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CHAPTER 2.

Theoretical Framework
2.1 Review of Related Literature
Related Literature
To fulfill the objectives of this study, this part will include all the necessary data and
information that are appropriate and significant.
1. Building Laws
Laws that are presented in this study will set various design standards in the proposed
welfare home for ilipino adults with autism.
!. "ational Building #ode of the $hilippines % $.&. 1'()
The proposed *elfare home will be designed in accordance with $.&. 1'() which
provides the general building re+uirements. ,t shall be the overall basis of the study on
the type of construction, fire resistive re+uirements, light and ventilation, sanitation and
general design which includes setbac-s, air volume, open spaces, space si.ing, window
openings, service areas, road networ-s, allowable floor area, building and ceiling height,
waste water disposal system and others.
B. $lumbing #ode of the $hilippines % R.!. 1/01
$lumbing #ode of the $hilippines provides the standard re+uirements in architecture that
would determine appropriate planning of sewer lines and ade+uate water supply. The
provisions under it will influence and will set a standard re+uirements for plumbing
facilities in the project.
#. !ccessibility Law % B.$. /22
!ccessibility Law was created in order to promote the rights of disabled persons to
participate fully in the social life and the development of the societies in which they live.
This law would be essential in determining the proper measurements of the design
project.
&. 3agna #arta for &isabled $ersons % R.!. 0200
!n act establishing an institutional mechanism to ensure the implementation of programs
and services for persons with disabilities in every province, city and municipality.
"ational agencies and Local government units may enter into joint ventures with
organi.ations or associations of disabled persons to e4plore livelihood opportunities and
other underta-ings that shall enhance the health, physical fitness and the economic and
social well%being of disabled persons. This bill shall serve as a guide and support that
such study is valid and will help obtain a better community for the people with autism.
5. Revised ire #ode of the $hilippines % $.&. (612
$.&. (612 is a guide to the study to guarantee public safety and encourage economic
development through the avoidance and suppression of all -inds of destructive fires. The
provisions of this law shall be strictly followed to ensure adherence to standard fire
prevention and safety measures.
Related Studies/Projects
1. Local projects
!. 7.8.3.5 Life $rogram
Barangay Batong 3ala-e, Los Ba9os
By &ang :y ;oe, !<$ #hair 5meritus =12 3ay 2'1'>
!utism <ociety $hilippines recently launched the 7.8.3.5. Life $rogram. 7835 stands
for 7arnessing 8ptions in 3anaging 5veryday Life.
The objectives of the 7.8.3.5. Life $rogram are =1> to assess the residential abilities of
youths and adults with autism, as well as other developmental disabilities and =2> to
e4plore possibilities in living?residential arrangements in an enabling community.
The 7835 Life $rogram commenced with several $*! =persons with autism> boarders
staying inside a residential home for five days and five nights. The $*!s are assessed
based on how they are able to manage a 22%hour schedule on their own, with the least
amount of supervision.
http://www.autismsocietyphilippines.org/2010/05/home-for-young-people-with-
autism.html
igure 1. The 7835 Life $rogram of !utism <ociety of the $hilippines
!ngels Tal- collated some of the observations of the parents and care%givers who were
there to observe the activities. 3any reported increase in social s-ills and compliance
with house rules.
@ A!lthough $hilip is non%verbal, he learned to sociali.e with other boardersB followed
instructions given to himC, said mom 3inda Rimas. "ancy 3agbanua, caregiver to
Dermil &avid, observed that his head banging lessened as a result of the social activities.
@ 8thers li-e RD 8lea and &avid 3ichael Lope. learned to do household chores
independentlyE from preparing to coo-ing meals, sweeping the floor, ma-ing beds,
washing their own clothes and coo-ing for others. 8f course, they were not limited to
Ahouse chores.C &uring their down time, they also watched TF or have video-e nights to
unwind.
@ A,an followed through with instructions given to him and complied with the
conse+uences if he disobeyed house rules. 7e was also able to manage his finances on his
own,C reported his mom, #athy Lope.. AThere are many positive influences that my son
e4perienced. 7e learned to manage time. 7aving this chance to be on his own gave him
the opportunity to organi.e his personal stuff.C
@ A, learned to be independent from my parents and fulfilled my obligation to my
superiors G whether tas-s are simple or difficult. , learned to discipline myself and
become a productive wor-er. , have a bright future to loo- forward to,A said &avid
3ichael Lope..
http://www.autismsocietyphilippines.org/2010/05/home-for-young-people-with-
autism.html
igure 2. The 7835 boarders drin-ing and having fun just li-e other guys.
=httpE??www.autismsocietyphilippines.org?2'1'?'6?home%for%young%people%with%
autism.html>
B. Living with !utism
By Lirio <obrevi9as #ovey =26 Dune 2'11>
http://lifestyle.inquirer.net/4294/living-with-autism#i!!"#$%o&fh'
igure /. 3i-ey as a young boy.
*hen my firstborn was not +uite four months old, his first nanny had delighted me with
the comment, AHou have a precocious son.C !nd so it was that Billy became a source of
family pride with his growing social, physical and mental prowess.
<o imagine what a shoc-ing blow it was when several years later, &r. ,sabelle Rapin, a
noted neurologist in "ew Hor-, gently told me that our second son 3i-ey, then /, had
what she termed Aa brain disorderC and would li-ely need supervision throughout his life.
http://lifestyle.inquirer.net/4294/living-with-autism#i!!"#$%o&fh'
igure 2. 3i-ey now all grown up.
3i-ey is now // years old. 7e moved to a group home 1' years ago. The home is in the
lovely town of !rmon-, "ew Hor-, a 2'%minute drive from home where he grew up and
where my husband and , still live. 7e lives with five other adult men, all of them with
autistic disorder ranging from mild to severe. They receive 22?0 supervision. 5ach one
attends a wor- program from 3onday to riday, and wee-ends are their recreational and
rest days.
or 3i-ey, most wee-ends are spent with us, his family. *e have a wee-end home in
Long ,sland, "ew Hor-, where we gather with Billy, our firstborn, his wife, and their two
little girls. Because 3i-eyIs housemates regularly go on recreational trips during the
wee-ends, we ta-e 3i-ey with us only every other wee-end. , believe 3i-ey li-es both
activities J going out to movies, restaurants and games with his housemates, as well as
spending time with his family.
!s for me and my husband, our thoughts are on the future. <hould we become unable to
care for 3i-ey for reasons of illness or death, we are assured that in his group home
setting, people who -now him well will be there for him. *e reali.e we will not always
be around, so we have to let go, enabling him to grow some more and live in a sustaining
setting.
=httpE??lifestyle.in+uirer.net?22(2?living%with%autismKi4../1:LofhM>
2. oreign $rojects
!. Triform #amphill #ommunity, 7udson, "ew Hor-
1
2 Triform #amphill #ommunity, in 7udson, "ew Hor-, is a residential community for
young adults with developmental disabilities. ,t includes a dynamic mi4 of over 1''
people spanning many generations, cultures and ranges of ability. orty young adults
with social, mental, physical and emotional disabilities, live and wor- side%by%side
with full time volunteer resident staff and the staffIs families on a 21' acre
biodynamic?organic farm in beautiful #olumbia #ounty, "H. Triform is a model of care
where young men and women with !utism, &own syndrome, and other developmental
and neurological disabilities participate in dignified, purposeful wor-, share in warm,
supportive relationships and ma-e meaningful contributions to the well%being of
everyone in the Triform community. Triform is changing the way we understand and
appreciate the capabilities of people with special needs.
/
2 Triform is a forerunner and model in the disabilities field, where the ideals of
inclusion and the development of individual potential are in the forefront. TriformIs
programs promote confidence, self%worth, independence and achievement on many
levels. The Triform special needs community offers an enriching social, intellectual
and cultural life for its students, and year%round vocational opportunities in organic and
biodynamic farm and gardening. Triform is among a select group of farms in the :<
certified by &emeter, which is regarded as the highest level of organic farming
certification in the world.
3ission <tatementE
The mission of Triform is to build a vital community life together with adults with special
needs to wor- towards social, economic, and agricultural renewal. Triform is a
supportive environment that offers each individual the possibility for personal growth and
self%development. !s a #amphill community, Triform bases its wor- on the recognition
of the spiritual integrity of each individual and aims to provide all community members
with dignified, meaningful wor-, a healthy social atmosphere, and a vibrant cultural,
artistic and spiritual life.
7ome Life
The young adult is well supported by a warm atmosphere in the Triform home in which
they live. <urrounded by an e4tended family of full time volunteer cowor-ers, their
children, and other Triform students, a young adult enters into an environment where they
can practice life s-ills and obtain emotional and social supports to build their self%
confidence and competencies. 8ne only needs to ta-e part in a Triform household to
e4perience the therapeutic effects of daily, wee-ly and seasonal rhythms within
community living. This rhythmical, slower pace of life helps to create a sense of security
and consistency for each young adult, providing a safe foundation from which growth can
occur. *al-ing into each home a person sees natural beauty all around. ,n each home the
dining table, set for dinner, may have fresh flowers in the center. <itting at the table with
different generations of people from many cultures, sharing a conversation about oneIs
wor- or the details of anotherIs day, gives each person the opportunity to practice and
enhance the social s-ills of conversation and sharing. The home life provides the
e4periences of daily living and responsibilities, outings, +uiet games and conversations,
and the possibility of building true friendships.
*or- !ctivities
httpE??triform.org?
igure 6. 8ne of the
emale house member
doing her wor-ing
activity.
The Triform #amphill youth guidance educational wor- activity program strives to offer
each young adult a wide array of uni+ue vocational wor- e4periences and activities. The
rural character of the land, coupled with learning by doing, blend to create a positive and
nurturing curriculum. !s a result, the eight wor- areas =farm, garden, estate, home
economics, weavery, ba-ery, pottery, and forestry> reflect the life and reality of the
community.
httpE??triform.org?
igure ). 7ouse
members doing their
farming acticities.
Nuided by full time volunteer cowor-ers who love what they are doing, the young adult
absorbs the +uality of their enthusiasm. *ithin each wor- area, Triform students will
learn the connection and reality between wor- and their lives. or e4ample, the
vegetables grown in the garden, the bread ba-ed at the ba-ery, the mil- produced from
Triform cows are brought to each home for the daily meals. :sing a table runner woven
in the weavery or bowls made in the pottery demonstrate the beauty and utility of craft
wor-. 5ach wor- area has a purpose and through these purposes the young person
becomes aware of their own purpose and contribution to life.
httpE??triform.org?
igure 0. 7ouse
members with the live%
in coo- of the house.
!s students progress through TriformIs transitional program, they spend a semester as a
student in each of the wor- areas during the mornings. !t the end of student period, the
young person selects a wor- area in which to apprentice. &uring their apprenticeship,
young adults develop an increased sense of confidence, competence, self%awareness, and
responsibility as they become more deeply involved in their chosen wor- area.
httpE??triform.org?
igure 1. Nardening
duties of the young
adults.
The youth guidance wor- activities are intentionally conducted in beautiful spaces. The
theory behind this fact is that natural environments positively influence the young people.
*or-ing in such natural environments creates a sense of order and peace and beauty that
is especially reassuring and therapeutic for young people with special needs. or
e4ample, the spacious weavery has lofty ceilings and bucolic views from all of its
windows. The gardens, green house and garden shed are located with a view of the
majestic #ats-ill mountains.
httpE??triform.org?
igure 1. <cience
!ctivity and Nardening
duties.
!fternoon #oursewor-
,n the afternoons the curriculum shifts to a series of artistic courses, basic academic
courses and individual tutoring which create the possibilities for self%-nowledge, leading
to adulthood. This artistic approach to learning enlivens the mind and helps the young
adult find his or her way to interact in a living way with the world. The course wor- such
asE drama, music, nature activities, spatial dynamics, speech wor-, water%color painting,
crafts and eurythmy provide the individual with a group learning e4perience.
!s an e4ample of this artistic approach, each year the community comes together to
create a play. This event gives each individual an opportunity to become part of the
larger community, while recogni.ing their individual efforts.
The e4periential teaching methods are employed by all teachers within their classrooms.
Therapies
<upplementing the courses are a variety of therapies prescribed on an individuali.ed
basis. 5urythmy, therapeutic baths, rhythmical massage, singing and music therapy,
therapeutic horsebac- riding, and counseling are offered by trained practitioners certified
or licensed in each therapy.
<ummer in Triform brings with it a different mood than the regular school year.
&uring this time of sun and warmth, there is a breathing out that occurs and
activities shift from indoor classrooms to the surrounding outdoor e4periences.
7arvesting and sharing the fruits from the gardens, swimming in the cree-, picnic-ing,
outings to La-e Taconic and nearby summer theaters replace the more traditional fall to
spring curriculum. By changing the wor- and classroom emphasis to meet the reality of
the summertime, young adults can e4perience the joy of seasonal changes and
fluctuations.
<ocial?#ultural?<piritual Life
!s a life sharing community, Triform provides all of its members, both with and without
special needs, the opportunity to participate in a supportive and enriching life based on a
profound spiritual respect for the individual, for the community and for the environment.
The life and the curriculum that grow out of these values provide a rhythmic structure of
daily wor- and activities accompanied by a rich social, cultural and spiritual life. The
inner life of each person is nourished in a variety of ways, from time for +uiet reflection
to joyful celebrations of estivals such as 3ichaelmas, FalentineIs &ay, #hristmas, 5aster
and <t. DohnIs &ay. These seasonal celebrations help mar- the rhythm of life at Triform
and reflect the anthroposophical foundation upon which Triform is built. *hat is learned
in the homes, in the wor- area, in classes, and in therapies is further enhanced by
community life and by e4posure to the world beyond Triform. 8utings, theatrical
productions, poetry, music and community celebrations enhance the life of everyone.
#ommon activities include hi-ing, shopping, sports, and picnics. *ee-ly outings are
offered to museums, scenic and historic sites, craft fairs, concerts, plays or movies. $lays,
musical concerts and events are hosted in TriformIs alcon 7all and $hoeni4 #enter.
Trips to nearby 7udson and occasional trips to "ew Hor- #ity and Boston offer young
people the chance to balance rural life with city life. Through these activities, each person
has the possibility of discovering life long hobbies and interests as well as developing and
deepening their connections to the larger world.
=httpE??triform.org?>
2.2 #onceptul ramewor-?$aradigm
The conceptual framewor- refers to the whole method of the research process and
development. The intangible basis of the study includes related literature and projects
study. ,t would be collected through library and web research and through actual visitB
information from different government and non%government agencies li-e &87, #!R&
$hils. and !utism <ociety $hilippinesB Building laws and local ordinancesB <tatistics and
profile of the municipality containing necessary dataB and !rchitectural design data that
would be collected through different architectural design references. These significant
inputs would be a foundation for the formulation of the process of site selection, site
evaluation, space programming, study of form, site development, and design
conceptuali.ation to be able to come up with a $roposed *elfare 7ome for ilipino
!dults with !utism. The paradigm of the study is presented below.
,nputE $rocessE 8utputE
<ite #riterion O <ite <election O $roject <ite
P P Q
Building laws and <ite 5valuation
Local 8rdinances P Q
Results of #onsultation with <pace programming
Resource person O <tudy of orms O $roposed *elfare
Related Lit and $roject <tudy <ite &evelopment 7ome for ilipino
!rchitectural &esign data &esign #onceptuali.ation !dults with !utism
2./ 3ethodology
3ethods of getting the &ataE
1. ,nterview
2. 3aterial Review
/. 8bservation
2. Related $rojects Review and Fisitation
6. <ite Fisit
). <ite !nalysis
0. $lanning <tage
1. &esigning of <tructures