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Energy is the capacity for doing work, generating heat, and emitting light.

The
equation for work
is the force, which is the mass time the gravity times the distance.
Heat is the ability to change the temperature of an object or phase of a substan
ce. For example,
heat changes a solid into a liquid or a liquid into a vapor. Heat is part of the
definition of energy.
Another part of the definition of energy is radiation, which is the light and en
ergy emitted in the
form of waves traveling at the speed of light.
Energy is measured in units of calorie, quad, and joule. A kilocalorie is the am
ount of energy or
heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water from 14.5C to 15.5C.
The quad unit is
used to measure energy needed for big countries. The final measurement of energy
is joules.
Energy is an essential input for economic development and improving quality of l
ife. Indias per
capita consumption of Commercial Energy (viz., coal, petroleum and electricity)
is only one-eighth of
the Global Average and will increase with growth in Gross Domestic Production (G
DP) and improvement
in standard of living.
Commercial Energy accounts for a little over half of the total energy used in th
e Country, the rest
coming from non-commercial resources like cow-dung, fuel wood and agricultural w
aste. Though the
share of these non-commercial sources has been coming down, consumption has incr
eased almost double
since 1953.
These renewable, non-commercial sources have been used extensively for hundreds
of years but
in a primitive and ineffective way. Indiscriminate use of non-commercial energy
sources is leading to an
energy crisis in the rural areas. Seventh Plan laid emphasis on the development
and accelerated utilisation
of renewable energy sources in rural and urban areas. A major Policy of the Gove
rnment is directed
towards increasing the use of coal in household and of electricity in transport
sector in order to reduce
dependence on oil, which is becoming scarce gradually.
The Government has formulated an energy policy with objectives of ensuring adequ
ate energy
supply at minimum cost, achieving self-sufficiency in energy supplies and protec
ting environment from
adverse impact of utilising energy resources in an injudicious manner. Main elem
ents of the policy are:
1. Accelerated exploitation of domestic conventional energy resources-oil, coal,
hydro and nuclear
power;
2. Intensification of exploration to increase indigenous production of oil and g
as;
3. Management of demand for oil and other forms of energy;
4. Energy conservation and management;
5. Optimisation of utilisation of existing capacity in the country;
6. Development and exploitation of renewable sources of energy to meet energy re
quirements
of rural communities;
7. Intensification of research and development activities in new and renewable e
nergy sources;
and
8. Organisation of training far personnel engaged at various levels in the energ
y sector.
Development of conventional forms of energy for meeting the growing energy needs
of the
society at a reasonable cost is the responsibility of Government viz., Departmen
t of Power, Coal and
4 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING
Petroleum and Natural Gas. Development and promotion of non-conventional/alterna
te/new and renewable
sources of energy such as Solar, Wind and Bio-energy, etc., are also getting sus
tained attention from
the Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources created in September, 1982. Nu
clear Energy Development
is being geared up by the Department of Atomic Energy to contribute significantl
y to overall
energy availability in the Country.