You are on page 1of 7

pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer?

Try out the HTML to PDF API
Featured Research from universities, journals, and other organizations
Date:
Source:
Summary:
September 4, 2014
Drexel University
The new 65-ton (59,300 kg) dinosaur species Dreadnoughtus schrani is
the largest land animal for which body mass can be accurately
calculated. Its skeleton is the most complete ever found of its type, with
over 70 percent of the bones, excluding the head, represented. Because
all previously discovered supermassive dinosaurs are known from
relatively fragmentary remains, Dreadnoughtus offers an unprecedented
window into the anatomy and biomechanics of the largest animals to
ever walk the Earth.
Share This
Related Topics
Dreadnoughtus: Gigantic, exceptionally complete sauropod dinosaur
Save/Print: R ® _ f V m _ Share:
Breaking News:
Ultra Sensitive Biosensor Developed
_ Email to a friend ·
f Facebook ·
V Twitter ·
m LinkedIn ·
_ Google+ ·
® Print this page ·
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins
Mobile: $ iPhone ¶ Android J Web Follow: ¶ Facebook Q Twitter ® Google+ Subscribe: m RSS Feeds Q Email Newsletters
w HEALTH PHYSICAL/TECH ENVIRONMENT Search Enter keyword or phrase ... QUIRKY SOCIETY/EDUCATION
pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API
Credit: Kenneth Lacovara [Click to enlarge image]
S
A US-Argentinian team led by Drexel University's Kenneth Lacovara, PhD,
excavated the skeleton of Dreadnoughtus schrani from southern Patagonia over
four field seasons from 2005 through 2009. The completeness and articulated
nature of the two skeletons they found are evidence that these individuals were
buried in sediments rapidly before their bodies fully decomposed.
cientists have discovered and described a new supermassive dinosaur
species with the most complete skeleton ever found of its type. At 85
feet (26 m) long and weighing about 65 tons (59,300 kg) in life,
Dreadnoughtus schrani is the largest land animal for which a body mass can
be accurately calculated. Its skeleton is exceptionally complete, with over 70
percent of the bones, excluding the head, represented. Because all
previously discovered supermassive dinosaurs are known only from relatively
fragmentary remains, Dreadnoughtus offers an unprecedented window into
the anatomy and biomechanics of the largest animals to ever walk the Earth.
"Dreadnoughtus schrani was astoundingly huge,"
said Kenneth Lacovara, PhD, an associate professor
in Drexel University's College of Arts and Sciences,
who discovered the Dreadnoughtus fossil skeleton in
southern Patagonia in Argentina and led the
excavation and analysis. "It weighed as much as a
Related Topics
Plants & Animals
Earth & Climate
Fossils & Ruins
Related Articles
More Coverage
T. Rex Times Seven: New
Dinosaur Species Is
Discovered in Argentina
Sep. 4, 2014 — Scientists have discovered and
described a new supermassive dinosaur species
with the most complete skeleton ever found of its
type. At 85 feet long and weighing about 65 tons in
life, Dreadnoughtus ... · read more
Related Stories
'Pocket Sauropod' Sheds Light
on Giant's Evolution
June 12, 2014 — A new study
presents a detailed description of the
skull bones of a dwarf sauropod,
together with an updated reconstruction of an adult
Europasaurus skull. At 40 meters long and 100
tons in weight, ... · full story
New Dinosaur Found in
Portugal, Largest Terrestrial
Predator from Europe
Mar. 5, 2014 — A new dinosaur
species found in Portugal may be the
largest land predator discovered in
Europe, as well as one of the largest carnivorous
dinosaurs from the Jurassic. T. gurneyi had blade-
shaped ... · full story
Anatomist Is Fleshing out Dinosaur Heads,
Reaching People About Science
Apr. 22, 2013 — Accurately depicting dinosaur
anatomy has come a long way since the science
fiction films of the ... · full story
Plant-Eating Dinosaur
Discovered in Antarctica
AFINITOR®
(everolimus)
afinitor.com
Important Information
New Species ·
Extinction ·
Rainforests ·
Global Warming ·
Dinosaurs ·
Ancient DNA ·
Brachiosaurus ·
Tyrannosaurus ·
Hadrosaurus ·
Bone ·
Sperm Whale ·
Insect ·
pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API
dozen African elephants or more than seven T. rex.
Shockingly, skeletal evidence shows that when this
65-ton specimen died, it was not yet full grown. It is
by far the best example we have of any of the most
giant creatures to ever walk the planet."
Lacovara and colleagues published the detailed
description of their discovery, defining the genus and
species Dreadnoughtus schrani, in the journal
Scientific Reports from the Nature Publishing Group
today. The new dinosaur belongs to a group of large
plant eaters known as titanosaurs. The fossil was
unearthed over four field seasons from 2005 through 2009 by Lacovara and a team
including Lucio M. Ibiricu, PhD, of the Centro Nacional Patagonico in Chubut,
Argentina, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History's Matthew Lamanna, PhD, and
Jason Poole of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, as well as many
current and former Drexel students and other collaborators.
Over 100 elements of the Dreadnoughtus skeleton are represented from the type
specimen, including most of the vertebrae from the 30-foot-long tail, a neck vertebra
with a diameter of over a yard, scapula, numerous ribs, toes, a claw, a small section of
jaw and a single tooth, and, most notably for calculating the animal's mass, nearly all
the bones from both forelimbs and hindlimbs including a femur over 6 feet tall and a
humerus. A smaller individual with a less-complete skeleton was also unearthed at the
site.
The 'gold standard' for calculating the mass of quadrupeds (four-legged animals) is
based on measurements taken from the femur (thigh bone) and humerus (upper arm
bone). Because the Dreadnoughtus type specimen includes both these bones, its
weight can be estimated with confidence. Prior to the description of the 65-ton
Dreadnoughtus schrani specimen, another Patagonian giant, Elaltitan, held the title of
dinosaur with the greatest calculable weight at 47 tons, based on a recent study.
Overall, the Dreadnoughtus schrani type specimen's bones represent approximately
45.3 percent of the dinosaur's total skeleton, or up to 70.4 percent of the types of
bones in its body, excluding the skull bones. This is far more complete than all
previously discovered giant titanosaurian dinosaurs.
"Titanosaurs are a remarkable group of dinosaurs, with species ranging from the
weight of a cow to the weight of a sperm whale or more. But the biggest titanosaurs
have remained a mystery, because, in almost all cases, their fossils are very
incomplete," said Matthew Lamanna.
For example, Argentinosaurus was of a comparable and perhaps greater mass than
Dreadnoughtus, but is known from only a half dozen vertebrae in its mid-back, a
shinbone and a few other fragmentary pieces; because the specimen lacks upper limb
bones, there is no reliable method to calculate a definitive mass of Argentinosaurus.
Futalognkosaurus was the most complete extremely massive titanosaur known prior to
Dreadnoughtus, but that specimen lacks most limb bones, a tail and any part of its
Trending Topics
Discovered in Antarctica
Dec. 19, 2011 — For the first time,
the presence of large bodied
herbivorous dinosaurs in Antarctica has been
recorded. Until now, remains of sauropoda had been
recovered from all continental landmasses, except
... · full story
A Shrunken Giant: Island Dino
Magyarosaurus Was a Dwarf,
After All
May 3, 2010 — Sauropod dinosaurs,
like the famous Brachiosaurus or
Argentinosaurus, are known above all
for their enormous size. Yet some of
these giants evolved into dwarfs. An
international research team has now ... · full story
from the past week
Plants & Animals
Important Information
for Health Care
Professionals. Learn
More.
more related stories ·
Birds ·
Cell Biology ·
Extinction ·
Soil Types ·
pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API
skull.
To better visualize the skeletal structure of Dreadnoughtus, Lacovara's team digitally
scanned all of the bones from both dinosaur specimens. They have made a "virtual
mount" of the skeleton that is now publicly available for download from the paper's
open-access online supplement as a three-dimensional digital reconstruction.
"This has the advantage that it doesn't take physical space," Lacovara said. "These
images can be ported around the world to other scientists and museums. The fidelity
is perfect. It doesn't decay over time like bones do in a collection."
"Digital modeling is the wave of the future. It's only going to become more common in
paleontology, especially for studies of giant dinosaurs such as Dreadnoughtus, where
a single bone can weigh hundreds of pounds," said Lamanna.
The 3D laser scans of Dreadnoughtus show the deep, exquisitely preserved muscle
attachment scars that can provide a wealth of information about the function and force
of muscles that the animal had and where they attached to the skeleton -- information
that is lacking in many sauropods. Efforts to understand this dinosaur's body
structure, growth rate, and biomechanics are ongoing areas of research within
Lacovara's lab.
A Dinosaur that Feared Nothing
"With a body the size of a house, the weight of a herd of elephants, and a weaponized
tail, Dreadnoughtus would have feared nothing," Lacovara said. "That evokes to me a
class of turn-of-the-last century battleships called the dreadnoughts, which were huge,
thickly clad and virtually impervious."
As a result, Lacovara chose the name "Dreadnoughtus," meaning "fears nothing." "I
think it's time the herbivores get their due for being the toughest creatures in an
environment," he said. The species name, "schrani," was chosen in honor of American
entrepreneur Adam Schran, who provided support for the research.
To grow as large as Dreadnoughtus, a dinosaur would have to eat massive quantities
of plants. "Imagine a life-long obsession with eating," Lacovara said, describing the
potential lifestyle of Dreadnoughtus, which lived approximately 77 million years ago in
a temperate forest at the southern tip of South America.
"Every day is about taking in enough calories to nourish this house-sized body. I
imagine their day consists largely of standing in one place," Lacovara said. "You have
this 37-foot-long neck balanced by a 30-foot-long tail in the back. Without moving your
legs, you have access to a giant feeding envelope of trees and fern leaves. You spend
an hour or so clearing out this patch that has thousands of calories in it, and then you
take three steps over to the right and spend the next hour clearing out that patch."
An adult Dreadnoughtus was likely too large to fear any predators, but it would have
still been a target for scavengers after dying of natural causes or environmental
disasters. Lacovara's team discovered a few teeth from theropods -- smaller predatory
and scavenging dinosaurs- among the Dreadnoughtus fossils. However, the
In Other News
Earth & Climate
Fossils & Ruins
... from NewsDaily.com
Science News
Soil Types ·
Wild Animals ·
Zoology ·
Beer and Wine ·
Endangered
Animals
·
Oceanography ·
Water ·
Biodiversity ·
Geochemistry ·
Earthquakes ·
Oil Spills ·
Renewable Energy ·
Tsunamis ·
Dinosaurs ·
Lost Treasures ·
Ancient Civilizations ·
Ancient DNA ·
Early Climate ·
Origin of Life ·
Cultures ·
Early Humans ·
Carmakers, others fund research toward cars that
talk to each other
·
France builds stealth wind turbines to avoid radar
interference
·
A hot cup of genome: Scientists percolate
coffee's genetic secrets
·
pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API
MLA APA Chicago
Drexel University. "Dreadnoughtus: Gigantic, exceptionally complete sauropod
dinosaur." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 September 2014.
<www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140904093007.htm>.
Share This
completeness and articulated nature of the two skeletons are evidence that these
individuals were buried in sediments rapidly before their bodies fully decomposed.
Based on the sedimentary deposits at the site, Lacovara said "these two animals were
buried quickly after a river flooded and broke through its natural levee, turning the
ground into something like quicksand. The rapid and deep burial of the Dreadnoughtus
type specimen accounts for its extraordinary completeness. Its misfortune was our
luck."
Story Source:
The above story is based on materials provided by Drexel University. The original
article was written by Rachel Ewing. Note: Materials may be edited for content and
length.
Journal Reference:
1. Kenneth J. Lacovara, Matthew C. Lamanna, Lucio M. Ibiricu, Jason C. Poole, Elena
R. Schroeter, Paul V. Ullmann, Kristyn K. Voegele, Zachary M. Boles, Aja M.
Carter, Emma K. Fowler, Victoria M. Egerton, Alison E. Moyer, Christopher L.
Coughenour, Jason P. Schein, Jerald D. Harris, Rubén D. Martínez and Fernando
E. Novas. A Gigantic, Exceptionally Complete Titanosaurian Sauropod
Dinosaur from Southern Patagonia, Argentina. Scientific Reports, Sept 4,
2014 DOI: 10.1038/srep06196
Cite This Page:
Health News
Environment News
Technology News
coffee's genetic secrets
Behemoth Argentine dinosaur Dreadnoughtus
made T. rex look puny
·
Ancient nightlife: Forebearers of mammals were
nocturnal partiers
·
U.S. missionary with Ebola arrives in Nebraska
for treatment
·
Obamacare plan premiums to decline on average
in 16 cities: study
·
Plane carrying third U.S. missionary with Ebola
leaves Liberia
·
Kentucky bans tobacco products on most state
properties
·
WHO report gives misleading view on e-
cigarettes, experts argue
·
In Keystone pipeline debate, Nebraska high court
will have sway
·
BP can absorb new oil spill fine, analysts say ·
Icelandic volcano spews lava from new crack
closer to glacier
·
Full house likely as Nebraska top court hears
Keystone XL case
·
Japan to push for closure of ageing reactors -
Nikkei
·
Apple's rivals hope its iWatch makes 'wearable'
work
·
pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API
More Fossils & Ruins News
Friday, September 5, 2014
Featured Research
from universities, journals, and other organizations
Featured Videos
from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services
Share This
· newer top stories | older top stories ·
Save/Print: R ® _ f V m _ Share:
_ Email to a friend ·
f Facebook ·
V Twitter ·
m LinkedIn ·
_ Google+ ·
® Print this page ·
Discrepancy in Greenland
Temperatures During End
of Last Ice Age Resolved
Sep. 4, 2014 — A new study of
three ice cores from Greenland
documents the warming of the large ice sheet at the
end of the last ice age -- resolving a long-standing
paradox over when that warming ... · full story
Climate; Global Warming; Ice Ages; Early Climate ·
Early Greenland Temperatures Explained ·
Life Forms Appeared 60 Million Years Earlier ·
Gigantic Sauropod Dinosaur: Dreadnoughtus ·
How Good Is the Fossil Record? Maybe Not So Good ·
Neanderthal Rock Engraving Found: Abstract Art? ·
Ancient Mammal Relatives Were Active at Night ·
Extinctions During Human Era 1000 Times Worse ·
Pre-Industrial Roots to Modern Population Boom ·
Well Preserved Insect Fossils from Rhône Valley ·
From Silk Tunics to Relics: Early Relic Worship ·
work
NATO agrees cyber attack could trigger military
response
·
New Orleans council clears Uber, others to offer
luxury online taxi service
·
Apple, Google appeal rejection of $324.5 million
settlement in hiring lawsuit
·
Apple to add security alerts for iCloud users,
says Cook: WSJ
·
pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API
Free Subscriptions
Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free
email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view
hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:
Get Social & Mobile
Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily
via social networks and mobile apps:
Have Feedback?
Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we
welcome both positive and negative comments.
Have any problems using the site? Questions?
+ ·
Find with keyword(s):
Search ScienceDaily Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Search
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics
and research stories.
About ScienceDaily | Editorial Staff | Awards & Reviews | Contribute News | Advertise with Us | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use
Copyright 2014 by ScienceDaily, LLC or by third-party sources, where indicated. All rights controlled by their respective owners.
Content on this website is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice.
Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily, its staff, its contributors, or its partners.
Scientists Unveil Huge
Dinosaur:
Dreadnoughtus
Meet Dreadnoughtus,
One Of The Most
Enormous Animals
Ever
Museum Chemical
Mishap Hurts 13,
Mostly Kids
Minority Languages
Threatened As
Economies Grow
Q Email Newsletters ·
m RSS Feeds ·
¶ Facebook ·
Q Twitter ·
® Google+ ·
$ iPhone ·
¶ Android ·
J Web ·
@ Leave Feedback ·
¹ Contact Us ·

Related Interests