1: Cell Introduction 2: Cell defination 3: Cell concept
1): Early observations 2): Later observations

4: Development of the cell theory 5: Classical interpretation 6: Modern interpretation 7: References

Cell Theory
Cell Introduction:
The Cell Theory is one of the basic principles of biology. “Life is all about the cell. Everything in biology, even population growth and ecosystem organization depends upon events in the cell. Understanding the cell, how it grows, reproduces, changes and reacts to the world around it is the key to all of life.”

Cell Defination:
The Cell Theory is to Biology as Atomic Theory is to Physics.Cell theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure of all living things. Every organism including bacteria, virus, fungi, insects, plants, animals, human beings are made up of cells. Cell is the smallest structural unit of each living individual. Cell doctrine, states that all organisms are composed of similar units of organization called cells. The cell theory forms the foundation of biology. The smallest living organisms are made of a single cell, whether they are prokaryotes (bacteria), or single-celled eukaryotes (e.g. protista).

Cell Concept:
Early Observations:
The invention of the microscope allowed first view of cells.

The English physicist and microscopist Robert Hooke (1635–1702) first described cells in 1665. He made thin slices of cork and likened the boxy partitions he observed to the cells (small rooms) in a monastery. The open spaces Hooke observed were empty, but he and others suggested these spaces might be used for fluid transport in living plants. He did not propose, and gave no indication that he believed, that these structures represented the basic unit of living organisms.

from modern microscope

At the time, virtually all biologists were convinced that organisms were composed of some type of fundamental unit, and it was these "atomistic" preconceptions that drove them to look for such units. While improvements in microscopy made their observations better, it was the underlying belief that there was some fundamental substructure that made the microscope the instrument of choice in the study of life.

Later Observations:
In 1676 the Dutch microscopist Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) published his observations of single-cell organisms, or "little animalcules" as he called them. It is likely that Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe a red blood cell and a sperm cell. Leeuwenhoek made numerous and detailed observations on his microorganisms, but more than one hundred years passed before a connection was made between the obviously cellular structure of these creatures and the existence of cells in animals or plants.

Development of the Cell Theory:
In 1824 Frenchman Henri Milne-Edwards suggested that the basic structure of all animal tissues was an array of "globules," though his insistence on uniform size for these globules puts into question the accuracy of his observations. Henri Dutrochet (1776– 1847) made the connection between plant cells and animal cells explicit, and he proposed that the cell was not just a structural but also a physiological unit: "It is clear that it constitutes the basic unit of the organized state; indeed, everything is ultimately derived from the cell".

Dutrochet proposed that new cells arise from within old ones, a view that was echoed by his contemporary François Raspail (1794–1878). Raspail was the first to state one of the two major tenets of cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula, which means "Every cell is derived from another cell." However, despite this ringing and famous phrase, his proposed mechanism of cell generation was incorrect. Raspail was also the founder of cell biochemistry, making experiments on the chemical composition of the cell and their response to changing chemical. Robert Hooke was the first to observe cells. But the Credit for the formulation of this theory is given to German scientists Theodor Schwann, Matthias Schleiden, and Rudolph Virchow. The concept was formally articulated in 1839 by Schleiden & Schwann and has remained as the foundation of modern biology. The idea predates other great paradigms of biology including Darwin's theory of
evolution (1859), Mendel's laws of inheritance (1865), and the establishment of comparative biochemistry (1940).

The observations of Hooke, Leeuwenhoek, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow, and others led to the development of the cell theory. The cell theory is a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things. Two cell theories are present
1): Classical interpretation 2): Modern interpretation

Classical interpretation:
1): All organisms are made up of one or more cells. 2): Cells are the fundamental functional and structural unit of life. 3): All cells come from pre-existing cells. 4): The cell is the unit of structure, physiology, and organization in living things. 5): The cell retains a dual existence as a distinct entity and a building block in the construction of organisms.

Modern interpretation:
The generally accepted parts of modern cell theory include 1): The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in living things. 2): All cells come from pre-existing cells by division. 3): All cells come from pre-existing cells by division 4): Cells contain hereditary information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division

5): All cells are basically the same in chemical composition. 6): All known living things are made up of cells. 7): Some organisms are unicellular, i.e., made up of only one cell. 8): Others are multicellular, composed of a number of cells. 9): The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of independent cells.

1): Viruses are considered by some to be alive, yet they are not made up of cells. Viruses have many of the features of life, but by definition of life, they are not alive. 2): The first cell did not originate from a pre-existing cell. There was no exact first cell since the definition of cell is not that precise. This is an intellectual game that comes from making strict logical symbols out of the biological definitions. 3): Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have their own genetic material, and reproduce independently from the rest of the cell.

References: 1): 2):