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Applicution Luyer: TIe LopmosL Iuyer In LIe OS modeI und LIe


TCPJP proLocoI suILe; wIere LIe neLwork uppIIcuLIon resIdes.
2. Client[Server System: A dIsLrIbuLed compuLIng sysLem
consIsLIng oI u server und one or more cIIenLs LIuL requesL
InIormuLIon Irom LIe server.
3. Cloud: TIe neLwork sub sLrucLure oI nodes (rouLers und swILcIes)
uL IIgI-speed IInks.
4. Compression: TIe process oI munIpuIuLIng duLu sucI LIuL IL IILs
InLo u more compucL spuce.
5. Computer Network: An InLerconnecLIon oI compuLers und
compuLIng equIpmenL LIuL uses eILIer wIres or rudIo wuves over
smuII or Iurge geogrupIIc ureus.
6. Computer Terminul: A reIuLIveIy non-InLeIIIgenL devIce LIuL
uIIows u user Lo InpuL duLu InLo u sysLem or dIspIuys duLu Irom LIe
sysLem.
7. Convergence: TIe comIng LogeLIer oI muILIpIe communIcuLIon
concepLs Lo Iorm u sIngIe poInL.
8. utu Communicutions: TIe LrunsIer oI dIgILuI or unuIog duLu
usIng dIgILuI or unuIog sIgnuIs.
9. utu Link Luyer: TIe Iuyer oI LIe OS modeI LIuL Is responsIbIe
Ior LrunsIormIng LIe neLwork-Iuyer duLu InLo u coIesIve unIL
cuIIed u Irume.
10. utu Network: An InLerconnecLIon oI compuLers LIuL Is
desIgned Lo LrunsmIL compuLer duLu.
11. Incupsulution: TIe process by wIIcI conLroI InIormuLIon Is
udded Lo u duLu puckeL us IL moves LIrougI LIe Iuyers oI u
communIcuLIon moduIe sucI us LIe OS modeI or LIe TCPJP
proLocoI suILe.
12. Iile TrunsIer Protocol {ITP): One oI LIe IIrsL servIces oIIered
on LIe nLerneL, ILs prImury IuncLIons ure Lo uIIow u user Lo
downIoud u IIIe Irom u remoLe sILe Lo LIeIr compuLer, und Lo
upIoud u IIIe Irom LIeIr compuLer Lo u remoLe sILe.
13. Irume: A coIesIve unIL oI ruw duLu. A puckuge oI duLu creuLed uL
LIe duLu IInk Iuyer oI LIe OS modeI.
14. Hypertext TrunsIer Protocol {HTTP): An nLerneL proLocoI
LIuL uIIows Web browsers und servers Lo send und receIve WorId
WIde Web puges.
15. Industriul Convergence: TIe mergIng oI Lwo or more
compunIes InLo u sIngIe compuny.
16. Internet Protocol {IP): TIe soILwure LIuL prepures u puckeL oI
duLu so LIuL IL cun move Irom one neLwork Lo unoLIer on LIe
nLerneL or wILIIn u seL oI neLworks In u corporuLIon.
17. Locul Areu Network {LAN): A communIcuLIon neLwork LIuL
InLerconnecLs u vurIeLy oI duLu communIcuLIon devIces wILIIn u
smuII geogrupIIc ureu und broudcusLs duLu uL IIgI duLu LrunsIer
ruLes wILI very Iow error ruLes.
18. Logicul Connection: A non-pIysIcuI connecLIon beLween
sender und receIver LIuL uIIows un excIunge oI communds und
responses.
19. Metropolitun Areu Network {MAN): A neLwork LIuL serves
un ureu oI Lo o mIIes - upproxImuLeIy LIe ureu oI u LypIcuI cILy.
20. Multiplexing: TrunsmILLIng muILIpIe sIgnuIs on one medIum uL
essenLIuIIy LIe sume LIme.
21. Network Access Luyer: TIe IowesL Iuyer oI LIe TCPJP
proLocoI suILe; IL deIInes boLI LIe pIysIcuI medIum LIuL LrunsmILs
LIe sIgnuI, und LIe Irume LIuL IncorporuLes IIow und error
conLroI.
22. Network Architecture: A LempIuLe LIuL ouLIInes LIe Iuyers oI
Iurdwure und soILwure operuLIons Ior u compuLer neLwork und
ILs uppIIcuLIons.
23. Network Luyer: A Iuyer In LIe OS modeI und TCPJP proLocoI
suILe LIuL Is responsIbIe Ior creuLIng, muInLuInIng, und endIng
neLwork connecLIons.
24. Network Munugement: TIe desIgn, InsLuIIuLIon, und supporL
oI u neLwork und ILs Iurdwure und soILwure.
25. Nodes: TIe compuLIng devIces LIuL uIIow worksLuLIons Lo
connecL Lo LIe neLwork und LIuL decIde wIIcI rouLe u pIece oI
duLu wIII IoIIow nexL.
26. Open Systems Interconnection {OSI) Model: A LempIuLe
LIuL consIsLs oI seven Iuyers und deIInes u modeI Ior LIe
operuLIons perIormed on u compuLer neLwork.
27. Personul Areu Network {PAN): A neLwork LIuL InvoIves
wIreIess LrunsmIssIons over u sIorL dIsLunce, sucI us u Iew
meLers.
28. Physicul Connection: TIe ucLuuI connecLIon beLween sender
und receIver uL LIe pIysIcuI Iuyer wIere LIe dIgILuI conLenL oI u
messuge (ucLuuI 1's und o's) Is LrunsmILLed.
29. Physicul Luyer: TIe IowesL Iuyer oI LIe OS modeI; IL IundIes
LIe LrunsmIssIon oI bILs over u communIcuLIons cIunneI.
30. Presentution Luyer: A Iuyer oI LIe OS modeI LIuL perIorms u
serIes oI mIsceIIuneous IuncLIons LIuL need Lo be currIed ouL In
order Lo presenL LIe duLu puckuge properIy Lo LIe sender or
receIver.
31. Protocol: A seL oI Iurdwure undJor soILwure procedures LIuL
uIIows communIcuLIon Lo Luke pIuce wILIIn u compuLer or
LIrougI u compuLer neLwork.
32. Protocol Convergence: TIe joInIng oI Lwo or more proLocoIs
InLo u sIngIe proLocoI.
33. Router: TIe devIce LIuL connecLs IocuI ureu neLworks Lo u wIde
ureu neLwork und uL vurIous LrunsIer poInLs wILIIn u wIde ureu
neLwork.
34. Server: A compuLer LIuL sLores LIe neLwork soILwure und sIured
or prIvuLe user IIIes.
35. Session Luyer: A Iuyer oI LIe OS modeI LIuL Is responsIbIe Ior
esLubIIsIIng sessIons beLween users und Ior IundIIng LIe servIce
oI Loken munugemenL.
36. Simple Muil TrunsIer Protocol {SMTP): An InLerneL
proLocoI Ior sendIng und receIvIng e-muII.
37. Simple Network Munugement Protocol {SNMP): An
IndusLry sLundurd creuLed by LIe InLerneL EngIneerIng Tusk
orce; IL wus orIgInuIIy desIgned Lo munuge nLerneL
componenLs, buL Is now uIso used Lo munuge wIde ureu neLwork
und LeIecommunIcuLIons sysLems.
Doto Commun|cot|ons ond Computer Networks Ch1
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38. Sub-Network: TIe underIyIng pIysIcuI sysLem oI nodes und communIcuLIons IInks LIuL supporL u neLwork.
39. Switch: A devIce LIuL Is u combInuLIon oI u Iub und u brIdge; IL cun InLerconnecL muILIpIe worksLuLIons, buL cun uIso IIILer ouL Irumes,
LIereby provIdIng segmenLuLIon oI LIe neLwork.
40. Synchronizution Point: Some Iorm oI buckup poInLs LIuL ure InserLed InLo u Iong LrunsmIssIon Lo serve us murkers Irom wIIcI
reLrunsmIssIon cun be sLurLed, In cuse oI error or IuIIures.
41. TCP[IP: TrunsmIssIon ConLroI ProLocoIJnLerneL ProLocoI.
42. TCP[IP Protocol Suite: A modeI oI communIcuLIons urcIILecLure LIuL IncorporuLe LIe TCPJP proLocoIs und Ius surpussed LIe OS modeI
In popuIurILy und ImpIemenLuLIon.
43. Technologicul Convergence: TIe joInIng oI Lwo or more TecInoIogIes InLo u sIngIe devIce.
44. Telnet: A LermInuI emuIuLIon progrum Ior TCPJP neLworks, sucI us LIe nLerneL, LIuL uIIows users Lo Iog In Lo u remoLe compuLer.
45. Token Munugement: A sysLem LIuL conLroIs wIo LuIks durIng LIe currenL sessIon by pussIng u soILwure Loken buck und IorLI.
46. Trunsport Luyer: TIe Iuyer oI soILwure In LIe TCPJP proLocoI suILe und OS modeI LIuL provIdes u reIIubIe end-Lo-end neLwork
connecLIon
47. Voice Network: A Lype oI neLwork LIuL Is desIgned Lo supporL sLundurd LeIepIone cuIIs.
48. Wide Areu Network: nLerconnecLIon oI compuLers und compuLer reIuLed equIpmenL LIuL perIorms u gIven IuncLIon or IuncLIons, LypIcuIIy
uses IocuI und Iong-dIsLunce LeIecommunIcuLIons sysLems, und cun encompuss purLs oI sLuLes, muILIpIe sLuLes, counLrIes, und even LIe
worId.
49. Wireless: A sIorLIund Lerm oILen used Lo denoLe LIe LrunsmIssIon oI sIgnuIs wILIouL LIe use oI wIres.
50. Workstution: A personuI compuLer or mIcrocompuLer wIere users perIorm compuLIng work.
1. qB[gB A dIgILuI encodIng scIeme LIuL Lukes q
bILs oI duLu, converLs LIe q bILs In Lo u
unIque -bIL sequence, und encodes LIe
bILs usIng NRZ.
2. Americun
Stundurd Code
Ior InIormution
Interchunge
{ASCII)
A ;-bIL code LIuL Is used Lo represenL uII
LIe prInLubIe cIurucLers on u keybourd
pIus muny non-prInLubIe conLroI
cIurucLers.
3. AmpliIicution TIe guIn oI LIe sIgnuI sLrengLI (power) oI
un unuIog sIgnuI.
4. Amplitude TIe IeIgIL oI LIe wuve, ubove or beIow u
gIven reIerence poInL.
5. Amplitude ShiIt
Keying
A moduIuLIon LecInIque Ior endcodIng
dIgILuI duLu usIng vurIous umpIILude IeveIs
oI un unuIog sIgnuI.
6. Anulog utu DuLu LIuL Is represenLed by conLInuous
wuveIorms, wIIcI cun be uL un InIInILe
number oI poInLs beLween some gIven
mInImum und muxImum.
7. Anulog Signul SIgnuIs LIuL ure represenLed by conLInuous
wuveIorms, wIIcI cun be uL un InIInILe
number oI poInLs beLween some gIven
mInImum und muxImum.
8. Attenuution TIe conLInuous Ioss oI sLrengLI (power)
LIuL u sIgnuI experIences us IL LruveIs
LIrougI u medIum.
9. Bundwidth TIe ubsoIuLe vuIue oI LIe dIIIerence
beLween LIe IowesL und IIgIesL
IrequencIes.
10. Buud Rute TIe number oI sIgnuI eIemenLs or sIgnuI
IeveI cIunges per second.
11. Bipolur-AMI A dIgILuI encodIng LecInIque wILI no DC-
componenL; IogIc qs ure denoLed by zero
voILuge, und IogIc 1s ure denoLed by
uIernuLIng posILIve und neguLIve voILuges.
12. Bits Per Second
{bps)
TIe number oI bILs LIuL ure LrunsmILLed
ucross u medIum In u gIven second.
13. Codec A devIce LIuL uccepLs unuIog duLu und
converLs IL InLo dIgILuI sIgnuIs. TIIs
process Is uIso known us dIgILIzuLIon.
14. utu EnLILIes LIuL convey meunIng wILIIn u
compuLer or compuLer sysLem.
15. utu Code TIe seL oI uII LexLuuI cIurucLer or symboIs
und LIeIr correspondIng bInury puLLerns.
16. utu Rute TIe speed uL wIIcI duLu Is LrunsmILLed
beLween Lwo devIces; oILen reIered Lo In
bILs per second (bps).
17. ecibel {dB) A reIuLIve meusure oI sIgnuI Ioss or guIn
LIuL Is used Lo meusure LIe sLrengLI oI u
sIgnuI.
18. eltu
Modulution
A meLIod oI converLIng unuIog duLu Lo u
dIgILuI sIgnuI In wIIcI LIe IncomIng
unuIog sIgnuI Is Lrucked und u bInury 1 or
o Is LrunsmILLed wIen LIe unuIog sIgnuI
rIses or IuIIs.
19. iIIerentiul
Munchester
Code
A dIgILuI encodIng LecInIque LIuL
LrunsmILs u bInury o wIen LIere Is u
voILuge cIunge uL LIe begInnIng oI LIe bIL
Irume, und LrunsmILs u bInury 1 wIen
LIere Is no voILuge cIunge uL LIe
begInInng oI LIe bIL Irume. TIIs LecInIque
ensures LIuL LIere Is uIwuys u voILuge
LrunsILIon In LIe mIddIe oI LIe bIL Irume.
20. igitul utu EnLILIes LIuL ure represenLed by dIscreLe
wuveIorms, ruLIer LIun conLInuous
wuveIorms. BeLween u mInImum vuIue X
und u muxImum vuIue Y, LIe dIscreLe
wuveIorm Lukes on onIy u IInILe number oI
vuIues.
21. igitul Signuls TIe eIecLrIc or eIeLromugneLIc encodIng oI
duLu LIuL Is represenLed by dIscreLe
wuveIorms ruLIer LIun conLInuous
wuveIorms. BeLween u mInImum vuIue X
und u muxImum vuIue Y, LIe dIscreLe
wuveIorm Lukes on onIy u IInILe number oI
vuIues.
22. igitizution TIe process oI converLIng un unuIog
sIgnuI or duLu InLo dIgILuI duLu.
23. IIIective
Bundwidth
TIe bundwIdLI oI u sIgnuI uILer noIse und
oLIer IucLors sucI us envIronmenLuI
condILIons Iuve been uppIIed.
24. Ixtended Binury
Coded ecimul
Interchunge
Code {IBCIC)
An 8-bIL code uIIowIng z6 possIbIe
combInuLIons oI LexLuuI symboIs (z Lo LIe
8LI power = z6).
25. Irequency TIe number oI LImes u sIgnuI mukes u
compIeLe cycIe wILIIn u gIven LIme Irume.
26. Irequency ShiIt
Keying
A moduIuLIon LecInIque Ior encodIng
dIgILuI duLu usIng vurIous IrequencIes oI
un unuIog sIgnuI.
27. Hertz {Hz) CycIes per second, or Irequency.
28. Intermodulution
istortion
TIe noIse LIuL occurs wIen LIe
IrequencIes oI Lwo or more sIgnuIs mIx
LogeLIer und creuLe new IrequencIes.
29. Munchester
Code
A dIgILuI encodIng scIeme LIuL ensures
LIuL eucI bIL Ius u sIgnuI cIunge In LIe
mIddIe oI LIe bIL und LIus soIves LIe
syncIronIzuLIon probIem.
Doto Commun|cot|ons ond Computer Networks Ch 2
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30. Modulution TIe process oI converLIng dIgILuI duLu InLo un
unuIog sIgnuI.
31. Noise UnwunLed eIecLrIcuI or eIecLromugneLIc
energy LIuL degrudes LIe quuIILy oI sIgnuIs
und duLu.
32. Non-return
to Zero
inverted
{NRZI) Code
A dIgILuI encodIng LecInIque LIuL ussIgns u
bInury 1 or u bInury o by LIe voILuge cIunge or
Iuck oI voILuge cIunge uL LIe begInnIng oI LIe
bIL.
33. Non-return
to Zero-Level
{NRZ-L)
Code
A dIgILuI encodIng LecInIque LIuL ussIgns u
bInury 1 or bInury o Lo u Iow or IIgI voILuge
IeveI.
34. Nyquist's
Theorem
A LIeorem LIuL sLuLes LIuL LIe duLu LrunsIer
ruLe oI u sIgnuI Is u IuncLIon oI LIe Irequency
oI LIe sIgnuI und LIe number oI sIgnuI IeveIs.
35. Period TIe IengLI, or LIme InLervuI oI one cycIe.
36. Phuse TIe posILIon oI LIe wuveIorm reIuLIve Lo gIven
momenL oI LIme or reIuLIve Lo LIme zero.
37. Phuse ShiIt
Keying
A moduIuLIon LecInIque Ior encodIng dIgILuI
duLu usIng vurIous pIuses oI un unuIog
sIgnuI.
38. Pulse
Amplitude
Modulution
{PAM)
TruckIng un unuIog wuveIorm und converLIng
IL Lo puIses LIuL represenL LIe wuve's IeIgIL
ubove or beIow u LIresIoId; purL oI puIse code
moduIuLIon.
39. Pulse Code
Modulution
{PCM)
An encodIng LecInIque LIuL converLs unuIog
duLu Lo u dIgILuI sIgnuI. AIso known us
dIgILIzuLIon.
40. Quudruture
Amplitude
Modulution
A moduIuLIon LecInIque LIuL IncorporuLes
muILIpIe pIuse ungIes wILI muILIpIe umpIILude
IeveIs Lo produce numerous combInuLIons,
creuLIng u bps LIuL Is greuLIer LIun LIe buud
ruLe.
41. Quudruture
Phuse ShiIt
Keying
A moduIuLIon LecInIque LIuL IncorporuLes Iour
dIIIerenL pIuse ungIes, eucI oI wIIcI
represenLs z bILs.
42. Quuntizution
Irror
TIe error LIuL Is InLroduced durIng
dIgILIzuLIon. AIso known us quunLIzuLIon
noIse.
43. Quuntizution
Levels
TIe dIvIsIons oI LIe y-uxIs LIuL ure used In
puIse code moduIuLIon.
44. Quuntizution
Noise
TIe noIse LIuL occurs durIng dIgILIzuLIon.
45. Sumpling
Rute
TIe ruLe uL wIIcI un unuIog InpuL Is sumpIed
In order Lo converL IL Lo u dIgILuI sLreum oI 1's
und o's.
46. SelI-Clocking A cIurucLerIsLIc oI u sIgnuI In wIIcI LIe
sIgnuI cIunges uL u reguIur puLLern, wIIcI
uIIows LIe receIver Lo sLuy syncIronIzed wILI
LIe sIgnuI's IncomIng bIL sLreum.
47. Shunnon's
Theorem
A LIeorem LIuL demonsLruLes LIuL LIe duLu ruLe oI
u sIgnuI Is proporLIonuI Lo LIe Irequency oI LIe
sIgnuI und ILs power IeveI, und InverseIy
proporLIonuI Lo LIe sInguI's noIse IeveI.
48. ShiIt
Keying
A LecInIque In wIIcI dIgILuI duLu Is converLed Lo
un unuIog sIgnuI Ior LrunsmIssIon over u
LeIepIone IIne.
49. Signuls TIe eIecLrIc or eIecLromugneLIc encodIng oI duLu.
SIgnuIs ure used Lo LrunsmIL duLu.
50. Slope
Overloud
Noise
TIe noIse LIuL resuILs durIng unuIog-Lo-dIgILuI
conversIon wIen LIe unuIog wuveIorm rIses or
drops Loo quIckIy und LIe Iurdwure LruckIng IL Is
noL ubIe Lo keep up wILI LIe cIunge.
51. Spectrum TIe runge oI IrequencIes LIuL u sIgnuI spuns Irom
mInImum Lo muxImum.
52. Lnicode A cIurucLer encodIng LecInIque LIuL cun
represenL uII LIe Iunguuges on LIe pIuneL.
1. 1 x
Inhunced
Version - 1
x I V
A LIIrd generuLIon ceIIuIur LeIepIone LecInoIogy
LIuL Is cupubIe oI supporLIng downIoud ruLes oI
oo kbps Lo oo kbps.
2. S.[1g
Cuble
A sIngIe-mode, LIInner, IIber-opLIc cubIe wIose
core Is 8. mIcrons wIde, und wIose cIuddIng,
LIe muLerIuI surroundIng LIe IIber, Is 1z mIcron
wIde.
3. 6.g[1g
Cuble
A muILImode, LIIcker, IIber-opLIc cubIe wIose
core Is 6z. mIcrons wIde, und wIose cIuddIng,
LIe muLerIuI surround LIe IIber, Is 1z mIcrons
wIde.
4. Advunced
Mobile
Phone
Service -
AMPS
TIe oIdesL unuIog mobIIe LeIepIone sysLem; IL
covered uII mosL uII oI NorLI AmerIcu und Is
Iound In more LIun oLIer counLrIes.
5. Buckbone TIe muIn connecLIng cubIe LIuL runs Irom one
end oI LIe InsLuIIuLIon Lo unoLIer, or Irom one
end oI u neLwork Lo unoLIer.
6. Busebund
Couxiul
A Lype oI couxIuI cubIe sysLem LIuL uses u dIgILuI
sIgnuIIngJLrunsmIssIon LecInIque In wIIcI LIe
cubIe currIes onIy cIunneI oI dIgILuI duLu.
7. Bluetooth A wIreIess LecInoIogy LIuL LrunsIers sIgnuIs over
sIorL dIsLunces oI 1o meLers or Iess, LIrougI
non meLuIIIc objecLs.
8. Bruided
Couxiul
Cuble
CouxIuI cubIe In wIIcI LIe cenLer wIre ucLuuIIy
consIsL oI muny smuIIer wIres bruIded LogeLIer.
9. Broudbund
Couxiul
A couxIuI cubIe LecInoIogy LIuL LrunsmILs
unuIog sIgnuIs und Is cupubIe oI supporLIng
muILIpIe cIunneIs oI duLu sImuILuneousIy.
10. Broudbund
Wireless
System
One oI LIe IuLesL LecInIques Ior deIIverIng
nLerneL servIces InLo Iomes und busIness; IL
empIoys broudbund sIgnuIIng usIng rudIo
IrequencIes over reIuLIveIy sIorL dIsLunces.
11. C M A
ooo 1 x R
T T
A "z. generuLIon" ceIIuIur LeIepIone sIgnuIIng
LecInIque, bused on u code dIvIsIon
muILIpIexIng.
12. Cutegory 1 A desIgnuLIon Ior LwIsLed puIr wIrIng LIuL cun
supporL unuIog LeIepIone sysLems, rureIy used
Loduy.
13. Cutegory 1-
, {Cut 1-,)
Twisted
Puir
A numIng sysLem used Lo cuLegorIze LwIsLed puIr
wIre by Iow Iur und Iow IusL LIe wIre muy
LrunsmIL duLu.
14. Cutegory A desIgnuLIon Ior LwIsLed puIr wIrIng LIuL cun
supporL dIgILuI LeIepIone sysLems sucI us T-1
und S D N; rureIy used Loduy.
15. Cutegory A desIgnuLIon Ior LwIsLed puIr wIrIng LIuL
cun supporL duLu LrunsmIssIons up Lo 1o
Mbps Ior 1oo meLers; rureIy used Ior IocuI
ureu neLworks; now oILen used Ior unuIog
LeIepIone sysLems.
16. Cutegory q A desIgnuLIon Ior LwIsLed puIr wIrIng LIuL
cun supporL duLu LrunsmIssIons up Lo zo
Mbps Ior 1oo meLers; rureIy used Loduy.
17. Cutegory g A desIgnuLIon Ior LwIsLed puIr wIrIng LIuL
cun supporL duLu LrunsmIssIons up Lo 1oo
Mbps Ior 1oo meLers on IocuI ureu neLworks
18. Cutegory ge A desIgnuLIon Ior LwIsLed puIr wIrIng LIuL
cun supporL duLu LrunsmIssIons up Lo 1z
Mbps Ior 1oo meLers on IocuI ureu neLworks.
19. Cutegory 6 A desIgnuLIon Ior LwIsLed puIr wIrIng LIuL
cun supporL duLu LrunsmIssIons up Lo zo
MHz Ior 1oo meLers.
20. Cutegory , A desIgnuLIon Ior LwIsLed puIr wIrIng LIuL
cun supporL duLu LrunsmIssIons up Lo 6oo
MHz Ior 1oo meLers
21. Couxiul Cuble A sIngIe wIre wrupped In u Ioum InsuIuLIon,
surrounded by u bruIded meLuI sIIeId, und
LIen covered In u pIusLIc juckeL.
22. Code ivision
Multiple
Access - C
M A
A muILIpIexIng LecInIque used exLensIveIy by
LIe mIIILury und ceIIuIur pIone compunIes In
wIIcI bInury 1's und o's ure repIuced wILI
Iurger, unIque bInury sequences Lo uIIow
muILIpIe users Lo sIure u common seL oI
IrequencIes. Bused on spreud specLrum
LecInoIogy.
23. Conducted
Mediu -
Guided
TIe messuge IIows LIrougI u pIysIcuI
medIu.
24. Crosstulk An unwunLed coupIIng beLween Lwo dIIIerenL
sIgnuI puLIs.
25. utu
Trunsmission
Speed
TIe bILs per second LIuL cun be LrunsmILLed.
26. igitul-
Advunced
Mobile Phone
Service - -
AMPS
TIe newer, dIgILuI equIvuIenL oI LIe orIgInuI
unuIog Advunced MobIIe PIone ServIce.
27. ownlink TIe porLIon oI u communIcuLIons IInk
beLween u suLeIIILe und u ground sLuLIon In
wIIcI duLu LruveIs Irom LIe suLeIIILe down Lo
LIe eurLI.
Doto Commun|cot|ons ond Computer Networks Ch 3
Study online at qu1ze1.com/_ea4y
28. Ilectromugnetic
InterIerence
TIe eIecLronIc dIsLorLIon LIuL u sIgnuI
pussIng LIrougI u meLuI wIre
experIences wIen u sLruy mugneLIc IIeId
pusses over IL.
29. Ilectromugnetic
Wuves
Energy propuguLed LIrougI spuce und,
IndIrecLIy, LIrougI soIId objecLs In LIe
Iorm oI un udvuncIng dIsLurbunce oI
eIecLrIc und mugneLIc IIeIds. E RudIo
LrunsmIssIon, suLeIIILe LrunsmIssIons,
vIsIbIe IIgIL, InIrured IIgIL, X-ruys und
gummu ruys.
30. Ivolution utu
Only - I V - O
A vurIuLIon oI u LIIrd-generuLIon ceIIuIur
LeIepIone LecInoIogy LIuL Is cupubIe oI
supporLIng downIoud ruLes oI oo kbps
Lo oo kbps.
31. Iiber-Optic Cuble A LIIn gIuss cubIe, upproxImuLeIy u IILLIe
LIIcker LIun u Iumun IuIr, surrounded
by u pIusLIc couLIng. Iber-opLIc cubIes
LrunsmIL IIgIL puIses, cun LrunsIer duLu uL
bIIIIons oI bILs per second, experIence
very Iow noIse, und ure noL suscepLIbIe Lo
eIecLro-mugneLIc rudIuLIon.
32. Iree Spuce
Optics
A IIgI speed wIreIess LrunsmIssIon
LecInIque LIuL uses IIne-oI-sIgIL Iusers
over sIorL, Iess LIun 1oo meLers,
dIsLunces.
33. Generul Pucket
Rudio Service - G
P R S
A "z. generuLIon" ceIIuIur LeIepIone
LecInoIogy bused on LIe second-
generuLIon LecInoIogy GIobuI SysLem Ior
MobIIe, G S M, CommunIcuLIons; G P R S
cun LrunsmIL duLu uL o kbps Lo qo kbps.
34. Geosynchronous-
Iurth-Orbit
Sutellites - GIO
SuLeIIILes LIuL ure Iound zz,oo mIIes
Irom LIe eurLI und ure uIwuys over LIe
sume poInL on eurLI.
35. Globul
Positioning
System - G P S
A sysLem oI suLeIIILes LIuL cun IocuLe u
users posILIon on eurLI Lo wILIIn severuI
meLers.
36. Globul System Ior
Mobile
Communicutions
- G S M
A second generuLIon mobIIe LeIepIone
LecInoIogy LIuL Is bused on u Iorm oI
LIme dIvIsIon muILIpIexIng.
37. Highly Illipticul
Orbit Sutellites -
HIO
A suLeIIILe LIuL IoIIows un eIIIpLIcuI
puLLern und Is desIgned Lo perIorm
dIIIerenL operuLIons bused upon wIeLIer
LIe suLeIIILe Is Iur Irom or neur LIe eurLI.
38. InIrured
Trunsmission
A specIuI Iorm oI rudIo LrunsmIssIon LIuL
uses u Iocused ruy oI IIgIL In LIe InIrured
Irequency runge, 1o1z-1o1q Hz
39. L I IgIL-emILLIng dIode
40. Line-OI-Sight
Trunsmission
TIe cIurucLerIsLIc oI cerLuIn Lypes oI
wIreIess LrunsmIssIon In wIIcI LIe
LrunsmILLer und receIver ure In vIsuuI
sIgIL oI eucI oLIer.
41. Long Term
Ivolution - L T I
A possIbIe conLender Ior LIe IourLI
generuLIon oI ceIIuIur LeIepIone sysLems.
42. Low-Iurth
Orbit Sutellites -
LIO
TIese suLeIIILes cun be Iound us cIose us
1oo mIIes Irom eurLI, und us Iur us 1,ooo
mIIes Irom eurLI.
43. Mediu Selection
Criteriu
A cIeck IIsL used wIen desIgnIng or
upduLIng u compuLer neLwork LIuL IncIudes
cosL, speed, dIsLunce, rIgIL-oI-wuy,
expundubIIILy, envIronmenL, und securILy.
44. Middle-Iurth-
Orbit Sutellites -
MIO
SuLeIIILes LIuL ure In un orbIL uround eurLI
LIuL Is ubove E O beIow G E O, und LIus
cun be Iound 1,ooo mIIes Lo zz,oo mIIes
Irom LIe eurLI.
45. Mobile Services
Areus - M S A's
WIen mobIIe LeIepIone servIce wus IIrsL
InLroduced In LIe UnILed SLuLes, LIe
counLry wus broken InLo mobIIe servIces
ureus, or murkeLs.
46. Multimode
Trunsmission
A IIber-opLIc LrunsmIssIon LecInIque LIuL
sends u broudIy Iocused sLreum oI IIgIL
LIrougI LIIcker, 6z.J1z, IIber-opLIc
cubIe.
47. Pussive evice A sIngIe connecLIon poInL beLween Lwo
runs oI cubIe LIuL does noL regeneruLe LIe
sIgnuI on LIe cubIe.
48. Personul
Communicution
Services - P C S
A second-generuLIon ceIIuIur LeIepIone
LecInoIogy; IL Is uII dIgILuI und IncIudes
LIree compeLIng, und IncompuLIbIe, PCS
LecInoIogIes: TDMA, CDMA, und GSM.
49. Photo iode A IIgIL source LIuL Is pIuced uL LIe end oI u
IIber-opLIc cubIe Lo produce LIe puIses oI
IIgIL LIuL LruveI LIrougI LIe cubIe.
50. Photo Receptor TIe devIce uL LIe end oI u IIber-opLIc cubIe
LIuL uccepLs puIses oI IIgIL und converLs
LIem buck Lo eIecLrIcuI sIgnuIs
51. Photonic Iiber A Lype oI IIber-opLIc cubIe wILI Iong
conLInuous uIr LunneIs LIrougI LIe gIuss
LIrougI wIIcI u Iuzur Is IIred Irom one
end oI LIe cubIe Lo LIe oLIer.
52. Pico net AnoLIer Lerm Ior u personuI ureu neLwork.
A coIIecLIon oI one or more devIces
InLerconnecLed In u smuII ureu vIu wIreIess
communIcuLIons.
53. Propugution
eluy
TIe LIme IL Lukes Ior u sIgnuI Lo LruveI
LIrougI u medIum Irom LrunsmILLer Lo
receIver.
54. Propugution
Speed
TIe speed uL wIIcI u sIgnuI moves
LIrougI u medIum.
55. ReIlection WIen u IIgIL wuve bounces oII u surIuce.
56. ReIruction TIe cIunge In dIrecLIon experIenced by u
IIgIL wuve us IL pusses Irom one medIum Lo
unoLIer.
57. Repeuter A devIce LIuL regeneruLes u new sIgnuI by
creuLIng un exucL repIIcu oI LIe orIgInuI
sIgnuI.
58. Right-oI-Wuy PermIssIon Lo InsLuII u medIum ucross pubIIc
or prIvuLe properLy.
59. Sutellite
Microwuve
A wIreIess LrunsmIssIon sysLem LIuL uses
mIcrowuve sIgnuIs Lo LrunsmIL duLu Irom u
ground sLuLIon Lo u suLeIIILe In spuce und
buck Lo unoLIer ground sLuLIon.
60. Scutter net A coIIecLIon oI PIco neLs.
61. Shielded
Twisted Puir -
STP
Copper wIre used Ior LrunsmIssIon oI sIgnuIs
In wIIcI sIIeIdIng Is wrupped uround eucI
wIre IndIvIduuIIy, uround puIrs oI wIres, or
uround uII LIe wIres LogeLIer In order Lo
provIde un exLru Iuyer oI proLecLIon Irom
unwunLed eIecLromugneLIc InLerIerence.
62. Single-Mode
Trunsmission
A IIber-opLIc LrunsmIssIon LecInIque LIuL
sends u LIgILIy Iocused sLreum oI IIgIL
LIrougI LIInner, 8.J1z, IIber-opLIc cubIe.
63. Single-
Strunded
Couxiul Cuble
A Lype oI couxIuI cubIe In wIIcI LIere Is u
sIngIe wIre surrounded by InsuIuLIon.
64. Telstur TIe IIrsL orbILIng suLeIIILe In 1q6z.
65. Terrestriul
Microwuve
A LrunsmIssIon sysLem LIuL LrunsmILs LIgILIy
Iocused beums oI rudIo sIgnuIs Irom one
ground bused mIcrowuve LrunsmIssIon
unLennu Lo unoLIer.
66. Thick Couxiul
Cuble
A couxIuI cubIe LIuL runges In sIze Irom
upproxImuLeIy 6 Lo 1o mm In dIumeLer.
67. Thin Couxiul
Cuble
A couxIuI cubIe LIuL Is upproxImuLeIy q mm
In dIumeLer.
68. Time ivision
Multiple
Access - T
M A
A muILIpIexIng LecInIque used wILI PCS ceII
pIones bused upon LIme dIvIsIon
muILIpIexIng LIuL dIvIdes LIe uvuIIubIe user
cIunneIs by LIme, gIvIng eucI user u LIme Lo
LrunsmIL.
69. Twisted Puir
Wire
Two or more puIrs oI sIngIe-conducLor copper
wIres LIuL Iuve been LwIsLed uround eucI
oLIer.
70. Lltru-
Widebund
A LrunsmIssIon LecInIque LIuL sends duLu
over u wIde runge oI IrequencIes uL Iower
power so us noL Lo InLerIere wILI oLIer
exIsLIng sIgnuIs.
71. Lniversul Mobile
Telecommunicutions
Systems - L M T S
A LIIrd-generuLIon ceIIuIur LeIepIone
LecInoIogy LIuL Is cupubIe oI
supporLIng duLu LrunsmIssIon In
1oo's oI kIIobILs per second.
72. Lnshielded Twisted
Puir - LTP
TIe mosL common Iorm oI LwIsLed
puIr In wIIcI none oI LIe wIres ure
wrupped wILI u meLuI IoII or bruId.
73. Lplink TIe suLeIIILe connecLIon Irom LIe
ground sLuLIon Lo LIe suLeIIILe.
74. Wi Mux A broudbund wIreIess LecInoIogy
LIuL Is cupubIe oI LrunsmILLIng
sIgnuIs Ior upproxImuLeIy zo Lo o
mIIes und uL duLu ruLes In LIe runge
oI mIIIIons oI bILs per second.
75. Wireless Iidelity -
Wi-Ii
A seL oI proLocoIs supporLIng LIe
EEE 8oz.11 IumIIy oI IocuI ureu
neLwork LecInoIogIes.
76. Wireless Mediu -
Lnguided
TIe messuge Is broudcusL LIrougI
spuce.
77. ZigBee A wIreIess LrunsmIssIon LecInoIogy
Ior LIe LrunsIer oI duLu beLween
smuIIer, oILen Imbedded devIces LIuL
requIre Iow duLu LrunsIer ruLes und
correspondIng Iow power
consumpLIon.