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The Lady under the Tree

Author(s): Ernst Cohn-Wiener
Reviewed work(s):
Source: Parnassus, Vol. 11, No. 6 (Oct., 1939), pp. 24-29
Published by: College Art Association
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/771790 .
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T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y T H E L A f D Y
U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R U f D - E R T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E T H E T R E E
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
by
E R NST COH N- WIE NE R
CH U L A KOKA D E VA T A
R elief f rom Barhut in theCalcutta Museum
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
T H E
R E L IGIOU S T R E ND in Indian
mentality
is so
great
a creative
power
that it
always
takes f irst
place
in
every analysis
of Indian art. Nevertheless the soul of
India was not
only
that of a
priest
but that of a
poet
as
well. A ll the rivers and
ponds,
trees and
groves
to which
worship
is of f ered all over the
country
bear witness that
the Indian mind was so sensitive toward nature as to at-
tach
religious signif icance
to its
objects.
T he Indians
who included animals as well as man in the circle of
kharma ascribed some kind of humanlike existence to
plants
also. If f or reasons of caste rule a
girl
had to
marry
and no
bridegroom
was available she
was,
and is
even
nowadays,
married to a tree and this
marriage
was
considered as valid as
any
other. It was no mere cere-
mony.
In the
opinion
of an
Indian,
a tree was not nec-
essarily
a mere
piece
of
wood,
but could be f ull of
lif e,
and
susceptible
to
emotions,
and thus on the same level
of existence as men or women.
T his belief takes a
very
def inite
shape
in what is called
"D ohada," in Sanskrit literature. (K. R ama Pisharoti:
Journal
of the Indian
Society
of Oriental A rt. Vol. III,
Calcutta 1935 and I. Ph.
Vogel, Catalogue
of the A rchaeo-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
logical
Museum at
Mathura,
A llahabad
1910.)
T he word
means that a woman
may
cause a tree to blossom
by
means
of her
womanly
charms. T he idea is a
very poetic
one.
T here
may
even be some truth in it. T he
physiologists
of our time have f ound out
experimentally
that some sub-
stances
existing
in the cells of the f emale
body
are able
to enhance the
splendor
of
f lowering plants.
T he Middle-
A ges
had
gained
the same
knowledge by experience.
In-
dian
power
of
observation, already very highly developed
in Vedic
times,
as all
A yurvedic scriptures
bear
witness,
was
certainly
not inf erior to
any
other. But it is
signif -
icant that India's subtle mind has
changed
a realistic ex-
perience
into a
very poetic
idea.
T his idea so
f requently
occurs in Indian
poetry
that it
must have been common
property.
Kalidasa,
the
great poet
of the f if th
century
A .
D .,
alludes to it no less than f ive
times and another
eight
times it
plays
a
part
elsewhere in
Indian
poetry.
T en dif f erent kinds of trees are said to be
susceptible
to
D ohada,
f oremost
among
them the A soka
tree with its
long
leaves and lithe
branches,
which was
considered almost sacred and was
f requently represented
in Indian art. In the act of
D ohada,
as literature de-
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scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
scribes
it,
a tree is treated almost as a human
being
and
the
lady expresses
her af f ection
by embracing it,
talking
to
it
tenderly, dancing
or
singing
in f ront of it
or- strangely
enough- by touching
it with her heel.
Kalidasa
gives
in his
Malavikagnimitra
a
very
vivid de-
scription
of such a
ceremony.
T he
queen,
who
originally
was to touch the tree with her
heel,
unf ortunately sprained
her ankle. In her
place
the
poor
maid- servant Malavika
(who incidentally
is a
princess
but does not
yet
know
it)
is chosen f or the rite. T he
poet
describes how she is at-
tired f or the
occasion,
how her f eet are
painted
and her
ankles adorned with
f ootrings.
She then
proceeds
to
kick the tree with her lef t f oot- it is
always
the lef t- and
some of the
people present
are
surprised
that the tree does
not blossom f orthwith. But it does so f ive
days later,
the
interim
being
the time
usually
allowed f or the f ertilization
of the tree af ter D ohada is
perf ormed.
Small wonder that such an
utterly poetic idea,
so f ull of
tenderness and real
emotion,
was a
f requent subject
f or
Indian
sculpture.
T here it
appears
even earlier than in
written
poetry,
an indication that it
originally
f ormed
part
of
popular
belief .
T he most ancient of the more
important
monuments is the
railing
of
Barhut,
the remains of which are now
preserved
in the Museum of Calcutta. It
f ormerly
surrounded a
Buddhist
stupa,
and an
inscription
ascertains that it was
erected
during
the rule of the
Sunga dynasty,
in the second
century
B.C. to
replace
an older wooden f ence. It is
PA R T OF A R A IL ING FR OM MA T H U R A
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
richly decorated,
especially
its
posts,
each of which bears
on each visible side the relief of a male or f emale
f igure,
mostly
of the minor
deities,
Y akshas and
Y akshi,
D evas
and
D evatas,
many
of them
standing
under trees and
rep-
resented in the act of D ohada.
(See
illustration of the
Bharhut
relief .)
T he name of each is inscribed on the
post
behind each
f igure.
It seems a contradiction that such deities
appear
on a
Buddhist monument, as Buddhist
religion
circles
entirely
around the Buddha Gautama and the lore he
preached,
aiming
at
delivery
f rom all
passions.
But there is no con-
tradiction f or the Indian mind. A s isolated as the Buddha
appears
in his
meditations,
Buddhist
religion was,
at least
in its
beginnings,
at no variance with
popular
belief which
recognized
all these
demigods.
T he
grim determination,
with which
religious
ref ormers in
E urope
were
f ighting
other convictions, was
quite
abhorrent to Indian
mentality.
T he
gods
of orthodox H induism
appear
in Buddhist
leg-
ends,
and
especially
the
gods
of
popular
belief ,
the Y ak-
shas and
Y akshis,
are
playing
a
part
in the so- called
Jata-
kas.
(A nanda
K.
Coomarasuamy:
Y aksas, Part
1,
Smith-
sonian miscellaneous collections No.
6.)
T hese are stories
of the Buddha's
experiences
in other existences
(told
f or
the edif ication of the
pious community),
stories of his
self - sacrif ices or other
pious
deeds,
by
virtue of which he
accumulated
enough religious
merit to become a Buddha.
T hus
nobody
could have taken of f ense to such deities
ap-
pearing
on a Buddhist
sanctuary.
Considered to be tute-
lary
deities,
they
were
quite
in
place.
In
comparison
with
the cruel attitude of the
devarapalas,
the
guardians
of the
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T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
T he
photographs
Forthis articlewere taken
by
the author
during
his
stay
in India and most of the
objects
are
reproduced f orthe First time.
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57th
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57th
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NE W Y OR K CIT Y
5 E ast
57th
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5 E ast
57th
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5 E ast
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5 E ast
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5 E ast
57th
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5 E ast
57th
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5 E ast
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NE W Y OR K CIT Y
PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS PA R IS CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA CH INA
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
f our corners of the world in later
Buddhism,
they
are
in accord with the kindness of Buddhism in its
pure
f orm.
A s
always
in the
beginning
of an artistic evolution these
-
.. .
f igures are not f ully rounded but appear rather f lat on
the surf ace of the
pillar.
It
always
takes time bef ore
sculpture
is f reed f rom the bounds of the architectural
f orm which it is
dcorating,
and has learned to f orm three
dimensional works.
T he school of
sculptors
which worked at
Barhut,
was con-
tinued
by
those working at Mathura during the rule of
the Kushana and
Gupta
dynasties,
which covered the
time f rom the f irst to the sixth
century
A .D . T he
stupas
were surrounded
by railings,
similar to those at Barhut.
T hey
are
wrought
of the same red sandstone and the
sculptor
has here also
employed big single f igures
as
pil-
lar decorations. Mathura was a
particularly holy place
known to Greek authors as Mathura of the
gods.
Bef ore
the Mohammedans
conquered
it and
destroyed
its sanc-
tuaries
beyond repair,
it must have been one of the most
splendid places
of India f illed with
stupas
which were
surrounded
by railings
and with
temples
and monasteries
rich in
sculptural
decoration. It is
noteworthy
that Bud-
dhism is not the
only
ancient Indian
religion
which built
at this
spot.
Its
alleged
elder
sister, Jainism,
which was
then a
powerf ul religion,
contributed a
great
deal to the
Baroda Museum splendor
of the
place.
Its sanctuaries,
especially stupas
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PA R IS
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I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II
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and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
and
railings
are of the same
type
and
style
as the Bud-
dhist ones.
A mong
the
f igures
which f orm the decoration of the Ma-
thura
railings,
the
lady
under the
tree,
the
Y akshi,
as we
may saf ely
call her,
plays
an even
greater part
than in Bar-
hut. She has now become the most f avored element of
f igural
decoration. T he
development
of
style
has made it
possible
to model her almost as a f ree
sculpture,
her
body
completely
and
delicately
rounded and
posing
in a most
gracef ul
and
elegant
attitude. T he outline is of admirable
delicacy.
T he
majority
of the
f igures
stand with crossed
legs,
the
tip
of one toe
just touching
the
ground
and with
arms extended into the branches of the tree which
they
bend down in
gracef ul
curves. T hese
postures
are cer-
tainly
those of D ohada. But as in Kalidasa's
works,
with
which the
greater part
of the
sculptures
is
contemporaneous,
the idea has
already
become conventional. T he artists
take no interest in variation or individual
expression.
T he
Y akshis are
not,
as those in
Barhut,
understood to be in-
dividual
deities,
each of which is
designated by
her own
name and claims to be treated
by
the artist with a certain
def erence.
T hey
have become mere
pieces
of decoration,
created f or the
purpose
of
exhibiting
the
beauty
of the
f emale
body
or what in India is considered as
such,
f or
there is no doubt that the Indian idea of
beauty
which
demands a f leshier
body
and sof ter curves is
quite
dif f erent
f rom the
E uropean
one.
E A ST E R NGA T E WA Y OF T H E BIG ST U PA
(D etail)
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T here is some
possibility
that this
change
in mind and
taste was achieved under outside inf luence. T he Kushana
kings
who ruled Mathura in the f irst to the third centuries
and
during
whose
reign
the f undamental work of Mathura
art was
created,
governed
a f ar wider
territory. A ctually
they
were a Northern
dynasty,
which at the same time
ruled the North Western and
A f ghan provinces
around
Kandahar,
the seat of the so- called Gandhara art. T his
was an
extremely prolif ic
art of Buddhist
religion
but of
purely
Greek
style.
Judging
f rom the external
appearance
it is correct to call this much discussed school a H ellen-
istic one. But the
subjects, being Buddhist,
are
purely
In-
dian. T he numerous statues are almost
exclusively repre-
sentations of Buddhas and
Bodhisatvas,
while the
major-
ity
of the relief s show scenes f rom Buddha's lif e. Buddhist
missionaries must have
brought images
of these
subjects
f rom India
proper
to these remote
provinces,
where
they
were translated into the local
style.
A connection between
the Gandhara
province
and India
proper
can be
proved by
the
f act,
that Gandhara
sculptures, easily recognizable by
the
special
material
used,
have been
actually
f ound in
Mathura and at other
places.
T he same
happened
to the
"L ady
under the tree." She was a well- known
subject
in
Gandhara
art, especially
f or the decoration of small corner
pieces,
into whose
rectangular
surf ace her slim
f igure
f itted
extremely
well. But dressed in a Greek
peplon,
or in
idealistic
nudity,
her
appearance
became as
f undamentally
Greek as her
posture.
SA NCH I
T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N T WE NT Y - SE VE N
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One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One of the f inest
pieces,
the Gandhara relief here illus-
trated, was
among
a set of f ive Gandhara
sculptures
which
. .
were unearthed at Char Sadeh and which I was f ortunate
enough
to
acquire
f or the Museum at
Baroda,
then in
my
!
charge.
It is obvious that the
posture
of the f emale in the
corner
piece
f rom the Baroda Museum which we illus-
trate,
is
very
similar to that of some Mathura
sculptures.
Without doubt it is the same motive we were
discussing,
in Greek
disguise.
T he
posture
has a
long history
in
Greek
sculpture. Fundamentally
it
goes
back to the sof t
modelling
of Praxiteles and can be f ollowed
through
to
representations
in
Greek- E gyptian ivory carvings
of late
antique
time. But in
perf ect opposition
to Indian
art,
Greek artists conf ined this
posture
to male
f igures
exclu-
sively.
It is one of the
many
cases in which the Gand- . - .
hara school
expressed
ideas,
which were
f undamentally
In-
dian,
by
means of Greek f orms.
(Foucher,
A . L 'art
greco-
bouddhique
de
Gandhara,
Vol. 2 & Vincent A . Smith:
A
H istory
of Fine A rt in India and
Ceylon.)
s
While
there is
apparent
connection between the
schools
of Barhut and Mathura into which have entered some
inf luences of Gandhara art,
the
origin
of the school
which worked at Sanchi cannot
yet
be traced. Its chief
works are the relief s which decorate the
railings
and
gate-
ways
of the three
stupas
in Sanchi and some
unimportant
I
f ragments
f rom a
railing
at
Besnagar
which are
preserved
D etailsf rom the R A JA R A NIT E MPL E
at BH U VA NE SH VA R A
in the Museum of Gwalior. T hese relief s are
very
dif f er-
ent f rom
anything
done
by any
of the other Indian schools
D elicate as
ivory carvings they
are
composed
of
very
small
f igures
in
great
numbers which sometimes let the
represen-
tations
appear
overcrowded. T he
subjects
are scenes f rom
the lif e of Buddha, jatakas and symbolic representations
in
great
numbers
but,
as was common
custom, any representa-
tion of Buddha himself is
caref ully
avoided. T he contin-
uous
development
of Sanchi
sculpture,
which
began
in
the
second
century
B.C.,
can be f ollowed f or about one
century.
In Sanchi the
"L ady
under the tree" has become a
purely
decorative motive but one of
great beauty
and charm. A s
the illustration shows it is used on the f amous
gateways
of
the
great Stupa
as a kind of
bracket,
which connects the
vertical
pillars
with the lowest crossbar. With the utmost
delicacy
the
f igure
f ulf ills this f unction. Poised on the
sole of one f oot, with
legs
crossed the
lady
embraces the
stem of a
mango
tree with her
right
arm while with the
lef t she reaches
upward
into the rich
leaf age
which spreads
along
under the
protruding
cross beam. Not all the f emale
f igures
of this kind which
originally
adorned the f our
gate-
ways
are now in situ- two are so
badly damaged
that
they
are
preserved
in the Museum at
Sanchi,
one has been taken
into the Calcutta Museum and one has f ound its
way
into
the Museum of Fine A rts in Boston.
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
One circumstance
in
early
Indian
art, greatly
f avored the
development
of
sculpture
and
especially
of decorative
- -
sculpture.
T he
early
works to
whose surf aces these
f igures
were
applied
can
hardly
be called
buildings. T hey
were
T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T T WE NT Y - E IGH T
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A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
A L A D Y WIT H A MIR R OR
From Bhuvaneshvara Calcutta Museum
railings
with
gateways,
mere
structures,
which were
nothing
but wooden f ences translated into stone. T here were
buildings
in India
during
those centuries which had archi-
tectural
volume- stupas,
viharas and
chaityas- but
they
were not of the same
importance
f or the
development
of
Indian
sculpture
as the almost
f limsy
structures which cried
out f or decoration. But it was
just
the latter architecture
which
during
the Middle
A ges
took
up
the idea of the
lady
under the tree as an
important
and beautif ul motive
at a time when builders of
temples
f elt the need f or
sculptural
decoration.
A
trip
in the
country
of
Orissa,
to the South of Cal-
cutta,
is one of the
great
events in the lif e of an art his-
torian. T he
country
is f ull of medieval
temples.
T here
is the
great temple
of the
Jaggernauth
in
Puri,
the black
Pagoda
at Konarka, covered with the most
delicately
carved
relief s,
all of which are
surprisingly
f ull of the
joy
of lif e and the more than six hundred
temples
at
Bhuvaneshvara,
a detail of one of which is illustrated. T here
is not a
village
in this district where roof s and towers of
a
marvellously
built stone
temple may
not be discovered
half - hidden under the
impetuously growing jungle vegeta-
tion,
of which their
voluminously
curved f orms seem to
be a
part.
When the climax of the artistic
development
was reached in the eleventh and twelf th centuries these
temples
were monuments of an
overwhelming splendor.
E ach architectural f orm was
multiplied.
E ach tower was
composed
of a cluster of smaller
ones,
all
pointing upward.
E ach of them was dissected into innumerable details such
as smaller
pillars,
corner
pieces,
f riezes,
and
niches,
all of
which were covered with every conceivable kind of orna-
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
ment,
f loral and f ormal, and with
f igures
where a com-
paratively bigger part
of an architectural f orm allowed
f or the
necessary space.
T he
subjects
of these are indeed
unlimited,
and their variations enhance the richness of the
buildings.
T here are statues of
gods
and
godlings,
of
serpent gods,
chimaeras,
men and women and time and
again
f emale beauties in most
elegant
attitudes.
T hey
sometimes
appear
in one of the traditional D ohada- atti-
tudes, touching
the tree with sole or heel and
reaching
into its
twigs.
Sometimes the tree is no more than back-
ground
and the
lady may
be
doing anything
she likes,
hugging
her children
or,
as in the
sculpture reproduced,
f inishing
her make
up
in one of the convex hand mirrors
which then were the f ashion in India.
Sculptural
work
now reaches its
highest
quality. A mong
these statues are
many, especially
on the
Sun- temple
at
Konarak,
f rom which
hails the
example reproduced,
which are not inf erior to
Greek
sculptures.
T he limbs are rounded with the utmost
ref inement and the surf ace
reproduces
the sof tness of the
f emale skin so
perf ectly
that the hand of the
sculptor
seems
to have touched the stone with
caressing delicacy.
T he
wide
range
of Indian
sculpture
is indicated when one com-
pares
these
sculptures
with the relief s which decorated the
railing
of Barhut.
It led f rom a conventional
beginning step by step
to
the
very height
of artistic achievement. Neither in that
energy
which aims at the
highest accomplishment,
nor in
richness of
imaginative power
nor
susceptibility
to
beauty
is Indian art inf erior to
any
other which arose in the
course of the
civilisatory
development
of mankind. In
intensity
and tenderness of
f eeling
it is
superior
to
many
of them.
SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum SCU L PT U R E FR OMKONA R A K Calcutta Museum
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