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Guide for Chapter 11 in Fox

I suggested that you make up 3 x 5 index cards. Put the name of
a hormone on one side and put 4 things on the other side: Tissue
of origin, stimulus for release, target tissue, Response of target
tissue to hormone.
What is the defnition of a hormone (H)? biologically active
molecule, secreted by organs and glands into the blood.
What is a “target tissue” (TT)? cell containing the receptor
protein for a particular hormone.
What does the TT do that makes it a TT for a hormone?
receptor proteins.
What is the diference between an “eocrine g!and.” and
an “endocrine g!and”? endocrine glands lack the ducts
exocrine glands posses, thus secreting their chemicals into the
What are some of the “c!assic” endocrine g!ands? ("ig
thyroid gland, pituitary gland, pineal gland, testes.
Toda$ we know that most tissues produce __hormones_s.
What are “neurohormones”? neurons which deposit their
neurotransmitters into the blood instead of a synaptic cleft, thus
acting as hormones.
Hormones afect the %%%%%%%%% of their TT
We can “c!assif$” hormones (H) in & wa$s' b$ their
chemica! structure and b$ their actions in TT
What are the & t$pes of “!ipid so!ub!e” Hormones? What
g!ands produce them? steroids androgenous steroids
testosterone,!, corticosteroids aldosterone, cortisone!" testes,
adrenal cortex.
When !ooking at "ig. ##.&( understand wh$ diferent
tissues re!ease diferent steroids e)en though the
metabo!ic pathwa$ cou!d go a!! the wa$ from cho!estero!
to estradio!*#+,.
,e ab!e to discuss the structure of th$roine and what its
parent mo!ecu!e is.
When we use the terms “-ro*“ or “-re*hormone” what is
Wh$ are on!$ some tissues the TT for a particu!ar
What do the terms “s$nergistic”( “permissi)e” and
“antagonistic” mean with respect to H interactions?
#ynergistic$ two hormones works cooperatively, with additive
&ermissive$ 1
hormone allows a '
hormone to have an e%ect.
(ntagonistic$ )wo hormones have opposite e%ects.
When we sa$ a H has a . !ife of / da$s( what do we mean?
0n what wa$s did 0 te!! $ou H are remo)ed from the b!ood?
)he active concentration of the hormone in the plasma has been
reduced by half. *emoved by liver en+ymes and excretion via
kidneys, feces.!
What is the “-riming 1fect” (upregu!ation)? Cells increase
the number of receptor proteins to increase stimulation from a
What is “desensiti2ation” or “downregu!ation”? ,ue to
overstimulation from a hormone- compound, cells reduce the
number of protein receptors available.
3ead the “"itness” bo concerning “4nabo!ic 5teroids”.
6echanics of H action' The & mechanisms of “7on*po!ar”
(!ipophi!ic) H.
Wh$ do steroids and th$roine need a carrier protein in
the p!asma?
#teroids and thyroxine are non.polar, and thus insoluble in water,
therefore re/uire the attachment to a carrier protein for
,e ab!e to understand and describe what is shown in
fgures' ##.8( ##.9( ##.:( ; ##.+
Where are the receptor proteins for steroids !ocated? "or
0ntrace!!u!ar!$. "or steroids( in the c$top!asm and nuc!eus.
"or Th$roine in the nuc!eus.
What does “dimeri2ation” mean? When two hormone
receptor proteins bind to the hormone*re!ease e!ement of
the <74( acti)ating transcription into m374.
What are “&nd messengers”? i.e. What do the$ do? Where
are the$ formed?
messengers relay the information from 1
hormones, neurotransmitters! to produce the hormonal e%ects.
)here are formed within the cytoplasm.
What are the #st messengers? 1
messengers include
hormones and neurotransmitters, outside of the cell, which attach
to receptor proteins in the membrane.
3e*stud$ the “aden$!ate c$c!ase =c46- s$stem( especia!!$
as shown in "ig ##.> This s$stem is the same as the %beta.
adrenergic % receptor s$stem (?h +)
What is phosphodiesterase. 1n2$me which inacti)ates
@earn the “-hospho!ipase ?*?aAA” s$stem( especia!!$ as
shown in "ig. ##.B. This is a!so known as the %%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%% receptor s$stem.
The membrane phospho!ipids are sp!it into %,iacylglycogen%
; %inositro! triphosphate (0-/)%%%
5tud$ "ig ##.#C
What Hormone binds to the “T$rosine Dinase” receptor?
What are the responses of tissues to insu!in? i.e. what
does insu!in cause to happen? @owers b!ood sugar b$
triggering its uptake. 4fter insu!in binds to its receptor
protein( tiros$ne kinase autophs
What is “autophosphor$!ation”? self.phosphorylation, such as
in the )yrosine 0inase receptor-en+yme, after the attachment of
two insulin hormones to the beta subunits.
5tud$ "ig ##.## and "ig.##.#&(not in Bth ed.)
-ituitar$ E!and "ig. ##.#/ ("ig. ##.#& in Bth ed.)
This g!and 0s a!so ca!!ed the %%h$poph$sis%%%%
0t has & parts the #st is %anterior pituitar$%% or %%%%pars
dista!is%%%% and the &nd is %posterior pituitar$%% or %%pars
@earn both of the names and the actions of the : 4nterior
-it. Hormones.
What are their TT and the response of the TT to these :?
What is 65H? What does it do? 6e!anoc$te*stimu!ating
hormoneF re!ease of me!anin
What is “-ituitar$ <warfsm”? Eigantism? What is the
cause of both? <warfsm caused b$ inadeGuate secretion
of Erowth Hormone. Eigantism is abnorma! growth =
o)ersecretion of Erowth Hormone.
What are the & H from the -ost. -it.? Where are the$
1xytocin" (nti.diuretic 2ormone. (,2!
What causes their re!ease? 1smoreceptors in the
hypothalamus for (,2" stimulation of3
Wh$ is the -ituitar$ no !onger ca!!ed the “6aster E!and”
of the bod$? 0tHs actions are contro!!ed b$ the
h$potha!amus( and negati)e feedback !oops( thus no
g!and tru!$ in “comp!ete contro!.”
The 4drena! E!.
What are the / !a$ers of the adrena! corte? Iona
g!omeru!osa( 2ona fascicu!ata( 2ona reticu!aris
What are the names of the / t$pes of H produced b$ the
?orte. 6inera!ocorticoids( E!ucocorticoids( se
Dnow a specifc name for each t$pe. 4!dosterone( cortiso!(
How does ?ushing 5$ndrome difer from 4ddisonHs <?
cushing from abnorma!!$ high secretion of 4?TH( and thus
high !e)e!s of corticosteroids. 4ddisons resu!ts from !ow
secretion of minera!corticoids
Who was Hans 5e!$e and what did he disco)er about
stress? Jnder stress( there is a production of 4?TH( and
Th$roid and -arath$roid E!ands
What are the names of the & t$pes of ce!!s that make up
most of the Th$roid?
"o!!icu!ar ce!!s( parafo!!icu!ar ce!!s.
The maKor structures found in the Th$roid are ca!!ed
%%th$roid fo!!ic!es.
What is found in the !umen of these structures? ?o!!oid =
protein*rich Luid.
What are the & maKor actions that Th$roine causes in its
TT? 0ncrease rate of ce!! respiration( s$nthesis of protein.
What minera! is important for th$roine? 0odine.
What happens if a person has too !itt!e of this minera! in
their diet? Jnab!e to s$nthesi2e th$roid hormones
(th$roine( triiodoth$ronine( 60T( <0T.) 4 person who has
this condition is said to be %%h$poth$roid%%
What is ?a!citonin? Where does it come from? What does
it do? Hormone which decreases ca!cium !e)e!s in the
b!ood stream b$ ecreting in urine( and bone uptake?. 0t
comes from the parafo!!icu!ar ce!!s.
What is “Era)es <isease”? 4 person who has it is said to
be %%%%%%%%%
What is a “Toic” goiter? What are some of its s$mptoms?
What is “?retinism”? What causes it?
Where are the -arath$roid E!ands !ocated? What do the$
produce? 0n response to what?
What action does -TH ha)e in our bod$?
The -ancreas and Mthers
The pancreas is both a %%%%%%%%%g!. 4nd a %%%%%%%%%%%%%g!.
The endocrine portion is !ocated in the %%%%%%%%%s of
What are the & maKor t$pes of ce!!s found in this portion?
4!pha ce!!s( which produce g!ucagon( and beta ce!!s( which
produce insu!in.
What H does each ce!! t$pe produce? What is the stimu!us
for re!ease of each?
What is the TT for E!ucagon and what action does it ha)e
on its TT?
What are some of the TT for insu!in? What is its maKor
action on them?
What are some of the characteristics of <. 6e!!itus?
Dnow a !itt!e about the -inea! E!. 4nd the ## E!. Mf what
importance is each to us?
5tud$ the section on the Eonads and -!acenta. @earn the
information in the ita!ici2ed print.
What is h?E? What is important about it (& things)?
What is an “autocrine”? (<efnition). Ei)e the name of a
specifc one.
What is a “paracrine”? (<efnition). Ei)e the name of a
specifc one.
What are 1icosanoids? What are -rostag!andins? "rom
mo!ecu!e are the$ made? arachidonic acid, which derives from
What is the abbre)iated name for “c$c!oo$genase'? ?MN
4hat are 5#(6,#7 non.steroidal anti.in8ammatory drugs