usually made from leftover milk, treated
with thickeners, flavoring agents, and even salt, as shown in the list of ingredients. This is not usable for a
Gerson patient and could cause harm. 8nless you have your own churn, or are close to a milk farmer who
churns butter and has buttermilk left from his processing, you cannot use /&cultured&0 buttermilk while on the
Gerson Therapy.
The problem of 'pot cheese' is even more complex. 5r Gerson's patients, some @%-% years ago, had access to a
nonfat, unsalted large curd type of cottage cheese. This, too, is no longer available. 1ottage cheese, on the other
hand, is salted and 'creamed' /cream added0. Bou may see some which is labeled &low fat&, but this contains a
minimum of $C butterfat /too much0 and is (uite heavily salted. The &regular& cottage cheese contains @C
butterfat plus salt. 9either is acceptable for the Gerson patient.
The only way that patients can use 'cottage cheese' is if they are able to obtain skim milk and allow it to curdle
/see Appendix )))< Eecipes, pg. ,.0 and pass it through several layers of cheese cloth, or preferably through
some porous tea towel, to separate the curds from the whey.
#e saw one lady who had originally shown exceptionally dramatic results with the Gerson Therapy, eating
'cottage cheese' at home. This was a hard cheese, possibly made as part of a 'cottage industry', and sold as
cottage cheese. :ard cheeses are especially harmful< they usually contain up to @%C /O0 butterfat, and are
heavily salted. 9aturally, this lady, too, experienced regrowth of tumors, until she stopped using this cheese.
#e had another patient who had done very well on the Gerson Therapy and most of his tumors were gone or
were reduced. #hen his doctor allowed him to have yogurt, he could only find &low fat& yogurt, and he decided
that was okay for him. )n a short time, his tumors were growing again and he came back to the Gerson Therapy
:ospital to find out what the problem was. )n only a few days on the full intensive therapy in 7exico, his
tumors were again much smaller. Then he received the results of an analysis he had ordered of his lowfat
yogurt. The result showed a fat content of this low fat' yogurt of A.$C butterfat enough to start tumors
growingO Other problems occur with yogurt. )t has to be nonfat and unflavored. *ome patients are trying their
best to do right, and look for raw, unpasteuri"ed milk yogurt. ?e careful. Bou will possibly find raw goat's milk
yogurt, and think you have it made. 9ot so. Goat's milk is, by nature, homogeni"ed, and it is difficult to remove
the cream so, it is full of fat. #e lost one patient because the caregiver was not aware of the danger of raw
goat's milk yogurt.
>lease be careful, don't go by names, but by ingredients. 1ottage cheese or yogurt should contain no added salt
and no fat. *ome patients have expressed doubt about their yogurt when its &contents& label showed that it
contained a small amount of sodium. >lease understand that all milk /and vegetables, too, by the way0 naturally
contain a little sodium. *o, if you see sodium listed under 'contents', don't worry. )t should not show under
'ingredients' since this would mean that salt was added.
Occasionally, you may be able to find '2armer's 1heese', which contains no fat and no salt and would be
acceptable. /1heck your labelsO0 Also, some dairies produce &?aker's 1heese& to be used in baking pastries such
as 1heese 5anish. )f this baker's cheese contains no salt or fat it may be used, whipped up with some nonfat
yogurt and onions, garlic or chives since it is (uite lacking in flavor without additions. Also, *afeway used to
produce cheese for the same purpose, called &5ry 1urd.& This is also free of salt and fat and can be mixed with
onions, garlic, etc. and can be a delicious spread for baked potatoes and vegetablesF or with a little maple syrup
or honey, it can be used over stewed fruit, or as a sauce with some dessert.
6ery rarely, a patient is lactose intolerant and cannot handle any milk products. Bour doctor may advise you to
take spirulina, bluegreen manna, or bee pollen. This can also sometimes cause allergic reactions. )f you are
trying it, use !ust a few grains at first, and add a few at a time before reaching your prescribed amount. )f it
causes you any allergic reaction, don't use it.
!hapter ," Psycho$o9ica$ !onsiderations 'or the Gerson
Patient
by ?eata ?ishop
According to a brief but precise definition, in holistic medicine the physician treats the patient, not the disease.
This certainly applies to the Gerson Therapy which heals by restoring the health of the whole body, rather than
concentrate an a specific complaint. ?ut its powerful effects extend to the patient's nonphysical self as well. )n
order to make the Gerson program fully holistic, the psychological aspects of healing must also be considered.
?ody and mind are two sides of one coin. They sicken together and must be healed together. #hatever affects
the one will affect the other. Our task is to evoke the patient's selfhealing potential and make sure that some
disregarded psychological problem does not sabotage the therapeutic process.
There is now solid scientific evidence to prove that our moods, emotions and general outlook have a direct and
measurable impact on our immune system. The proof comes from psychoneuroimmunology />9)0, a new
medical specialty which has been rapidly developing since the late seventies, thanks to a better understanding of
brain chemistry and of the subtle connections that exist on the cellular level within the body. )n a nutshell, the
limbic system of the brain and the central nervous system release certain hormones that fit into receptor sites all
over the body, causing them to release various secretions. The (uality of the hormones and the secretion
determines whether the immune system is boosted or weakened, switched on or offF and that (uality, in turn,
depends on our emotions, beliefs and prevailing psychological orientation.
A positive, hopeful, determined attitude strengthens immune competence, while despair negativity and fear
weaken it. 3asting unhappiness or a traumatic event can overwhelm our cells. )t is no exaggeration to claim
that our every thought and emotion e(uals a biochemical act. )n the words of neuroscientist 5r 1andace >elt co
discoverer of endorphins, &1ells are conscious beings that communicate with each other, affecting our emotions
and choices.& )t is e(ually true that our emotions and beliefs affect the activity of our cells.
1learly, the patient's emotional health is of vital importance if we want to ensure that the Gerson Therapy brings
optimum results.
Any cancer diagnosis e(uals a ma!or trauma. )t evokes powerful emotions< panic, fear, rage, or, at the opposite
pole, resignation, numbness, despair. 4ither way, most patients experience a sense of isolation, of being cast out
of normal life and deprived of a future. :arrowing memories of personally known cancer victims arise
contributing to a superstitious fear of the disease.
This fear springs from two sources. One is rational, based on the very real threat of suffering, disfigurement,
drastic treatments with vile side elects, and probably no cure in the end. ?ut there is a nonrational fear, too,
which sees cancer as an intruder, an evil alien that has breached our defenses and may kill us. )n their panic
stricken state very few patients reali"e that tumors don't come from outer space but from the faulty functioning
of their own bodies. All these emotions are negative heavy, distressing. And they are made worse by the
average physician's response which is normally defensive and reserved, if not down right cold, /it was certainly
cold in my experience when ) presented with a secondary tumor and my previously friendly surgeononcologist
suddenly turned icy, implying with his manner that by producing a lump in my groin ) had somehow let the side
down.0
)f the patient then spends time in an average hospital, the additional handicap of dependence, loss of adult
autonomy and privacy will make things even worse. The patient becomes a massive sufferer, with no say in
what is being done to him or her. )n the telling phrase of )van )llich, &7odern medicine turns the patient into a
limp and mystified voyeur in the grip of bioengineers.&
These observations apply to cancer patients diagnosed and treated in an orthodox medical framework. ?ut as
almost all patients come to the Gerson Therapy from that system we must recogni"e their depressed, fearful or
numb state and do something about it fast. Ordinarily, humanity demands that we try to relieve their sense of
isolation, fear and hopelessness, by giving them time, space and permission to unload their huge emotional
burden.
?ut beside ordinary humanity, in the light of >9)'s findings there are also sound medical reasons for urgently re
programming the patients' inner state from negative to positive. &9o attempt should be made to cure the body
without the soul,& wrote the Greek philosopher >lato nearly $@%% years ago. )n today's terms, even the brilliant
Gerson program cannot do its best if something deep down in the patient's consciousness keeps saying &9o& to
life.
And that something may be a totally separate diagnosis. )t may have to do with what 3awrence 3e*han, pioneer
researcher of the bodymind link in malignant disease, dubbed &the cancerprone personality&. Other researchers
soon confirmed his observation that certain personality traits seemed to predispose some people to cancer. )n
3e*han's formulation, these traits include low selfesteem, difficulty in expressing anger or aggression, a
tendency to please others and ignore hisJher own needs and feelings. )n other words, the true self of such a
person has disappeared behind a false self, developed probably in early childhood and maintained in adulthood,
although no longer necessary.
9aturally, this personality profile is only a model and does not apply to all cancer patients, although in my work
with sufferers over nearly fourteen years ) have often come across these character traits. #hat matters is that
together or separately they signal a negative outlook on life which a cancer diagnosis can turn into bleak
despairF and >9) tells us clearly what that means in trends of reduced immune competence.
)t is well known that cancer often appears +. months or two years after some untoward life event, such as
bereavement, divorce, career crisis, fiscal blow, and so on. 4xperience with clients has shown me that those
events only represented the last straw that ultimately broke the camel's backF that, indeed, those people had long
existed in what they had felt was a life trap, an impossible existential situation that apparently could neither be
borne nor changed. 3e*han and 1arl *imonton, 7.5., describe this life trap in detail. 7y own case material
bears out its existence, and also the fact that those who feel unable to escape eventually reach a stage when they
don't care whether they live or die. As many of them have told me, &*omething snapped.& ) suspect it was the
last strand of their will to live.
And, as the wellknown saying has it, &1ancer is a socially acceptable form of suicide.&
#hat we are dealing with here is the mysterious interaction of biochemist and emotions, a vast new area of
bodymind medicine which we are only beginning to explore. ?ut there is already enough orthodox clinical, as
opposed to anecdotal, evidence to prove that inner attitudes can make a big difference to survival.
)n a now classical study, ?ritish researcher *tephen Greer interviewed a group of women three months after they
had undergone mastectomies, to find out how they were coping. :e found four distinct types among them who
showed, respectively, fighting spirit, denial, stoic acceptance, and hopelessness. After - and +% years, .%C of the
fighters, but only $%C of the hopeless had survived. These rates had nothing to do with medical prognoses.
)n the 8.*., 5avid *piegel, 7.5., of *tanford, invited a group of -' women with metastasi"ed breast cancer to
attend weekly meetings for a year, where they could share worries and sorrows, encourage each ether, and
change their mental attitude. A control group of -% women attended no such meetings. *piegel only wanted to
discover whether the group activity enhanced the members' (uality of life, which it certainly did. ?ut, to his
ama"ement, he found that they also lived twice as long as those that did not attend.
These studies, as well as my own case histories suggest that the fighters, unlike the despondent patients, give
positive nonverbal messages to their bodies which boost their immune system, and get results accordingly. 9ot
always. :umanity's mortality rate remains obstinately +%%C, but we don't all have to go at once.
*till, on the orthodox side, an interesting insight comes from 8.*. oncologistsurgeon ?ernie *iegal, 7.5.,
author of several bestselling books which have helped to extend public understanding of the bodymind link in
health and sickness. :e claims that +-$%C of cancer patients unconsciously or consciously want to die, no
doubt to get out of a bad life trap. '%;%C wish to get well but are passive and expect the doctor to do all the
work. +-$%C, however, are exceptional< they refuse to play victim, they research their disease, don't obey the
doctor automatically but ask (uestions, demand control and make informed choices. )n ?ernie *iegel's words,
&5ifficult or uncooperative patients are most likely to get well. Apparently they have more killer Tcells than
docile patients. ) suspect that many Gerson patients would (ualify for membership in ?ernie *iegel's groups of
4xceptional 1ancer >atients.
*o how do we go about promoting a positive outlook and a fighting spirit in the patientD
The best ) can offer is what ) have learned and practiced over the years. The following steps refer to all patients
with cancer or other chronic degenerative diseasesF the specific needs of Gerson patients will be discussed
afterwards. The first step is to demystify the disease, discuss it openly, in a natural voice, without euphemisms
or technical !argon. This helps to provide a safe space where the patient can find emotional release, encouraged
by being listened to with total, non!udgmental attention.
) always ask the initial (uestion, &5o you want to liveD& )f the answer is yes, ) ask, &5o you want to live
unconditionallyD& Another firm &yes& settles that matter. ?ut often a &yes, but...& reply identifies an undecided
individual, and the need for further exploration.
)t is important to build a therapeutic partnership with the patient and give him or her responsibility and an active
role to play. #e must be totally honest, have the courage to say &) don't know& when we don't refuse any kind of
prognosis. )f a patient tells us that .-C of people with his condition die within three years, we invite him to !oin
the +-C who don't. /) recall with !oy and admiration the fragile little lady riddled with cancer who, when told
that she had six months to live, brightly replied, &Oh good, ) have six months to get well.& And get well she did,
on the Gerson Therapy...0
The +.$@ months of the patient's life prior to the diagnosis can yield valuable clues. 5id some ma!or stress
drive the patient to drink, drugs or other destructive habits which caused significant liver damageD Gentle
(uestioning often allows us to identify some life trapF the next task is to show that there is a way out, other than
dying.
To flush out the inner saboteur, we need to help the patient recogni"e and release selfdefeating patterns, old
unfinished business, and resentment especially resentment, since the repeated reliving of old hurts, rage or pain
puts the autonomic nervous system into distress mode, which is the last thing the patient needs.
Eeprogramming means shifting the emphasis from negative to positive. To (uote 3e*han once again, his basic
(uestion is &#hat's right with youD& #hat are your special ways of being, relating, creatingD #hat is blocking
their expressionD #hat do you need to fulfill yourselfD Above all, what do BO8 want to do with your lifeD&
) agree with 3e*han's claim that under the circumstances it is permissible to ask (uestions which one would
avoid otherwise. Muestions like< )f you had another thirty years to live, would you remarry your spouseD or stay
with your partnerD or remain in your present careerD
Once these important basics have been clarified, it is time to switch from the passive to the active mode and
point out the enormous potential open to the patient, if only he or she will act, not !ust react, and start making
personal decisions. After all, there is nothing to lose.
)f possible, the family dynamics should also be explored. A toxic relationship to a spouse, an overdemanding
parent or antagonistic children may contribute to the disease. #ithout recogni"ing the situation there is no way
to ease it.
A great deal can be achieved in a short time. The main tool of the physician or therapist is his or her personality
and calm, reliable presence. Often this presence is the only solid support to the patient's confused, chaotic world.
Other tools, such as teaching relaxation techni(ues, simple meditation, and creative visuali"ation, focused on
selfhealing, can and should he used later, by suitably trained counselors and therapists.
?eside the trauma and psychological needs experienced by cancer sufferers in general, Gerson patients have
extra burdens to bear. 2ar too many come to the therapy as a last resort, after conventional treatments have
failed them, leaving behind a sense of disappointment, betrayal, and a range of severe aftereffects. 2or them,
embarking on the Gerson Therapy is like taking a mad gamble, an endoftheline decision.
Others choose the Gerson path at an earlier, less serious stage of their disease, with fewer preventable changes in
their bodies, but with a poor prognosis.
4ither way they embark on an unfamiliar treatment, much of which sounds bi"arre at first.
They step outside the boundaries of orthodox medicine, the network of doctors, consultants, hospitals, referralsF
a whole system which has been unable to heal them yet still carries an aura of great power. *ome may have been
shown the door by their physician. Others face pressure and doubts from family members and friends who don't
see how a weird, neverheardof therapy can succeed where modern hightech medicine has failed.
The wouldbe patient's own doubts spring largely from the sheer length of the therapy. )n the more familiar
allopathic field of medicine there is a pill for every ill, you either recover or you die, but at least things happen
fast. To face two years of unremitting effort, strict discipline and monotony sounds pretty horrendous, especially
because there is no guarantee of success at the other end. This explains why only a small percentage of in(uirers
chooses to embark on the therapy /in the 8.G. the uptake is around $%C0 after digesting the first batch of
information.
#e can assume a certain toughness and determination, or sheer despair, in those who are willing to make a start.
At this stage, their main need is for reassurance, for sober hope mixed with honest realism. They need to hear
that theirs is a serious disease indeed, but it is possible to recover from it, and the Gerson Therapy is the most
logical way to regain their health. This is when the cognitive approach works best, explaining the &how& and the
&why& of the Gerson program. )t needs no medical background to understand why rebuilding the immune
system is a better idea than knocking it out with radiation and a cock tail of toxic substances.
And so, by this stage having settled the emotional overload of the patient, we work along rational lines,
explaining, answering (uestions, not asking anything to be taken on trust. This reinforces the patient's
involvement in the healing process as an e(ual partner and ally of the doctor or specialist counselor.
To get an overview, it helps to imagine the two or more years of the Gerson Therapy as a drama in three acts.
3ct /ne
*tarting out. A time of excitement and exploration, unfamiliarity, drastic changes in lifestyle, diet, daily routine.
7uch to learn all the time. )t is a great advantage to start the therapy at a Gerson clinic. ?ut, sooner or later,
there follows the expulsion from that Garden of 4den where everything is done for the patient, and reality must
be faced at home. 2or the patient who starts at home, chaos sets in temporarily from 5ay One.
At first, the sheer tasks of the day seem impossible< preparing !uices, food, enema coffee, washing up endlessly,
securing deliveries, checking on the helper, cleaning up after the helper above all, remaining sane. At this
stage, practical help is essential almost round the clock, to stop the patient from giving up at once.
Act One is so busy and active that there is little space and time for psychological matters.
3ct T>o
The main part /possibly the longest second act on 4arth0. The daily routine has been established and is rolling
along, but even with helpers it demands time, effort and perseverance. The monotony and boredom begin to tell
on the patient who feels restricted, under virtual house arrest. )n theory it is possible to go out after dinner, in
practice it does not happen often.
Then there is the problem of flareups or healing reactions which can be vile yet have to be welcomed, since
they signal that the body is responding to the therapy. ?y way of psychological support the reasons and
symptoms of flareups must be explained in advance, so that the patient does not panic /while feeling terrible0.
&This, too, will pass& is the best comfort we can offer.
An opposite problem, admittedly much rarer, is when there are no flareups for a while, and the patient
immediately concludes that the therapy is not working, there is no hope left. ) remember my own despondency
all those years ago when, except for one almighty flareup, + did not have any for months. )t really worried me.
Then ) had twentysix in a row, which gave me something else to worry about.
>hysical detoxification inevitably brings about psychological detoxification, too. Toxins passing through the
central nervous system evoke strange reactions and outofcharacter behavior< violent mood swings, snappiness,
anger, instability, unfair accusations and aggression. The patient's normally civili"ed behavior gives way to
drives and emotions that have been denied and repressed for a long time, perhaps since childhood. The adult
&censor& within is pushed aside by a raging infant, at least for a while, and then takes over again, amidst profuse
apologies.
This, too, has to be prepared for, and not taken personallyF it is part of the process. )n whatever capacity we
work with the patient, we remain calm, caring, unchanged, waiting for the inner upheaval to pass.
:owever, we need to be more active if depression sets in. This, too, can be the result of the detoxification
process, or of some small adverse symptom which is immediately seen as ominous. A bad result in the latest
blood test or an apparent change in a palpable tumor can plunge the patient into black despair. This has to be
dispelled fast by pointing out that there are many ups and downs and fluctuations within the healing process, so
that single symptoms are not signals of doom.
5epression can also set in when the patient gets terminally fed up and wants to (uit the therapy, although
improvements are noticeable. )t is best not to contradict the patient's grumbles but, on the contrary, agree that
the process is demanding, monotonous, restricting and boringF and then point out the good results so far, ask
tactless (uestions, such as, &#ould you rather have chemotherapyD& or &All right, you give up and then whatD&
and wait for the answer.
Eemember< this, too, will pass.
Taking life day by day, one day at a tine, is a good way to handle the apparent endlessness of the therapy,
without losing sight of the ultimate aim. )n fact, interim goalsetting what would the patient want to achieve in
one week, one month and three months helps even further to break up the monotony. The aims should be
realistic and modest, and warmly acknowledged when they are achieved. Those that did not work out can be
rephrased or postponed but not written off as failures.
' 2ood can be a ma!or issue during the main part of the therapy. 7any people take to Gerson food at once and
en!oy it. Others do not. #hen resistance wells up and turns mealtimes into the adult e(uivalent of nursery
tantrums, we are up against the deep emotional investment many people have in certain types of food, however
unhealthy. Their attachment is probably to the food mother gave then in childhood when food e(ualed love,
even if it was lowgrade !unk. At a fraught time such people may feel that what they eat is their last area of free
choice, and even though on a mental level they accept the Tightness of the Gerson diet, on a deeper nonrational
level they re!ect it, sometimes literally.
This is where wise counseling is needed. The patient must be reminded that the food on offer is medicine, that
the diet is not for ever, and that accepting it now is a sound investment in the future. ) have found it helpful to
make a solemn contract with the patient who undertook to stick to the diet meticulously for a fortnight. As a
rule, (uick improvement followed and extending the contract proved easy.
The need to observe the rules cannot be overstated. *mall lapses and occasional exceptions, often asked for by
patients, are out of the (uestion, for what exactly is small, and how often does an occasional exception occurD
Once the rules are broken, the safe boundaries of the therapy are damaged, and the conse(uences can be serious.
:owever, as carers or therapists we must enforce the rules with tact and affection, otherwise we may end up in
the role of the overstrict parent, with &Thou shalt not& written all over us.
5uring the long main part of the therapy, the patient's boredom can be relieved by providing relevant reading
material and tapes, set up networking with other Gerson >ersons, or encourage a fresh hobby or study that can
be fitted in between !uices, enemas and meals. 2riends' behavior can be crucial. 1an they bear the patient's
illness and face their own fears, or do they fade out of the pictureD And how are the family members copingD
Are they bearing the burden of the therapy without making the patient feel guiltyD
3ct Three
#inding down. The intensive therapy is over. 9ow is the time to taper it off more and more, cutting down
gradually on !uices, enemas, medication, preparing to reenter the world.
This can be a very tricky phase. The same patients who used to ask, &)s there life after GersonD& now are
reluctant to let go of the routine. )t has become a way of life which has served them superbly. They feel and look
well, they are symptomfree, with good test results and no complaints. ?ut they do not want to come off the
therapy.
?y then it has become their safety device and symbolic lifeandhealth insurance, with the implied fear that
stopping the therapy may bring on a relapse. This fear must not be dismissed lightly< it re(uires a careful, patient
&weaning process& to ensure that the tube of the enema bucket does not turn into a substitute umbilical cord.
*ticking with the dietary principles set out by 5r. Gerson is very necessary for the rest of one's life, in order to
safeguard one's bravely rebuilt health.
There are others, of course, who have to be restrained from rushing back into their erstwhile disastrous eating
habits at the end of Act Three. As a rule, the attempt is doomed< their detoxified, cleared, optimally nourished
systems tend to shrink away from socalled normal food, heavy with fat and painfully salty. )f their
understanding does not ob!ect to !unk food, their taste buds will.
)n my experience, after recovery there is no way back into the predisease state. The experience of the holistic
Gerson Therapy changes you, not only in your lifestyle and eating habits but also in your value system,
priorities and general outlook. Bou have been reborn without the need to die first, and you may easily and
naturally decide to help others, by way of repaying a debt to life.
3ppendix I" :ab Tests
3aboratory testing of blood and urine are a standard part of your Gerson physician's followup protocol for
Gerson Therapy patients. The following compendium of explanations and interpretations is provided to help
people feel less intimidated by unfamiliar terms, and to ac(uaint them with current knowledge.
4ither Goul!*s %e!ical /ictionary or Taber*s Cyclope!ic %e!ical /ictionary will prove an indispensable aid.
Also valuable will be the .ebster*s Dnabri!)e! 5nternational /ictionary /published by 7erriam 1o.0.
One of the first reali"ations the reader will have is that lab values shift fre(uently, rapidly, and for a wide variety
of reasons. 4ven large shifts which fall within or close to normal indicated limits should not be cause for alarm.
Eesults of a single set of chemistries or counts are never conclusive. Eemarkable results, those which fall far
outside of normal limits, warrant retesting and future monitoring.
The following laboratory test report is an example taken from the chart of a Gerson patient. :eadings below are
numberreferenced to this report. >lease note that no two laboratories use the same forms or necessarily group
tests in the same way. Although most labs are now using standardi"ed reporting systems, some labs will use
ranges of findings which differ from those below.
"% 5alciu), seru)
This test measures serum levels of calcium, a predominantly extracellular cation that helps regulate and promote
neuromuscular and en"yme activity, skeletal development, and blood coagulation. The body absorbs calcium
from the gastrointestinal tract, provided sufficient vitamin 5 is present, and excretes it in the urine and feces.
Over ,.C of the body's calcium can shift in and out of these structures. 2or example, when calcium
concentrations in the blood fall below normal, calcium ions can move out of the bones and teeth to help restore
blood levels.
>arathyroid hormone, vitamin 5, and to a lesser extent, calcitonin and adrenal steroids control calcium blood
levels. 1alcium and phosphorus are closely related, usually reacting together to form insoluble calcium
phosphate. To prevent formation of a precipitate in the blood, calcium levels vary inversely with phosphorusF as
serum calcium levels rise, phosphorus levels should decrease through renal excretion. *ince the body excretes
calcium daily, regular ingestion of calcium in food /at least + gJday0 is necessary for normal calcium balance.
Purpose
To aid diagnosis of neuromuscular, skeletal, and endocrine disordersF arrhythmiasF bloodclotting deficienciesF
and acidbase imbalance.
Ea$ues
9ormally, serum calcium levels range from .., to +%.+ mgJdl /atomic absorptionF $.$- to $.;- mmolJ30. )n
children, serum calcium levels are higher than in adults. 1alcium levels can rise as high as +$ mgJdl /A.%
mmolJ30 during phases of rapid bone growth.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
Abnormally high serum calcium levels /hypercalcemia0 may occur in hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid
tumors /caused by oversecretion of parathyroid hormone0, >aget's disease of the bone, multiple myeloma,
metastatic carcinoma, multiple fractures, or prolonged immobili"ation. 4levated serum calcium levels may also
result from inade(uate excretion of calcium, as in adrenal insufficiency and renal diseaseF from excessive
calcium ingestionF or from overuse of antacids such as calcium carbonate.
3ow calcium levels /hypocalcemia0 may result from hypoparathyroidism, total parathyroidectomy, or
malabsorption. 5ecreased serum levels of calcium may follow calcium loss in 1ushing's syndrome, renal fail
ure, acute pancreatitis, and peritonitis.
!$inica$ 3$ert" Observe the patient with hypercalcemia for deep bone pain, flank pain caused by renal calculi,
and muscle hypotonicity. :ypercalcemic crisis begins with nausea, vomiting, and dehydration, leading to stupor
and coma, and can end in cardiac arrest.
)n a patient with hypocalcemia, be alert for circumoral and peripheral numbness and tingling, muscle
twitching, 1hvostek's sign /facial muscle spasm0, tetany, muscle cramping. Trousseau's sign /carpopedal spasm0,
sei"ures, and arrhythmias.
2% Phosphates, seru)
This test measures serum levels of phosphates, the dominant cellular anions. >hosphates help store and utili"e
body energy, and help regulate calcium levels, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and acidbase balance. >hos
phates are essential to bone formationF about .-C of the body's phosphates are found in bone. The intestine
absorbs a considerable amount of phosphates from dietary sources, but ade(uate levels of vitamin 5 are
necessary for their absorption. The kidneys excrete phosphates and serve as a regulatory mechanism. ?ecause
calcium and phosphate interact in a reciprocal relationship, urinary excretion of phosphates increases or
decreases in inverse proportion to serum calcium levels. Abnormal concentrations of phosphates result more
often from improper excretion than from abnormal ingestion or absorption from dietary sources.
Purpose
H To aid diagnosis of renal disorders and acidbase imbalance.
H To detect endocrine, skeletal, and calcium disorders.
Ea$ues
9ormally, serum phosphate levels range from $.- to @.- mgJdl /%..% to +.@% mmolJ30 or from +.. to $.' m4(J
liter. 1hildren have higher serum phosphate levels than adults. >hosphate levels can rise as high as ; mgJdl /$.$-
mmolJ30 during periods of increased bone growth.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
?ecause serum phosphate values alone are of limited use diagnostically /only a few rare conditions directly
affect phosphate metabolism0, they should be interpreted in light of serum calcium results.
5epressed phosphate levels /hypophosphatemia0 may result from malnutrition, malabsorption syndromes,
hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, or treatment of diabetic acidosis. )n children, hypophosphatemia
can suppress normal growth.
4levated levels /hyperphosphatemia0 may result from skeletal disease, healing fractures, hypoparathyroidism,
acromegaly, diabetic acidosis, high intestinal obstruction, and renal failure. :yperphosphatemia is rarely clin
ically significantF however, if prolonged, it can alter bone metabolism by causing abnormal calcium phosphate
deposits.
#% 7odiu), seru)
This test measures serum levels of sodium, the ma!or extracellular cation. *odium affects body water
distribution, maintains osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid, and helps promote neuromuscular functionF it also
helps maintain acidbase balance and influences chloride and potassium levels. *odium is absorbed by the
intestines and is excreted primarily by the kidneysF a small amount is lost through the skin.
*ince extracellular sodium concentration helps the kidneys to regulate body water /decreased sodium levels
promote water excretion and increased levels promote retention0, serum levels of sodium are evaluated in rela
tion to the amount of water in the body. 2or example, a sodium deficit /hyponatremia0 refers to a decreased level
of sodium in relation to the body's water level. The body normally regulates this sodiumwater balance
through aldosterone, which inhibits sodium excretion and promotes its resorption /with water0 by the renal
tubules, to maintain balance. 3ow sodium levels stimulate aldosterone secretionF elevated sodium levels depress
aldosterone secretion.
%pecial ote: 5n the conte(t of the Gerson Therapy" both so!ium an! chlori!e le6els may occasionally fall
below normal limits for the )eneral population. .hen this occurs" fre@uent monitorin) of electrolytes an!
continuous clinical obser6ation are warrante!. 5n most cases" so!ium spillin) is self&limitin). Re!uction of
e!ema throu)h elimination of so!ium is the )oal of so!ium restriction an! potassium supplementation. The bo!y
mechanisms which are accelerate! by the Gerson Therapy in or!er to remo6e so!ium from !isease! tissue will
not normally cause a se6ere re!uction of serum so!ium which is essential for life. ote: .hen below normal
so!ium le6els occur" the Gerson physician shoul! be imme!iately consulte!.
Purpose
H To evaluate fluidelectrolyte and acidbase balance, and related neuromuscular, renal, and adrenal functions.
H To evaluate the effects of drug therapy /such as diuretics0 on serum sodium levels.
Ea$ues
9ormally serum sodium levels
range from +A- to +@- m4(Jliter
/mmolJ30.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
*odium imbalance can result from a loss or gain of sodium, or from a change in water volume. *erum sodium
results must be sodiumwater balance through aldosterone, which inhibits sodium excretion and promotes its
resorption /with water0 by the renal tubules, to maintain balance. 3ow sodium levels stimulate aldosterone
secretionF elevated sodium levels depress aldosterone secretion.
%pecial ote: 5n the conte(t of the Gerson Therapy" both so!ium an! chlori!e le6els may occasionally fall
below normal limits for the )eneral population. .hen this occurs" fre@uent monitorin) of electrolytes an!
continuous clinical obser6ation are warrante!. 5n most cases" so!ium spillin) is self&limitin). Re!uction of
e!ema throu)h elimination of so!ium is the )oal of so!ium restriction an! potassium supplementation. The bo!y
mechanisms which are accelerate! by the Gerson Therapy in or!er to remo6e so!ium from !isease! tissue will
not normally cause a se6ere re!uction of serum so!ium which is essential for life. ote: .hen below normal
so!ium le6els occur" the Gerson physician shoul! be imme!iately consulte!.
Purpose
H To evaluate fluidelectrolyte and acidbase balance, and related neuromuscular, renal, and adrenal functions.
H To evaluate the effects of drug therapy /such as diuretics0 on serum sodium levels.
Ea$ues
9ormally serum sodium levels
range from +A- to +@- m4(Jliter
/mmolJ30.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
*odium imbalance can result from a loss or gain of sodium, or from a change in water volume. *erum sodium
results must be cation. *mall amounts of potassium may also be found in extracellular fluid. 6ital to homeosta
sis, potassium maintains cellular osmotic e(uilibrium and helps regulate muscle activity /it's essential in
maintaining electrical conduction within the cardiac and skeletal muscles0. >otassium also helps regulate
en"yme activity and acidbase balance, and influences kidney function. >otassium levels are affected by
variations in the secretion of adrenal steroid hormones, and by fluctuations in p:, serum glucose levels, and
serum sodium levels. A reciprocal relationship appears to exist between potassium and sodiumF a substantial
intake of one element causes a corresponding decrease in the other. Although it readily conserves sodium, the
body has no efficient method for conserving potassium. 4ven in potassium depletion, the kidneys continue to
excrete potassiumF therefore, potassium deficiency can develop rapidly and is (uite common.
*ince the kidneys excrete nearly all the ingested potassium, a dietary intake of at least @% m4(Jday /mmolJd0 is
essential. /A normal diet usually includes '% to +%% m4( LmmolJdR potassium.0
Purpose
H To evaluate clinical signs of potassium excess /hyperkalemia0 or potassium depletion
/hypokalemia0.
H To monitor renal function, acidbase balance, and glucose metabolism.
H To evaluate neuromuscular and endocrine disorders.
H To detect the origin of arrhythmias.
Ea$ues
9ormally, serum potassium levels range from A.. to -.- m4(Jliter /mmolJ30.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
Abnormally high serum potassium levels /hyperkalemia0 are common in patients with bums, crushing in!uries,
diabetic ketoacidosis, and myocardial infarction conditions in which excessive cellular potassium enters the
blood. :yperkalemia may also indicate reduced sodium excretion, possibly because of renal failure /preventing
normal sodiumpotassium exchange0 or Addison's disease /caused by the absence of aldosterone, with con
se(uent potassium buildup and sodium depletion0. ote: Althou)h ele6ate! serum potassium is uncommon in
Gerson patients" if it !oes occur" supplemental potassium shoul! be !iscontinue! an! the Gerson physician
shoul! be imme!iately consulte!.
!$inica$ 3$ert" Observe a patient with hyperkalemia for weakness, malaise, nausea, diarrhea, colicky pain,
muscle irritability progressing to flaccid paralysis, oliguria, and bradycardia. 4lectrocardiogram /41G0 reveals a
prolonged >E intervalF wide ME*F tall, tented T waveF and *T depression.
?elownormal potassium values often result from aldosteronism or 1ushing's syndrome /marked by
hypersecretion of adrenal steroid hormones0, loss of body fluids /as in longterm diuretic therapy0, or excessive
licorice ingestion /because of the aldosteronelike effect of glycyrrhi"ic acid0. Although serum values and
clinical symptoms can indicate a potassium imbalance, an 41G provides the definitive diagnosis.
!$inica$ 3$ert (+." Observe a patient with hypokalemia for decreased reflexesF rapid, weak, irregular pulseF
mental confusionF hypotensionF anorexiaF muscle weaknessF and paresthesia. 41G shows a flattened T wave, *T
depression, and 8 wave elevation. )n severe cases, ventricular fibrillation, respiratory paralysis, and cardiac
arrest can develop.
Inter'erin9 'actors
4xcessive or rapid potassium infusion, spironolactone or penicillin G potassium therapy, or renal toxicity from
administration of amphotericin ?, methicillin, or tetracycline increases serum potassium levels.
)nsulin and glucose administration, diuretic therapy /especially with thia"ides, but not with triamterene,
amiloride, or spironolactone0, or ).6. infusions without potassium decrease serum potassium levels.
4xcessive hemolysis of the sample or delay in drawing blood following application of a tourni(uet increases
potassium levels.
5% 5hloride, seru)
This test, a (uantitative analysis, measures serum levels of chloride, the ma!or extracellular fluid anion.
)nteracting with sodium, chloride helps maintain the osmotic pressure of blood and therefore helps regulate
blood volume and arterial pressure. 1hloride levels also affect acidbase balance. *erum concentrations of this
electrolyte are regulated by aldosterone secondarily to regulation of sodium. 1hloride is absorbed from the
intestines and is excreted primarily by the kidneys.
Purpose
H To detect acidbase imbalance /acidosis and alkalosis0 and to aid evaluation of fluid status and extracellular
cationanion balance.
Ea$ues
9ormally serum chloride levels range from +%% to +%. m4(Jliter /mmolJ30.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
1hloride levels relate inversely to those of bicarbonate and thus reflect acidbase balance. 4xcessive loss of
gastric !uices or of other secretions containing chloride may cause
hypochloremic metabolic alkalosisF excessive chloride retention or ingestion may lead to hyperchloremic
metabolic acidosis.
4levated serum chloride levels /hypercloremia0 may result from severe dehydration, complete renal shutdown,
head in!ury /producing neurogenic hyperventilation0, and primary aldosteronism.
3ow chloride levels
/hypochloremia0 are usually associated with low sodium and potassium levels. >ossible underlying causes
include prolonged vomiting, gastric suctioning, intestinal fistula, chronic renal failure, and Addison's disease.
1ongestive heart failure, or edema resulting in excess extracellular fluid can cause dilutional hypochloremia.
9ote< )f below normal chloride levels occur, the Gerson physician should be immediately consulted.
!$inica$ 3$ert" Observe a patient with hypochloremia for hypertonicity of muscles, tetany, and depressed
respirations. )n a patient with hyperchloremia, be alert for signs of developing stupor, rapid deep breathing, and
weakness that may lead to coma.
6% 4actic dehydrogenase =4AG>
3actic dehydrogenase /35:0 is an en"yme that cataly"es the reversible conversion of muscle pyruvic acid into
lactic acid. ?ecause 35: is present in almost all body tissues, cellular damage causes an elevation of total
serum 35:, thus limiting the diagnostic usefulness of 35:. :owever, five tissue specific isoen"ymes can be
identified and measured, using heat inactivation or electrophoresis< two of these isoen"ymes, 35:/)0 and
35:/$0, appear primarily in the heart, red blood cells, and kidneysF 35:/A0, primarily in the lungsF and
35:/@0 and 35:/-0, in the liver and the skeletal muscles.
The specificity of 35: isoen"ymes and their distribution pattern is useful in diagnosing hepatic, pulmonary, and
erythrocytic damage. ?ut its widest clinical application /with other cardiac en"yme tests0 is in diagnosing acute
myocardial infarction /7)0. 35: isoen"yme assay is also useful when creatine phosphokinase /1>G0 hasn't
been measured within $@ hours of an acute 7). The myocardial 35: level rises later than 1>G /+$ to @. hours
after infarction begins0, peaks in $ to - days, and drops to normal in ; to +% days, if tissue necrosis doesn't
persist.
Purpose
H To aid differential diagnosis of 7), pulmonary infarction, anemias, and hepatic disease.
H To support 1>G isoen"yme test results in diagnosing 7), or to provide diagnosis when 1>G7? samples are
drawn too late to display elevation.
H To monitor patient response to some forms of chemotherapy.
Ea$ues
Total 4AG le(els nor)ally range fro) 4 to ""5 1,4% :or)al distri*ution is as follows -$DH-.) "7%5M to 2%#M of total
4AG=2>I #0%4M to #6%4M of total 4AG=#>I "9%2M to 24%M of total 4AG=4>I 9%6M to "5%6M of total 4AG=5>I 5%5M to " 2%7M of total
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
*ince many common diseases cause elevations in total 35: levels, isoen"ymeelectrophoresis is usually
necessary for diagnosis. )n some disorders, total 35: may be within normal limits, but abnormal proportions of
each en"yme indicate specific organ tissue damage. 2or instance, in acute 7), the concentration of 35:/)0 is
greater than 35:/$0 within +$ to @. hours after onset of symptoms. This reversal of normal isoen"yme patterns
is typical of myocardial damage and is referred to as flipped 35:.
7% 7G<T,&7T
/Aspartate transaminase, serum< glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase, serum
Aspartate aminotransferase /A*T0, is one of two en"ymes that cataly"e the transfer of the nitrogenous portion of
amino acid to an amino acid residue. A*T is found in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of many cells, primarily
in the liver, heart, skeletal muscles, kidneys, pancreas, and to a lesser extent, in red blood cells. )t is released into
serum in proportion to cellular damage.
Although a high correlation exists between myocardial infarction /7)0 and elevated A*T, this test is
sometimes considered superfluous for diagnosing 7) because of its relatively low organ specificityF it doesn't
enable differentiation between acute 7) and the effects of hepatic congestion due to heart failure.
Purpose
H To detect recent 7) /together with creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase0.
H To aid detection and differential diagnosis of acute hepatic disease.
H To monitor patient progress and prognosis in cardiac and hepatic diseases.
Ea$ues
A*T levels by a commonly used method range from . to $% 8J3. 9ormal values for infants are as high as four
times those of adults.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
A*T levels fluctuate in response to the extent of cellular necrosis and therefore may be transiently and
minimally elevated early in the disease process, and extremely elevated during the most acute phase. 5epending
on when the initial sample was drawn, A*T levels can rise indicating increasing disease severity and tissue
damage or fall indicating disease resolution and tissue repair. Thus, the relative change in A*T values serves
as a reliable monitoring mechanism.
7aximum elevations are associated with certain diseases and conditions. 2or example, very high elevations
/more than $% times normal0 may indicate acute viral hepatitis, severe skeletal muscle trauma, extensive surgery,
druginduced hepatic in!ury, and severe passive liver congestion.
Hi9h $e=e$s" /ranging from +% to $% times normal0 may indicate severe myocardial infarction, severe infectious
mononucleosis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. :igh levels may also occur during the prodromal or resolving stages of
conditions that cause maximal elevations.
Moderate5to5hi9h $e=e$s" /ranging from - to +% times normal0 may indicate 5uchennne muscular dystrophy,
dermatomyositis, and chronic hepatitis. 7oderatetohigh levels also occur during prodromal and resolving
stages of diseases that cause high elevations.
:o>5to5&oderate $e=e$s"
/ranging from $ to - times normal0 may indicate hemolytic anemia, metastatic hepatic tumors, acute
pancreatitis, pulmonary emboli, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and fatty liver. A*T levels rise slightly after the
first few days of biliary duct obstruction. Also, lowtomoderate elevations occur at some time during any of the
preceding conditions or diseases.
% 9iliru*in, seru)
This test measures serum levels of bilirubin, the predominant pigment in bile. ?ilirubin is the ma!or product of
hemoglobin catabolism. After being formed in the reticuloendothelial cells, bilirubin is bound to albumin and is
transported to the liver, where it is con!ugated with glucuronic acid to form bilirubin glucuronide and bilirubin
diglucuronide compounds that are then excreted in bile.
4ffective con!ugation and excretion of bilirubin depends on a properly functioning hepatobiliary system and a
normal red blood cell turnover rate. Therefore, measurement of uncon!ugated /indirect or prehepatic0 bilirubin,
and con!ugated /direct or posthepatic0 bilirubin can help evaluate hepatobiliary and erythropoietic functions.
*erum bilirubin measurements are especially significant in neonates because elevated uncon!ugated bilirubin
can accumulate in the brain /kernicterus0 and cause irreparable tissue damage.
4levated indirect serum bilirubin levels often indicate hepatic damage in which the parenchymal calls can no
longer con!ugate bilirubin with glucuronide. 1onse(uently, indirect bilirubin reenters the bloodstream. :igh
levels of indirect bilirubin are also likely in severe hemolytic anemia, when excessive indirect bilirubin
overwhelms the liver's con!ugating mechanism. )f hemolysis continues, both direct and indirect bilirubin may
rise.
Purpose
H To evaluate liver function.
H To aid differential diagnosis of !aundice and to monitor the progression of this disorder.
H To aid diagnosis of biliary obstruction and hemolytic anemia.
H To determine whether a neonate re(uires an exchange transfusion or phototherapy because of dangerously high
levels of uncon!ugated bilirubin.
Ea$ues
9ormally in an adult, indirect serum bilirubin measures ).) mgJdl or lessF direct serum bilirubin, less than %.-
mgJdl. Total serum bilirubin in neonates ranges from ) to +$ mgJdl.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
4levated serum levels of indirect bilirubin indicate hemolysis /for example in G'>5 deficiency, autoimmunity,
or transfusion reaction0F hemolytic or pernicious anemia or hemorrhageF hepatocellular dysfunction /possibly
resulting from viral hepatitis or congenital en$yme deficiencies, such as Gilbert's disease and 1rigler9a!!ar
syndrome0F or neonatal hepatic immaturity.
4levated levels of direct con!ugated bilirubin usually indicate biliary obstruction, in which direct bilirubin,
blocked from its normal pathway from the liver into the biliary tree, overflows into the bloodstream. ?iliary
obstruction may be intrahepatic /viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, chlorproma"ine reaction0, extrahepatic /gallstones,
gallbladder or pancreatic carcinoma0, or result from bile duct disease. )f biliary obstruction continues, both
direct and indirect bilirubin may be eventually elevated because of hepatic damage. )n severe chronic hepatic
damage, direct bilirubin concentrations may return to normal or nearnormal levels, but elevated indirect
bilirubin levels persist.
)n neonates, total bilirubin levels that reach or exceed $% mgJdl indicate the need for exchange transfusion.
9% Ga))a-gluta)yl transpeptidase =GGT>, seru)
Gammaglutamyl transpeptidase /GGT0 is most commonly elevated in hepatobiliary disease. This en"yme is
very sensitive to drug induction and, therefore, is often used to detect recent alcohol ingestion, which is
important in determining compliance with treatment of alcoholism. GGT is more sensitive than alkaline
phosphatase in predicting cholestatic processes and neoplastic liver disease. :owever, its sensitivity to induction
by drugs is problematic in regard to specificity.
Purpose
H To aid diagnosis of obstructive !aundice in neoplastic liver disease and detection of recent alcohol
consumption.
H #hen used with alkaline phosphatase, to suggest the source of elevated alkaline phosphatase levels.
Ea$ues
The normal range for GGT varies considerably with age in males but is not affected in females. The normal
range in males between ages +. to -% is +% to A, 8J3. )n older males, it ranges from +% to @. 8J3. The normal
range in females is ' to $, 8J3. 8sually, elevated GGT levels signal a cholestatic liver process. Alternatively,
elevated GGT levels occur within $@ hours of significant alcohol ingestion. #hen both alkaline phosphatase and
GGT levels are elevated, the source of the alkaline phosphatase is most likely the liver. 9ote< GGT fre(uently
rises above normal levels in response to the immunestimulating effect of the Gerson Therapy.
&cid phosphatase
(not $isted on exa&p$e abo=e.
Acid phosphatase, a group of phosphatase en"ymes most active at a p: of about -.%, appears primarily in the
prostate gland and semen, and to a lesser extent, in the liver, spleen, red blood cells, bone marrow, and platelets.
>rostatic and erythrocytic en"ymes are this group's two ma!or isoen"ymesF the prostatic isoen"yme is more specific for
prostatic cancer. The more widespread the tumor, the more likely it is to produce high serum acid phosphatase levels. The
acid phosphatase assay is usually restricted to adult males to detect prostatic cancer.
This test measures total acid phosphatase and the prostatic fraction in serum by radioimmunoassay or biochemical en"yme
assay.
Purpose
To detect prostatic cancer and to monitor response to therapy for prostatic cancerF successful treatment decreases acid
phosphatase levels.
Ea$ues
*erum values for total acid phosphatase range from % to +.+ ?odansky unitsJmlF + to @ Ging Armstrong unitsJmlF %.+A to %.'A
?essey3owery?rock /?3?0
unitsJmlF and % to ' 8J3 in *) units, common to all these methods. 9ormal range of radioimmunoassay results is % to @.%
ngJml.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
Generally, high prostatic acid phosphatase levels indicate a tumor that has spread beyond the prostatic capsule. )f the tumor
has metastasi"ed to bone, high acid phosphatase levels are accompanied by high alkaline phosphatase levels, reflecting
increased osteoblastic activity.
7isleading results may occur if alkaline phosphatase levels are high, because acid and alkaline phosphatase en"ymes are
very similar and differ mainly in the optimum p: ranges. *ome alkaline phosphatase may react at a lower p:
and thus be detected as acid phosphatase. Acid phosphatase levels rise moderately in prostatic infarction, >aget's
disease /some patients0, Gaucher's disease, and occasionally, in other conditions, such as multiple myeloma.
"0% 7GPT,&4T
(3$anine transa&inase, seru&F 9$uta&ic5pyru=ic transa&inase, seru&.
Alanine aminotransferase /A3T0, one of the two en"ymes that cataly"es a reversible amino group transfer
reaction in the Grebs cycle /citric acid or tricarboxylic acid cycle0, is necessary for tissue energy production.
8nlike aspartate aminotransferase, the other aminotransferase, A3T primarily appears in hepatocellular cyto
plasm, with lesser amounts in the kidneys, heart, and skeletal muscles, and is a relatively specific indicator of
acute hepatocellular damage. #hen such damage occurs, A3T is released from the cytoplasm into the
bloodstream, often before !aundice appears, resulting in abnormally high serum levels that may not return to
normal for days or weeks. This test measures serum A3T levels, using the spectrophotometric or the
colorimetric method.
Purpose
H To help detect and evaluate treatment of acute hepatic disease especially hepatitis, and cirrhosis without
!aundice.
H To help distinguish between myocardial and hepatic tissue damage /used with aspartate aminotransferase
LA*TR0.
H To assess hepatotoxicity of some drugs.
Ea$ues
A3T levels by a commonly used method range from +% to A$ 8J3F in women, from , to $@ 8J3. The normal
range for infants is twice that of adults.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
Eery hi9h 3:T $e=e$s" /up to -%
times normal0 suggest viral or severe druginduced hepatitis, or other hepatic disease with extensive necrosis.
/A*T levels are also elevated but usually to a lesser degree.0
Moderate5to5hi9h $e=e$s" may indicate infectious mononucleosis, chronic hepatitis, intrahepatic cholestasis or
cholecystitis, early or improving acute viral hepatitis, or severe hepatic congestion due to heart failure.
S$i9ht5to5&oderate e$e=ations o' 3:T" /usually with higher increases in A*T levels0 may appear in any
condition that produces acute hepatocellular in!ury such as active cirrhosis, and drug induced or alcoholic
hepatitis.
Mar9ina$ e$e=ations" occasionally occur in acute myocardial infarction, reflecting secondary hepatic
congestion or the release of small amounts of A3T from myocardial tissue.
Inter'erin9 'actors
Opiate analgesics /morphine, codeine, meperidine0 may falsely elevate A3T levels by increasing intrabiliary
pressure.
""% &l+aline phosphatase
This test measures serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, an en"yme that is most active at about p: ,.%.
Alkaline phosphatase influences bone calcification and lipid and metabolite transport. Total serum levels reflect
the combined activity of several alkaline phosphatase isoen"ymes found in the liver, bones, kidneys, intestinal
lining, and placenta. ?one and liver alkaline phosphatase are always present in adult serum, with liver alkaline
phosphatase most prominent except during the third trimester of pregnancy /when the placenta originates about
half of all alkaline phosphatase0. The intestinal variant of this en"yme can be a normal component /in less than
+%C of normal patientsF a genetically controlled characteristic found almost exclusively in the sera of blood
groups ? and %0F or it can be an abnormal finding associated with hepatic disease.
The alkaline phosphatase test is particularly sensitive to mild biliary obstruction and is a primary indicator of
spaceoccupying hepatic lesionsF additional liver function studies are usually re(uired to identify hepatobiliary
disorders. )ts most specific clinical application is in the diagnosis of metabolic bone disease.
Purpose
H To detect and identify skeletal diseases, primarily characteri"ed by marked osteoblastic activity.
H To detect local hepatic lesions causing biliary obstruction, such as tumor or abscess.
H To supplement information from other liver function studies and Gl en"yme tests.
H To assess response to vitamin 5 in the treatment of deficiencyinduced rickets.
Ea$ues
The normal range of serum alkaline phosphatase varies with the laboratory method used. Total alkaline
phosphatase levels range from A% to +$% 8J3 in adultsF @% to $%% 8J3 in children. *ince alkaline phosphatase
concentrations rise during active bone formation and growth, infants, chi$dren, and adolescents normally have
high levels that may be three times as high as those of adults. >regnancy also causes a physiologic rise in
alkaline phosphatase levels.
9ormal range is from +.- to @ ?odansky unitsJdlF for the GingArmstrong method, normal adult values range
from @ to +A.- GingArmstrong unitsJdlF %.. to $.- ?essey3owry unitsJdlF and A% to ++% 8J3 by *7A +$'%.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
*ignificant alkaline phosphatase elevations are most likely to indicate skeletal disease, or extra or intrahepatic
biliary obstruction causing cholestasis. 7any acute hepatic diseases cause alkaline phosphatase elevations
before any change in serum bilirubin levels. 7oderate rise in alkaline phosphatase levels may reflect acute
biliary obstruction 'ro& hepatocellular inflammation in active cirrhosis, mononucleosis, and viral hepatitis.
7oderate increases are also seen in osteomalacia and deficiencyinduced rickets.
*harp elevations of alkaline phosphatase levels may result from complete biliary obstruction by malignant or
infectious infiltrations or fibrosis. *uch markedly high levels are most common in >aget's disease and,
occasionally, in biliary obstruction, extensive bone metastases, or hyperparathyroidism.
7etastatic bone tumors resulting from pancreatic cancer raise alkaline phosphatase levels without a concomitant
rise in A*T levels.
)soen"yme fractionation and additional en"yme tests serum gamma glutamyl transferase, acid phosphatase, -'
nucleotidase, and leucine aminopeptidase are sometimes performed when the cause of alkaline phosphatase
elevations /skeletal or hepatic disease0 is in doubt. Earely, low serum alkaline phosphatase levels are associated
with hypophosphatasia and protein or magnesium deficiency.
"2=a>% 5holesterol, total
This test, the (uantitative analysis of serum cholesterol, measures the circulating levels of free cholesterol and
cholesterol estersF it reflects the level of the two forms in which this biochemical compound appears in the body.
1holesterol, a structural component in cell membranes and plasma lipoproteins, is both absorbed from the diet
and synthesi"ed in the liver and other body tissues. )t contributes to the formation of adrenocorticoid steroids,
bile salts, and androgens and estrogens.
A diet high in saturated fat raises cholesterol levels by stimulating absorption of lipids, including cholesterol,
from the intestineF a diet low in saturated fat lowers them. 4levated total serum cholesterol levels are associated
with an increased risk ofatherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary artery disease /1A50.
Purpose
H To assess the risk of 1A5.
H To evaluate fat metabolism.
H To aid diagnosis of nephritic syndrome, pancreatitis, hepatic disease, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism.
Ea$ues
Total cholesterol concentrations vary with age and sex, and commonly range from +-% to $%% mgJdl.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
The desirable blood cholesterol level is below $%% mgJdl. cholesterol levels of $%% to $@% mgJdl are considered
borderline or at high risk for 1A5, depending on other concurrent risk factors. 1holesterol levels that exceed
$-% mgJdl indicate high risk of cardiovascular disease and re(uire treatment.
4levated serum cholesterol /hypercholesterolemia0 may indicate incipient hepatitis, lipid disorders, bile duct
blockage, nephrotic syndrome, obstructive !aundice, pancreatitis, and hypothyroidism.
:ypercholesterolemia caused by high dietary intake re(uires modification of eating habits and, possibly,
medication to retard absorption of cholesterol.
3ow serum cholesterol /hypocholesterolemia0 is commonly associated with malnutrition, cellular necrosis of the
liver, and hyperthyroidism. Abnormal cholesterol levels fre(uently necessitate further testing to pinpoint the
disorder, depending on the type of abnormality and the presence of overt signs. Abnormal levels associated with
cardiovascular diseases, for example, may necessitate lipoprotein phenotyping. ote: Cholesterol le6els often
!rop below normal le6els in Gerson Therapy patients !ue to the e(tremely low fat nature of the !iet" such results
are not clinically si)nificant in this conte(t.
Inter'erin9 'actors
1holesterol levels are lowered by cholestyramine, clofibrate,
colestipol, cholchicine, dextrothyroxine, estrogen, dilantin, glucagon, heparin, kanamycin, haloperidol,
neomycin, niacin, nitrates, paraaminosalicylic acid, and chlortetracycline. 3evels are raised by
adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosteroids, androgens, bile salts, epinephrine, chlorproma"ine,
trifluopera"ine, oral contraceptives, salicylates, thiouracils, and trimethadione. Androgens may have
a variable effect on cholesterol levels. 2ailure to follow dietary restrictions may interfere with test results.
"2=*>% 4ipoprotein-choles-terol fractionation
1holesterol fractionation tests isolate and measure the cholesterol in serum lowdensity lipoproteins /3530 and
highdensity lipoproteins /:530 by ultracentrifugation or electrophoresis. The cholesterol in 353 and :53
fractions is significant, since the 2ramingham :eart *tudy has shown that cholesterol in :53 is inversely
related to the incidence of coronary artery disease /1A50 the higher the :53 level, the lower the incidence of
1A5F conversely, the higher the 353 level, the higher the incidence of 1A5.
ote: A minimal amount of fat is essential in the !iet an! is inclu!e! in the Gerson Therapy to pro6i!e an
a!e@uate supply of certain polyunsaturate! fatty aci!s #the essential fatty aci!s; an! of fat&soluble 6itamins
which cannot be synthesi>e! in a!e@uate amounts for optimal bo!y function. As well as actin) as a carrier of
these essential compoun!s" !ietary fat is necessary for their efficient absorption from the )astrointestinal tract.
Purpose
H To assess the risk of 1A5.
Ea$ues
*ince normal cholesterol values vary according to age, sex, geographic region, and ethnic group, check the
laboratory for normal values. An alternate method /measuring cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and separating
out :53 by selective precipitation and using these values to calculate 3530 provides normal :53cholesterol
levels that range from $, to ;; mgJ+%% ml and normal 353cholesterol levels that range from '$ to +.- mgJ+%%
ml.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
:igh 353 levels increase the risk of 1A5. 4levated :53 levels generally reflect a healthy state but can also
indicate chronic hepatitis, earlystage primary biliary cirrhosis, or alcohol consumption. Earely, a sharp rise /to
as high as +%% mgJdl0 in a second type of :53 Lalpha/$0:53R may signal 1A5. Although cholesterol frac
tionation provides valuable information about the risk of heart disease, other sources of such risk diabetes
mellitus, hypertension, cigarette smoking are at least as important.
"#% Triglycerides, seru)
This test provides (uantitative analysis of triglycerides the main storage form of lipids which constitute about
,-C of fatty tissue. Although not in itself diagnostic, serum triglyceride analysis permits early identification
of hyperlipemia /characteristic in nephrotic syndrome and other conditions0 and the risk of coronary artery
disease /1A50.
Triglycerides consist of one molecule of glycerol bonded to three molecules of fatty acids /usually some
combination of stearic, oleic, and palmitic0. Thus, the degradation of triglycerides is associated with several
lipid aggregates, primarily chylomicrons, whose ma!or function is transport of dietary triglycerides. #hen
present in serum, chylomicrons produce a cloudiness that interferes with many laboratory tests.
Purpose
H To determine the risk of 1A5.
H To screen for hyperlipemia.
H To identify disorders associated with altered triglyceride levels.
Ea$ues
Triglyceride values are agerelated. *ome controversy exists over the most appropriate normal ranges, but the
following are fairly widely accepted<
39e Tri9$ycerides
)g,dl ))ol,4
0-29 "0-"40 0%"-"%55
#0-#9 "0-"50 0%"-"%65
40-49 "0-"60 0%"-"%75
50-59 "0-"90 0%"-2%"0
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
)ncreased or decreased serum triglyceride levels merely suggest a clinical abnormality, and additional tests are
re(uired for definitive diagnosis. 2or example, measurement of cholesterol may also be necessary, since
cholesterol and triglycerides vary independently.
Hi9h $e=e$s" of triglyceride and cholesterol reflect an exaggerated risk ofatherosclerosis or 1A5.
Mi$d5to5&oderate" increase in serum triglyceride levels indicates biliary obstruction, diabetes, nephrotic
syndrome, endocrinopathies, or excessive consumption of alcohol. 7arkedly increased levels without an iden
tifiable cause reflect congenital hyperlipoproteinemia and necessitate lipoprotein phenotyping to confirm
diagnosis. ote: 5ncrease! le6els are sometimes seen in flare ups an! reactions on Gerson Therapy an! are of
no ne)ati6e clinical si)nificance.
5ecreased serum levels are rare, occurring primarily in malnutrition or abetalipoproteinemia. )n the latter, serum
is virtually devoid of betalipoproteins and triglycerides, because the body lacks the capacity to transport
preformed triglycerides from the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa or from the liver.
"4,"5,"6,"7% Protein electrophoresis, seru)
This test measures serum albumin and globulins, the ma!or blood proteins, in an electric field by separating the
proteins according to their si"e, shape, and electric charge at p: ..'. ?ecause each protein fraction moves at a
different rate, this movement separates the fractions into recogni"able and measurable patterns.
Albumin, which comprises more than -%C of total serum protein, maintains oncotic pressure /preventing
leakage of capillary plasma0, and transports substances that are insoluble in water alone, such as bilirubin, fatty
acids, hormones, and drugs. 2our types of globulins exist alpha/l0, alpha/$0, beta, and gamma. The first
three types act primarily as carrier proteins that transport lipids, hormones, and metals through the blood. The
fourth type, gamma globulin, is an important component in the body's immune system.
4lectrophoresis is the most current method for measuring serum proteins. :owever, determinations of total
protein and albuminglobulin /AG0 ratio are still commonly performed. #hen the relative percent of each com
ponent protein fraction is multiplied by the total protein concentration, the proportions can be converted into
absolute values. Eegardless of test method, however, a single protein fraction is rarely significant by itself. The
usual clinical indication for this test is suspected hepatic disease or protein deficiency.
Purpose
H To aid diagnosis of hepatic disease, protein deficiency, blood dyscrasias, renal disorders, and gastrointestinal
and neoplastic diseases.
Ea$ues 5
4or&a$ $e=e$s ran9e as 'o$$o>s"
Total seru) protein 6%6-7%9 g,dl
&l*u)in fraction #%#-4%5 g,dl
&lpha=l>-glo*ulin 0%"-0%4 g,dl
fraction
&lpha=2>-glo*ulin 0%5-"%0 g,dl
9eta glo*ulin 0%7-"%2 g,dl
Ga))aglo*ulin 0%5-"%6 g,dl
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
The AG ratio, the balance between total albumin and total globulin, is usually evaluated in relation to the total
protein level. A low total protein and a reversed AG ratio /decreased albumin and elevated globulins0 suggest
chronic liver disease. A normal total protein with a reversed AG ratio suggests myeloproliferative disease
/leukemia, :odgkin's disease0 or certain chronic infectious diseases /tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis0.
"% 9lood urea nitrogen =91:>
This test measures the nitrogen fraction of urea, the chief end product of protein metabolism. 2ormed in the liver
from ammonia and excreted by the kidneys, urea constitutes @%C to -%C of the blood's nonprotein nitrogen.
The blood urea nitrogen /?890 level reflects protein intake and renal excretory capacity, but is a less reliable
indicator of uremia than the serum creatinine level. >hotometry is a commonly used test method.
Purpose
To evaluate renal function and aid diagnosis of renal disease and to aid assessment of hydration.
Ea$ues
?89 values normally range from . to $% mgJdl.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
4levated ?89 levels occur in renal disease, reduced renal blood flow /caused by dehydration, for example0,
urinary tract obstruction, and in increased protein catabolism /as in burns0.
5epressed ?89 levels occur in severe hepatic damage, malnutrition, and overhydration.
4ote" 5ue to initial decreased dietary protein intake, the Gerson patient's normal value is slightly under that
considered normal for the average person.
"9% 5reatinine, seru)
A (uantitative analysis of serum creatinine levels, this test provides a more sensitive measure of renal damage
than blood urea nitrogen levels, because renal impairment is virtually the only cause of creatinine elevation.
1reatinine is a nonprotein end product of creatine metabolism. *imilar to creatine, creatinine appears in serum
in amounts proportional to the body's muscle massF unlike creatine, it is easily excreted by the kidneys, with
minimal or no tubular reabsorption. 1reatinine levels, therefore, are directly related to the glomerular filtration
rate. *ince creatinine levels normally remain constant, elevated levels usually indicate diminished renal func
tion. 5etermination of serum creatinine is commonly based on the Iaffe reaction.
Purpose
H To assess renal glomerular filtration and to screen for renal damage.
Ea$ues
1reatinine concentrations in males normally range from %.. to +.$ mgJdlF in females from %.' to %., mgJdl.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
4levated serum creatinine levels generally indicate renal disease that has seriously damaged -%C or more of the
nephrons. 4levated creatinine levels may also be associated with gigantism and acromegaly.
Inter'erin9 'actors
H Ascorbic acid /6it. 10, barbiturates, and diuretics may raise serum creatinine levels.
H *ulfobromophthalein or phenolsulfonphthalein given within the previous $@ hours can elevate creatinine
levels if the test is based on the Iaffe reaction.
H >atients with exceptionally large muscle masses, such as athletes, may have above average creatinine levels,
even in the presence of normal renal function.
20% 1ric &cid, seru)
8sed primarily to detect gout, this test measures serum levels of uric acid, the ma!or end metabolite of purine.
3arge amounts of purines are present in nucleic acids and derive from dietary and endogenous sources. 8ric
acid clears the body by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. :owever, uric acid is not very soluble at a p:
of ;.@ or lower. 5isorders of purine metabolism, rapid destruction of nucleic acids /such as gout0, excessive
cellular generation and destruction /such as leukemia0, and conditions marked by impaired renal excretion /such
as renal failure0 characteristically raise serum uric acid levels.
Purpose
To confirm diagnosis of gout and to help detect kidney dysfunction.
Ea$ues
8ric acid concentrations in men normally range from @.A to .mgJdlF in women, from $.A to ' mgJdl.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
)ncreased serum uric acid levels may indicate gout, although levels don't correlate with severity of disease or
impaired renal function. 3evels may also rise in congestive heart failure, glycogen storage disease /type ),
von Gierke's disease0, acute infectious diseases /such as infectious mononucleosis0, hemolytic or sickle cell
anemia, hemoglobinopathies, polycythemia, leukemia, lymphoma, metastatic malignancy, and psoriasis.
5epressed uric acid levels may indicate defective tubular absorption /as in 2anconi's syndrome and #ilson's
disease0 or acute hepatic atrophy.
Inter'erin9 'actors
H 3oop diuretics, ethambutol, vincristine, pyra"inamide, thia"ides, and low doses of salicylates may raise uric
acid levels. #hen uric acid is measured by the colorimetric method, false elevations may be caused by aceta
minophen, ascorbic acid, levodopa, and phenacetin.
H *tarvation, a highpurine diet, stress and alcohol abuse may raise uric acid levels.
H Aspirin in high doses, coumarin, clofibrate, cinchophen, adrenocorticotopic hormone, and phenothia"ines may
decrease uric acid levels.
2"% Glucose, fasting *lood sugar =897>
1ommonly used to screen for disorders of glucose metabolism, mainly diabetes mellitus, the fasting plasma
glucose test measures plasma glucose levels following a +$to +@hour fast.
)n the fasting state, blood glucose levels decrease, stimulating release of the hormone glucagon. Glucagon then
acts to raise plasma glucose by accelerating glycogenolysis, stimulating glyconeogenesis, and inhibiting glyco
gen synthesis. 9ormally, secretion of insulin checks this rise in glucose levels. )n diabetes, however, absence or
deficiency of insulin allows persistently high glucose levels.
Purpose
H To screen for diabetes mellitus and other disorders of glucose metabolism.
H To monitor drug or dietary therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus.
H To aid determination of insulin re(uirements in patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and in those who
re(uire parenteral or enteral nutritional support.
H To aid evaluation of patients with known or suspected hypoglycemia.
Ea$ues
9ormal range for fasting blood glucose varies according to the laboratory procedure. Generally, normal values
after an . to +$ hour fast are as follows< fasting serum, ;%+%% mgJdlF fasting whole blood, '% to +%% mgJdlF
nonfasting, .- to +$- mgJdl in persons over age -%, and ;% to ++- mgJdl in persons under age -%.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
2asting blood glucose levels of +@% to +-% mgJdl or higher, obtained on two or more occasions may be
considered diagnostic of diabetes mellitus if other possible causes of hyperglycemia have been ruled out.
9onfasting levels that exceed $%% mgJdl also suggest diabetes. Although increased fasting blood glucose levels
most commonly indicate diabetes, such levels can also result from pancreatitis, hyperthyroidism, and
pheochromocytoma. :yperglycemia may also stem from chronic hepatic disease, brain trauma, chronic ill
ness, or chronic malnutrition, and is typical in eclampsia, anoxia, and convulsive disorders. 5epressed glucose
levels can result from hyperinsulinism /overdose of insulin is the most common cause0, insulinoma, von
Gierke's disease, functional or reactive hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, congenital adrenal
hyperplasia, hypopituitarism, islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, hepatic necrosis, and glycogen storage
disease.
22% $ron, seru), and total iron-*inding capacity
)ron is essential to the formation and function of hemoglobin, as well as many other heme and nonheme
compounds. After iron is absorbed by the intestine, it's distributed to various body compartments for synthesis,
storage, and transport. *ince iron appears in the plasma, bound to a glycoprotein called transferrin, it is easily
sampled and measured. The sample is treated with buffer and color reagents.
*erum iron assay measures the amount of iron bound to transferrinF total ironbinding capacity /T)?10 measures
the amount of iron that would appear in plasma if all the transferrin were saturated with iron. The percentage of
saturation is obtained by dividing the serum iron result by the T)?1, which reveals the actual amount of
saturated transferrin. 9ormally, transferrin is about A%C saturated.
*erum iron and T)?1 are of greater diagnostic usefulness when performed with the serum ferritin assayF
together these tests may not accurately reflect the state of other iron compartments, such as myoglobin iron
and the labile iron pool. ?one marrow or liver biopsy, and iron absorption or excretion studies may yield more
information.
Purpose
H To estimate total iron storage.
H To aid diagnosis of hemochromatosis.
H To help distinguish between iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic disease.
H To aid evaluation of nutritional status.
Ea$ues"
or*al seru* iron an& T(5C
-alues are as follo!s:
7eru) iron T$95 7aturation
)cg,dl )cg,dl 0enI
70-"50 #00-400 20M - 50M
6o)enI 0-"50 #50-450 20M - 50M
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
)n iron deficiency, serum iron levels drop and T)?1 increases to decrease the saturation. )n cases of chronic
inflammation /such as in rheumatoid arthritis0, serum iron may be low in the presence of ade(uate body stores,
but T)?1 may be unchanged or may drop to preserve normal saturation. )ron overload may not alter serum lev
els until relatively late, but in general, serum iron increases and T)?1 remains the same to increase the
saturation.
2#% @rythrocyte count ='ed *lood cell count>
This test reports the number of red blood cells /E?1s0 found in a microliter /cubic millimeter0 of whole blood,
and is included in the complete blood count.Traditionally counted by hand with a hemacytometer, E?1s
are now commonly counted with electronic devices, which provide faster, more accurate results. The E?1 count
itself provides no (ualitative information regarding the si"e, shape, or concentration of hemoglobin within the
corpuscles but may be used to calculate two erythrocyte indices< mean corpuscular volume /7160 and mean
corpuscular hemoglobin /71:0.
Purpose
To supply figures for computing the erythrocyte indices, which reveal E?1 si"e and hemoglobin content.
To support other hematologic tests in diagnosis of anemia and polycythemia.
Ea$ues
9ormal E?1 values vary, depending on age, sex, sample, and geographic location. )n adult males, red cell
counts range from @.- to '.$ millionJmicroliter /@.- to '.$ x +%+$J30 of venous bloodF in adult females, @.$ to -.@
millionJmicroliter /@.$ to -.@ x +%+$J30 of venous bloodF in children, @.' to @.. millionJmicroliter of venous
blood. )n fullterm infants, values range from @.@ to -.. millionJmicroliter /@.@ to -.. x +%+$J30 of capillary
blood at birthF fall to A to A.. millionJmicroliter /A.% to A.. x +%+$J30 at age $ monthsF and increase slowly
thereafter. 6alues are generally higher in persons living at high altitudes.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
An elevated E?1 count may indicate primary or secondary polycythemia, or dehydrationF a depressed count
may indicate anemia, fluid overload, or recent
hemorrhage. 2urther tests, such as stained cell indices, and white cell studies, are needed to confirm diagnosis.
ote: 5f total be!rest has been or!ere!" R4C counts may commonly !rop consi!erably !ue to !ecrease! o(y)en
re@uirements.
24% Ge)oglo*in =Gg*>, total
This test, usually performed as part of a complete blood count, measures the grams of hemoglobin found in a
deciliter /lOOrnl0 of whole blood. :emoglobin concentration correlates closely with the red blood cell /E?10
count, and is affected by the hemoglobinE?1 ratio /mean corpuscular hemoglobin L71:R0 and free plasma
hemoglobin. )n the laboratory, hemoglobin is chemically converted to pigmented compounds and is measured
by spectrophotometric or colorimetric techni(ue.
Purpose
H To measure the severity of anemia or polycythemia and monitor response to therapy.
H To supply figures for calculating 71: and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.
Ea$ues
:emoglobin concentration varies, depending on the patient's age and sex, and on the type of blood sample
drawn. 4xcept for infants, values for age groups listed in 9ormal hemoglobin levels are based on venous blood
samples.
4or&a$ he&o9$obin $e=e$s
&ge Ge)oglo*in le(el
4ess than 7 days " 7 to 22 g,dl
" wee+ "5 to 20 g,dl
" )onth "" to "5 g,dl
5hildren "" to " # g,dl
&dult )ales "4 to " g,dl
@lderly )ales " 2%4 to "4%9 g,dl
&dult fe)ales "2 to "6 g,dl
@lderly fe)ales ""%7 to " #% g,dl
25% Ge)atocrit =Gct>
:ematocrit /:ct0 measures the percentage by volume of packed red blood cells /E?1s0 in a whole blood
sampleF for example, an :ct of @%C /%.@%0 means that a +%%ml sample contains @% ml of packed E?1s. This
packing is achieved by cetrifugation of anticoagulated whole blood in a capillary tube, so that red cells are
tightly packed without hemolysis. :ct depends mainly on the number of E?1s, but is also influenced by the
average si"e of the E?1. 2or example, conditions such as elevated concentrations of blood glucose and sodium,
which cause swelling of erythrocytes may produce elevated hematocrits.
Test results may be used to calculate two erythrocyte indices< mean corpuscular volume /7160 and mean
corpuscular hemoglobin concentration /71:10.
Purpose
H To aid diagnosis of abnormal states of hydration, polycythemia, and anemia.
H To aid in calculating red cell indices.
H To monitor fluid imbalance.
H To monitor blood loss and evaluate blood replacement.
H To conduct routine screening as part of the complete blood count.
Ea$ues
:ct values vary, depending on the patient's sex and age, type of sample, and the laboratory per forming the test.
Eeference values range from @%C to -@C /%.@% to %.-@0 for men, and A;C to @;C /%.A; to %.@;0 for women.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
3ow :ct may indicate anemia or hemodilutionF high :ct suggests polycythemia or hemoconcentration caused
by blood loss. ote: 'ost&test care. 5f a hematoma !e6elops at the 6enipuncture sites" applyin) ice" followe!
later by warm soaks" eases !iscomfort.
26, 27, 2% @rythrocyte indices 'ed cell indices
8sing the results of the red blood cell /E?10 count, hematocrit, and total hemoglobin tests, the red cell indices
provide important information about the si"e, hemoglobin concentration, and hemoglobin weight of an average
red cell. The indices include mean corpuscular volume /7160, mean corpuscular hemoglobin /71:0, and
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration /71:10.
716, the ratio of hematocrit /packed cell volume0 to the E?1 count, expresses the average si"e of the
erythrocytes and indicates whether they are undersi"ed /microcytic0, oversi"ed /macrocytic0, or normal
/normocytic0. 71:, the hemoglobinE?1 ratio, gives the weight of hemoglobin in an average red cell. 71:1,
the ratio of hemoglobin weight to hematocrit, defines the concentration of hemoglobin in +%% ml of packed red
cells. )t helps distinguish normally colored /normochromic0 red cells from paler /hypochromic0 red cells.
Purpose
H To aid diagnosis and classification of anemia.
Ea$ues
The range of normal red cell indices is as follows<
052I
4 to 99 )icroliters
#
,red cell=f4,red cell>
05GI
26 to #2 pg,red cell
05G5I
#0M to #6M =#00 to #60 g,4>
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
The red cell indices aid in classification of anemias. 3ow 716 and 71:1 indicate microcytic, hypochromic
anemias caused by iron deficiency anemia, pyridoxineresponsive anemia, and thalassemia. A high 716
suggests macrocytic anemias caused by megaloblastic anemias, caused by folic acid or vitamin ?+$ deficiency,
inherited disorders of 59A synthesis, and reticulocytosis. ?ecause 716 reflects average volume of many cells,
a value within normal range can encompass E?1s of varying si"e, from microcytic to macrocytic.
@rythrocyte sedi)entation rate =@7'> 7ed rate
(4ot $isted on exa&p$e abo=e.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate /4*E0 measures the time re(uired for erythrocytes in a whole blood sample
to settle to the bottom of a vertical tube. As the red cells descend in the tube, they displace an e(ual volume of
plasma upward, which retards the downward progress of other settling blood elements. 2actors affecting 4*E
include red cell volume, surface area, density, aggregation, and surface charge. >lasma proteins /notably
fibrinogen and globulin0 encourage aggregation, increasing 4*E.
The 4*E is a sensitive but nonspecific test that is fre(uently the earliest indicator of disease when other
chemical or physical signs are normal. )t often rises significantly in widespread inflammatory disorders caused
by infection or autoimmune mechanismsF such elevations may be prolonged in locali"ed inflammation and
malignancy. ote: 8+R is also fre@uently raise! !urin) an! after reactions an! fe6ers in!uce! by the Gerson
Therapy.
Purpose
H To monitor inflammatory or malignant disease.
H To aid detection and diagnosis of occult disease, such as tuberculosis, tissue necrosis, or connective tissue
disease.
Ea$ues
9ormal sedimentation rates range from % to $% mmJhourF rates gradually increase with age. )mplications of
results The 4*E rises in pregnancy, acute or chronic inflammation, tuberculosis, paraproteinemias /especially
multiple myeloma and #aldenstrom's macroglobulinemia0, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, and some
malignancies. Anemia also tends to raise 4*E, since less upward displacement of plasma occurs to retard the
relatively few sedimenting E?1s. >olycythemia, sickle cell anemia, hyperviscosity, or low plasma protein level
tends to depress 4*E.
29% Platelet count
>latelets, or thrombocytes, are the smallest formed elements in the blood. They are vital to the formation of the
hemostatic plug in vascular in!ury, and promote coagulation by supplying phospholipids to the intrinsic
thromboplastin pathway. >latelet count is one of the most important screening tests of platelet function. Accurate
counts are vital for monitoring chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or severe thrombocytosis and
thrombocytopenia. A platelet count that falls below -%,%%% can cause spontaneous bleedingF when it drops
below -,%%%, fatal central nervous system bleeding or massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage is possible.
>roperly prepared and stained peripheral blood films provide a reliable estimate of platelet number if the sample
shows at least one platelet for every +% to $% red blood cells visible in an oilimmersion field. A more accurate
visual method involves use of a hemacytometer counting chamber and a phase microscope. The most accurate
measurement, however, employs the voltage pulse or electrooptical counting system. 9evertheless, results from
such automated systems should always be checked against a visual estimate from a stained blood film.
Purpose
H To evaluate platelet production.
H To assess effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy on platelet production.
H To aid diagnosis of thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis.
H To confirm visual estimate of platelet number and morphology from a stained blood film.
Ea$ues
9ormal platelet counts range from +A%,%%% to A;%,%%%Jmm L+A% to A;% x +%&J3R.
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
A decreased platelet count /thrombocytopenia0 can result from aplastic or hypoplastic bone marrowF infiltrative
bone marrow disease, such as carcinoma, leukemia, or disseminated infectionF megakaryocytic hypoplasiaF
ineffective thrombopoiesis caused by folic acid or vitamin ?+$ deficiencyF pooling of platelets in an enlarged
spleenF increased platelet destruction caused by drugs or immune disordersF disseminated intravascular coagula
tionF ?ernard*oulier syndromeF or mechanical in!ury to platelets.
An increased platelet count /thrombocytosis0, can result from hemorrhageF infectious disordersF malignanciesF
iron deficiency anemiaF recent surgery, pregnancy, or splenectomyF and inflammatory disorders, such as
collagen vascular disease. )n such cases, the platelet count returns to normal after the patient recovers from the
primary disorder. :owever, the count remains elevated in primary thrombocytosis, myelofibrosis, with myeloid
metaplasia, polycythemia vera, and chronic myelogenous leukemia.
#hen the platelet count is abnormal, diagnosis usually re(uires further studies, such as a complete blood count,
bone marrow biopsy, direct antiglobulin test /direct 1oombs' test0, and serum protein electrophoresis.
Inter'erin9 'actors
7edications that may decrease platelet count include aceta"olamide, acetohexamide, antimony,
antineoplastics, brompheniramine maleate, carbama"epine, chloramphenicol, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, gold
salts, hydroxychloro(uine,
indomethacin, isonia"id,
mephenytoin, mefenamic acid, metha"olamide, methima"ole, methyidopa, oral dia"oxide, oxyphenbuta"one,
penicillamine, penicillin, phenylbuta"one,
phenytoin, pyrimethamine, (uinidine sulfate, (uinine, salicylates, streptomycin, sulfonamides, thia"ide and
thia"idelike diuretics, and tricyclic antidepressants. :eparin causes transient, reversible thrombocytopenia.
#0% 6hite *lood cell =695> count 4eu+ocyte count
>art of the complete blood count, the white blood cell /#?10 count reports the number of white cells found in a
microliter /cubic millimeter0 of whole blood by using a hemacytometer or an electronic device, such as the
1oulter counter.
On any given day, #?1 counts may vary by as much as $,%%%. *uch variation can be the result of strenuous
exercise, stress, or digestion. The #?1 count may rise or fall significantly in certain diseases, but is
diagnostically useful only when interpreted in light of the white cell differential and of the patient's current clini
cal status.
Purpose
H To detect infection or inflammation.
H To determine the need for further tests, such as the #?1 differential or bone marrow biopsy.
H To monitor response to chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
3eukocytes #hite blood corpuscles. There are two types< granulocytes /those possessing granules in their
cytoplasm0, and agranulocytes /those lacking granules0. Granulocytes include !uvenile neutrophils /A to -C0,
segmented neutrophils /-@ to '$C0, basophils /% to %.;-C0, and eosinophils /+ to AC0. Agranulocytes include
lymphocytes, large and small /$- to AAC0, and monocytes /A to ;C0.
9ot all leukocytes are formed in the same place nor in the same manner. Granulocytes are formed in the bone
marrow, arising from large cells called megakaryocytes. 3ymphocytes are formed in the lymph nodes and
probably in bone marrow. 7onocytes are formed from the cells lining the capillaries in various organs, probably
principally in the spleen and bone marrow.
7unction" 3eukocytes act as scavengers, helping to combat infection. They travel by ameboid movement and
are able to penetrate tissue and then return to the bloodstream. The direction of movement is probably due to the
stimuli from in!ured cells, called chemotaxis. #hen invading bacteria destroy them, the dead leukocytes collect
in the form of pus, causing an abscess if a ready outlet is not available.
3eukocytes, especially the granular forms, are markedly phagocytic, i.e., have the power to ingest paniculate
substances. 9eutrophils ingest bacteria and small particlesF other cells such as the monocytes and histiocytes in
the tissues ingest larger particles. They are important in both defensive and reparative functions of the body.
?asophils most probably function by delivering anticoagulants to facilitate blood clot absorption or to prevent
blood coagulation. 4osinophils increase in number in certain conditions such as asthma and infestations of
animal parasites. 3ymphocytes are not phagocytic. ?cell lymphocytes produce antibodies and Tcell
lymphocytes are important in producing cellular immunity.
A greatly diminished number of erythrocytes is found in the anemias, and a greatly increased number of
leukocytes /leukocytosis0 is usually indicative of bacterial infection. A leukocyte count is usually taken
preoperatively if infection is suspected, such as in appendicitis. A count may also be taken following surgery to
be sure than an occult wound infection has not developed.
Ea$ues
The #?1 count ranges from @.+ to +%., x +%&. )mplications of results
An elevated #?1 count /leukocytosis0 usually signals infection, such as an abscess, meningitis, appendicitis, or
tonsillitis. A high count may also result from leukemia and tissue necrosis caused by burns, myocardial
infarction, or gangrene.
A low #?1 count /leukopenia0 indicates bone marrow depression that may result from viral infections or from
toxic reactions, such as those following treatment with antineoplastics, ingestion of mercury or other heavy
metals, or exposure to ben"ene or arsenicals. 3eukopenia characteristically accompanies influen"a, typhoid
fever, measles, infectious hepatitis, mononucleosis, and rubella.
#"% 6hite *lood cell =695> differential
?ecause the white blood cell /#?10 differential evaluates the distribution and morphology of white cells, it
provides more specific information about a patient's immune function than the #?1 count. )n this test, the
laboratory classifies +%% or more white cells in a stained film of peripheral blood according to two ma!or types
of leukocytes granulocytes /neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils0 and nongranulocytes /lymphoctyes and
monocytes0 and determines the percentage of each type. The differential count is the relative number of each
type of white cell in the blood. 7ultiplying the percentage value of each type by the total #?1 count provides
the absolute number of each type of white cell. Although little is known about the function of eosinophils in the
blood, abnormally high levels of these cells are associated with various allergic diseases and reactions to
parasites. )n such cases, an eosinophil count is sometimes ordered as a followup to the white cell differential.
This test is also appropriate if the differential #?1 count shows a depressed eosinophil level.
Purpose
H To evaluate the body's capacity to resist and overcome infection.
H To detect and identify various types of leukemia.
H To determine the stage and severity of an infection.
H To detect allergic reactions.
H To assess the severity of allergic reactions /eosinophil count0.
H To detect parasitic infections
)e'erence =a$ues" White b$ood ce$$ di''erentia$
8or &dultsI
Cells
='e,% al!e - "#sol!te al!e$
:eutrophils
=47%6 to 76%M - "950 to 400 )icroliters>
4y)phocytes
="6%2 to 4#M - 660 to 4,600 )icroliters>
0onocytes
=0%6 to 9%6M - 24 to 960 )icroliters>
@osinophils
=0%# to 7M - " 2 to 760 )icroliters>
9asophils
=0%# to 2M - " 2 to 200 )icroliters>
8or children =age 6 to "7>I
Cells
%Relative al!e$
:eutrophils
=*oysI #%5 to 7"%5M, girlsI 4"%9 to 76%5M>
4y)phocytes
=*oysI "9%4 to 5"%4M, girlsI "6%# to 46%7M>
0onocytes
=*oysI "%" to ""%6M, girlsI 0%9 to 9%9M>
@osinophils
=*oysI " to %"M, girlsI 0% to %#M>
9asophils
=*oysI 0%25"0"%#M, girlsI 0%# to "%4M>
Interpretin9 the di''erentia$
To make an accurate diagnosis, the examiner must consider both relative and absolute values of the differential.
1onsidered alone, relative results may point to one disease, while masking the true pathology that would be
revealed by considering the results of the white cell count. 2or example, consider a patient whose white blood
cell count is ',%%%Jmicroliter, and whose differential shows A%C neutrophils and ;%C lymphocytes. :is relative
lymphocyte count would seem to be (uite high /lymphocytosis0F but when this figure is multiplied by his white
cell count ',%%% x ;%C S @,$%% lymphocytesJmicroliter it is well within the normal range.
This patient's neutrophil count, however, is low /A%C0 and when this is multiplied by the white cell count
',%%% x A%C S +,.%% neutrophilsJmicroliter the result is a low absolute number.
This low result indicates decreased neutrophil production, which may mean depressed bone marrow.
3n increase in neutrophi$s (po$ys. is 'ound in the 'o$$o>in9"
1. )nfectious processes, systemic< septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, gonorrhea, diphtheria, poliomyelitis,
herpes "oster, acute rheumatic fever, chickenpox, scarlet fever, erysipelas, peritonitis, and tetanus.
$. )nfections processes, locali"ed< pyogenic abscess, furunculosis, tonsillitis, mastoiditis, otitis media, sinusitis,
cholecystitis, pyelitis, pyelonephritis, salpingitis, appendicitis.
A. 7etabolic disorders< acidosis, uremia, gout, and eclampsia.
@. 5rugs and poisons< digitalis, epinephrine, foreign proteins, venoms, mercury, lead, carbon monoxide,
potassium chlorate, camphor, coal tar products, pyridine, ben"ol compounds, turpentine.
-. Acute hemorrhage< particularly when the hemorrhage is into a body cavity, e.g., ruptured tubal pregnancy.
'. 5iseases of the hemopoietic system< myelogenous leukemia, erythremia, erythroblastosis
foetalis, incompatible transfusions, sudden hemolysis.
;. 7iscellaneous conditions< coronary occlusion, rapidly growing carcinoma, for twelve to thirtysix hours
after ma!or operation, burns.
.. >hysiological conditions< strenuous exercise, pregnancy, labor, during digestion, after hot bath, fear, pain,
dehydration, extreme sunlight and high altitude.
3 decrease in neutrophi$s is 'ound in the 'o$$o>in9"
"% 9one )arrow da)age%
2% 9N ,8olic acid deficit%
#% 4upus erythe)atosus%
4% 7pleno)egaly%
5% &naphylactic shoc+%
6% Typhoid and )alaria%
%osinophi$s are increased in"
1. ?lood diseases< eosinophilic leukemia, myelogenous leukemia, polycythemia vera, slightly in pernicious
anemia, and menses.
$. >arasitic diseases< trichinosis, schistosomiasis, infestation with some intestinal parasites, and in massive
infestation with Taenia solium and amebiasis.
A. *kin diseases< psoriasis, dermatitis herpetiformis, erythema multiforme, urticaria and angioneurotic edema.
Also radiation exposure Jtherapy.
@. 9eoplasms< *ome cases of malignant granuloma /:odgkin's disease0, ovarian and bone neoplasms, and
neoplasms showing extensive necrosis.
-. Allergic diseases of the respiratory tract< bronchial asthma, hay fever, and pollinosis.
'. >oisons< phosphorus, copper sulfate, camphor, and pilocarpine.
;. 5isease of unknown or doubtful etiology< 3oeffler's syndrome,
.acroscopic
color straw
odor slightly aromatic
appearance clear
specific gravity +.%%- to +.%$%
p: @.- to ..%
protein none
glucose none
ketones none
other sugars none
.icroscopic
red blood cells
% to AJhigh power field
white blood cells
% to @J high power field
epithelial cells few
casts
none, except occasional
hyaline casts
crystals present
yeast cells none
parasites none
I&p$ications o' resu$ts
6ariations in urinalysis findings may result from diet, nonpathologic conditions, specimen collection time, and
other factors.
The 'o$$o>in9 beni9n =ariations are co&&on$y nonpatho$o9ic"
Speci'ic 9ra=ity" 8rine becomes darker and its odor becomes stronger as the specific gravity increases. *pecific
gravity is highest in the firstvoided morning specimen.
#rine pH" Greatly affected by diet and medications, urine p: influences the appearance of urine and the
composition of crystals. An alkaline p: /above ;.%0 characteristic of a diet high in vegetables, citrus fruits, and
dairy products but low in meat causes turbidity and the formation of phosphate, carbonate, and amorphous
crystals. An acid p: /below ;.%0 typical of a highprotein diet produces turbidity and formation of oxalate,
cystine, amorphous urate, and uric acid crystals.
Protein" 9ormally absent from the urine, protein can appear in urine in a benign condition known as orthostatic
/postural0 proteinuria. This condition is most common during the second decade of life, is intermittent, appears
after prolonged standing, and disappears after recumbency. Transient benign proteinuria can also occur with
fever, exposure to cold, emotional stress, or strenuous exercise.
Su9ars" Also usually absent from the urine, sugars may appear under normal conditions. The most common
sugar in urine is glucose. Transient, nonpathologic glycosuria may result from emotional stress or pregnancy
and may follow ingestion of a highcarbohydrate meal. Other sugars fructose, lactose, and pentose rarely
appear in urine under nonpathologic conditions. /3actosuria, however, can occur during pregnancy and
lactation0.
)ed ce$$s" :ematuria may occasionally follow strenuous exercise.
The 'o$$o>in9 abnor&a$ 'indin9s 9enera$$y su99est patho$o9ic conditions"
!o$or" 1hanges in color can result from diet, drugs, and many metabolic inflammatory, or infectious diseases.
ote: 4eets cause pink or e6en li)ht re! urine" often mistaken for blee!in) by new Gerson patients.
/dor" )n diabetes mellitus, starvation, and dehydration, a fruity odor accompanies formation of ketone bodies.
)n urinary tract infection, a fetid odor is common. 7aple syrup urine disease and phenylketonuria also cause
distinctive odors. 9ote< Asparagus causes a strong fruity odor which is of no clinical significance.
Turbidity" Turbid urine may contain blood cells, bacteria, fat, or chyle, suggesting renal infection.
Speci'ic 9ra=ity" 3ow specific gravity /less than +.%%-0 is characteristic of diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic
diabetes insipidus, acute tubular necrosis, and pyelonephritis. 2ixed specific gravity, in which values remain
+.%+% regardless of fluid intake, occurs in chronic glomerulonephritis with severe renal damage. :igh specific
gravity /greater than +.%$%0 occurs in nephrotic syndrome, dehydration, acute glomerulonephritis, congestive
heart failure, liver failure, and shock.
p:< Alkaline urine p: may result from 2anconi's syndrome, urinary tract infection, and metabolic or respiratory
alkalosis. Acid urine p: is associated with renal tuberculosis, pyrexia, phenylketonuria and alkaptonuria, and all
forms of acidosis. 9ote< The Gerson Therapy causes constant alkaline tides in high urinary p:.
Protein" >roteinuria suggests renal diseases, such as nephritis, nephrolithiasis, polycystic kidney disease, and
renal failure. >roteinuria can also result from multiple myeloma.
Su9ars" Glycosuria usually indicates diabetes mellitus but may also result from pheochromocytoma.
Gushing's syndrome, and increased intracranial pressure. 2ructosuria, galactosuria, and pentosuria generally
suggest rare hereditary metabolic disorders. :owever, an alimentary form of pentosuria and fructosuria may
follow excessive ingestion of pentose or fructose, resulting in hepatic failure to metaboli"e the sugar. ?ecause
the renal tubules fail to reabsorb pentose or fructose, these sugars, spill over into the urine.
8etones" Getonuria occurs in diabetes mellitus when cellular energy needs exceed available cellular glucose. )n
the absence of glucose, cells metaboli"e fat, an alternate energy supply. Getone bodies the end products of
incomplete fat metabolism accumulate in plasma and are excreted in the urine. Getonuria may also occur in
starvation states and in conditions of acutely increased metabolic demand associated with decreased food intake,
such as diarrhea or vomiting.
!e$$s" :ematuria indicates bleeding within the genitourinary tract and may result from infection, obstruction,
inflammation, trauma, tumors, glomerulonephritis, renal hypertension, lupus nephritis, renal tuberculosis, renal
vein thrombosis, hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis, scurvy, malaria, parasitic infection of the bladder, subacute
bacterial endocarditis, polyarteritis nodosa, and hemorrhagic disorders. 9umerous white cells in urine usually
imply urinary tract inflammation, especially cystitis or pyelonephritis. #hite cells and white cell casts in urine
suggest renal infection. An excessive number of epithelial cells suggests renal tubular degeneration.
!asts" /plugs of gelled proteinaceous material Lhighmolecularweight mucoproteinR0< 1asts form in the renal
tubules and collecting ducts by agglutination of protein cells or cellular debris, and are flushed loose by urine
flow. 4xcessive numbers of casts indicate renal disease. :yaline casts are associated with renal parenchymal
disease, inflammation, and trauma to the glomerular capillary membraneF epithelial cast, with renal tubular
damage, nephrosis, eclampsia, amyloidosis, and heavy metal poisoningF coarse and fine granular cast, with
acute or chronic renal failure, pyelonephritis, and chronic lead intoxicationF fatty and waxy cast, with nephrotic
syndrome, chronic renal disease, and diabetes mellitusF red blood cell cast, with renal parenchymal disease,
renal infarction, subacute bacterial endocarditis, vascular disorders, sickle cell anemia, scurvy, blood dyscrasias,
malignant hypertension, collagen disease, and acute inflammationF and white blood cell cast, with acute
pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, pyogenic infection, and lupus nephritis.
!rysta$s" *ome crystals normally appear in urine, but numerous calcium oxalate crystals suggest
hypercalcemia. 1ystine crystals /cystinuria0 reflect an inborn error of metabolism.
/ther co&ponents" Beast cells and parasites in urinary sediment reflect genitourinary tract infection, as well as
contamination of external genitalia. Beast cells, which may be mistaken for red cells, can be identified by their
ovoid shape, lack of color, variable si"e, and fre(uently, signs of budding. The most common parasite in
sediment is Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated proto"oan that commonly causes vaginitis, urethritis, and
prostatovesiculitis.
3ppendix II" 4e>s$etter %xcerpts 'ro& the Gerson Healing e!sletter
4utritiona$ Superiority o' /r9anica$$y Gro>n 7oods
@.peri)ental e(idence for the nutritional superiority of foods grown with organic fertili-ation
"4'cerpte& fro* the Gerson Healing e!sletter, 6ol. %, o. 2, 7898)
by Gar :ildenbrand
>eople who grow and eat organic produce like to tell other people that organic fruits and vegetables not only
taste better, but that they are &better for you&. >eople who grow and eat commercial produce tend to think that
this is a lot of hogwash.
) remember stopping at a nice looking stand in a farmers' market to ask, &)s any of your produce organicD&
The farmer s(uinted at me, stonefaced, as though ) had spoken to him in *wedish. After a short and
uncomfortable silence, he answered, &Of course it's organic. )f it grows in the ground it's organic.&
) asked, &5o you spray it for insectsD&
&Of course ) do,& he answered with a tone of exasperationF &you won't find bugs on any of my stuff.&
) was already walking away from his booth as his voice dropped to a disgruntled mutter. ) had decided a long
time ago that whenever ) could avoid pesticide exposure ) would. ) chose to eat organically grown foods because
) reasoned that they were likely to be safer, considering especially the inade(uacy of testing in the 8.*. and the
ineptitude and carelessness of the least competent handlers of these dangerous chemicals.
?ut, imagine with me for a moment what it might be like if pesticides were no longer a problem. 4nvision, if
you will, a world in which consumer preference has eroded the market for foods grown with toxics. )nstead,
integrated pest management and biological controls are being used.
)n this new scenario, will we really need organically grown foods anymoreD Are they so much better than
chemically grown foodsD
To learn more, we must return to an unsettled argument about the different effects of pure chemical fertili"ers
versus organic composts. This controversy has brewed since the turn of the century.
@
&
;
1ommercial farmers use
growth stimulating nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium /9>G0 in sometimes very large (uantitiesF organic
growers fertili"e with only farmyard manure and compost from chemicalfree sources.& 2or many years, the
8.*. 5epartment of Agriculture has maintained that there is no discernible difference between conventional and
organic produce
,
while organic growers have maintained that theirs is better.
+%+$
*ome results of our survey #e
found that early experiments support the possibility that organic methods can and do produce foods nutritionally
superior for some species of animals. ?ut they are not conclusive regarding the human population. Animal
feeding experiments conducted in the +,$%'s by 7c1arrison
$%
and later supported by findings of 7c*heehy
+@
are
compelling evidence that there is something fundamentally different and better about plants grown with the
benefit of organic composts. )n all these experiments, animals fed organically fertili"ed foods outperformed
those fed chemically fertili"ed foods.
)t has been established as scientific fact that plants derive nutrients from the soil.
+-+,
)n +,$,, Eowlands and
#ilkinson wrote in the ?ritish 7edical Iournal that their findings confirmed those of 7c1arrison.
$%
)n their rat
study, they compared the healthy growth of rats fed organically fertili"ed seed with the abnormal growth and
disease of rats fed chemically fertili"ed seed. They used vitamin ? replacement to correct the poor health of rats
fed &artificial seed&, and proposed indicates diabetes mellitus but may also result from pheochromocytoma.
Gushing's syndrome, and increased intracranial pressure. 2ructosuria, galactosuria, and pentosuria generally
suggest rare hereditary metabolic disorders. :owever, an alimentary form of pentosuria and fructosuria may
follow excessive ingestion of pentose or fructose, resulting in hepatic failure to metaboli"e the sugar. ?ecause
the renal tubules fail to reabsorb pentose or fructose, these sugars, spill over into the urine.
8etones" Getonuria occurs in diabetes mellitus when cellular energy needs exceed available cellular glucose. )n
the absence of glucose, cells metaboli"e fat, an alternate energy supply. Getone bodies the end products of
incomplete fat metabolism accumulate in plasma and are excreted in the urine. Getonuria may also occur in
starvation states and in conditions of acutely increased metabolic demand associated with decreased food intake,
such as diarrhea or vomiting.
!e$$s" :ematuria indicates bleeding within the genitourinary tract and may result from infection, obstruction,
inflammation, trauma, tumors, glomerulonephritis, renal hypertension,lupus nephritis, renal tuberculosis, renal
vein thrombosis, hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis, scurvy, malaria, parasitic infection of the bladder, subacute
bacterial endocarditis, polyarteritis nodosa, and hemorrhagic disorders. 9umerous white cells in urine usually
imply urinary tract inflammation, especially cystitis or pyelonephritis. #hite cells and white cell casts in urine
suggest renal infection. An excessive number of epithelial cells suggests renal tubular degeneration.
!asts" /plugs of gelled proteinaceous material Lhighmolecularweight mucoprotein!0< 1asts form in the renal
tubules and collecting ducts by agglutination of protein cells or cellular debris, and are flushed loose by urine
flow. 4xcessive numbers of casts indicate renal disease. :yaline casts are associated with renal parenchymal
disease, inflammation, and trauma to the glomerular capillary membraneF epithelial cast, with renal tubular
damage, nephrosis, eclampsia, amyloidosis, and heavy metal poisoningF coarse and fine granular cast, with
acute or chronic renal failure, pyelonephritis, and chronic lead intoxicationF fatty and waxy cast, with nephrotic
syndrome, chronic renal disease, and diabetes mellitusF red blood cell cast, with renal parenchymal disease,
renal infarction, subacute bacterial endocarditis, vascular disorders, sickle cell anemia, scurvy, blood dyscrasias,
malignant hypertension, collagen disease, and acute inflammationF and white blood cell cast, with acute
pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, pyogenic infection, and lupus nephritis.
!rysta$s" *ome crystals normally appear in urine, but numerous calcium oxalate crystals suggest
hypercalcemia. 1ystine crystals /cystinuria0 reflect an inborn error of metabolism.
/ther co&ponents" Beast cells and parasites in urinary sediment reflect genitourinary tract infection, as well as
contamination of external genitalia. Beast cells, which may be mistaken for red cells, can be identified by their
ovoid shape, lack of color, variable si"e, and fre(uently, signs of budding. The most common parasite in
sediment is Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated proto"oan that commonly causes vaginitis, urethritis, and
prostatovesiculitis.
3ppendix II" 4e>s$etter %xcerpts 'ro& the Gerson Healing
e!sletter
4utritiona$ Superiority o' /r9anica$$y Gro>n 7oods
@.peri)ental e(idence for the nutritional superiority of foods grown with organic fertili-ation
"4'cerpte& fro*, the Gerson Healing e!sletter, 6ol. %, o. 2, 7898)
by Gar :ildenbrand
>eople who grow and eat organic produce like to tell other people that organic fruits and vegetables not only
taste better, but that they are &better for you&. >eople who grow and eat commercial produce tend to think that
this is a lot of hogwash.
) remember stopping at a nice looking stand in a farmers' market to ask, &)s any of your produce organicD&
The farmer s(uinted at me, stonefaced, as though ) had spoken to him in *wedish. After a short and
uncomfortable silence, he answered, &Of course it's organic. )f it grows in the ground it's organic.&
) asked, &5o you spray it for insectsD&
&Of course ) do,& he answered
with a tone of exasperationF &you won't find bugs on any of my stuff.&
) was already walking away from his booth as his voice dropped to a disgruntled mutter. ) had decided a long
time ago that whenever ) could avoid pesticide exposure ) would. ) chose to eat organically grown foods because
) reasoned that they were likely to be safer, considering especially the inade(uacy of testing in the 8.*. and the
ineptitude and carelessness of the least competent handlers of these dangerous chemicals.
?ut, imagine with me for a moment what it might be like if pesticides were no longer a problem. 4nvision, if
you will, a world in which consumer preference has eroded the market for foods grown with toxics. )nstead,
integrated pest management and biological controls are being used.
)n this new scenario, will we really need organically grown foods anymoreD Are they so much better than
chemically grown foodsD
To learn more, we must return to an unsettled argument about the different effects of pure chemical fertili"ers
versus organic composts.
+A
This controversy has brewed since the turn of the century.
@;
1ommercial farmers use
growth stimulating nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium /9>G0 in sometimes very large (uantitiesF organic
growers fertili"e with only farmyard manure and compost from chemicalfree sources.& 2or many years, the
8.*. 5epartment of Agriculture has maintained that there is no discernible difference between conventional and
organic produce
,
while organic growers have maintained that theirs is better.
+%
&
+$
*ome results of our survey #e
found that early experiments support the possibility that organic methods can and do produce foods nutritionally
superior for some species of animals. ?ut they are not conclusive regarding the human population. Animal
feeding experiments conducted in the +,$%'s by 7c1arrison
$%
and later supported by findings of 7c*heehy
+@
are
compelling evidence that there is something fundamentally different and better about plants grown with the
benefit of organic composts. )n all these experiments, animals fed organically fertili"ed foods outperformed
those fed chemically fertili"ed foods.
)t has been established as scientific fact that plants derive nutrients from the soil.
+-+,
)n +,$,, Eowlands and
#ilkinson wrote in the ?ritish 7edical Iournal that their findings confirmed those of 7c1arrison.
$%
)n their rat
study, they compared the healthy growth of rats fed organically fertili"ed seed with the abnormal growth and
disease of rats fed chemically fertili"ed seed. They used vitamin ? replacement to correct the poor health of rats
fed &artificial seed&, and proposed that such seed may be lacking in vitamin ?.
That micronutrients nonessential for plant growth are important in animal and human nutrition is accepted.
$+
#hether these
micronutrients must be supplied by agricultural products is debated by industry.
$$
*ome argue that all necessary nutrients are supplied by conventionally grown foods which are held to be exactly e(uivalent
to organically grown foods in nutritive value.
$A$'
Advocates of organic growing methods are united around the idea that organically grown foods are nutritionally superior to
chemically grown foods.
7a!or differences of opinion stem from the discovery that plants of superior si"e and appearance can be grown in widely
differing soils with the addition of large (uantities of growth stimulating nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium /9>G0
fertili"er. 8*5A hailed 9>G as a great advance in farming because its remarkably increased yields promised to feed the
world.
A%
?ut comparisons of organic and chemically grown foods re(uire much more concrete validation than can be supplied by
beliefs, convictions and opinions, no matter how passionate or assertive they may be.
?est experi&ents
To my knowledge, the only scientific experiments of ade(uate design and sufficient duration to address (uestions regarding
the composition of organic vs. chemically fertili"ed foods in terms of nutrients are those of 5octor #erner *chuphan,
>rofessor, 3ecturer, and for years 5irector of Germany's 2ederal )nstitute for Eesearch of Muality in >lant >roduction.
)n +,;@, after thirtysix years of research comparing the soils and plant products of organic compost fertili"ation with those
of chemical fertili"ers, *chuphan published findings and conclusions based on a +$year comprehensive experiment.
1onclusions regarding importance of his findings to human nutrition were based on *chuphan's prior labors in human infant
feeding experimentation.
*chuphan was definite and emphatic that organically fertili"ed foods /*table 7anure or ?iodynamic 1ompost0 are nutri
tionally superior to foods grown conventionally with either 9itrogen T >hosphorus T >otassium /9>G0 fertili"er, or even
9>Gamended barnyard manure fertili"ation. )n Mual.>lant >).2ds.hum.9utr. QQ))),@<AAAA-., +,;@, *chuphan wrote,
&That the consumer would benefit by the higher biological value of products of /fertili"ation by0 *table 7anure and
?iodynamic 1ompost is beyond (uestion, as confirmed by... data based on +$ years' chemical investigations.&
)t is pu""ling to me that excellent writers in the field, like 5ietrich Gnorr and Gatherine 1lancy
$;
who have both cited
*chuphan's +$year experiment, did not comment on its significance which derives from the strength and chronological
length of *chupan's study designs. >erhaps the answer lies in Eual. >lant's clubfooted 4nglish translation of results of the
+$year study. That translation /in an otherwise generally excellent !ournal0, with its fre(uently !abberwocky syntax could
certainly have proved daunting to even their fine intellects.
) found the going very rough, but after some fretting and frustration over identification of idioms and grammatic intent,
meaning surfaced gradually in the murky translation. *chuphan's solid experimental design and intelligent classical
methodology revealed themselves in simple clarity.
Stron9 study desi9ns
Gnorr has written intelligently regarding the collective shortcomings of the ma!ority of efforts to compare plant products of
different methods and materials of fertili"ation. :e has pointed
A+
to three weaknesses common to most studies comparing
organic and conventional agricultural systems< +0 the insufficient duration of the studies /most are only one or two years0, $0
the choice of pots or plots instead of comparing whole systems /separate farms0, and A0 the use of fresh weight /which is
(uite variable0 with emphasis on yield and food (uality /organoleptic tests for taste and smell0, instead of more accurate dry
weights and essential nutrient assays.
#hile it is true that *chuphan chose to use plots, their great number, the study's long duration, and the use of two different
soils minimi"ed the types of bias and error usually found in &flower pot& studies. 2or example, *chuphan's comparisons of
yield for spinach, grown on four different fertili"ers over five harvests, incorporated data from +A% separately
planted plots. 7easurements of nutrient content for potatoes represent data collected from +%@ separately planted plots.
Absolutely none of *chuphan's findings were taken from only one harvest.
Eather than fresh /wet0 weight, *chuphan used dry weight to measure yield, and conducted nutrient assays, soil
tests, humus evaluations, and, importantly, toxicology tests.
Allaway called in +,;-
A$
for strong study designs and replications with emphasis on the inherent deficiencies in
some soils. *chuphan has created a study with many replications which utili"ed both rich soil and nutrientpoor
sand.
Through his conscientious efforts to be scientifically thorough, *chupan has far exceeded any measures
necessary to comply with guidelines implied by both Gnorr and Allaway. ) am convinced that *chuphan's design
has anticipated any of the usual critical attacks.
Schuphan;s Study
To start, $- concrete framed plots were filled with sand and $- with fen /lowland rich soil0. 4ach plot had +%
s(uare meters surface /+%;.'@ s(uare feet0 and was filled to a depth of ., meters /$.,- feet0. The top layer of the
sand plots was mixed with a small amount of fen to improve water holding at the surface. The plots were desig
nated to receive one of the following types of fertili"ation< a0 9>G, b0 *table 7anure, c0 *table 7anure T9>G,
or d0 ?iodynamic 1ompost.
)t is important to note the exceptionally large (uantity of ?iodynamic 1ompost applied, e(uivalent to A..A. tons
per acre, in contrast to +A.A, tons of *table 7anure.
?iodynamic 1ompost and directions for its application were supplied by 5r. :ein"e of the 2orschungsring
fur biologischdynamische #irtschaftsweise /Eesearch 1ircle for 7ethods of ?iodynamic Application0 in
5armstadt4schollboicken.
The *table 7anure itself was of &low (uality& /low nitrogen0 and varied little from year to year. 9o notes were
supplied by *chuphan, regretfully, regarding the nature of the animals nor their feed, e.g.< fresh grasses, grains,
silage, hay. )n future studies, such information could be valuable in comparisons of various *table 7anuring
materials and practices. 3ikewise not supplied was information regarding the specific genetic strains of seeds.
Statistica$ si9ni'icance
To test for conformity of yield, potatoes were planted in eight plots, four sand and four fen, and fertili"ed with
*table 7anure alone. The strong statistical significance of the uniform results in these potatoes can be held as
evidence for the reproducibility of the ?iodynamic crops which, unlike all the others, were grown in only two
plots per harvest /one fen and one sand0.
#ith the exception of the ?iodynamic crops, all other fertili"ers were tested by planting each crop /e.g.<
potatoes0 in four fen plots and four sand plots per fertili"er per harvest, and by growing each crop a number of
times over the +$ year period. 4ight crops were rotated< spinach, lettuce, savoy /cabbage0, potatoes, celeriac
/celery root0, carrots, fodder beets, and sugar beets. 7ost rotations were successional, meaning two crops per
year in one plot.
:erein lies the strength of #erner *chuphan's studies. :e has built an experiment within which is designed a
protocol for simultaneous production of multiple replications. Additionally, he has analy"ed a representative set
of replications for reproducibility and has shown high statistical significance. #ith the exception of the
?iodynamic fertili"er /due perhaps to the sheer weight of fertili"er re(uired0, all other experiments have been
carried out four times on each of two soils per harvest. )n this way, each crop was grown in $' plots per harvest.
That, ladies and gentlemen, is an excellent example of the traditional methods of the Golden Age of German
*cience.
#here applicable, results were averaged according to four morphological types represented by spinach, savoy,
potatoes, and carrots.
Bie$d
8nfortunately, yield is the contemporary farmer's first concern. #e have made it so. )f, instead, his first concern
were the nutritional value of the produce, his practice would be considerably different. The structure of our
economy has not made it desirable or possible for the farmer to put his emphasis on biological value.
*chuphan found that organic fertili"ation could in no way compete in terms of yields with 9>G. :e wrote,
&These data reflect at the same time the tremendous role of fertili"er practice on yield, and the function of the
soil as a significant environmental factor influencing yield.&
5r. *chuphan chose 9>Gstimulated crop yields as the representative norm. :owever, if growers adopt
&biological value& as their primary goal, such gigantic chemically pushed yields may that such seed may be lacking
in vitamin ?.
That micronutrients nonessential for plant growth are important in animal and human nutrition is accepted.
$+
#hether these
micronutrients must be supplied by agricultural products is debated by industry.
$$
*ome argue that all necessary nutrients are supplied by conventionally grown foods which are held to be exactly e(uivalent
to organically grown foods in nutritive value
Advocates of organic growing methods are united around the idea that organically grown foods are nutritionally superior to
chemically grown foods. 7a!or differences of opinion stem from the discovery that plants of superior si"e and appearance
can be grown in widely differing soils with the addition of large (uantities of growth stimulating nitrogen, phosphorus, and
potassium /9>G0 fertili"er. 8*5A hailed 9>G as a great advance in farming because its remarkably increased yields
promised to feed the world.
A%
?ut comparisons of organic and chemically grown foods re(uire much more concrete validation than can be supplied by
beliefs, convictions and opinions, no matter how passionate or assertive they may be.
?est experi&ents
To my knowledge, the only scientific experiments of ade(uate design and sufficient duration to address (uestions regarding
the composition of organic vs. chemically fertili"ed foods in terms of nutrients are those of 5octor #erner *chuphan,
>rofessor, 3ecturer, and for years 5irector of Germany's 2ederal )nstitute for Eesearch of Muality in >lant >roduction.
)n +,;@, after thirtysix years of research comparing the soils and plant products of organic compost fertili"ation with those
of chemical fertili"ers, *chuphan published findings and conclusions based on a +$year comprehensive experiment.
1onclusions regarding importance of his findings to human nutrition were based on *chuphan's prior labors in human infant
feeding experimentation.
*chuphan was definite and emphatic that organically fertili"ed foods /*table 7anure or ?iodynamic 1ompost0 are nutri
tionally superior to foods grown conventionally with either 9itrogen T >hosphorus T >otassium /9>G0 fertili"er, or even
9>Gamended barnyard manure fertili"ation. )n Mual.>lant >).2ds.hum.9utr. QQ))),@<AAAA-., +,;@, *chuphan wrote,
&That the consumer would benefit by the higher biological value of products of /fertili"ation by0 *table 7anure and
?iodynamic 1ompost is beyond (uestion, as confirmed by... data based on +$ years' chemical investigations.&
)t is pu""ling to me that excellent writers in the field, like 5ietrich Gnorr and Gatherine 1lancy who have both cited
*chuphan's +$year experiment, did not comment on its significance which derives from the strength and chronological
length of *chupan's study designs. >erhaps the answer lies in Eual. >lant's clubfooted 4nglish translation of results of the
+$year study. That translation /in an otherwise generally excellent !ournal0, with its fre(uently !abberwocky syntax could
certainly have proved daunting to even their fine intellects.
) found the going very rough, but after some fretting and frustration over identification of idioms and grammatic intent,
meaning surfaced gradually in the murky translation. *chuphan's solid experimental design and intelligent classical
methodology revealed themselves in simple clarity.
Stron9 study desi9ns
Gnorr has written intelligently regarding the collective shortcomings of the ma!ority of efforts to compare plant products of
different methods and materials of fertili"ation. :e has pointed
A+
to three weaknesses common to most studies comparing
organic and conventional agricultural systems< +0 the insufficient duration of the studies /most are only one or two years0, $0
the choice of pots or plots instead of comparing whole systems /separate farms0, and A0 the use of fresh weight /which is
(uite variable0 with emphasis on yield and food (uality /organoleptic tests for taste and smell0, instead of more accurate dry
weights and essential nutrient assays.
#hile it is true that *chuphan chose to use plots, their great number, the study's long duration, and the use of two different
soils minimi"ed the types of bias and error usually found in &flower pot& studies. 2or example, *chuphan's comparisons of
yield for spinach, grown on four different fertili"ers over five harvests, incorporated data from +A% separately
planted plots. 7easurements of nutrient content for potatoes represent data collected from +%@ separately planted plots.
Absolutely none of *chuphan's findings were taken from only one harvest.
Eather than fresh /wet0 weight, *chuphan used dry weight to measure yield, and conducted nutrient assays, soil
tests, humus evaluations, and, importantly, toxicology tests.
Allaway called in +,;-
A$
for strong study designs and replications with emphasis on the inherent deficiencies in
some soils. *chuphan has created a study with many replications which utili"ed both rich soil and nutrientpoor
sand.
Through his conscientious efforts to be scientifically thorough, *chupan has far exceeded any measures
necessary to comply with guidelines implied by both Gnorr and Allaway. ) am convinced that *chuphan's design
has anticipated any of the usual critical attacks.
Schuphan;s Study
To start, $- concrete framed plots were filled with sand and $- with fen /lowland rich soil0. 4ach plot had +%
s(uare meters surface /+%;.'@ s(uare feet0 and was filled to a depth of ., meters /$.,- feet0. The top layer of the
sand plots was mixed with a small amount of fen to improve water holding at the surface. The plots were desig
nated to receive one of the following types of fertili"ation< a0 9>G, b0 *table 7anure, c0 *table 7anure T9>G,
or d0 ?iodynamic 1ompost.
)t is important to note the exceptionally large (uantity of ?iodynamic 1ompost applied, e(uivalent to A..A. tons
per acre, in contrast to +A.A, tons of *table 7anure.
?iodynamic 1ompost and directions for its application were supplied by 5r. :ein"e of the 2orschungsring
fur biologischdynamische #irtschaftsweise /Eesearch 1ircle for 7ethods of ?iodynamic Application0 in
5armstadt4schollboicken.
The *table 7anure itself was of &low (uality& /low nitrogen0 and varied little from year to year. 9o notes were
supplied by *chuphan, regretfully, regarding the nature of the animals nor their feed, e.g.< fresh grasses, grains,
silage, hay. )n future studies, such information could be valuable in comparisons of various *table 7anuring
materials and practices. 3ikewise not supplied was information regarding the specific genetic strains of seeds.
Statistica$ si9ni'icance
To test for conformity of yield, potatoes were planted in eight plots, four sand and four fen, and fertili"ed with
*table 7anure alone. The strong statistical significance of the uniform results in these potatoes can be held as
evidence for the reproducibility of the ?iodynamic crops which, unlike all the others, were grown in only two
plots per harvest /one fen and one sand0.
#ith the exception of the ?iodynamic crops, all other fertili"ers were tested by planting each crop /e.g.<
potatoes0 in four fen plots and four sand plots per fertili"er per harvest, and by growing each crop a number of
times over the +$ year period. 4ight crops were rotated< spinach, lettuce, savoy /cabbage0, potatoes, celeriac
/celery root0, carrots, fodder beets, and sugar beets. 7ost rotations were successional, meaning two crops per
year in one plot.
:erein lies the strength of #erner *chuphan's studies. :e has built an experiment within which is designed a
protocol for simultaneous production of multiple replications. Additionally, he has analy"ed a representative set
of replications for reproducibility and has shown high statistical significance. #ith the exception of the
?iodynamic fertili"er /due perhaps to the sheer weight of fertili"er re(uired0, all other experiments have been
carried out four times on each of two soils per harvest. )n this way, each crop was grown in $' plots per harvest.
That, ladies and gentlemen, is an excellent example of the traditional methods of the Golden Age of German
*cience.
#here applicable, results were averaged according to four morphological types represented by spinach, savoy,
potatoes, and carrots.
Bie$d
8nfortunately, yield is the contemporary farmer's first concern. #e have made it so. )f, instead, his first concern
were the nutritional value of the produce, his practice would be considerably different. The structure of our
economy has not made it desirable or possible for the farmer to put his emphasis on biological value.
*chuphan found that organic fertili"ation could in no way compete in terms of yields with 9>G. :e wrote,
&These data reflect at the same time the tremendous role of fertili"er practice on yield, and the function of the
soil as a significant environmental factor influencing yield.&
5r. *chuphan chose 9>Gstimulated crop yields as the representative norm. :owever, if growers adopt
&biological value& as their primary goal, such gigantic chemically pushed yields may become impossible. 9ever
theless, using 9>G fertili"ation as the standard /+%%C0 for conventional yield, the bar graph in figure one
shows that *table 7anure by itself produces only a -@C yield on fen and an even lower @@C yield on sand. ?y
comparison, ?iodynamic 1omposting scored yields of .%C on fen and ;$C on sand. The combination of 9>G
and *table 7anure produced the highest result, ++;C yield on fen and +%@C on sand.
)t is important to note that *chuphan reported that representatives of ?iodynamic management plans suggest that
yields will be low for five building years.
Di''erent p$ants
1onsiderable differences in yield are seen in *chuphan's comparison of spinach /a rosette0, savoy /a large
terminal bud0, potatoes /a stem tuber0, and carrots /a storage root0. :ighest yields in succeeding crops /two
crops in one plot in one season0 were attained on fen in +,'A by early savoy and carrots, followed by spinach
and celeriac in +,',. )n single main crops, fodder beets in +,'. led all others.
As expected, in comparisons of four different crops grown by the four methods of fertili"ation, increased yields
of all 9>G treated crops are remarkable. )n spinach and in savoy, 9>G surplus yields ranged up to slightly more
than .%C above the competing fertili"ers. )n carrots, 9>G yields were up to -AC increased, and in potatoes up
to @+C. There was one surprising exception to this general rule< potatoes grown on ?iodynamically fertili"ed
plots yielded up to +,C above those grown on 9>G.
%''ect on soi$
*oil analyses provided some surprises. *chuphan wrote, &Our expectations after +$ year's experimental work
that humus contents of soil would correspond to humus supply by organic matter was not reali"ed in fen soil.&
:umus is the organic portion of the soil, from decaying plant and animal matter. )t is rich with microbes.
Theoretically, according to *chuphan, humus is thought to provide abundant plant nutrients which are released
by warmth and moisture, the same conditions that stimulate plant growth.
*chuphan observed and reported an apparent paradox< 2en soil in those plots which received the largest yearly
(uantities of organic inputs /?iodynamic 1ompost and *table 7anure0 tested with the lowest levels of humus at
the end of +$ years of consecutive fertili"ation.
The breakdown was as follows< 2en soil in plots treated with 9>G T *table 7anure exhibited the highest humus
content on analysis, some ;%T mgJlOOg soil. )n second place for humus content, again surprisingly, was soil
from those plots treated with only 9>G, at ';mgJ+%%g soil. Third place went to plots treated with *table
7anure,
'-mgJ+%%g soil. ?iodynamic 1ompost treated plots were tested at an astonishingly low -- mgJlOOg soil,
despite the addition of the e(uivalent of more than A. tons per acre of ?iodynamic 1ompost yearly for +$ years
/compared to +A.A, tonsJacreJyear of *table 7anure0.
>lease look at the above paragraph again. 9ote that fen soil from 9>G treated plots, which produced the highest
crop yields, and which received absolutely no organic amendments, finished +$ years of consecutive,
successional cropping with a higher content of humus than either those plots fertili"ed with *table 7anure or
those treated with ?iodynamic 1ompost. #hyD
*chuphan did not attempt an answer. )t is interesting to note that there was a very small buildup, especially
with
?iodynamic 1ompost, of humus in the sandcontaining plots which received organic amendments. Again,
*chuphan made the observation without discussion. 1omparisons of humus and plant nutrients in fen and sand
are not without difficulties.
AA
*chuphan conservatively
avoided a discussion of mechanisms for the buildup of humus in 9>Gtreated soil. )n addition, he reported
extremely high contents of G$%, 2e, >$%s, 1a and 7n in fen soil plots treated for +$ years at with ?iodynamic
1ompost. Eationali"ing the latter,
*chuphan suggested that low yields against high organic inputs might result in such mineral buildups.
More &inera$s in or9anics
Eegardless of what was happening with the humus, the most important findings resulted from nutrient assays of
crops.
)n his own words, *chuphan reported< &3et us draw the most remarkable results to your attention. The most
convincing facts are the much higher contents of minerals with the exception of sodium due to organic
fertili"ing. >otassium and iron show the greatest increases overall. 7agnesium and calcium were also
remarkably increased in savoy. 1ontents of sodium, with the exception of potatoes, are markedly decreased. &
)n +,;$
A@
, *chuphan pointed out that fruits and vegetables have a healthfavoring& high potassium to low sodium
and chloride ratio. This is directly opposed to animal products such as meat, milk, eggs, etc., which do not have
a good ratio. *chuphan wrote, &)t must be taken into account that according to our experimental results,
attractive cooking methods in which one cooks with plenty of water, throws away the cooking water, and sea
sons strongly with salt, cause an unfavorable partial displacement of minerals and significant loss of potassium.
This points strongly toward the great value of pressed vegetable and fruit !uices for dietetic purposes. &
More nutrients in or9anics
Iust a few of the overall findings will suffice to show a trend. 1ompared with that grown on 9>Gfertili"ed fen,
spinach grown on organically fertili"ed fen soil contained from '@C /?iodynamic 1ompost0 to ;.C /*table
7anure0 more ascorbic acid /6itamin 10. )n sand, spinach contained A%C /?iodynamic 1ompost0 to -@C
/*table 7anure0 more ascorbic acid.
*avoy on organically fertili"ed fen contained ;'C /*table 7anure0 to ,+C /?iodynamic 1ompost0 more
ascorbic acid. *avoy on sand tested at '@C /?iodynamic 1ompost0 to .-C /*table 7anure0 more ascorbic acid
than that grown on 9>G.
On fen soil, both *table 7anure and ?iodynamic 1ompost increased the ascorbic acid content of lettuce by
-,C. On sand, the increase was only 'C /*table 7anure0 to ,C /?iodynamic 1ompost0.
Against the trend toward higher nutrient contents, carotenecontaining crops
showed moderate decreases with organic fertili"ation, as much as almost $%C below the 9>G norm. *chuphan
noted that carotene is a &surplus product of plant metabolism, its synthesis being promoted by mineral fertili"ing
and favorable ecological conditions.&
The need for more study, both of carotenes in biological /animal0 systems, and of their intrinsic nature in plants,
is obvious.
Proteins
Eelative protein, a concern for those on limited diets, is increased in crops grown on organically fertili"ed fen
soil. The increase in spinach is from @C /*table 7anure0 to 'C /?iodynamic 1ompost0, in savoy from AAC
/*table 7anure0 to @%C /?iodynamic 1ompost0, in lettuce from +-C /?iodynamic 1ompost0 to $@C /*table
7anure0, in celeriac $@C /?iodynamic 1ompost0 to A;C /*table 7anure0, and in carrots from $+C
/?iodynamic 1ompost0 to $-C /*table 7anure0. )n potatoes, the increases were only slight, never as much as
+%C.. )n sand fertili"ed by organic inputs, the results were similar to the above, with a large difference showing
only in carrots which were only barely higher than sand9>G carrots.
?io$o9ica$ =a$ue o' protein
The argument of organic vs. chemical fertili"ation hinges on two opposing issues< +0 maximum yield against $0
biological value.
A@
2iguratively, biological value can be thought of as the sum of the actions of all components,
both those that exhibit positive action like the vitamins, and those with negative action like the nitrates.
A-
*chuphan's findings regarding amino acids and con!ugated proteins in the above and the current studies throw
much weight to the biological value side of the balance.
:eavy nitrogen fertili"ation results in a decrease in crops of the sulfurcontaining amino acid methionine.
7ethionine is essential in plant metabolism for the transfer of methyl /1:A0 from one compound to another.
According to the above and earlier findings of *chuphan, diminished methionine content of crops due to heavy
nitrogen fertili"ation results in decreased biological value of plant proteins.
)n the current experiments, both potatoes and spinach grown on organically fertili"ed fen and sand exhibited
increases in methionine /expressed as a C of crude protein0 from ++C to @;C above the 9>G norms.
*chuphan observed a concurrent slight decrease in both glutamic acid and lysine in organically fertili"ed plants.
)n his opinion, enhancement of lysine content of crops, which increases with nitrogen fertili"ation, is not worth
the loss of methionine and overall biological value of con!ugated plant proteins. 3ysine is touted by some
nutritionists as playing a ma!or role in the accelerated growth of young people of the #estern #orld. )t is richly
supplied by animal foods of which there is plentiful supply. There is no need to devalue plant proteins in search
of lysine stores for the public.
*chuphan wrote, &#e may come to the conclusion that organic manuring une(uivocally favors sulfur
containing methionine, one of the most important amino acids. ?reeders are very keen on genetically improving
plant proteins by increasing their methionine contents. #e have made it clear, however, that techni(ues of
cultivation more precisely, techni(ues of fertili"ation may also help in this respect.&
:ess >ater >ei9ht In or9anics
Good looking, giant fruits and vegetables are considered desirable in the food industry. :owever, the measure of
their food value is not their si"e and harvest weight, but rather their dry weight, which is a measure of their
actual contents. 3arge, beautiful vegetables can be waterlogged and low in nutritional values. As one might
suspect from the increased nutrient levels in organically fertili"ed crops, their dry weight is above that of their
chemically fertili"ed counterparts. 8sing chemically fertili"ed crops as the standard /+%%C0, *chuphan
demonstrated
increases in dry matter in organically fertili"ed plants. )n some crops treated with *table 7anure the gain in dry
weight was as high as ',C above the 9>G norm. *ome crops treated with ?iodynamic 1ompost ranged up to
,'C beyond those fertili"ed with 9>G.
:o>er toxic nitrates
*chuphan earlier published
A@
concerns regarding potential health ha"ards to infants of high 9itrate crops,
especially overfertili"ed spinach. )n this study he wrote, &The most surprising result is the behavior of nitrate9
in spinach. Organic manuring both with *table 7anure and ?iodynamic 1ompost results in extremely low
contents of nitrate9. 9o ha"ards to health whatsoever could be expected when such a &lownitratespinach' was
fed to infants.&
?ene'its In pest contro$
9itrogen fertili"ed plants attract aphids more than is normal. Observing that aphids re(uire free amino acids
from the stream of the vascular bundles of plants *chuphan observed that organically grown plants are less sus
ceptible to aphids for three reasons< +0 they have more collenchymatous thickening and subse(uently more
strength in cellular walls, $0 they have lower water content, and A0 they have lower contents of free amino acids.
In'ant 'eedin9 studies
)n a nineyear set of three separate infant feeding experiments high contents of vitamins and minerals in crops
were associated with health benefits to infants, including increases in daily weight gain, carotene in blood,
vitamin 1 in blood, tolerance to teething, serum iron, and an improved red blood picture.
*chuphan points out that the nutritional constituents analy"ed in the current studies are the same as those used to
determine nutritional value in the infant feeding experiments which ran from +,A'+,@@. :e asserts, &That is the
reason why we claim validity for expressing our results in nutritional values.&
?otto& $ine
On the whole, *chuphan's results support the argument that organic manuring produces foods which are
nutritionally superior to those grown on chemical fertili"er. 3et's look at some averages to help us to understand
*chuphan's experimental evidence for the nutritional superiority of crops grown with the aid of either *table
7anure or ?iodynamic 1ompost.
)n comparison with 9>Gfertili"ed crops which are assigned the relative norm of +%%C, crops grown in both
fen and sand with *table 7anure fertili"er or ?iodynamic 1ompost fertili"er averaged higher in positive biolog
ical factors and lower in in negative factors #Fi)ures 3 an! =;.
*chuphan asserts that chemical fertili"ers are used solely for a onesided economic benefit to the food industry
through remarkable increases in yield. )n my opinion, this does not necessarily translate into gains for the
farmer, whose commodities are therefore available often in such surplus that they are grossly devalued in a
desperate effort to compete for buyers on the exchanges.&
9ow that *chuphan has established a factual basis for the nutritional superiority of organically grown foods as
they relate to human nutrition, let us look again at the experiments of 7c1arrison and 7c*heehy. 2indings
of this sort in animals, tied now to human nutrition through the labors of *chuphan, suggest the horrible reality
that contemporary human nutrition constitutes a long term deficiency feeding experiment.
*tandardi"ation of organics industry practices must include generation and collection of the best scientific data
regarding nutritional values in order to further the philosophical and practical knowledge and intent which gave
birth to the industry. )ndustry credibility, which is vital, can be enhanced only by careful science.
)t is important here to point out that *chuphan's results cannot be said to apply directly to all produce grown by
various organic farming methods. )t gives us some specific knowledge regarding several specific methods of
organic fertili"ation and crop management. ?ut what we are not told is far greater in scope than what we are
told.
Fa#tors havin% a positive
bio"o%i#a" nf"!en#e)
:PC <rganic
Ary 0atter "00M
"2#M
'elati(e Proteir "00M
""M
&scor*ic &cid "00M
"2M
Total 7ugars "00M ""9M
0ethionine "00M "2#M
=deter)ined in potatoes
and spinach only>
Potassiu) "00M ""M
5alciu) "00M ""0M
Phosporus "00M
""#M
$ron "00M
"77M
=deter)ined in spinach onlyO
8igure 2
Fa#tors havin% a ne%ative
bio"o%i#a"
nf"!en#e)
:PC <rganic
:itrates /001 7M
=deter)ined in spinach only in
"962,"969, and "972>
8ree &)ino i
Pcids "00M 5M
7odiu) "00M M
8igure #
And we must therefore call for wide researches into nutritional (ualities of foods grown by different methods of
organic fertili"ation. *chuphan's twelveyear study with its basis in prior infant feeding experimentation should
serve as a model for future researches. Other defined methods of organic growing should be put to similar tests.
)ndustry inertia is massive, and a way of doing business has been entrenched for many years which favors yield
and cosmetics instead of biological value. ?ut increasing numbers of consumers are more and more aware,
vocal and active, sometimes militantly, against toxics and for nutritionally superior organically grown food.
There is a great, long !ourney ahead. ?ut tomorrow holds hope if we will only pick up our bags and walk there.
Fa#tors havin% a ne%ative
bio"o%i#a"
nf"!en#e)
:PC <rganic
:itrates /001 7M
=deter)ined in spinach only in
"962,"969, and "972>
8ree &)ino i
Pcids "00M 5M
7odiu) "00M M
8igure #
And we must therefore call for wide researches into nutritional (ualities of foods grown by different methods of
organic fertili"ation. *chuphan's twelveyear study with its basis in prior infant feeding experimentation should
serve as a model for future researches. Other defined methods of organic growing should be put to similar tests.
)ndustry inertia is massive, and a way of doing business has been entrenched for many years which favors yield
and cosmetics instead of biological value. ?ut increasing numbers of consumers are more and more aware,
vocal and active, sometimes militantly, against toxics and for nutritionally superior organically grown food.
There is a great, long !ourney ahead. ?ut tomorrow holds hope if we will only pick up our bags and walk there.
%at /n$y /r9anic
?y Gar Hi$denbrand and !hristeene :indsay
"4'cerpte& fro* the Gerson Healing e!sletter, 6ol. 5, o. 7, 7898)
Eeaders of this newsletter have repeatedly and urgently
expressed a desire to know what they themselves might do to improve their health and to prevent disease. )n this
day of miracle medicines and potent patented pills, what do the authoritative leaders, the frontier guides, of the
Gerson )nstitute recommendD )s there some new supplement, some special herb, some .newly refined co
nutritive factor which might be the missing linkD
Bes. #e can make some recommendations <
>lease eat an unsalted, very lowfat diet of &organically grown& fruits, vegetables and whole grains. *upply eight
ounces daily of dense nonfat dairy protein /dry curd0 or its e(uivalent in (uite moderate amounts of animal
products, mostly poultry and fish.
;-C of the diet should be comprised of fruits and vegetables altered as little as possible, much of it raw and
freshly prepared.
>lease intelligently avoid all additives, including emulsifiers, preservatives, colorings, and flavorings even when
these are labeled &natural& /an intentionally deceptive term0.
#hen you cook, please use no fats /oil, lard, vegetable shortening, butter0 and no cooking water. 8se tightly
covered bakeware at temperatures below the boiling point of water, allowing consider able additional cooking
time. 5o not overcook. )t is not possible to fry at such low temperatures and without fat /oil0.
>lease allow no more than $-C of your diet to consist of meats, nuts, eggs, fish, cakes, cookies, candies, breads
and other baked goods, and only if you en!oy excellent health. #hile we do not prohibit the use of red meats,
they should be taken infre(uently and then in moderation. ?e aware that nuts and seeds of all types are sources
of mostly fat. They should not be regarded as protein foods. #hile these are not prohibited foods, they are not
part of the primary recommended diet, but rather an allowable addition. The moment your health declines,
whether this involves infection, trauma /in!ury0, poisoning, emotionalJmental stress, or chronic disease,
discontinue most of these marginal foods.
Ti&e and ti&e a9ain
#hy, in a world so modern, do we repeat these well worn recommendationsD After all, on the strength of
clinical observations, these same recommendations were already the accepted dietary wisdom of the Golden
Age of German 7edicine before ##)), when fruits, vegetables and dairy were called the &protective foods&. )n
the 8.*., these guidelines were brought forth in Iuly of +,@-, this time as prophylaxis against heart disease and
cancer, before the 8.*. *enate by the great GermanAmerican tuberculosis specialist, 5r. 7ax Gerson, pioneer
of sodium restriction, potassium supplementation, proteincalorie restriction, and dietotherapy based on the
protective foods.
7odern epidemiological observations have now confirmed the early $%th century clinical observations of the
protective effect of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and dairy. 5iets supplying predominantly these foods are
inversely correlated to /they protect against0 the incidence of our two great modern epidemics< cardiovascular
disease and cancer.
The 8.*. *enate's 7cGovern 1ommittee reiterated them in +,;; as 8.*. 9ational 5ietary Goals. The 9ational
Academy of *ciences' /9A*0 9ational Eesearch 1ouncil's /9E10 1ommittee on 5iet, 9utrition and 1ancer
made the same recommendations in their interim dietary guidelines of
+,.$. The American 1ancer *ociety /A1*0 followed suit in
+,.A, and shortly thereafter the 9ational 1ancer )nstitute /91)0. *ubse(uently we have seen do"ens of books
based on these recommendations written by oncologists, cardiologists, physiologists, dietitians, nutritionists,
!ournalists, reporters, and popular authors promising long healthy life without heart disease and cancer.
There is, of course, a direct correlation between food and health. )t is nutrition which sustains us, and it is our
food which nourishes us or destroys us.
#hat is nutritionD A good definition is found in Taber*s Cyclope!ic %e!ical /ictionary: &the sum total of the
processes involved in the taking in and utili"ation of food substances by which growth, repair and maintenance
of activities in the body as a whole or in any of its parts are accomplished. 9utrition includes ingestion,
digestion, absorption, and metabolism&.
9utrition is responsible for repair not only in the rebuilding of damaged tissues, but also in the correction of
disease through cellmediated and humoral immunities. 9utrition is also responsible for maintenance of normal
cellular integrity and tissue function, an important aspect of which may be characteri"ed as resistance to disease.
All genuine authorities are now agreed on the relationship of diet, nutrition and healthJdisease. All informed
laymen know it. Only a few sociopathic madmen and industrially sponsored prostitutesmas(ueradingassci
entists continue to deny .it.
Then why do we repeat these recommendationsD ?ecause they are still not a matter of personal practice for the
ma!ority of the population. Although many possess an intellectual understanding of these guidelines, mysterious
compulsions often act to override our intellects, leading us to consume exactly the wrong foods. This behavior
can be observed even, and perhaps most clearly, in the most conscientious of us by autoexperimentation. Or it
can be seen by paying close attention to coworkers, friends and family.
>eople fully knowledgeable of the negative health conse(uences of chronic food abuse, people who might
lecture us regarding the evils of inappropriate diets, will give voice to their intentions to eat a diet fit for the
human species and, in the next breath, will order a !unk food pi""a for dinner and invite their friends to !oin
them. 2or many putatively healthy and sane adults, !unk food consumption is the dominant dietary pattern when
graphed over time.
4ven if the relative (uality of foods consumed is high, if the ratio of protective foods to the rest of the diet is
insufficient, deleterious effects will result. Of course, many continually consume far too much high (uality,
hormonefree, organically fed meat, eggs, cheeses, fats, etc., in spite of knowing full well the high price which
must eventually be paid to the piper.
#e know of no satisfactory psychological theories or physiological explanations for the failure of our
increasingly wellinformed intelligent adult population to confront and correct its known suicidal dietary
patterns.
?ut you can be different. Bou can become nutritionally streetwise and eat toward survival. Bou can stop
worrying about vitamin and mineral pills as well as heart disease and cancer. Bou can also stop nervously
reading labels for Eecommended 5ietary
Allowances /E5As0, which as we'll explain later were never intended to be used by the individual seeking to
improve his daily nutrition. All you really have to do is eat according to the original Gerson dietary guidelines
which were part of the 1ongressional Eecord more than three decades before the printing of &5ietary Goals for
the 8.*.&, and nearly four decades before the adoption of the same guidelines by 91) and A1*.
?ut there;s a catch.
Bou &ust eat on$y 6or9anic6
9ot all fruits and vegetables are e(ually valuable. 7ethods of growing have an effect on the nutritive (uality of
foods. This effect, which is probably vastly beyond contemporary estimates, is currently immeasurable with the
exception of a narrow group of markers known as nutrients and reflected commonly in the E5A tables.
#arning< 5o not expect to find &organically grown& foods in all grocery stores. >urchase only those foods with
certification labels clearly stating &organic&. 2oods grown by inappropriate technologies may actually be directly
harmful to your health due to residues andJor metabolites of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides,
and growth regulators. *uch agricultural inputs fre(uently result in changes of the chemical composition and,
presumably, in the steric /atomic spatial0 relationships of molecules within the plants themselves. Thus, a com
mercially grown fruit which is apparently a beautiful apple may, in fact, be something (uite different. 5o you
remember the story of *now #hiteD
)n this issue, we will provide you with basic information about organic foods, what they are and how they are
better than chemically grown foods. #e'll look at who is growing them, who is selling them, and we'll provide
you with information that will help you locate them. #e'll also explain how you, personally, can help us to
improve the safety and nutritional (uality of the nation's food supply.
Guad &e nutruit &e destruit
That which nourishes me also destroys me. 7an's food is his poison. 9ever before in history has this been so
inescapably correct, for now as never before, we have plenty to eat and it is produced with plenty of poison.
#hat do we know of nutritionD 9utrients are molecular components of foods. They are observable and
measurable and serve as markers for the evaluation of whole foods. They are correlated to normal plant
growth and to health in humans. *ome of them have been shown to prevent specific &deficiency& diseases such
as pellagra, kwashiorkor, beriberi, rickets, night blindness, anemia and scurvy. ?ut there is more to nutrition
than the known nutrients.
The erroneous impression has been created that a science exists in which the multiple processes of nutrition are
understood. 9utrition has been observed. *ome of the key nutrients some of them have been identified and
extensively studied. These are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. 1omponents of the living
organism of man have been similarly studied. :owever, our studies have !ust begun.
The marriage of the medical sciences /based in wet chemistry0 with particle physics /(uantum mechanics0 has
left us freshly astonished at the foot of a great mountain, facing our basic lack of understanding of the workings
of living organisms.
At the subatomic level, man and plant are only vaguely comprehended by us. The actual dynamics of the myriad
interactions between these are enigmatic, shrouded and invisible. Oftentimes, we don't even know what we are
looking at. Are we perhaps studying the effects of our attempts to observeD
All that we know is gross, mechanical and simplistic. :onesty forces us to admit that every physiological
system we have studied and mapped must now be incorporated into a new understanding, into a metasystem, in
which, for example, a pancreas is composed of interacting electron shells and a gallbladder's functions relate to
its neutrons and mumesons and charming (uarks.
*uddenly, we find ourselves in an expansive realm where we have to admit that ?enveniste's homeopathic
experimental antigen reactions produced with water dilutions at the +$%th power need not be explicable for them
to be real. /)f you are unfamiliar with these experiments, please read &The haunting of 9ature& below.0 )s it so
inconceivable that water might &remember&, might carry a &homeopathic ghost&, when all matter is thought to be
made up of energyJmass &wavicles& called (uanta which themselves exist only intermittentlyD
Add to our overwhelming ignorance of the actual workings of life the horrifying knowledge that we are
continually manufacturing chemical death messages and spraying them onto our agricultural commodities.
These death messages are present at high dilutions in the living water of fruits and vegetables sold to the public.
9o one knows what they are doing. 9o one.
The authors have spent considerable time investigating pesticide safety testing, tolerances, residuemonitoring,
and protection of the public. #e've come to hold some very strong opinions simply stated as follows<
Our foods are poisoned. 2resh fruits, vegetables, and grains grown in this country are saturated with poisons
which are capable of producing both acute and longterm negative health effects. 1omplicating this is the
importation of $'C of all fruits and vegetables consumed annually in the 8nited *tates, foods which are even
more thoroughly contaminated than those produced domestically. Our government )s not protecting us. The
supermarket shelves, restaurants, and dinner tables of the 8nited *tates of America are daily poisoned by an
enemy from within. The system used by the 4nvironmental >rotection Agency /4>A0 to establish socalled
&safe& levels of residues is methodologically unsound. *erious flaws in logic stemming from factual errors and
incorrect assumptions have propelled 4>A to act exactly contrary to its 1ongressional charter. 4>A has failed to
remove almost all known disease causing agricultural chemotherapy products from the market and has, this
year, unbelievably deregulated previously controlled ha"ardous agricultural chemicals. #hat is worse, we have
no protection from the responsible regulatory body, the 2ood and 5rug Administration /25A0, an agency as
dysfunctional and inept as a chronic alcoholic and as dangerous as a drunken driver.
>esticides are damaging this nation's health. America's economy is being relentlessly eroded by lost worker
productivity and monumentally disproportionate health care costs. Added to this is the tragic economic collapse
of the traditional American family farming system, which suffers from both the unanswerable financial
challenges and the toxic side effects of long term aggressive agricultural chemotherapy.
Iust as our finest physicians are powerless to either diagnose or treat the uncharted, often unrecogni"ed maladies
resulting from chronic exposure to agricultural chemicals, our top agricultural scientists are impotent in the face
of multipesticideresistant predators, insects and plant diseases. 2ar from providing a permanent answer to the
need for worldwide supplies of agricultural commodities, conventional farm chemotherapy threatens to kill the
patient through disruption of living soil ecosystems, and may very well send the rest of us to the gallows, our
bellies full with &the prisoners last meal&.
)n the context of this newsletter we will provide powerful statements from this nation's elected officials and
other leading authoritative critics of conventional farm chemotherapy. Bou will be privy to a battle being fought
in #ashington which has been unreported to the American people in one of the most curious media blackouts
we at the Gerson )nstitute have ever seen.
This nation's media are a mix of responsible genius, competence, incompetence, idiocy, and unethical behavior.
)t is a difficult !ob to sort out the truth from the propaganda, as often the !ournalists themselves are relatively
innocent and manipulated by apparent authorities.
This is an era in which 1ommissioner 2rank Boung of the 25A entered office in +,.@ touting the &anti(uack&
platform, a &safe& platform to be sure, but one which has no constructive essence. Anti(uackery is a bandwagon
easy to hop. Only last year, the 3os Angeles Times ran !ournalist Iohn :urst's insensitive and stupidly inaccurate
&(uack trashing& articles, attacking 1harlotte Gerson and 5r. 7ax Gerson. The 3A Times refused to print our
letters in response to :urst who was inspired by writers for the 9ational 1ouncil Against :ealth 2raud, a self
promoting group of &(uackbashing& grandstanders who seek to make them selves taller by cutting off the heads
of alternative practitioners.
This same media mentality has ignored the startling truth about pesticides and the inability of our regulatory
agencies to function. 1onse(uently, you will read 1ongressional testimony in these pages rather than those of
the nation's best newspapers.
)n addition to the bad news, in this issue we will paint the opposite scenario. #e will provide a sound rationale
for promoting the growth of an alternate system< an ecoagriculture, a sustainable agriculture, whose most
recogni"able and supportable form is accessible to the consumer in the rapidly growing infant known as the
&organic& farming and food production industry.
And in our next issue we will show that, while much underinvestigated, there is a growing body of evidence
which strongly suggests that certain of the organic methods of agriculture can indeed produce foods with
measurably higher nutrient contents. 9ot only is organic food free from poison, but it is more vital, and imparts
health as no chemically grown foods can possibly do.
The great 5r. Gerson was unafraid to make strong statements, even when he knew that they would evoke
controversy. :is language was clear, precise, and une(uivocal. )t is likely that the combined sciences will soon
echo his visionary language of +,-.<
&#e must conclude from these observations that unless the soil is cared for properly, the depleted soil with its
abnormal external metabolism will bring about more and more abnormalities of our internal metabolism,
resulting in serious degenerative diseases in animals and human beings. The soil needs activity the natural
cycle of growthF it needs protection from erosionF and finally, it needs less and less artificial fertili"er, but more
and more of the use of organic waste material in the correct way, to maintain the soil's productivity and life.
2ood produced in that way we have to eat as living substances, partly fresh and partly freshly prepared, for life
begets life. Organic gardening food seems to be the answer to the cancer problem.
4utrition $abe$in9 is bad 'or your hea$th
by Gar :ildenbrand
"4'cerpte& fro* the Gerson Healing e!sletter, 6ol. 5, o. 7, 7898)
) was asked recently by the editor of a proposed new scholarly (uarterly to prepare an article discussing the
historical beginnings of the Eecommended 5ietary Allowances /E5As0 and to compare their contemporary uses
to the purposes for which their originators created them. )n the process of creating an outline for the piece, ) read
thousands of pages from hundreds of articles dating from the +.%%'s through to the present.
E5As were developed to cope with the changes caused by #orld #ar )). 9ormal food supplies were disrupted,
new food supplies were available, large groups of people were being assembled in new locations. They were
also created to feed our soldiers and our civilian defense workers the &best& possible nutrition< nutrition not
simply to provide essentials for survival, but supernutrition to produce better fighters and a stronger nation.
To do this, E5As were intended to be used as measures of the (uality of whole foods, the &protective foods&,
fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and dairy, which had been long associated in the medical literature with disease
resistance, immunity, and physical prowess. *uitability of new crops for consumption was to be determined
by testing samples for known nutritional factors /e.g.F vitamins0. This )s almost directly analogous to an old time
riverboat navigator calling off depth readings. The &go ahead& reading was &mark twain&. Iust as there is much
more to a river than the measurement of a point at which its waters are deep enough to navigate, the E5A
originators recogni"ed that there is much more to whole foods than the known nutrients.
2urthermore, E5As were intended to identify nourishing whole foods to be purchased in massive (uantities for
groups, not for individuals. They were never intended to tell any individual how much of any vitamin should be
taken, nor were they intended to provide manufacturers formulae to &enrich& processed foods.
The savvy consumer should stop reading labels for &6itamin content.& 2ood constituents thought to be valuable
in the prevention of cancer are not even mentioned in ' the E5As. 1onsumers should eat according to the dietary
guidelines offered in this issue of the :ealing 9ewsletter. 4nriched manufactured or processed foods will never
be the nutritional e(uivalent of whole foods. 1onsumers should wisely go to the organic produce section,
bypassing the boxed, bagged, and canned foods. 3et us not be a nation of malnourished, vitaminwise idiots
savants.
Pesticides" Ho> bi9 is the prob$e&H
by Gar :ildenbrand
"4'cerpte& fro* the Gerson Healing e!sletter, 6ol. 5, o. 7, 7898)
The 8.*. food supply is awash in a sea of pesticide formulations. *ome of our crops are so thoroughly and
repeatedly drenched with poisons and solvents that they could practically float to produce warehouses like logs
down a river of chemicals.
)t is a familiar umbrage of doubt and suspicion which ) cast on pesticides and their manufacturers. 4xcellent
commentaries on the sub!ect have been recently written by 3awrie 7ott and Garen *nyder of the 9ational
Eesources 5efense 1ouncil /&>esticide Alert&, +,.;0, >ete >rice of the Assembly Office of Eesearch for the
*tate of 1alifornia /The )nvisible 5iet&, +,..0, and the 1ommittee on *cientific and Eegulatory )ssues
8nderlying >esticide 8se >atterns and Agricultural )nnovation of the ?oard on Agriculture of the 9ational
Eesearch 1ouncil of the 9ational Academy of *ciences /&Eegulating >esticides in 2ood< The 5elaney >aradox&,
+,.;0.
?ased on the prior labors of 5r. 7ax Gerson, 7.5., the Gerson )nstitute's involvement with, and vocal
opposition to, chronic pesticide abuse is as old as the pesticide industry itself. *ince early in the first half of this
century, Gerson advocated organic enrichment of food crop bearing soil and avoidance of chronic chemical
applications to food crops. )n a +,.- speech before the :istory 5ivision of the American 1hemical *ociety,
Albert 4instein 1ollege of 7edicine >rofessor of *urgery and ?iochemistry 5r. 4li *eifter recalled Gerson's
*enate Testimony of +,@-.
)n his address, entitled &The 1ontributions of 5r. 7ax Gerson to 9utritional 1hemistry&, professor *eifter
reviewed Gerson's advocacy of both the disease preventive and therapeutic use of fresh fruits and vegetables
grown without 55T and 1hlordane. Gerson also warned that crops treated with pesticides should not be
consumed.
At that time, according to *eifter, Gerson was ridiculed by members of the American 1ancer *ociety and the
8.*. >ublic :ealth *ervices. :owever, since that time, the American 1ancer *ociety has adopted Gerson's
dietary recommendations /with the notable exception of pesticide avoidance, and without credit to Gerson0, and
both 55T and 1hlordane, now known to be carcinogenic, have been banned for food application in the 8nited
*tates.
)f Gerson's early warnings were vindicated, why did our national policy makers not act to prevent further abuses
and to protect Americans from other chemical threatsD #hat is the history of the 8.*. Government's
involvement in the regulation of pest control poisonsD
Apparently, the ma!ority of legislators did not view pesticides as a problem. >erhaps they simply accepted the
manufacturers' empty assurance, &)t washes off.
The 8.*. 2ederal )nsecticide Act has been a matter of law since +,+%. ?ut 'it was not designed to protect
consumers against contaminated food. )nstead, it was intended by 1ongress to protect farmers against fraudulent
promotions of adulterated pesticides. At that time, many arsenic compounds were used which were later proven
to have terrible health conse(uences and were subse(uently banned in the 8.*.
The concept of residual chemicals found in the food supply was not a matter of concern in #ashington for
nearly thirty years.
Although a +,A. Amendment to the 2ederal 2ood, 5rug, and 1osmetic Act /251A0 first reflected concern for
consumers by addressing tolerance levels for pesticide residues, pesticides were not regulated for consumer
protection, for practical purposes, until +,@;. The vehicle for regulation which was passed in +,@; was a very
weak 2ederal )nsecticide, 2ungicide, and Eodenticide Act /2)2EA0 which re(uired registration through the 8.*.
5epartment of Agriculture /8*5A0.
2)2EA was so weak that the 8*5A was impotent. 4ven if 8*5A considered an applicant's pesticide ha"ardous,
the manufacturer could obtain a socalled &protest registration& to keep the pesticide on the market.
8nbelievably, 8.*. taxpayers were obliged to eat probable poisons and to pay for 8.*. Government sponsored
testing to prove them dangerous before they could be removed from the market.
*ixteen years from the introduction of the concept of food tolerances, the +,-@ &7iller Amendment& to 251A,
at last, re(uired 25A to prove pesticides effective and to set tolerances on raw foods. >ublic awareness of the
problem of pesticides in food was stimulated by the +,'$ publication of Eachel 1arson's powerful &*ilent
*pring&. #ithin less than two years, the +,'@ Amendments to 2)2EA put an end to &protest registration& of
ha"ardous pesticides. *ubstantial modification of 2)2EA also sharply curtailed pesticide manufacturing
industries' ability to promulgate chemicals which would in!ure life forms other than the intended targets.
)n +,;%, as part of something called &Eeorgani"ation >lan UA&, the 4nvironmental >rotection Agency was put in
charge of 2)2EA. 4>A is still in charge of registering pesticides and setting tolerances.
The 2ederal 4nvironmental >esticide 1ontrol Act /24>1A0 of +,;$ was created under the banner of consumer
protection, but actually accomplished (uite the opposite. This piece of legislation cast in concrete the abstract,
scientifically unsound assumption that chronic pesticide use brought with it a benefit great enough to offset
harm to the consumer.
The unfortunate language of 24>1A compels the 4>A to register a pesticide if &when used in accordance with
widespread and commonly accepted practice, it will not cause unreasonable adverse effects on man or the
environment, taking into account the economic, social and environmental costs and benefits of the use of any
pesticide&.
Assuming that the diseases caused by pesticides will be birth defects, frank mutations, neurological damage,
immune incompetence, and cancer, to name a few, we must ask< #hen is it &reasonable& to cause these diseases
in even one personD
These manmade, one might even say industrially sponsored, and socalled &reasonable& diseases of humankind
and the environment are altogether abominableF the more so with our knowledge of the rational and forward
thinking return to economically, socially, and environmentally successful low input /read low chemical0
sustainable agriculture bellwethered by the unsung heroes of America, our independent farmers.
*cientists are currently unable to predict the carcinogenic, mutagenic, andJor teratogenic risks inherent in
chronic exposures to low levels of do"ens and do"ens of probably interactive chemicals. There are far too many
variables. 2unding for epidemiology is worse than inade(uate, and no one thanks a researcher for doing the
work.
?ut our federal laws command 4>A to find that known and suspected dangers of chemicals in our food and
environment are balanced by short term gains in limited segments of the economy. 7etaphorically, 4>A has
been ordered to go to :eaven by hopping aboard a :ellbound handbasket.
7y critics might argue that ) am mistaken regarding the legislative intent and effect of 2)2EA, so ) hasten to
point out that 2)2EA re(uired 4>A to purchase unsafe pesticides in order to remove them from the market. 4>A
has compensated offending manufacturers with at least P$% million already. #ould a 1ongress interested in
protecting the consumer have forced taxpayers to support the manufacture of suspected poisonsD
This practice would have continued had not the recent 1ongress moved to place the ma!ority of financial burden
on the chemical manufacturers instead of the taxpayer. )n late +,.., 1ongress amended 2)2EA to re(uire
manufacturers to contribute to the toxicological evaluation of their chemicals which had gained registration
before current testing criteria had been developed. 8nder the new law, firms will be assessed fees from P-%
thousand up to P+-% thousand.
The +,.. legislation also established a nine year deadline for completion by 4>A of reviews and evaluation of
toxic health risks of pesticides, some of which have been in use for decades now. )n +,;$, 4>A was ordered to
review and evaluate some @%% active pesticide ingredients. 9one of those studies have been completed as of the
date of publication of this issue of :ealing
The apparent progress of the above legislation was dealt a stunning setback on October +$, +,.., when the 4>A
announced an end to a A%year ban on carcinogenic pesticides known to concentrate in !uicing and cooking of
fruits and vegetables. 4>A's rationale for this anticonsumerJproindustry move was that it had adopted a
&negligible risk& policy developed by the 9ational Academy of *ciences.
)n this writer's opinion, 4>A is wrong to characteri"e the &negligible risk& scenario of 9A* as a scientific
recommendation. 4>A chose one of four scenarios 9A* offered in an attempt to consider both the purely
scientific issues involved in chronic pesticide use and the confusing socioeconomic concept of &balancing&
human health risks against perceived economic benefits. The four 9A* scenarios depicted a range of options
which included, allow me to stress this, a complete ban of all oncogenic chemical applications to food. 4>A was
free to choose that option, and a similar &"erorisk& scenario which focused on residues in processed foods. 9A*
did not, and could not, tell 4>A what to do. 4>A's directors decided to deregulate carcinogenic pesticides.
4>A was wrong to do this.
?ut that is where we stand today. 1hemicals have been sanctioned by the 8.*. Government at levels considered
unreasonable and unsafe by many experts. That is not to say that there is harmony in the government regarding
these issues.
The fur is flying at 4>A and 25A. 5uring April of +,.;, the powerful 1hairman Iohn 5ingell of the 8.*. :ouse
of Eepresentatives' 4nergy and 1ommerce 1ommittee /which controls the budgets for the 9ational )nstitutes of
:ealth0 held grueling hearings into what 5ingell characteri"ed as &serious deficiencies in the 2ederal pesticide
monitoring program&. The hearings were held by the 4nergy and 1ommerce *ubcommittee on Oversight and
)nvestigations. Eepresentatives #axman,
*ikorski, #yden and others !oined the :on. 7r. 5ingell, who also chairs the *ubcommittee, in a roast of the
25A and its 1ommissioner 2rank Boung.
#hy has the national press remained silent on these investigationsD #e are certain that our readers will want to
know what is being said and done, and by whom. *o, we are certain, should readers of the 9ew Bork Times, the
#ashington >ost, the 3A Times, the 5es 7oines Eegister, and others. Eeaders, why not write your local
press corps and in(uire regarding their lack of knowledgeJinterest in this sub!ectD >erhaps you might stimulate
them to look into 'it.
As the hearings opened, the :onorable 7r. :enry #axman, 8.*. Eepresentative from 1alifornia, spoke
pointedly saying, &The American people want to believe that our food, whether produced here or abroad, is free
from unsafe pesticide residues. They want to believe that our Government is doing all that is necessary to
protect them. The record compiled to date by 4>A and 25A leaves me with little confidence that the public is
getting what it wants and deserves. The most generous characteri"ation of our current situation is, simply put,
we !ust don't know if our food is safe.
&:ow can we be in this intolerable predicamentD The 2ederal 2ood, 5rug, and 1osmetic Act mandates that 4>A
allow pesticide residues to remain on food only if they are safe to consume. Bet, according to testimony by 4>A
before the *ubcommittee on :ealth and 4nvironment last summer, 4>A has complete scientific data for
approximately +% percent of the fooduse pesticides currently being applied to our crops. 7ost pesticides still
face years of additional testing before 4>A will have the necessary data to make a regulatory decision.
&)n addition, 4>A can only speculate about the safety of many of the inactive ingredients used in pesticides and
about the metabolites and breakdown products of the currently used active ingredients. The bottom line is that
4>A approved pesticide residue levels are outdated and unsupported by scientific data.= Bet, farmers apply
pesticides every day with the intention of staying within these 4>A regulatory limits.
&To make a bad situation even worse, we can only hope that our food contains no more than the 4>Aset residue
levels because the 25A cannot tell us with certainty that our food meets even the inade(uate 4>A standards.&
The :onorable Eon #yden, 8.*. Eepresentative from Oregon, observed in his opening statements that &/T0he
8.*. system for inspecting food is a nonsystem. )mported foods tainted with dangerous pesticides slip by the
2ood and 5rug Administration because virtually none of this food is tested. Eather than protecting the American
public, our food inspection system forces Americans to play Eussian roulette at the grocery store. All too often,
adulterated food is permitted on the shelves of our supermarkets before 2ood and 5rug Administration test
results are in.
&#hen imported food arrives in this country, the 2ood and 5rug Administration inspectors don't sample a fair
cross section of that food. 7any pesticides found on foods from ma!or exporting countries have been banned or
considered serious health ha"ards in this country. These toxic chemicals have often been overlooked by the 2ood
and 5rug Administration.
&The inspectors tend to focus on high volume foods, leaving the low volume foods unexamined. 2or example, in
fiscal years +,.A through +,.-, @' million pounds of raspberries entered our ports and only two samples were
collectedF $-+ million pounds of yams were imported into this country and only $@ samples were taken.
&?y the time the 2ood and 5rug Administration discovers a violation, the food usually has been eaten. The 25A
doesn't fine the importers and can't fine the growers.
&#ho loses in the Eussian roulette gameD Obviously, the consumer, but often the American farmer, who has to
compete against foreign growers who use those chemicals banned in this country.&
The most colorful and effective opening remarks were made by the gifted and :onorable Gerry *ikorski, 8.*.
Eepresentative from 7innesota< &5uring the last +- or $% years, we have learned a great deal about dangerous
chemicals in the foods we eat and the beverages we drink. #e have had cancercausing cyclamates in diet soda,
45?'s in cake mixes, sulfites in our salad bars, and red dye 9o. $ in crimson 7V7's.
&The result of all this knowledge has been, or so we thought, a safer diet. *ome additives have been banned.
Although some dubious ones remained on the market, at least we could act as informed consumers, knowing
what foods to avoid. #e could always go natural, to fruits and vegetables and such.
&)t's spring, and we are pulling out the picnic baskets and, as surely as summer follows spring, a se(uel to
&Iaws& follows the *ports )llustrated swimsuit edition. And now, !ust when we thought it was safe to go back
into the grocery store, it turns out that the safest waters, our fresh fruits and vegetables, have become infested
with angry chemical sharks.
&Our regulatory lifeguard, the 25A, has known about the presence of these chemicals in imported foods for
many years. The American consumer remains an unwary swimmer. #e have a pesticide suspected of causing
gene mutations, cancer, and birth defects, benomyl, in bananas,& health risks associated with many
pesticides.
H 4>A lacks the data with which to determine safe residue limits for many pesticides.
H 4>A lacks data regarding health ha"ards of &inert& pesticide formula ingredients, such as solvents like $
methoxyethanol which has been shown to produce adverse reproductive, and developmental toxicity, effects in
lab animals. /There are about +,$%% &inert& ingredients in approximately -%,%%% pesticide formulations0.
H 4>A lacks data regarding health ha"ards of pesticides in groundwater. 7inimal groundwater testing has
identified +; pesticide chemicals. ;% currently used pesticides are suspected of being capable of leaching into
groundwaters.
H 4xisting tolerances for A,% of the @%% pesticide chemicals now registered were set without all the data 4>A
now believes is necessary to assess health risks according to current scientific standards.
H 4>A, at the rate it is moving, cannot possibly complete registration and tolerance reassessment of the A,%
incompletely documented chemicals in less than $%A% years.
Accompanying 7r. >each was 9ational Eesources 5efense 1ouncil *enior *cientist, 3awrie 7ott. Along with
colleague Garen *nyder, 7s. 7ott written &>esticide Alert& which was published last year. 7s. 7ott is a
molecular biochemist, trained at Bale 8niversity.
)n her testimony 7s. 7ott explained, &Often tolerances are established /by 4>A0 without sufficient toxicological
data to assure that the levels chosen are safe /or human exposure. )n some cases when data do exist, they are
inade(uate, invalid, or even fabricated.
&2urther, when developing tolerances 4>A has relied on arbitrary assumptions about what constitutes an average
diet, and what safety factors should be used. Tolerances are rarely revised when new scientific information is
received about a pesticide. )nert ingredients and other chemicals of toxicological concerns such as metabolites
or breakdown products that may leave residues in food are not considered in tolerances.
&7any pesticide tolerances were established without information on the chemical's potential to cause cancer,
birth defects, sterility or genetic mutation. 2or example, by the end of fiscal year +,.-, 4>A had reviewed
tolerances for ++; active ingredients through their registration standards program. Only four registration stan
dards identified tolerances as ade(uate and fully supported by the necessary health and safety data. 2ourteen
registration standards revealed that the public's maximum potential exposure to the pesticide in food may exceed
the amount considered safe to ingest.
&2or instance, 4>A calculated that the maximum potential dietary exposure to the insecticide lindane exceeds
the acceptable daily intake by ;,..A percent. 2orchlorpyrifos, ethion and endosulfan, pesticides found com
monly in food, the potential human exposure exceeded the acceptable daily intake by A+A percent, $-.
percent, and +@% percent, respectively.
&2or $A other chemicals, the registration standards indicated that 4>A had insufficient data to determine the
amount of residues considered safe to ingest. 9onetheless, these chemicals are continuing to be used on food.
&Another issue rendering 4>A's tolerance setting system ineffective is the complete failure to regulate the inert
ingredients contained in pesticide products.
&Eecently, 4>A reviewed the +,$%% commonly used inerts to identify the chemicals of toxicological concern. As
a result, the Agency developed two lists of approximately +%% inert ingredients that present human health risks.
&3ist one contained inerts of toxicological concern, and list two contained the inerts that are potentially toxic
based on structural similarities to compounds already known to be ha"ardous.
&/The 9ational Eesources 5efense 1ouncil0 has learned that at least A% of these pernicious inerts have received
exemptions from tolerances...These exempted chemicals that may be occurring as residues in our food include
the carcinogens ben"ene, epichlorohydrin, formaldehyde, methylene chloride, and vinyl chloride.
&At best, 25A's five scans can cumulatively detect approximately @% percent of the chemicals that may leave
residues in our food. *ome of these chemicals that cannot be detected include the dangerous pesticides benomyl,
damino"ide, the 4?51's, para(uat, 5?1>, and dinoseb. )n fact, approximately @% percent of all the pesticides
classified by 25A as having a moderate to high health ha"ard cannot be detected by any of the five multiresidue
scans.&
7s. 7ott stated strongly a point with which the Gerson )nstitute fully agrees, &5ue to the numerous weaknesses
in 4>A's tolerances that ) discussed earlier, the public cannot assume that only residues in excess of tolerances
are dangerous. ?etween the fiscal years +,.$ and +,.-. 25A analy"ed approximately $%,%%% samples of $'
kinds of commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. >esticide residues were detected in @. percent of all the
foods monitored. And this number probably understates the extent of pesticide residues in our food because the
25A's routine methods for detecting chemicals only detect about half of the chemicals used on our foods.&
One particularly revealing moment occurred during an exchange between Eep. #yden and 7r. Gevin 5onohue,
group director from GAO. Eep. #yden had asked whether there were holes in the Total 5iet *tudy, or 7arket
?asket
*tudy. )n +,.A, 25A Associate 1ommissioner Ioseph :ile had haled it as &effective in showing over the years
that the American consumer's dietary exposure to pesticide residues has been consistently below acceptable
limits of exposure set by the #orld :ealth Organi"ation&. After issuance of a critical GAO report in +,.',
*ecretary ?owen claimed that the Total 5iet *tudy showed that &the 8.*. consumer is hot being exposed to
harmful levels of pesticide residues&.
7r. 5onohue responded< &#hat they do in the Total 5iet *tudy is that they take a market basket from various
grocery stores in different parts of the country. This is done four times a year in four different parts of the
country. Then they run the food through a series of tests. 2rom the information available to us, the same
problems we found in 25A's pesticide monitoring program exist in the Total 5iet *tudy. That is, heavy reliance
on the multiresidue test.
&2or instance, the records according to 25A files, show that the 4?51 is not tested in the Total 5iet *tudy.
&One of the other things is that they have made some improvements since +,;,. At that time, they were
targeting three age groups. 1urrently they are targeting eight. 2or instance, maybe the ma!ority of the people on
the subcommittee today are not covered by that. )n other words, the category of people A+ to -, is not covered.&
Eep. #yden asked, &Am ) to understand that the coverage of the Total 5iet *tudy excludes the high health
ha"ard pesticides which are not covered by multiresidue methods, such as the 4?51'sD&
&That's right,& said 7r. 5onohue, &they have not tested 4?51's at all.&
Eep. *ikorski, the colorful speaker who had earlier displayed tomatoes and bananas, offered an important
observation, &) think it's important to remember that what we're talking about are not things that show up on the
outside. )f you peel this banana, you're not free from the problem. )t's in the actual meat. #hen you peel the
banana, you're !ust getting to the problem. #hen you eat the tomato, you can wash it in the sink, which you
should do, but we're talking about systemic compounds whose residues are within the food itself.&
*hortly afterward, biochemist 7ott added, &/*0ome chemicals will penetrate, no matter how they are applied,
they will translocate. Other chemicals, if you apply them late in the growing season, will only be on the surface,
whereas if you apply them in the early season they will penetrate the entire fruit.
'The other problem is that even if the residues are limited to the surface, many chemicals are designed not to be
watersoluble, because /pesticide manufacturers0 don't want them to wash off the plant in the field. /They0 want
to have the effect on the target. *o washing won't even remove residues that may be limited to the surface.
&#hat consumers should do is they should try to buy locally grown produce in season. They may want to avoid
food that is shipped great distances that could have been treated to prevent spoilage during travel. And also, )
would recommend that consumers ask their supermarkets if they can stock organically grown food.
&2or example, all +$- *afeway stores in the 8nited Gingdom sell organically grown produce. There is
organically grown produce available in varying degrees throughout our 9ation, and the food industry should
consider marketing it along with commercial produce.&
The Gerson )nstitute !oins with the 9ational Eesources 5efense 1ouncil in urging consumers to purchase
organically grown foods. 1onsumers should step out of the role of the unwitting or unwilling victim. *top
relying on the 8.*. Government to force the pesticide industry to change. #e must make the changes ourselves.
The 8.*. government must follow the will of the people. And industry cannot sell chemically grown and
poisonous produce to people who will not buy it. 5on't buy itO
G$ossary"
A1T)64 )9GE45)49T< An ingredient in a pesticide product that destroys or controls a pest. 1AE1)9OG49<
A substance or mixture of substances that produces or incites cancer in a living tissue.
289G)1)54< 1hemicals used to kill or suppress the growth of all fungi or a certain fungus /mushrooms, molds,
mildews, rusts, etc0.
:4E?)1)54< A class of pesticide used to kill or suppress the growth of all or a certain type of plant.
)334GA3 E4*)584< The presence of an active ingredient in ammounts above the tolerance on a crop at
harvest. )n some cases, any amount of chemical present on the crop is considered illegal if no tolerance exists
for the pesticide on the commodity. )94ET )9GE45)49T< A substance contained in a pesticide product or
formulation that is not intended to kill or control the target pest but rather used to dissolve, dilute, propel, or
stabili"e the active ingredient in the pesticide product.
)9*41T)1)54< A class of pesticide that prevents, destroys, repels or mitigates insects. 78TAG49< A
substance or agent that produces genetic changes in living cells.
O91OG49)1)TB< The tendency for the development of tumors in organisms exposed to a chemical substance.
>4E*)*T49T >4*T)1)54*<
>esticides that remain in the environment and do not degrade or metaboli"e to innocuous constituents for
months or perhaps years.
>4*T)1)54< A general term /or chemical or biological products used to destroy pestsF /unwanted0 insects,
plants, fungi, rodents, bacteria, or other organisms. E4G)*TEAT)O9< 3icenses for specified uses of pesticide
products. A pesticide product registration sets the terms and conditions of the use that the product, including the
directions and precautions for use outlined on the product label. All pesticides must be registered by 4>A before
they can be sold to the public. E4E4G)*TEAT)O9< A reassessment of previously registered pesticides
according to current scientific standards.
*B94EG)*7< The tendency of chemicals acting in combination to produce effects greater than the sum of the
effects of the individual chemicals. TO34EA914< The maximum amount of pesticide residue that is legally
permitted in a food. 4>A sets a distinct residue limit for each individual food to which the pesticide may be
applied. TOQ)1)TB< The harmful effects produced by a chemical.
3 !o''ee %ne&aH 4o> I;=e Heard
%=erythin9.
The 5offee @ne)aI 6hat does it doL, how does it wor+L
by Gar :ildenbrand
"4'cerpte& fro* the Gerson Healing e!sletter :7,, .ay-;une 7898)
)t is difficult to describe the incredulous facial expressions which ripple across a medical school lecture
audience as the topic of coffee enemas is introduced. 4mbarrassed sniggering is heard from several seats in the
hall.
A wise guy heckles, &:ow do you take itD& 1harlotte Gerson doesn't miss a beat, answering &?lack without
cream and sugar.& 3aughter relaxes the entire room and Gerson goes on to explain this aspect of her famous
father's /7ax Gerson, 7.5.0 treatment< A tablespoons of dripgrind coffee, boiled in a (uart of distilled water for
A minutes, covered and simmered for +- minutes, cooled to body temperature, filtered, and admitted to the colon
using a '.& tip while lying on the right side. This is held for +$+- minutes and released.
Eesponses from the audience are typical< &?oy, )'ll bet you get a bu"" out of thatO& &1ouldn't you !ust drink three
or four cups of coffeeD&
And the eventual &big (uestion& is &#hat does it doD& &#hy go to all that trouble !ust for a caffeine highD& The
coffee enema is, without (uestion, the most unusual part of Gerson's combined regime /+0, and often evokes
astonishment and mirth in persons who have never experienced an enema and who emphatically prefer to drink
their coffee. >ractitioners and patients who have had experience with coffee enemas, however, know that they
are far more than a means of introducing stimulating caffeine into the bloodstream. 2rom the patient's point of
view, the coffee enema means relief from depression, confusion, general nervous tension, many allergy related
symptoms and, most importantly, relief from severe pain.
)n +,.+, writing in 7edical :ypotheses /$0, 7ark 2. 7c1arty pointed out that &At a *enate *elect
*ubcommittee hearing on cancer research in +,@' /A0, five independent 7.5.s who had had personal experience
with patients treated by Gerson, submitted letters indicating that they had been surprised and encouraged by the
results they had seen, and urged a widespread trial of the method /@0. One of these doctors claimed that relief of
severe pain was achieved in about ,%C of cases. 9o controlled trial of Gerson's methods has ever been under
taken.&
The coffee enema has a very specific purpose< lowering serum toxins. 5r. >eter 3echner, who conducted a trial
of the Gerson cancer therapy in the postsurgical treatment of livermetastasi"ed colorectal cancers under the
aegis of the 3andeskrankenhaus of Gra", Austria, reported /-0 in +,.@ &1offee enemas have a definite effect on
the colon which can be observed with an endoscope. #attenberg and coworkers were able to prove in +,.+ that
the palmitic acid found in coffee promotes the activity of glutathione *transferase and other ligands by
manyfold times above the norm. )t is this en"yme group which is responsible primarily for the con!ugation of
free electrophile radicals which the gall bladder will then release.&
The importance of this action of coffee enemas is best described against the background of modern concepts of
cell ion and water content.
)n most, probably all, chronic degenerative diseases there exists a &tissue damage syndrome& first described by
1ope /'0. #hen cells are challenged by poison, oxygen starvation, malnutrition, or trauma /a physical blow0, a
uniform set of reactions takes place< cells a0 lose potassium, b0 accept excess sodium and chloride, and c0 swell
with excess water.
According to the work of 3ing, recently summari"ed in his monograph &)n *earch of the >hysical ?asis of 3ife&
/3ing, G.9., >lenum >ress, 9ew Bork, +,.@0, the cellular cytoplasm is latticed with a proteinlipid
macromolecule
through which an electron current flows. 4nergystoring adenosine triphosphate /AT>0, the main product of
metabolism, is complexed with this macromolecule, polari"ing and energi"ing it, and forming many interactive,
cooperative association sites which prefer potassium over sodium.
)n a resting, healthy cell with sufficient AT>, water is highly organi"ed in polari"ed multiple layers forming an
&icelike& structure. #ater and ice are different not because their molecules are different, but because their mole
cules relate differently.
According to 3ing's Association)nduction :ypothesis, being &alive& re(uires not only the presence of the
right composition of chemical compounds, but also re(uires that they be maintained in special electronic and
steric /atomic spatial0 relationships. The living state is a high energy state in the same sense as a cocked gun, a
drawn bow, or a set mousetrap.
)n the living cell, potassium and nearly all water /except that in vacuoles, etc.0 is in an adsorbed state. >otassium
is preferentially adsorbed on the betaand gamma carboxyl groups of certain cellular proteins while water is
adsorbed in polari"ed multilayers on a matrix of extended protein chains. 3ow levels of sodium in the cell are
due to the reduced solubility of structured water. This mechanism also contains water content.
1ope reasoned that challenge to the cell by toxins, oxygen starvation, malnutrition, or trauma will result in an
altered molecular configuration state in which the macromolecule will lose its preference for potassium. *odium
competes with potassium for association sites )n damaged cells.
3oss of cell potassium and increase of cell sodium in turn results in decreased electron flow through the
macromolecule. This in turn causes decreased attraction of paramagnetic ions and subse(uent disorgani"ation of
water molecules. ?ecause bulk phase water, structured in a highenergy state, is the main mechanism controlling
cell water content and purity, any disturbance in water structuring will result in the cell swelling with excess
water and extracellular solutes.
Once the internal environment of the cell is polluted with excess water and extracellular materials,
mitochondrial production of AT> is greatly impaired with the result that cells cannot produce sufficient energy
to repair themselves unless the challenge is removed.
4ndogenous serum toxins can be generated by cells >ith impaired metabolism, by bacteria, and by malignant
cells. 97E studies have suggested that surrounding active malignancies there may often be a sphere of
damaged normal tissue in which water structuring is impaired by the chronic insult of tumor toxins. 4nergy
production and immunity are depressed in these cells which are swollen with excess salt and water. *uch dam
aged tissue has decreased circulation because oversi"ed edematous cells crowd arterioles, capillaries, and lymph
ducts.
Gerson taught that improved circulation and tissue integrity would prevent spread and, in fact, cause the
destruction of malignant tumors. :e held as axiomatic the observation that no cancer could exist in normal
metabolism. A favorite example of his was the well known resistance of healthy lab models to tumor transplants.
*uch transplanted tumors are (uickly killed in many cases by inflammation in the healthy host. )n order to cause
transplanted tumors to &take& easily, it is necessary to impair the metabolism of the host by damaging the thyroid
and adrenal glands. Gerson's efforts were directed toward creating a near normal metabolism in tissues
surrounding tumors.
*uch protective liver and gut en"yme systems are probably enhanced many fold by coffee enemas. 4ditors of
>hysiological 1hemistry and >hysics stated /;0 &1affeine enemas cause dilation of bile ducts, which facilitates
excretion of toxic cancer breakdown products by the liver and dialysis of toxic products from blood across the
coionic wall.&
4n"yme systems in the liver and small bowel are responsible for conversion and neutrali"ation of the most
common tissue toxins, polyamines, ammonia, toxicbound nitrogen, and electrophiles, all of which can cause
cell and membrane damage.
)n the late +,;%'s and early +,.%s, researchers in the lab of 3ee #attenberg /.+A0 identified salts of palmitic
acids /kahweol and cafestol palmitate0 in coffee as potent enhancers of glutathione *transferase, a ma!or
detoxification system that cataly"es the binding of a vast variety of electrophiles from the blood stream to the
sulfhydryl group of glutathione. ?ecause the reactive ultimate carcinogenic forms of chemicals are electrophiles,
the glutathione *transferase system must be regarded as an important mechanism for carcinogen detoxification.
)n mice, this system is enhanced '%%C in the liver and ;%%C in the small bowel when coffee beans are added to
their diet. ?ecause this system in lab models is close, if not directly analogous, to that of humans a parallel
stimulation by coffee of glutathione *transferase in humans is probable.
#ith this rationale in mind, we can expand on Gerson's hypothesi"ed physiological actions and effects of coffee
enemas. Gerson wrote that :eubner and 7eyer of Geottingen 8niversity, Germany, had shown in animal
models that rectal administration of caffeine would dilate bile ducts and promote bile flow. The introduction of a
(uart of coffee solution into the colon will dilute portal blood and, subse(uently, the bile.
Theophylline and theobromine, ma!or constituents of coffee, dilate blood vessels and counter inflammation of
the gut. The palmitates of coffee enhance glutathione *transferase which is responsible for the removal of many
toxic radicals from serum. 2inally, the fluid of the enema itself stimulates the visceral nervous system promoting
peristalsis and the transit of diluted toxic bile from the duodenum out the rectum. ?ecause the stimulating enema
is retained for +- minutes, and because ail the blood in the body passes through the liver nearly every three
minutes, these enemas represent a form of dialysis of blood across the gut wall.
)t is obvious in light of the above that oral administration of beverage coffee cannot have the same effect. On the
contrary, it virtually insures reabsorption of toxic bile.
As a medication, the coffee enema is in a class by itself. #hile other agents classed as choleretics do increase
bile flow from the liver, they do little to enhance detoxifying en"yme systems, and they do not ensure the
passage of bile from the intestines out the rectum. ?ile is normally reabsorbed up to , or +% times before
working its way out the intestines in feces. The en"yme enhancing ability of the coffee enema is uni(ue among
choleretics. ?ecause it does not allow reabsorption of toxic bile by the liver across the gut wall, it is an entirely
effective means of detoxifying the blood stream through existing en"yme systems in the liver and small bowel.
?ecause clinical practice has
shown coffee enemas to be well tolerated by patients when used as fre(uently as every four hours, the coffee
enema may be classed as the only nonreabsorbed, effective, repeatable choleretic in the medical literature.
These enemas are safe when used within the context of the combined regime of Gerson. )t is apparent that
Gerson's intention in supplying a sodium restricted, high potassium, high micronutrient dietary of fruits,
vegetables, and whole grains, was to supply all nutrients, known and unknown, which are necessary for cell
respiration and energy production. :igh potassium, low sodium environments tend to return cell
macromolecules to normal configuration states and to improve water structuring and water content. The addition
by Gerson of supplemental salts of potassium /acetate, gluconate, and phosphate monobasic0 to the diet in which
malate is supplied by fre(uent use of apples probably greatly improves the efficiency of the Greb's cycle in
mitochondrial energy production. >rotein restriction, employed by Gerson as a temporary aspect of treatment,
has been observed empirically since before the turn of the century to aid in the reduction of cellular edema.
Administration of high loading dosages of thyroid and 3ugol's solution /iodine and potassium iodide in dilute
solution0 probably result in multiplication of mitochondria, which have their own 59A and E9A and replicate
independently of the cell. Additionally, thyroid is known to enhance cell oxidation of sugars and therefore AT>
production. )n this way cell energy production is probably markedly increased.
Through these mechanisms,
the therapy of 5r. 7ax Gerson appears to a0 reduce serum toxins to eliminate chronic challenge to damaged
normal cells, b0 improve cell potassium ion content, c0 reduce cell sodium content, d0 reduce cell swelling
through improved water structuring, e0 increase cell mitochondria count and activity, and f0 supply
micronutrients necessary for cell energy production and repair. The contribution of low serum toxin levels by
regular administration of coffee enemas is basic to increased cell energy production, enhanced tissue integrity,
improved circulation, improved immunity, and improved tissue repair and regeneration which have been
observed clinically to result from the administration of the combined regime of Gerson.