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Name: QUE, BILL A.

Section: 1E- PHARMACY
Seat#: 33

CHAPTER 22 GYMNOSPERMS

1. What is the disadvantage of a life cycle in which alternate generations are completely
independent of the preceding generation? Are there advantages to this type of life cycle?
-The life cycle of vascular cryptograms is an alternation of independent, heteromorphic
generations. Disadvantage for this life cycle is that the new sporophyte, while developing from
the zygote, is temporarily dependent on a tiny gametophyte for its start in life. Consequently,
many new sporophytes perish. It would be advantageous if the embryo could use the
photosynthetic and absortive capacity of the leaves and roots of the previous sporophyte.

2. What is a cone? How are cones of conifers similar to those of lycophytes and cycads? How
do they differ?
- A cone (strobilus) is an organ on plants in the division of Coniferophyta that contains the
reproductive structures.
- Cones of conifers are similar to those of lycophytes and cycads in that they are composed of
microsporophylls with microsporangia on abixial surfaces.
- Cones of conifers differ from cycads, it is because in seed cones of pine, all parts are fused
together; even the bract is fused to the ovuliferous scale. While cycad seed cones are simple,
with megasporophylls borne on the only axis. They have no bracts or axillary buds.

3. The classification of the plants has varied. If a person groups all seed plants together in one
large Division Spermatophyta, then they have two classes- the class Gymnospermae with
naked seeds and the class Angiospermae, plants with carpels. On the other hand, many people
(and this book) use four divisions, not one. List the three divisions of gymnosperms and the one
division of flowering plants.
-Three divisions of gymnosperms; division Cycadophyta, division Coniferophyta, division
Ginkgophyta. One division of flowering plant; division Magnoliophyta.

4. If angiosperms evolved from some type of gymnosperm, then the group “gymnosperms” is
not natural. Why not? In cladistic terms, an incomplete group is a Paraphylic group.
-If angiosperms evolved from some type of gymnosperm, then the group “gymnosperms” is not
natural because it leaves out some of the descendants (angiosperms) of the ancestors.

5. describe progymnosperms. What were he significant evolutionary advances that
characterized progymnosperms?
- Progymnosperms: a group of extinct plants believed to have been the ancestors of
gymonosperms; it is a group to evolve rom trimerophytes, because some gave rise later to
conifers, cycads, and the other gymnosperms.
- Like ferns and horsetails, progymosperms also developed megaphyllous leaves and another
feature was just as significant- the evolution of a vascular cambium with unlimited growth
potential and capable of producing both secondary xylem and secondary phloem. And the
vascular cambium that evolved in progymnosperms was capable of undergoing radial
longitudinal divisions, and thus, it could function indefinitely, producing large amounts of both
secondary xylem and phloem.


6. The section Evolution of Seeds describe the fossil seeds Archaeosperma arnoldii. Its
megasporangium was surrounded by a layer of tissue, called an integument that projected
upward, and there was a large micropyle, a hole that permitted sperm cells to swim to the egg. If
you have studied flowering plant reproduction, how many of these same features occur in
flowering plants?
-In flowering plants, there is the pollen tube that brings the sperm to the egg.

7. In progymnosperms, microgametophytes produced and released sperms cells that could
swim-but not very far. What is a pollen chamber and how did it help fertilization?
-Pollen chamber is a cavity just above the nucellus in the ovule, the site where pollen
accumulates and germinates.
-The pollen chamber acts as the holding area for the wind-blown microspores in the
megasporangium.

8. Are any conifers herbs? Annuals? Vines? Do all conifers have needles like pines (Hint: Figure
22-13)
- Conifers are never vines, herbs or annuals. Conifer leaves are always simple needles or
scales.

9. Describe a conifer pollen cone. Why is it a simple cone? Describe a conifer seed cone. Why
is it a compound one?
- Conifer pollen cones typicallt occur in clusters near the ends of branches. They are simple
cones because they have one single stem axis and bear microsporophylls. - In conifer seed
cone, all parts are fused together; even the bract is fused to the ovuliferous scale. They are
compound cones because each consists a shoot with axillary buds and they bear cone bracts
instead of sporophylls.

10. Seed cones of conifers are more complex than pollen cones. Seed cones are compound
cones, each consisting of a shoot with axillary buds. The main axis of the cone bears leaves
called cone bracts rather than sporophylls, and each of these has an axillary bud that bears the
megasporophylls. The axillary bud is microscopic, and its megasporophylls are fused laterally,
forming an ovuliferous scale.

11. Unlike Pollination in flowering plants, conifer pollen arrives before the egg is mature, and
more than a year may pass between pollination and fertilization. The pollen germinates, and a
massive pollen tube slowly digests its way towards the megagametophyte as the egg forms.

12. In most Conifers, as the seeds mature, the cone scales and ovuliferous scales become hard
and tough-- a typical pine cone (although firs have fir cones, not pine cones and larches have
larch cones, and so on); however, in podocarpus, the cone becomes red and fleshy, and in
juniperus, it becomes blue and fleshy.

13. Seed ferns are a group if extinct plants; they resemble tree ferns, but what did they have on
their leaves instead of sori?
-Seed ferns were any woody plant with fern-like foliage that bore seeds instead of sori.
-They bore seeds instead of sori.



14. There is a good chance you have seen cycads. What do they look like? What other two
types of plants can they be confused with (Hint: some are called "cardboard palms")? Do
cycads ever have simple leaves?
-They look like palm leaves having stout trunks with pinnately compound leaves and most are
short plants. Its trunk is covered with bark and persistent leaf bases remain on the plant though
the lamina and petiole have already been abscised. They are commonly confused with either
ferns or young palm trees. Cycads do not have simple leaves since they resemble palm trees
having pinnately compound leaves.

15. Do any seed plants have flagella? Do their sperm cells have flagella? Look at Figure 22-27.
-Yes, Cycas circinnalis, from the division Cycadophyta, has a pollen cone. It is a simple cone,
with one axis that bears microsporophylls in which may bear many microsporangia. Sperm cells
of cycads have hundreds of flagella and must swim to the egg cell for fertilization to occur.

16. What is the one and only species in the Division Ginkgophyta? Being part of the
"gymnosperms", does it have needle-shaped or scale-shaped leaves? The leaf venation is
dichotomously branched veins like Seed Ferns, not reticulate venation like Dicots.
- the one and only specie of the Division Ginkgophyta is the Gingko Biloba. It has scale-shaped
leaves.

17. What are the three groups classified in Gnetophyta?
-Gnetophyta contains three groups of enigmatic plants: Gnetum with 30 species, Ephedra with
about 40 species and Welwitschia mirabilis, the only species in the genus.

18. Would it have been possible, on a theoretical basis, for an indehiscent megasporangium to
evolve before integument penetrating pollentubes evolved? Why or why not? What problem
would be involved?
-It is impossible for an indehiscent megasporangium to evolve before integument penetrating
pollentubes evolved. Implicit here is the fact that in the ovules of modern plants, and the
megasporangium remains indehiscent. The only mechanism we know of that provides sperms
access to the female gametes in the indehiscent nucellus is the pollen tunes. In short, it seems
unlikely that the seed habit could have evolved without the evolution of pollen tunes.