# D'Amato HS Momentum Summary - Work

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Period ____ Name _________________________________ A person carries a brick while walking at a constant pace The brick and the earth are the system
Fperson on brick

A person pulls a box upwards The box and earth are the system

A person catches a ball The ball is the system

Fperson on ball Fperson on box

d brick

d ball
earth

d box

earth

Because the force exerted by the person on the box is in the same direction as the displacement of the box:

Because the force exerted by the person on the ball is in the opposite direction as the displacement of the ball:

Because the force exerted by the person on the brick is perpendicular to the displacement of the brick,
W =0

W = ( Fperson on box )(d ) Example: A man slowly lifts a 2kg book from the floor to a bookshelf 1.5m high. The force that the man exerts on the book is about equal to the force of the earth on the book:
Fman on book = Fearth on book = mbook g = (2kg)(10 N/kg) = 20N

W = −( Fperson on ball )(d ) Example: A girl catches a medicine ball of mass 8kg. She exerts an average force of 360N and the ball stops in 0.2m. If the ball is selected as the system, this is the work exerted by the girl on the ball:
W = ( Fgirl on ball )(d ) = (360N)(0.2m) = 72 Nm

If the book and earth are selected as the system, this is the work exerted by the man on the system: W = ( Fman on book )(d )
= (20N)(1.5m) = 30 Nm

Example: A woman carries a 9kg briefcase for 22m along the sidewalk. The force of the woman on the briefcase is upwards, but the displacement of the briefcase is horizontal. In any system that contains the briefcase, but not the woman, the external force on the briefcase is perpendicular to the displacement of the briefcase, so no work is done. W =0

Measurement of work The unit in which work is calculated is Newton meters (Nm) also called a Joule. Tips about work: Always identify a system for energy processes. It is especially important with gravitational potential energy: there can be no gravitational potential energy in the system unless the Earth is a part of the system. Since we consider the force of the Earth on objects to be part of the system, the earth does not do work on the system. If the Earth is not part of the system, then the force that it exerts on system objects does work but the system does not possess gravitational potential energy. When there are two surfaces rubbing against each other, and both surfaces are in the system, then the internal energy of the system increases. There is no work done by friction because the surfaces are both inside the system. Alternatively, you could exclude the supporting surface and include the work done by friction that the surface does on an object moving across the surface.
2007 (D'Amato) portions ©2006 Etkina & Van Heuvelen Tools / Options / View / Hidden Text to see teacher guide