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Proceedings of the Eleventh (2001) hlternational Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Stavanger, Norway, June 17-22, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers
ISBN 1-880653-51"6 (Set); ISBN 1-880653-52-4 (Vol. I); ISSN 1098-6189 (SeO
Preliminary Study on Wave Energy Utilization in Sri Lanka
T. Watabe
T- Wave Consul t i ng Vol unt eer, Japan
H. Yokouchi and S. D. G. S. P. Gunawardane
Mur or an Institute of Technol ogy, Japan
B.R.K. Obeyesekera and U.I. Di ssanayake
Uni ver si t y of Peradeni ya, Sri Lanka
ABSTRACT
Sri Lanka is ri ch in swel l -l i ke ocean wave ener gy al ong ~he
coas ts whi ch face t he I ndi an Ocean. The power densi t y is
20kW/ m and t he maxi mum wave hei ght is bel ow 6m, so t hat it is
i nher ent l y sui t abl e f or ut i l i zi ng t he ener gy f or c omme r da l
purpos es f or many needs.
In or der to devel op such energy, we appl i ed t he l at est
t echnol ogy on t he Pendul or st udi ed in J apan f or t he gener at i on
of el ec t ri c i t y i n a c os t - ef f ec t i ve manner. Si nce t he wavel engt h is
qui t e l onger and t he power s t r onger t han t he cases st udi ed in
J apan, t he aut hor s i nvest i gat ed modi f yi ng t he ~e ndut or to make
it s ui t abl e for Sri Lanka.
As a commer ci al uni t , a 250kW pr ot ot ype !Penduior i nst al l ed
wi t h a 21m wi de cai sson i mpr oved f or t he sites, was used in a
prel i mi nary study.
I NTRODUCTI ON
Sri Lanka is rich in swell-like ocean wave energy, along the coasts
facing the Indian Ocean. The power density is 20kW/ m and
maxi mum wave height is bel ow 6m, so that it is inherently suitable
for utilizing the energy for commerci al purposes for many needs.
Because the Muroran Institute of Technol ogy had devel oped a
New Pendul or (Watabe et al, 1999) suitable for commerci al use, the
Institute was looking for a site to build the Pendulor. Researchers in
Japan and Sri Lanka therefore started collaboration to build a wave
power plant in Sri Lanka to harness the energy by applying the latest
Pendulor technology.
Before entering into the design work, some general investigations
were studied to make the Pendul or optimal even in the various
different wave climates around the world. Since the wavel engt h at Sri
Lankan sites is much longer than the waves at the site where the
Pendul or was t est ed in Japan, the Pendul or has been modi fi ed to fit
the circumstances of Sri Lanka.
As a commercial unit, a 250kW prot ot ype Pendul or was designed
and installed with a 2 l m wide caisson i mproved for the sites.
WAVE CLI MATE OF SRI LANKA
Sri Lanka is an island country as shown in Fig. 1. The location is
400km south of Madras, India. The southern coasts facing the Indian
Ocean are rich with ocean wave energy.
~ \ ~ " K a n k e s a r t t u r a =
o ~ @ ~_ .? " ii . . . . / ; q - i ' ).i .....
t , O e , F r " , - . % 7 " - - ~ .
K l i n o l ; h c ~ : " ~ ( " ' : '
' ~ ' - , , - . - - - , ~ / ' ) ' J) 7 ~ - ~ M u a t t v u
, L " , I ~ ; : , B a y
: . . . . . ~ M a n k f l a r e ,.a ~ ,
0 f =, . M A N N A R ." ~ - . ; - - • ' . - " ~ - ~ ' t , ~
T..~ . . . . . a. , . _ . _ ~ S~ SVO :' ~ "" . . . . ' .... ~ / " ' ~ '
. . . . . . . . . . -- ~ " " i . . . . . ) ' " ' " - - ~ . . . . . , " > ' ) ~ " ' / ' 2 : ' - , B e n g a l
" ; : i ' " : : : : - - ! . " ' . : 7 '~ .' ' ~
t " ,- '. . . . . . : . ~ T r i n c o m a l e e
J s w , L P ~ ' d L " " , " -i !. : ' t ? " ,~ - i ~
\ ' [ " } • ' ~ ~ . . . . . . " : ~ 'J ~ ' a b a r a n a " " " : P o q d n a r u w a " " - { ' T d k k a n d l m a d u
f , ~ - - _ ~ P u ~ l a m / z t - ; L , ~ • ? o , " " . ~
t 3 - ' " " ~ ' " ~ - - ~ - ~ ' ,
, \ ( , ~ " " , - :~ , i :-" ~ " '~ / { : - ) ' : - . . . . B a t t i c a l o a
'< ': : i t ~ ~ ) . . . . . - - - a f ~ - . . : _ . _ : o : ~ , ~ , , ~ . , ? . " : ' ~ ' - ' / ! " " ) " ' " M A ~U R U ' < ' V . . . . . . . . < ' # " l \
\ / . W ~ - - ( ~ - - J : " " - . c : " ' . . . . " ' t , 4 . 3 : ~ 4 % , ~ , 7 { i . . . . . . . . 7 - : l ' ,
V - [ ' ~ , " ~ ' - ' 4 ~ - - ' - ~ " ~ : " ~ % ; 2 { . : t - / ; , { ~ , ~ ' ; ' - ~ " M S , h i y a n g a n a G A L O Y A "; - A f I 1 p a r [
k 3 . ~ . . . . . . > ( L ~ ' 2 . K ~ " ~ i ' : ~ , ~ ' t ~ , ' ~ ' " , • " N . P . . " . ~ . . . . .
I
- , . : : - : . i -
, ' , s : .. . . . . - , ' - I : . 1 _ ~ . % ~ . ~ ~ 2 , / i ~ _ _ , ~ 1 ~ " : ' : : , 4 . < " ! ' ~ ~ ' L ,
S r i J a y . . . . d e n e p ~ : . i ~ . • ; : - - : _ i " - - . " - . - ~ ' ~ ~ ' ~ ' ~ ' , ) f . M o n a r a g a a : ; ,
L ' b ' i - " - - ; ' / " . . . . ~Y's2"~[['~'7 ~" J / " 4
~ o o o t . . . . . . . . . . - - . , , , ~ ~ ~ ; 7 . - . . . . . ~. ) , ,
P a n a d u r ~ ~ ' - ' . . . . . . t t • . . . . ~ 7 , " ] ; ;; ~ " " ' , .-t.
a U a '.~ - . - - - _ < % , . ~ 1 ~ - " ~ , - - : - - } . . . _ . . _ . 1 ; ? " - U D A " \ % N A T I O N A L . _ - . , "
t ' : ' , - - ; " \ . " : - " . % - ' ~ W A L A W E { ; P A R K , : : - '
L ~ < 2 " ' + ~ : ~ , . ' - . . . . _ . / " ~ " %.< 2" " - i " N . P . - t . . . . , . - - . . : ,
B e n t o t a . . ~ " - . . - ~ ' ~ ! ~ ] ' ~ b i ~ i l i 2 " t ' - " - ' ~ ; "
v , ; . - - . - ~ , ' - - - . ~ . . : z - - . ~ : ~ . ~ - ~ . ~ 2 . . . , - 7 . . " . ;
' % . L ( . - : > - ;i - - , , . , ; ~ , , - ' : . r , o o o g . % : ; . , . , : . . . .
" . - ; { ~ ] % f ' - ' ~ i , ,-- . : _ : - ] ) : ' - = ' " " " H a m b a n l o t a
" = = i t - . . . . . . . . . . . " " - ' . - : - - - - . - " % " I n d i a n O c e a n
t . = a l l e ' - ~ # ~ , . & > - : ~ ~ : , . . : . • ; . i f T a n g a l l a
Fig. 1 Map of Sri Lanka
596
There are two kinds of waves: Swells and Sea waves. The swell
waves have traveled over large distances and are a result of the Passat
winds blowing continuously in a northerly direction in the Southern
Hemisphere. A local wind field causes the sea waves. They are seen
as natural waves mixed with the swell and the sea. Fig. 2 shows an
example.
I ra]
3 . 0 0
° .
0 . 0 0
- 3 . 0 0
0 . 0
I ra]
i . 5 o ~ ....
~ . 0 0 - ~
- o ' ~ o ~ I I r ~ i
- i0o: t
- i . 5 0 : m '
3 . 0 4 . 0 6 . o 7 . 0
- ~ [ i t l ~ r l ]
. s e a I
0 . 0
[ m ]
1 . 5 0
1 . 0 0
0 . 5 0
0 . 0 0
- 0 , 5 0
- 1 . 0 0
- t . 5 0
0 . 0
i . 0 2 . 0 3 . 0 4 . 0 5 . 0 6 . 0 7 . 0
,. [m t n ]
V V . V v v v v , v v ' v v v V w V V v v v - v
1 . 0 ~ - . 0 3 . 0 4 . 0 5 . 0 6 . 0 7 C~ O i n ]
Fig. 2 Typical wave measured
The swell has a long wavelength (over 100m). Its wave-period is
nearly constant throughout the seasons (between 10-12s) and the
direction changes little.
The sea waves have a short wavelength of which is function of
wave-height. The stronger local wind makes the higher waves with a
longer wavelength. The direction depends on the direction of the local
wind.
The power density of the swell is generally greater than the power
density of the sea waves. In this preliminary study, the power density
Wo for the Pendulor design was taken as Wo=20kW/m, prospecting
H1/3 =2m, T1/3 =12s (Scheffer et al. 1994). Power density w o is shown
in the equation: -
w o - 0 4 4 x H21 (1)
. / 3 X ~ 1 / 3
where
H~ / 3: significant wave height
T] /3: significant wave period
DES I GN CONDI T I ON OF T HE P LANT
The principle of the Pendulor (Japanese pat. No. 253 97 42) is
shown in Fig. 3 . A pendulum hangs down in a water chamber, which
is placed in a caisson. From the opening mouth, incident waves come
into the water chamber and alter the standing waves by superposing
upon them with reflecting waves. The reciprocal flow of the standing
waves at the nodal plane drives the pendulum, placing it into pendular
motion. The motion is transferred through a hydrostatic power
transmission to drive a generator.
In accordance with the conversion principle, the Pendulor must be
made to resonate with the waves. Therefore, in this case, having two
different wave periods by the swell (T1/3 --10-15s) and by the sea
(T1/3 --4-6s), determination of the natural frequency of the Pendulor
had to be done carefully. Fig. 4 shows a result of the power
conversion being worsened by missing resonance with the waves.
Fortunately, the power density of the swell is over three times that
of the sea waves so that it is preferable that the system fits the swell
better than the sea waves.
Oil Mot or
[ Rotary VanePumpl
Electric Power
Generat or
Pendul um
: /.
Incident Waves
. . . .
... Back Wall
Wat er Chamber
Caisson
Fig. 3 Principle of the Pendulor
The natural frequency of the Pendulor depends on the oscillation
characterized by a combination of the pendul um and the caisson.
However, khe Pendulor, which fits the swell (having a long
wavelength), should use a long caisson. This fact means that the cost
pressure on the caisson is strong. This problem will be studied further
in a later chapter.
In order to have a Pendulor as useful as possible, the Pendulor
must work for commercial purposes and must also record its
operating data. The Pendulor considerations were as follows.
i The Pendulor must be reliable.
2 The Pendulor stands on commercialism.
3 The Pendulor must provide a measuring system.
597
100
8O
o
" - " 6 0
> ,
U
c 4 0
( J
- . ~ _
20
D : 5 m ( c o n s t a n t )
N , / N ; - 1
I
m e a n
/ / / full t i d e /
/ / - _
. \ \ \ / T L e b b t i d e [ ,
, ' I/ /
\ / '
. _ ,
. . . . .
0 2 z 6 8
P e r i o d T ( s e o )
A result by numerical simulation for Muroran Test Plant
Water chamber length: D=5m, Impedance matching condition
Water depth: h=2.7 5m, Tidal range: +__ 0.5m
- - - - - - - T--
i -
1
10
Fig. 4 Efficiency being worsened by missing the resonance
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
CHARACTERISTICS
PROFI LE AND
Before we touch on the Pendulor design, we give here some
studies of the basic nature of the system in order to show what is the
preferable profile.
In order to have a cost effective Pendulor, we should know the
investment and output relationship of the system. Fig. 5 shows the
relationship between out put P of the system and the vol ume V that
is occupied by the Pendulor.
P - O . 4 4 ] -] 2/ z T1/ 3 rl B (I)
V - x Bh (2)
where,
x - 2l p si n 0 o
79: Pendu!or' s efficiency
B: width of the pendulum
h: water depth
/i,: pendulum' s length
0 0: amplitude of pendular motion
0 0 is shown next in the Equation (4).
19o-- k p X p H1/ 3
4Yp si nh kpk
( 3 )
( 4 )
Wave number / q, is found from the dispersion relationship shown
below.
co 2 - gkp t a n h k p h (5)
O)p -- 2n/ T1/ 3 (6)
X p - s i n h ( k p h ) c o s h ( k p h ) + k pk (7 )
gp - kp( l p - h ) s i n h ( k p h ) + c o s h ( k p h ) - i ( 8 )
Fig. 5 shows power density: P/ V of the Pendulor, which
represents the output generated from the unit volume occupied by the
Pendulor on the Sri Lanka coast. As the wave height becomes higher,
the power density becomes greater. The 4m water depth area shows a
higher power density than the 6m-depth area.
Fig. 6 shows another aspect of the Pendu!or which affects the
dimension of the components. The most important parameter is the
pendulum length: lp. The reason is that the manufacturing cost
greatly depends on lp.
As long as the Pendulor can satisfy the optimal conditions, it will
keep the plant efficiency over 40% constantly, even i f {pump
t orqUe(m, x)/ angul ar-di spl acement } ratio: (T~ .xl 0 o) changes with
respect to the pendulum length: lp- When the pump torque is
sinusoida!, its amp!itude at the impedance match condition
corresponds to Tm~x, which is as in Equation (9) (Watabe, 1997 ).
m~x -- 77~,3 --7-7-- - - - -
2kp s mh kpk
(9)
Where, p " density of water
The longer the pendulum is, the bigger the ratio (Tma j # 0) it needs
for the optima! operation. This means that a Pendulor with a long
pendulum, is likely to be expensive, because, the pendulum needs a
big pump to optimize the system. As seen in Fig. 6, increasing
pendulum length: Ip enlarges pump torque: Tm~ and decreases
angular-displacement: 80-
0,-~
m
B
O.z
>
"~ 0,' I
0._¢
At r i a optimal operat i on
h=4m: T1/3 =10s, lp=7 .3 m
h=6m: T1/3 =12s, lp=10m ~ /
_ i ! ! J_ . . . . . . .
1.o /.b" 2. 0 -,' .~
Si gni fi cant wave height: HII3 (m)
Fig. 5 Power density of Pendulor
From an economic view-point, it can be said that the shorter the
pendulum length: lp is the better as long as t70 is kept within a
reasonable range. Comparing water depth: h=4m and h=6m, the case
of k=4m is more practical than h=6m, because of a higher power
density with a smaller pump combination.
598
At ~e optimal operat i on
" & 1
× ---- /4- tlq . . . . . . . . . . . x
~ - o =b m - co
7
o
6
= x
.,.,.i
rq
C. ~
6 7 9 ~ 10 1~
Pendul um length: lp (m)
Fig. 6 Basic aspects of Penduior
THE PROTOTYPE PENDULOR FOR DEMONS TRATI ON
Referring to the resuits investigated above, design parameters are
selected as follows for the prototype Pendulor:
H1/3 =2m, T1/3 =12s, h=4m, B=10m, Ip=7 .3 m,
kp=2 rc / Z =2 rc/7 3 .7 m=0.08525m -1, co p=0.523 6s -1
Wo=21. l kW/ m- - 20kW/ m and w o B=200kW.
In order to get a steady output, 2 pendulums are used in this case
so that the annual average input is 2 × w o B=400kW.
According to the studies conducted in Japan, suitable displacement
of the pump Dp is determined by the following equation (Watabe,
1997 ).
D- 2~/' /tTmax
- (~o)
P (Pm~x + Ap )
Where, 7) t: torque efficiency of the pump,
Pma~: supply pressure to motor, which corresponds to Tm~,
Ap: pressure loss between pump and motor.
In actual fact, the pump torque is not sinusoidal so that Tm~ must
be lessened to determine the pump displacement Dp. That is
Tact=(Tact / / Tm~ ) X 7) 1Tm~=(0.65-0.7 5) X 0.65 Tm~ =0.42---0.49
rm~,
Referring to Fig. 6, Tm~x=2,000,000 N' m (lp=7 .3 m, h=4m),
therefore, T~t=910,000 N-m.
Substituting Tm.,x=910,000 N-m, r/1=0.95 and (Pmax + Ap)=25MPa
into the Equation (I0), the pump displacement is found:
Dp=0.217 m3 /rev..
The pump shown in Fig. 7 is a rotary vane-type (Japanese pat. No.
257 3 905), which was developed for the Pendulor (Watabe, et al.
1999). Displacement of the pump is shown below.
JTZ" 9
(1])
Where,
dl: rotor outer diameter, d2: rotor inner diameter,
Wr: rotor width
Parameters are selected as: dx=0.80m, d2=0.53 m, Wr=0.40m.
Therefore the displacement becomes: Dp=0.2256m3 /rev. This value is
so huge that it is 4.9 times bigger than the old pump tested in Japan
(Watabe, et al. 1999).
The caisson has a modified profile as illustrated in Fig. 8 to save
on the investment of the whole system. It was considered best to have
the water chamber shortened both in width and in !ength, though the
ability remained the same as that of the normal chamber, which has
large dimensions for Sri Lankan waves. Only the openings and the
pans behind each chamber were widened to normal width. This
chamber can save cost well, because not only is the caisson shortened
but also the Pendulor can keep the same capacity with the shortened
pendulum,. The profile improves the Pendulor to provide better
survivability against storms as well (Japanese pat. Pending No. 2000-
12863 2).
Fig. 8 shows the general view of the 250kW Pendulor. The
capacity was determined taking into consideration the unsteadiness of
the wave power. Instead of the annuat average wave input being
400kW, it was assumed to correspond to an input by a wave-group
having steady wave height: H=2m and period: T=12s. Therefore,
design i nput E is written as in the Equation (12).
E- 7 cpgB 1 +
2kpT sinh 2kph
(12)
When the parameters take the values indicated below, design input
E becomes £=598 kW. 250kW output is assumed as the plant
efficiency: r~ =42% . This idea is important to have an adequate plant
capable of handling an annual input of wave energy,
where,
p = 103 0kg/m 3, g=9.806m/s 2, B=2 x 10m,
kp=0.08525m -1, h=4m, H=2m, T=12s.
Fig. 9 shows the pendulum which receives an input of E=299kW
each with the 5m wide plate. Incident wave power, which enters from
the 10m wide mouth, is concentrated into the 5.4m wide (narrower)
chamber. The amplitude of the pendular motion is +_ 3 5 ° under the
rating load. The concept of the pendulum is like a large hand fan. At
one of the ends of the shaft, the vane pump couples directly without a
coupling component.
Fig. 11) shows the hydraulic circuits of the Pendulor. The two vane
pumps driven by the two pendulums respectively, supply the two
motors powered oil parallel and the motors drive a generator together.
This system has steady output even using the motors when torque
varies wavy each. This tandem drive yields a canceling effect with a
phase difference method (US pat. No. 4490621). There are two
automatic controllers, which control displacement of the motors to
keep the system in the impedance-match condition even i f the wave
climate changes suddenly without warning.
The generator is an induction type that rotates at a speed
synchronous with the speed of the grids. Therefore, it is not subject to
speed governing but to torque governing of the driving system. The
Pendulor is designed to satisfy these requirements.
599
Dp: 225.6 l/rev., No. of vanes: 2, Rotor size: ~ 8 0 0 × ~ 53 0 × b4 0 0 , Swing angle: -+-65 °,
Pressure: 25MPa, Pump torque: 0.8 98 MNrn, Delivery flow: 7.0 l/s ( H=2m, T=12s,
B=10m, Input to the pump=193kW)
i
L
1400 1320
' Rotary vane pump for Pendulor
' I
400
Fig. 7 Rot ary vane pump f or Pendul or
t
_ 2. - - ~ ¸ " -
~ - ; ~ ' 2- ~ . ~
T
Fig. 8 The prot ot ype Pendul or f or Sri Lanka
~ t h e 2 50 kW Pendulor
600
S AF E T Y DE S I GN AGAI NS T HI GH WAV E S
Since the pendul um is beaten directly by waves, safety desi gn
against high waves is a very important subject especially in the case
of commercial use. For this proj ect we considered as follows (refer to
F i g s . 8 - - 9 ) :
1: Huge power calmot push the pendulum, because of the action of
high waves. Whenever very high waves come into the chamber, the
upper part of the waves passes t hrough the opening prepared above
the pendul um plate and goes behind the plate without pushing the
plate.
2: When the amplitude of the pendul ar mot i on is over the straight
chamber (5. 4m wide), two additional passages open both sides of
the plate so that an additional amount of water goes behind without
pushing the plate. Passing water raises the pressure behind the
plate and pushes the plate back.
Rotary vane pump
• , . , ._
Ifir
_ Still ' ~ ~--e
O
~2
Pendulum assembly
Fig. 9 Pendul um assembly
Generator 250 kW 1500 rpm
Nakamura-Koki G230-60-20
l t . ~ £ 24MPa ~ Cont~ollerra] ~ r 150_~!0 P,~ II ,
, ~_ ~ , , . . . . . . . ,
[ [ io =2@ ,,; evl] ........
[ Dv=22516 l/rev K. ~ ' ~ 2 / " ---P~ ---/q/' -" " £ 3
~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ] P~_ ~ Dm=75-250 cm/rev
~ , ~ \ - - ~ D j ] / l l - ~ " -' ' J - Controller
250kW Pendulor circuits for Sri Lanka Project (Patent pending)
Fig. 10 Hydraulic circuits
3 : The profile of the water chambers is that of an open type. Inci dent
waves being hi gher than the walls, t hey spill over from the
chambers so that the caisson loses their huge power.
4: There are stoppers provi ded to avoid excess movement. In order
to keep the line pressure within a safety level, two rel i ef valves are
provided.
Under stormy conditions with this case, the amplitude of the
mot i on would reach nearly __ 90 ° . In order to protect the system,
the stopper restricts the ampl i t ude to within _+_+65 ° because the force
being generated when the pendul um impinges on the stopper, would
rise to a dangerous level (Watabe. 1993 ).
Impinging speed: (d 0i / d r ) can be found when the impinging
angle: 0 i is given. Supposing the amplitude is + 90 ° , the pendul ar
angle: 0 is as follows.
O - ( r c / 2 ) s i n cot (13 )
~) - ( 7 c / 2 ) c 0 c o s c ot ( 1 4 )
During a storm, co=(2 7 c / 7 ) =( 2 r : / 1 6 ) =0 . 3 9 3 s -1,
(dO~ / d r ) = ( 7 z/2) × 0.3 93 × cos 60 °
= 0 . 3 0 9 s-1 = 1[ 7 . 7 ° / s
When the stopper is a linear damper, the impinging f or ce F i is as
in Equat i on (15).
li: the distance bet ween the pivot center and the stopper.
When the parameters take the values betow, F~ becomes FI = 7 7 kN.
2; I: the moment of inertia of the pendul um including added water
400 X 10Bkgm 2,
0 ~: impinging angle -- 0. 96rad (55 ° ),
z3 8 : displacement by st opper' s deformat i on -- 0.15rad,
l i -- 3 .3 m
F i = 7 7 kN is at a completely safe level, because the value is
smaller than the force of the pump load in a rating operation. The key
paramet er is the spring constant: kd of the damper.
k d = F i / z3 8 = 7 7 kN/0. 15rad = 513 kN/rad (16)
ELECTRI CI TY COST ANTI CI PATED
Assumi ng the generator, the vane pump and such component s are
made in Japan and the caisson, the pendulum, the frame etc. in Sri
Lanka, the cost of building the Pendul or was estimated. Table 1
shows the results for the 250kW Pendul or as a 1 unit manufacture.
It is assumed from the authors' investigation that the average
output of the plant in the monsoon season (8 months/year) is 150kW
(average input=400kW, plant eff.=40% ), and 45kW (average
input=120kW, plant eff.=40% ) in the non-monsoon season (4
months/year). Totai electricity generated annually is
1,006,500kWh/year. Total electricity in 15 years (life expectancy of
the Pendulor) becomes 15.1GWh.
601
The cost of electricity is 0.1 US$/kWh. That is: -
(Total cost)/(Total electricity in 15 years) -- 0.1 US$/kWh
excluding transportation, interest, set-up and maintenance cost.
The working ratio of the plant is 46% , when 15.1GWh is compared
with 3 2.9GWh expected by 250kW.
Tabl e 1 Cos t es t i mat i on o f 2 5 0 k W Pe ndul or
_ •s
Components" -....
Pendulums
Pumps
Frames
Oil motors
Accumulators
Generator
Control panel
Hyd.
components
Controllers
Caisson
Extra cost
Total
Costs
( × 103 Specifications
US$~0
2 sets, @ 7 ,600kg
2 sets, combination of (@ 4,000kg
200 pump with @ 3 ,000kg shaft)
12 2 sets
28 2 sets, Dp=280 cc/rev
40 4 sets, @ 18 l, 25MPa
17 0 @ 250kW
120 @ 250kVA,
including wiring
140 @ 25MPa,
including Piping
2 sets, system optimizers & ioad
balancing devices
20
3 00 ! @ 140,000kg,
r steel structure
3 40
1,450 @ 250kW
Total cost excludes transportation fee, interest, set-up cost and
maintenance cost.
COMPARI S ON OF THE P ENDULOR AND THE o w e
Because of its excellent simplicity, the Oscillating Water Column
(OWC) system has been tested and studied around the world. There is
no difference in the conversion principle between the OWC and the
Pendulor. However, the philosophy behind each mechanism has been
completely different. Therefore, it must be useful to show a
comparison done from an engineering viewpoint. Tabl e 2 shows the
results.
The OWC is very simple, but its simplicity has become a kind of
obstacle to improving the system so that its conversion efficiency
seemed to be sacrificed by it.
The Pendulor is inherently efficient, but it is supposed to be much
more difficult in engineering than the OWC to get the goal (Watabe.
2001).
Tabl e 2 Comp ar i s on bet ween OWC and Pe ndul or
~
m
I Terms
Principle
Power
media
Rectifier
OWC
Airflow that is produced
by heave motion of
standing waves drives a
turbine generator.
Air: p -- 10kPa, Q -
10m3 /s
By a uni-rotational
turbine, Energy loss --
40%
Pendulor
Pitch motion of standing
waves, drives a generator
via pendulum & HST
combination
Oil: p - - 10MPa, Q-
0.0 lm3 /s
By a rectifying circuit
with 4 check valves,
Energy l oss-- 5%
Caisson I With closed air chamber With open water
I
chamber
Output I Unsteady Quasi steady
Optimal i Control of load & speed Control of displacement
control of the generator of the oil motor
Efficiency I
I ~=10- 15% 7 7 =3 5-45%
v a n e
Un -
resolved
matters
Cost of
I electricity
Plant cost
Improve turbine eff. &
reduce caisson cost
(0.3 0-0.50) US$/kWh
(estimate)
(4000--6000) US$/kWh
(estimate)
Reduce cost of
pump & caisson
(0.07 -0.15) US$/kWh
(estimate)
(3 000--5000) US$/kWh
(estimate)
CONCLUSI ONS
As explained in this paper, we can conclude as follows.
1: Sri Lanka has good wave energy characterized by a combination
of the Swell and the Sea waves along the southern coasts. The
power of the Swell is stronger than that of the Sea.
2: For commercial purposes, it is essential to design a wave power
converter that does not resonate with the Sea but the Swell. The
Pendulor studied in Japan must be modified to become suited to
the Swell. The average power density of the Swell is 20kW/m in
the monsoon period.
3 : At around a 4m water depth, the Pendulor can harness the Swell
most economically with a 7 .3 m long pendulum. For a caisson
having two water chambers with an inlet width: B=10m each, a
250kW Pendulor was designed. The displacement of the pump to
fit it is about 0.22m3 /rev.
4: The safety design gives the Pendulor good survivability against
storms.
5: The manufacturing cost of the 250kW Pendulor is about 1.45
Million US$. Assuming the total electricity produced is 15 GWh
in 15 years at the coast, the electricity cost is estimated to be 0.1
US$/kWh.
6: Compared with the OWC system, the Pendulor needs much
higher engineering technology. Nevertheless it works inherently
efficiently.
60 2
The authors thank Mr. Rajaratne who drove his car such long
distances along the coasts to investigate the ocean with us in winter
and in summer. His sincere spirit led him to voluntarily offer co-
operation for this study.
REFERENCES
Scheffer, H-J. et al (1994). " Directional wave climate study soukh-
west of Sri Lanka" , Report on the Wave measurements off Galle, Sri
Lanka-German CCD-GTZ Project.
Watabe, T. et al (1999). " Installation of the New Pendulor for 2 nd
stage sea test" , Proc. of the 94 ISOPE Brest France, pp. 13 3 -! 3 8.
Watabe, T. (1997 ). " Manual of 15kW Pendulor Design" , Report on
a miniature Pendulor, T-Wave C. V.
Watabe, T. et al (1999). " Improvement of a rotary vane pump for
an ocean wave power converter: Pendulor" , Proc. of the 44 JHPS Int.
Symp. on Fluid Power Tokyo' 99, pp. 7 3 -7 8.
Watabe, T. (1993 ). ~'~Pendulor wave power converter-fifteen years
study and future prospect" , Proc. of ODEC, Muroran Japan 1993 , pp.
41-52.
Watabe, T. (2001). ~Prospect of utilization of the ocean wave
energy" Journal of Japan society for Design Engineering, Vol.3 6,
No. l , pp.3 2-3 7 . (in Japanese)
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