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0263-8223(95)00023-2

Composite Stncctures 32 (1995) 3-11

0 1995 Elsevier Science Limited

Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved

0263-8223/95/$9.50

Dynamic analysis of open cracked laminated

composite beams

S. M. Ghoneam

Department of Production Engineeting & Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineeting, Menoujia University, Shebin-El-Kom,

Egypt

Composite beams of various orientations with fiber reinforced plastics find

increasing application in structures nowadays, for their light weight, high

strength and stiffness, and high damping characteristics. Determination of

the dynamic characteristics of cracked laminated composite beams (CLCB)

is essential not only in the design stage but also in the performance of the

structure system, since the presence of cracks, with various types of fiber

orientation, and boundary fixations of the beams has a dominant effect on

the dynamic nature of the system.

In the present paper, the dynamic characteristics laminated composite

beams (LCB) with various fiber orientations and different boundary

fixations have been presented and discussed in the absence and presence of

cracks. A mathematical model is developed, and experimental analysis is

utilized to study the effects of different crack depths and locations,

boundary conditions, and various code numbers of laminates on the

dynamic characteristics of CLCB. The analysis shows good agreement

between experimental and theoretical results.

INTRODUCTION

Dynamic analysis of the laminated composite

beam is one of the most serious problems in

machine element structures. The analysis of

these elements and their dynamic characteristics

is of great interest due to its practical impor-

tance. Cracks which appear in composite

structures, boundary fixations, and code num-

bers change their dynamical characteristics due

to a change in its flexibility. The effects of

cracking on the behaviour of a structural beam

have been the subject of several investigations.

The cracks were modeled by a flexible element

whose stiffness depended on a simple stress-

strain problem. This model is sufficient for

simple stress-strain problems. The effect of

cracks on the dynamic behavior of a cracked

beam was investigated for an isotropic mate-

ria1.2-7 Lim & Tay introduced a constitutive

model of the damage state for composite lam-

inates, based on strain energy, to predict the

stiffness loss due to matrix cracking in cross-ply

laminated composite plate. The finite element

method utilizing conventional plane stress finite

3

elements is also applied to laminated beams9-14

with separate elements for each lamina. In Ref.

15, an example of the dynamic analysis of a

laminated composite cantilever beam of three

layers was discussed and investigated.

The present paper presents a numerical and

experimental analysis of eigen parameters on a

laminated composite beam with various orienta-

tions, carried out for different boundary

fixations, and in the absence and presence of

cracks. A mathematical model is developed

which represents the CLCB. The model takes

into consideration the effect of crack location

and size, fiber orientation, and boundary fixa-

tion. The experimental work is carried out on

five specimens with five layers of composite

laminated beam with different fiber orientation

and various boundary fixations. These speci-

mens have been manufactured using hand

layout techniques. The experimental tests are

carried out by using a hammer test and fre-

quency response function is displayed on an

FFT analyzer. The comparison between the

experimental and numerical results are investi-

gated, and the tight connection between them is

shown.

4 S. M. Ghoneam

NUMERICAL PROCEDURE

Because of discontinuity of deformation in the crack element, a suitable shape function to express

the elastic potential energy and kinetic energy is difficult. Calculation of the additional stress energy

of a crack, however, has been studied in fracture mechanics and the flexibility coefficient expressed

by the stress intensity factor can be derived by mean of Castiglianos theorem in the linear elastic

range.16

In Fig. 1 (a) the CLCB is divided into elements. The behaviour of the element right of the cracked

element may be regarded as external forces, while the elements situated in its left as constraints.

From the equilibrium condition, the stiffness matrix of the cracked element with specified constraints

may be calculated as follows.

The strain energy of an element without a crack, ignoring shearing action, is:

V0=(M2L +A4PL2 +P2L3/3)/2(E *I).

The contribution of strain energy due to the crack in the absence of axial force is:

V,=b a

s

{[(K,,+K,,)2+K~p]IE*} da

0

where

K,,=(6Mlbh2) fir;,(s),

K~p=(3PWz2) JG F,(s),

K2p=(plbh) dz 25(s)

(1)

(2)

F,(s)=4%)$(742)

0.923 + 0.199 [ 1 - sin ( 7r.r/2)14

cos(ns/2)

9

and

&(S)=(3S-2S2)

1.122 -0.561s + 0.085~~ + 0.18~~

JT-S

In the absence of a crack, the flexibility coefficient for an element is

clzj=

t12V,

8PiaPj

, P1=P, P,=M, i,j=1,2

(3)

Scc.A-A

0

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of CLCB.

Cracked laminated composite beams

and the additional flexibility coefficient due to a crack is:

a*v,

a?i=aPiaPl 7

P1=P, P2=A4, i,j=1,2

(4)

The total flexibility coefficient is:

Cli,j=ClEj + Cfl,j i,j=l, 2

From the equilibrium condition (Fig. 1 (b))

[Pi,MiPi+lMi+I ]T=TI Pi+lMi+l]T

where

(5)

(6)

L

-1 -L 1 OT

T=

0 -1 0 1 1

By the principle of virtual work, the stiffness matrix of the cracked element may be expressed as:

K,=TTa-T.

(7)

Suppose the crack affects the stiffness only. The difference between K, the stiffness matrix of the

CLUB, and K, the stiffness matrix of the LCB, is matrix K,.

The stiffness matrix of the LCB is given by

4446 *A 83G *A -39G *A -7G*A

12OL 120 12OL

7E I 16LG *A 7G*A

-+

3L 120 120

4446 *A

120

E*A 4LG*A

3L- 120

-83G *A

12OL

symmetric

where (Fig. 1 (c))

120

7E *I 16LG *A

-+

3L 120

(E*I )= f: 2E*b dk+lyzdy+_

s

i (E*)k (d:+l-d:).

k=O 4 k=O

Referring to Ref. 17, the E * and G * are given as:

l=c+(& _ 2) CSS*+$; and

E El1

1

-=4

1+2v1* 1

+

G* El, %-

where C=cos 0, and SS=sin 0.

(8)

(9)

(10)

6 S. M. Ghoneam

By applying the mixture rule the elastic moduli of E-glass/polyester lamina are computed. The

volume fraction of fibers (I$) was obtained by a firing process and was found to be O-50. These

properties are listed in Table 1.

The inertia matrix, m, of the CLCB in the same form as the inertia matrix of the LCB, is given as:

r

128A 19A

PL 2441 0 -561

m4x4- --

1680 128A 0

1

symmetric 2241

1

where p is the density; its value is given in Table 1.

The eigenfrequency can be evaluated from the solution of the characteristic equation directly.

The characteristic equation for an undamped LCB may be evaluated as:

The characteristic equation for the CLCB is:

([E] -iim) [z&l = TO].

(12)

From eqns (11) and (12), the eigen frequencies have been determined for different boundary

fixations, and various crack depths and locations.

Table 1. Elastic moduli of E-glass polyester

Elastic modulus

El1 @Pa) EZZ @Pa) GIz Pa) v12 P (Kg/m3)

Results using mixture rule 36.75 6-67 34 0.26 1750

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The test specimen is a beam 300 x 25 x 3 mm.

Five specimens with five layers were constructed

and manufactured using a hand layout tech-

nique, with fiber orientation sequences [0]5,

[30]5, [45]5, [60]5, and [90]5. Four boundary

fixations for the LCB were taken into account

as clamped-clamped, clamped-simple support,

simply supported, and clamped-free. The first

four frequencies are measured for different

cases of boundary fixations.

In the presence of a crack, the crack was

initiated for each CLB with a coping saw cut. It

was propagated successively with 2-5 mm steps,

and the values of a/h equal to O-1, O-2, O-3, 0.4,

0.5, and 0.6 were considered, where a is the

crack depth. The crack locations are chosen at

Z/L equal to 0.0, 0.25 and O-5 of the CLCB

from the left end of each specimen, where 2 is

the length of the beam segment to the left of

the crack site. Due to the difficulty of specimen

production, the measurements were carried out

for specimens [0]5, [30]5, and [60]5 with

clamped-clamped fixation, and specimen [0] 5

for clamped-free fixation.

The experimental set up is shown in Fig. 2.

The specimen is located in a test rig and excited

by impact hammer (type 8202). This resembles

an ordinary hammer but has a force transducer

(type 8200) built into the tip to register the

force input used to excite the sample at mid-

point position. The charge amplifier (type 2635)

is used to generate the signal from the hammer

to the dual channel analyzer (type 2034) at A.

The vibration response is registered by a

suitable piezoelectric accelerometer (type 4374,

weight 2.4 g). The vibration meter (type 2511) is

utilized in connection with the accelerometer to

generate the signal to the dual channel analyzer

(type 2034) at B. The frequency response spec-

trum can be obtained from the printer which is

supported by the desk top computer and the

dual channel analyzer.

Cracked laminated composite beams

Printer

Cl&B

Ii

Ged purpose

vibration meter

2511 lmpactbammer

/ 8202

/. I_ ,$

/ ,I \

5 Accelerometer

43 14

Q \

!I

?

1

Fig. 2. The experimental setup.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In the absence of cracks in the CLB, the reso-

nance frequencies of the CLB of size

300 x 25 x 3 mm have been recorded and ana-

lysed for different fiber orientations and

boundary fixations at the same five layers. As a

sample of the experimental results, the fre-

quency response spectrums for the CLB with

orientation [45]5 and various boundary fixations

are shown in Fig. 3. The measured and com-

puted first four frequencies are given in Table

2. The experimental results verified the theoret-

ically obtained values from eqn 11. The

comparison between these results indicates a

good agremeent between them. It can be seen

that the frequencies of specimen [90]5 are

lower than those of the other specimen, and

specimen [0]5 has higher ones. The natural fre-

quencies in the specimen [0]5 are 2.3 times

greater than those in specimen [90]5. Changing

the fiber orientation of the CLB from [0]5 to

[30]5 decreases natural frequencies by 40%

approximately. The changing of the fiber ori-

entation angle in specimen [30]5 and specimen

[45]5 has an effect on the natural frequencies of

about 18%, for specimen [45]5 and specimen

[60]5 the effect is about 9%, and for specimen

[60]5 and specimen [90]5 the effect is about

3%. From the Table it can be noted that

increasing the stiffness of the CLB due to the

end fixation and fiber orientation has a promi-

nent influence in increasing the frequencies. For

instance, the specimen [0]5 with clamped-

clamped ends fixation has higher natural

frequencies than the specimen [90]5 with

clamped-free ends fixation. Thus the frequency

level may be controlled by changing the fiber

orientation and boundary fixation, and conse-

quently the results obtained are useful for the

designer in order to select the proper fiber ori-

entation and boundary fixation.

In the presence of cracks (CLCB), experi-

mental measurement has been carried out to

verify the developed finite element model of

CLCB. Comparisons between the experimental

and the finite element model results of the

specimens [0]5, [30]5, and [60]5 for clamped-

clamped fixation are presented. Moreover, the

experimental and theoretical analysis of speci-

men [0]5 for clamped-free is investigated. From

eqn 12, the eigen frequencies have been deter-

mined for different crack depths and locations

for the above mentioned fiber orientation angle

and boundary fixation. The experimental and

computed results are shown in Figs 4-6. The

computed values are represented by the

continuous lines, and the experimental meas-

urements are represented by the symbols. The

variation in the natural frequency is defined as

the differences between the natural frequency

of the CLB, a, and the natural frequency of the

CLCB, o, i.e. Aw=o--0,. The normalized

eigen frequency due to the crack is do/o. Gen-

erally, it is evident that the calculated values

agree with the experimental results. Figure 4

8 S. M. Ghoneam

12 Freq resp HI MAG Input Main Y: 5.6dB

Y: 20.0 dB 80 dB x: 76 Hz

x: 0 Hz + 3.21 Hz LIN

# A: 20

(a) Clamped-Clamped

W12 Freqnsp

y: 9.4 dB

Hl

8odB

MAG Input Main Y: -13.8dB

x: 56Hz

x: OHz+ 1.61 Hz LJN

#A:20

(b) Clamped-simple supported

W12 Freqresp Hl MAG Input Main Y: -0.1 dB

Y: 9.4 dB 80 dB x: 36 Hz

x: OHz+ 1.6kHz LIN

#A:20

(c) Simply supported

12

Y:

Fres =P

20.0 dB

Hl

8OdB

MAG Input Main Y: 9.9dB

x: 12Hz

x: 0 Hz + 3.2 kHz LlN

#A:20

(d) Clamped-free

Fig. 3. Frequency response spectrums for CLB with orientation [45]5 and different boundary fixations (fundamental

frequency).

Cracked laminated composite beams 9

Table 2. Numerical and experimental values of the first four frequencies in Hz for various laminated codes and different

boundary fixation of CLB

Boundary fixation* c-c C-S s-s C-F

Lamin. codes Freq. no. Th.

Exp.

Th.

Exp*

Th.

Exp.

Th.

Exp.

PI 5

:

3

4

[ 3015

1

32

[ 4515

WI 5

[9015

4

1

2

3

4

1

;

4

:

3

4

157.0 162 108.2 110

432.8 433 350.7 355

847.6 862 731.6 736

1402.7 1412 1249.0 1255

93.5 92 64.4

257.6 262 208.7

504.7 510 435.5

834.9 838 743.4

2:;

440

747

76.6 76 52.8 56

211.1 212 171.0 174

413.4 416 356.9 360

684.2 675 608.8 612

69.8

192.4

376.9

623.5

72

194

385

630

48.1 51

155.8 158

325.2 330

555.1 564

67.1 68 46.3 47

184.9 185 149.9 155

362.3 368 312.7 318

599.2 608 533.7 540

69.3 70 24.7

276.8 278 154.7

622.7 628 433.0

1106.9 1115 848.4

41.2 44 14.7

164.8 166 92.2

370.7 375 257.8

658.9 660 505.2

33.8 36 12-o

134.9 136 75.5

303.9 306 211.3

540.0 545 414.2

30.8 32 11.0

123.0 125 68.8

276.8 278 192.5

492.0 500 377.4

29.6 32 10.5

118.3 120 66.1

266.1 272 185.0

473.0 482 362.5

26

160

441

858

14

94

265

508

::

220

418

10

70

190

385

10

67

192

365

*C=Clamped, S=Simple-supported, F=Free.

shows the variation of the first three eigen fre-

quencies as a function of crack depth for the

three values of crack locations for specimen

[0]5 with clamped-clamped end fixation. It is

clear that the fundamental frequency, in the

presence of a crack, decreases with an increase

in crack depth. For a given crack depth, the

fundamental frequency decreases as the crack

location nears the middle of the beam. For the

second and third natural frequencies, the gen-

eral trend of a decrease in the natural

frequency with an increase in crack depth is

observed. However, due to the nodes of the

beam for the second and third mode shapes, the

change in the natural frequency with the crack

location is not as monotonic as in the first mode

but depends on how close the crack is to the

mode shape node. The first three eigen fre-

quencies for the specimen

PI5

with

clamped-free fixation, and crack location at the

middle of the beam, is shown in Fig. 5. It can be

noted that the rate of change in the first fre-

quency is largest, followed by the third

frequency and second frequency respectively,

this is due to the crack hearing the mode shape

node. The relationship between the normalized

frequency for the first frequency (Ao/al) and

(a/h) for various fiber orientations is shown in

Fig. 6. It can be noted that increasing the fiber

orientation angle increases the rate of variation

frequency, as the fiber stiffness decreases with

increasing fiber orientation angle.

CONCLUSIONS

The dynamic analysis of laminated composite

beams with various fiber orientations and differ-

ent boundary fixations in the absence and

presence of cracks is investigated analytically

and experimentally. The fiber orientation and

boundary fixation of the CLB has a significant

influence on the dynamic properties of the

CLB, depending on the type of fiber and matrix

material.

The element stiffness matrix of a CLCB has

been derived from an integration of stress fac-

tors. A finite element approach for dynamic

analysis of a CLCB has been proposed. Simple

and convenient calculation is its distinguishing

feature. The specimens of orientation sequences

[0]5 and [90]5 have a higher and lower fre-

quencies respectively compared with the

specimens of the other orientation sequence

10 S. M. Ghoneam

v.-

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Oil

0.3

t

zJL=o

I

f 0.2

0.1

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Fig. 4. Variation of the first three eigen frequencies with

different crack depth of different CLCB geometril c ratio

(clamped-clamped, [0]5).

with the same boundary fixation, because its ori-

entations sequences are expected to make the

CLB more stiff and flexible respectively.

The increasing of the fiber orientation angle

decreases the eigen frequencies of the CLCB,

because the stiffness of the CLCB is inversely

proportional to the increase of the fiber orienta-

tion angle.

Pig. 5. Variation of the first three eigen frequencies with

different crack depth at Z/L=05 for specimen 1015

- (clamped-free). -

16015

0.3 -

<

d

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

dh

Fig. 6. Variation of the first eigen frequency with differ-

ent crack depth for different fiber orientations for

clamped-clamped at Z/L =O.

The presented procedure can be used to

identify cracks by linking the variation in service

of the composite structural beam natural fre-

quencies to the structural changes due to the

cracks.

REFERENCES

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Ostachowicz, W. M. & Krawczuk, M., Vibration anal-

ysis of a cracked beam. .I. Computer Structures, 36

(1990) 245-250.

Qian, G. L., Gu, S. N. & Jiang, J. S., The dynamic

behaviour and crack detection of a beam with a crack.

J. Sound Vibr., 183 (1990) 133-243.

Rizos, P. F. & Aspragathos, N., Identification of crack

location and magnitude in a cantilever beam from the

vibration modes. J. Sound T/ibr., 138 (1990) 381-388.

Haisty, B. S. & Springer, W. T., A general beam

element for use in damage assessment of complex

structures. J. Vibr: Acost. Stress Reliability Des., 110

(1988) 389-394.

Gounaris, G. & Dimarogonas, A., A finite element of

a cracked prismatic beam for structural analysis. J.

Computer Structures, 28 (1988) 309-313.

Cracked laminated composite beams 11

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Ibrahim, F. K., An elastoplastic cracked-beam finite

element for structural analysis. J. Computer Structures,

49 (1993) 981-988.

Abd El-Raouf, A. M., Ghoneam, S. M. & Belal, M.

H., An investigation into eigen-nature of constrained

cracked beams. Eng. Research Bull., 17, Part I, Fat. of

Eng., Menoufiya Uni., (1994) pp. 13-29.

Tay, T. E. & Lim, E. H., Analysis of stiffness loss in

cross ply composite laminates. Comp. Struct., 25

(1993) 419-425.

Zienkiewicz, 0. C., The Finite Element Method.

McGraw-Hill, London (1977).

Chugh, A. K., Stiffness matrix for a beam element

including transverse shear and axial force effects. ht.

J . Numer: Eng., 11 (1977) 1681-1697.

Epstein, M. & Huttelmaier, H. P., A finite element

formulation for multilayered and thick plates. Comp.

Structire, 16 (1983) 645-650.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

Chen, A. T. & Yang, T. Y., Static and dynamic for-

mulation of symmetrical laminated beam finite

element for a microcomputer. J. Comp. Mat., 19

(1985) 459-475.

Chaudhuri, R. A. & Huttelmaier, H. P., Triangular

finite element for analysis of thick laminated plates.

I nt. J . Numer: Meth. Eng., 24 (1987) 1204-1224.

Yuan, F. G. & Miller, R. E., A new finite element for

laminated composite beams. J. Computer Structures,

31 (1989) 737-745.

Bassiouni, A. S., Gad-Elrab, R. M. & Elmahdy, T. H.,

Dynamic analysis for laminated composite beams. In

Proc. 6th AMME Conf., (1994) pp. 65-75.

Tada, H. & Irwin, G., The Stress Analysis of Cracks

Handbook, Del Research Corporation, Hellertown,

Pennsylvania (1973).

Jones, R. M., Mechanical of Composite Materials.

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