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Exercise 1

Problem 2.2

A signal has the spectrum depicted in Figure 2.45. Determine the minimum sampling

frequency to avoid aliasing. Assume the signal is sampled at a rate of 16 kHz, and sketch

the spectrum of the sampled signal in the interval ±16 kHz. Indicate the relevant

frequencies including the foldover frequency in your sketch.

|X(f)|

f (kHz) -10 10

Figure 2.45

Solution

The highest frequency in the signal is 10 kHz. Therefore, the minimum sampling

frequency to avoid aliasing is 20 kHz (2 x 10 kHz).

Now, the sampling frequency is 16 kHz. The spectrum |Xs(f)| of the sampled signal in the

interval ±16 kHz is given below.

|Xs(f)|

10 -10

f (kHz) -16 -6 6 16

Problem 2.9

The front end of a real-time DSP system is depicted in Figure 2.46. Assume a wideband

input signal.

(a) Sketch the spectrum of the signal before sampling (point A) and after sampling

(point B) between the range ±Fs/2.

(b) Determine the signal and aliasing error levels at 15 kHz and the Nyquist

frequency (i.e., 30 kHz).

(c) Determine the minimum sampling frequency, Fs (min), to give a signal-to-

aliasing error level of 10:1 at 15 kHz. State any assumptions made.

JJ Zou, UWS School of Engineering

1/3

300069 Digital Signal Processing / 300596 Advanced Signal Processing: Exercise 1

Sample

and hold

A B

x'(t) ADC Fourth-order

Butterworth

LPF

x''(t) x(n) x(t)

Analogue

input

fc =15 kHz Fs =60 kHz

Figure 2.46

Solution

(a) The spectrum |X'(f)| of the signal before sampling (point A) is shown below.

|X'(f)|

15 -15

f (kHz)

The spectrum |X''(f)| of the signal after sampling (point B) is shown below.

|X''(f)|

f (kHz) 15 -15 -60 -30 30 60

(b) The signal level at 15 kHz is given below.

707 . 0

) 15 / 15 ( 1

1

) / ( 1

1

| ) ( ' ' |

8

15

8

15

≈

+

=

+

=

=

=

kHz f

kHz f

fc f

f X .

JJ Zou, UWS School of Engineering

2/3

300069 Digital Signal Processing / 300596 Advanced Signal Processing: Exercise 1

The aliasing error level at 15 kHz is given below.

. 012 . 0

) 15 / 45 ( 1

1

| ) ( ' ' |

8

) 15 60 (

≈

+

=

− = kHz f

f X

The signal level at 30 kHz is given below.

062 . 0

) 15 / 30 ( 1

1

| ) ( ' ' |

8

30

≈

+

=

= kHz f

f X .

The aliasing error level at 30 kHz is given below.

. 062 . 0

) 15 / 30 ( 1

1

| ) ( ' ' |

8

) 30 60 (

≈

+

=

− = kHz f

f X

(c) At 15 kHz, the signal level is 0.707. At 15 kHz, the aliasing error level is 0.707/10 =

0.0707.

. 0707 . 0

) 15 / 15 ( 1

1

| ) ( ' ' |

8

) 15 (

≈

− +

=

− =

Fs

f X

kHz Fs f

. 1 . 44 kHz Fs =

In this case, it is assumed that the aliasing error is caused only by a copy of the spectrum

centered at Fs.

JJ Zou, UWS School of Engineering

3/3

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