You are on page 1of 165

Chapter Four

Making Connections
Data Communications and Computer
Networks: A Business Users Approach
Seventh Edition
After reading this chapter,
you should be able to:
List the four components of all interface
standards
Discuss the basic operations of the USB and
EIA-232F interface standards
Cite the advantages of FireWire, SCSI, iSCSI,
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 2
Cite the advantages of FireWire, SCSI, iSCSI,
InfiniBand, and Fibre Channel interface
standards
Outline the characteristics of asynchronous,
synchronous, and isochronous data link
interfaces
After reading this chapter,
you should be able to (continued):
Recognize the difference between half-duplex
and full-duplex connections
Identify the operating characteristics of terminal-
to-mainframe connections and why they are
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 3
to-mainframe connections and why they are
unique compared to other types of computer
connections
Introduction
Connecting peripheral devices to a computer
has, in the past, been a fairly challenging task
Newer interfaces have made this task much
easier
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 4
easier
Lets examine the interface between a computer
and a device
This interface occurs primarily at the physical
layer
Interfacing a Computer to
Peripheral Devices
The connection to a peripheral is often called the
interface
The process of providing all the proper
interconnections between a computer and a
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 5
interconnections between a computer and a
peripheral is called interfacing
Characteristics of Interface Standards
There are essentially two types of standards
Official standards
Created by standards-making organizations such as
ITU (International Telecommunications Union), IEEE
(Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers), (now
defunct) EIA (Electronic Industries Association), ISO
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 6
defunct) EIA (Electronic Industries Association), ISO
(International Organization for Standardization), and
ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
De facto standards
Created by other groups that are not official standards
but because of their widespread use, become almost
standards
Characteristics of Interface
Standards (continued)
There are four possible components to an
interface standard:
Electrical component: deals with voltages, line
capacitance, and other electrical characteristics
Mechanical component: deals with items such as the
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 7
Mechanical component: deals with items such as the
connector or plug description
Functional component: describes the function of each
pin or circuit that is used in a particular interface
Procedural component: describes how the particular
circuits are used to perform an operation
Two Important Interface Standards
In order to better understand the four
components of an interface, lets examine two
interface standards
EIA-232F an older standard originally designed
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 8
EIA-232F an older standard originally designed
to connect a modem to a computer
USB (Universal Serial Bus) a newer standard
that is much more powerful than EIA-232F
An Early Standard: EIA-232F
Originally named RS-232 but has gone through
many revisions
All four components are defined in the EIA-232F
standard:
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 9
standard:
Electrical
Mechanical (DB-25 connector and DB-9
connector)
Functional
Procedural
An Early Standard: EIA-232F
EIA-232F also used the definitions DTE and
DCE
An example of a DTE, or data terminating
equipment, is a computer
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 10
equipment, is a computer
An example of a DCE, or data circuit-terminating
equipment, is some form of modem
What is meant by duplexity?
EIA-232F defines a full-duplex connection.
What does this mean?
A full-duplex connection transmits data in both
directions and at the same time
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 11
directions and at the same time
A half-duplex connection transmits data in both
directions but in only one direction at a time
A simplex connection can transmit data in only
one direction
Can you think of a modern example of each?
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
The USB interface is a modern standard for
interconnecting a wide range of peripheral
devices to computers
Supports plug and play
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 12
Supports plug and play
Can daisy-chain multiple devices
USB 2.0 can support 480 Mbps (USB 1.0 is only
12 Mbps)
USB 3.0 can support 4.8 Gbps
Universal Serial Bus (USB) (continued)
The USB interface defines all four components
The electrical component defines two wires
VBUS and Ground to carry a 5-volt signal, while
the D+ and D- wires carry the data and signaling
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 13
the D+ and D- wires carry the data and signaling
information
The mechanical component precisely defines
the size of four different connectors and uses
only four wires (the metal shell counts as one
more connector)
Universal Serial Bus (USB) (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 14
Universal Serial Bus (USB) (continued)
The functional and procedural components are
fairly complex but are based on the polled bus
The computer takes turns asking each
peripheral if it has anything to send
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 15
More on polling near the end of this chapter
FireWire
Low-cost digital interface
Capable of supporting transfer speeds of up to
800 Mbps
Hot pluggable
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 16
Hot pluggable
Supports two types of data connections:
Asynchronous connection
Isochronous connection
Thunderbolt
Digital interface currently found on Apple
products
Capable of supporting transfer speeds of up to
10 Gbps
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 17
Uses same connector as existing Mini
DisplayPort and similar protocol as PCI Express
Can daisy-chain devices and may get even
faster with later versions
SCSI and iSCSI
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
A technique for interfacing a computer to high-speed
devices such as hard disk drives, tape drives, CDs,
and DVDs
Designed to support devices of a more permanent
nature
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 18
nature
SCSI is a systems interface
Need SCSI adapter
iSCSI (Internet SCSI)
A technique for interfacing disk storage to a computer
via the Internet
InfiniBand and Fibre Channel
InfiniBand a serial connection or bus that can carry
multiple channels of data at the same time
Can support data transfer speeds of 2.5 billion bits (2.5
gigabits) per second and address thousands of devices,
using both copper wire and fiber-optic cables
A network of high-speed links and switches
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 19
A network of high-speed links and switches
Fibre Channel also a serial, high-speed network that
connects a computer to multiple input/output devices
Supports data transfer rates up to billions of bits per
second, but can support the interconnection of up to 126
devices only
Asynchronous Connections
A type of connection defined at the data link
layer
To transmit data from sender to receiver, an
asynchronous connection creates a one-
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 20
asynchronous connection creates a one-
character package called a frame
Added to the front of the frame is a start bit,
while a stop bit is added to the end of the frame
An optional parity bit can be added which can be
used to detect errors
Asynchronous Connections (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 21
Asynchronous Connections (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 22
Asynchronous Connections (continued)
The term asynchronous is misleading here
because you must always maintain
synchronization between the incoming data
stream and the receiver
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 23
Asynchronous connections maintain
synchronization by using small frames with a
leading start bit
Synchronous Connections
A second type of connection defined at the data
link layer
A synchronous connection creates a large frame
that consists of header and trailer flags, control
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 24
that consists of header and trailer flags, control
information, optional address information, error
detection code, and data
A synchronous connection is more elaborate but
transfers data in a more efficient manner
Synchronous Connections (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 25
Isochronous Connections
A third type of connection defined at the data link
layer used to support real-time applications
Data must be delivered at just the right speed
(real-time) not too fast and not too slow
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 26
(real-time) not too fast and not too slow
Typically an isochronous connection must
allocate resources on both ends to maintain
real-time
USB and Firewire can both support isochronous
Terminal-to-Mainframe
Computer Connections
Point-to-point connection a direct, unshared
connection between a terminal and a mainframe
computer
Multipoint connection a shared connection
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 27
Multipoint connection a shared connection
between multiple terminals and a mainframe
computer
The mainframe is the primary and the terminals
are the secondaries
Terminal-to-Mainframe
Computer Connections (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 28
Terminal-to-Mainframe
Computer Connections (continued)
To allow a terminal to transmit data to a
mainframe, the mainframe must poll the terminal
Two basic forms of polling: roll-call polling and
hub polling
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 29
hub polling
In roll-call polling, the mainframe polls each
terminal in a round-robin fashion
In hub polling, the mainframe polls the first
terminal, and this terminal passes the poll onto
the next terminal
Terminal-to-Mainframe
Computer Connections (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 30
Making Computer Connections In Action
A laptop computer has many different types of
connectors, or connections
While every laptop can be different, if anyone
has a laptop in class, maybe someone will
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 31
has a laptop in class, maybe someone will
volunteer to use theirs for show-and-tell
Making Computer Connections
In Action (continued)
Power cord connection (why does the power
cord have a big brick on it?)
USB connectors (one or more)
RJ-11 (telephone jack)
RJ-45 (LAN jack)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 32
RJ-45 (LAN jack)
PC Card / SmartCard
DisplayPort (to connect your laptop to a video
device)
Media card slot (SD, SDHC, xD, etc)
DB-15 (to connect to an external monitor or
video projector)
Making Computer Connections
In Action (continued)
A company wants to transfer files that are
typically 700K chars in size
If an asynchronous connection is used, each
character will have a start bit, a stop bit, and
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 33
character will have a start bit, a stop bit, and
maybe a parity bit
700,000 chars * 11 bits/char (8 bits data + start +
stop + parity) = 7,700,000 bits
Making Computer Connections
In Action (continued)
If a synchronous connection is used, assume
maximum payload size 1500 bytes
To transfer a 700K char file requires 467 1500-
character (byte) frames
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 34
character (byte) frames
Each frame will also contain 1-byte header, 1-
byte address, 1-byte control, and 2-byte
checksum, thus 5 bytes overhead
Making Computer Connections
In Action (continued)
1500 bytes payload + 5 byte overhead = 1505
byte frames
467 frames * 1505 bytes/frame = 716,380 bytes,
or 5,731,040 bits
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 35
or 5,731,040 bits
Significantly less data using synchronous
connection
Summary
Connection between a computer and a peripheral is often
called the interface
Process of providing all the proper interconnections between
a computer and a peripheral is called interfacing
The interface between computer and peripheral is composed
of one to four components: electrical, mechanical, functional,
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 36
of one to four components: electrical, mechanical, functional,
and procedural
A DTE is a data terminating device
Computer
A DCE is a data circuit-terminating device
Modem
Summary (continued)
Two interface standards worthy of additional study: Universal
Serial Bus, and EIA-232F
EIA-232F was one of the first highly popular standards
Universal Serial Bus is currently the most popular interface
standard
Half-duplex systems can transmit data in both directions, but
in only one direction at a time
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 37
in only one direction at a time
Full-duplex systems can transmit data in both directions at the
same time
Other peripheral interfacing standards that provide power,
flexibility, and ease-of-installation include FireWire, SCSI,
iSCSI, InfiniBand, and Fibre Channel
Summary (continued)
While much of an interface standard resides at the physical
layer, a data link connection is also required when data is
transmitted between two points on a network
Three common data link connections include asynchronous
connections, synchronous connections, and isochronous
connections
Asynchronous connections use single-character frames and
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 38
Asynchronous connections use single-character frames and
start and stop bits to establish the beginning and ending
points of the frame
Synchronous connections use multiple-character frames,
sometimes consisting of thousands of characters
Isochronous connections provide real-time connections
between computers and peripherals and require a fairly
involved dialog to support the connection
Summary (continued)
A point-to-point connection is one between a
computer terminal and a mainframe computer
that is dedicated to one terminal
A multipoint connection is a shared connection
between more than one computer terminal and a
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 39
between more than one computer terminal and a
mainframe computer
Chapter Five
Making Connections Efficient:
Multiplexing and Compression
Data Communications and Computer
Networks: A Business Users Approach
Seventh Edition
After reading this chapter,
you should be able to:
Describe frequency division multiplexing and list
its applications, advantages, and disadvantages
Describe synchronous time division multiplexing
and list its applications, advantages, and
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 2
and list its applications, advantages, and
disadvantages
Outline the basic multiplexing characteristics of
T-1 and SONET/SDH telephone systems
Describe statistical time division multiplexing and
list its applications, advantages, and
disadvantages
After reading this chapter,
you should be able to (continued):
Cite the main characteristics of wavelength
division multiplexing and its advantages and
disadvantages
Describe the basic characteristics of discrete
multitone
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 3
multitone
Cite the main characteristics of code division
multiplexing and its advantages and
disadvantages
Apply a multiplexing technique to a typical
business situation
After reading this chapter,
you should be able to (continued):
Describe the difference between lossy and
lossless compression
Describe the basic operation of run-length,
JPEG, and MP3 compression
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 4
JPEG, and MP3 compression
Introduction
Under simplest conditions, medium can carry
only one signal at any moment in time
For multiple signals to share a medium, medium
must somehow be divided, giving each signal a
portion of the total bandwidth
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 5
portion of the total bandwidth
Current techniques include:
Frequency division multiplexing
Time division multiplexing
Code division multiplexing
Frequency Division Multiplexing
Assignment of nonoverlapping frequency ranges
to each user or signal on a medium
Thus, all signals are transmitted at the same time,
each using different frequencies
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 6
A multiplexor accepts inputs and assigns
frequencies to each device
Frequency Division Multiplexing (continued)
Each channel is assigned a set of frequencies
and is transmitted over the medium
A corresponding multiplexor, or demultiplexor, is
on the receiving end of the medium and
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 7
on the receiving end of the medium and
separates the multiplexed signals
A common example is broadcast radio
Frequency Division Multiplexing (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 8
Frequency Division Multiplexing (continued)
Analog signaling is used in older systems;
discrete analog signals in more recent systems
Broadcast radio and television, cable television,
and cellular telephone systems use frequency
division multiplexing
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 9
division multiplexing
This technique is the oldest multiplexing
technique
Since it involves a certain level of analog
signaling, it may be susceptible to noise
Time Division Multiplexing
Sharing of the signal is accomplished by dividing
available transmission time on a medium among
users
Digital signaling is used exclusively
Time division multiplexing comes in two basic
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 10
Time division multiplexing comes in two basic
forms:
Synchronous time division multiplexing
Statistical time division multiplexing
Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing
The original time division multiplexing
The multiplexor accepts input from attached
devices in a round-robin fashion and transmits
the data in a never -ending pattern
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 11
the data in a never -ending pattern
T-1 and SONET telephone systems are common
examples of synchronous time division
multiplexing
Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing
(continued)
Figure 5-2
Several cash
registers and
their
multiplexed
stream of
transactions
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 12
transactions
Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing
(continued)
If one device generates data at faster rate than
other devices, then the multiplexor must either
sample the incoming data stream from that
device more often than it samples the other
devices, or buffer the faster incoming stream
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 13
devices, or buffer the faster incoming stream
If a device has nothing to transmit, the
multiplexor must still insert something into the
multiplexed stream
Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing
(continued)
Figure 5-3
Multiplexor
transmission
stream with
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 14
stream with
only one input
device
transmitting
data
Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing
(continued)
So that the receiver may stay synchronized with
the incoming data stream, the transmitting
multiplexor can insert alternating 1s and 0s into
the data stream
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 15
Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing
(continued)
Figure 5-4
Transmitted
frame with
added
synchroni-
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 16
synchroni-
zation bits
T-1 Multiplexing
The T-1 multiplexor stream is a continuous
series of frames
Note how each frame contains the data (one
byte) for potentially 24 voice-grade telephone
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 17
byte) for potentially 24 voice-grade telephone
lines, plus one sync bit
It is possible to combine all 24 channels into one
channel for a total of 1.544 Mbps
T-1 Multiplexing (continued)
Figure 5-4
T-1
multiplexed
data stream
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 18
SONET/SDH Multiplexing
Similar to T-1, SONET incorporates a
continuous series of frames
SONET is used for high-speed data
transmission
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 19
transmission
Telephone companies have traditionally used a
lot of SONET but this may be giving way to other
high-speed transmission services
SDH is the European equivalent to SONET
SONET/SDH Multiplexing (continued)
Figure 5-6
SONET STS-1
frame layout
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 20
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
A statistical multiplexor transmits the data from
active workstations only
If a workstation is not active, no space is wasted
in the multiplexed stream
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 21
in the multiplexed stream
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
(continued)
Figure 5-7
Two stations
out of four
transmitting
via a statistical
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 22
via a statistical
multiplexor
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
(continued)
A statistical multiplexor accepts the incoming
data streams and creates a frame containing the
data to be transmitted
To identify each piece of data, an address is
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 23
To identify each piece of data, an address is
included
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
(continued)
Figure 5-8
Sample
address and
data in a
statistical
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 24
statistical
multiplexor
output stream
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
(continued)
If the data is of variable size, a length is also
included
Figure 5-9
Packets of
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 25
Packets of
address,
length, and
data fields in
a statistical
multiplexor
output
stream
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
(continued)
More precisely, the transmitted frame contains a
collection of data groups
Figure 5-10
Frame layout
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 26
Frame layout
for the
information
packet
transferred
between
statistical
multiplexors
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Wavelength division multiplexing multiplexes
multiple data streams onto a single fiber-optic
line
Different wavelength lasers (called lambdas)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 27
Different wavelength lasers (called lambdas)
transmit the multiple signals
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
(continued)
Each signal carried on the fiber can be
transmitted at a different rate from the other
signals
Dense wavelength division multiplexing
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 28
Dense wavelength division multiplexing
combines many (30, 40, 50 or more) onto one
fiber
Coarse wavelength division multiplexing
combines only a few lambdas
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
(continued)
Figure 5-11
Fiber optic line
using wavelength
division
multiplexing and
supporting multiple-
speed
transmissions
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 29
transmissions
Discrete Multitone
Discrete Multitone (DMT) a multiplexing
technique commonly found in digital subscriber
line (DSL) systems
DMT combines hundreds of different signals, or
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 30
DMT combines hundreds of different signals, or
subchannels, into one stream
Interestingly, all of these subchannels belong to
a single user, unlike the previous multiplexing
techniques
Discrete Multitone (continued)
Each subchannel is quadrature amplitude
modulated (recall eight phase angles, four with
double amplitudes)
Theoretically, 256 subchannels, each
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 31
Theoretically, 256 subchannels, each
transmitting 60 kbps, yields 15.36 Mbps
Unfortunately, there is noise, so the subchannels
back down to slower speeds
Discrete Multitone (continued)
Figure 5-12
256 quadrature
amplitude modulated
streams combined into
one DMT signal for
DSL
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 32
DSL
Code Division Multiplexing
Also known as code division multiple access
An advanced technique that allows multiple
devices to transmit on the same frequencies at
the same time
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 33
the same time
Each mobile device is assigned a unique 64-bit
code
Code Division Multiplexing (continued)
To send a binary 1, a mobile device transmits
the unique code
To send a binary 0, a mobile device transmits
the inverse of the code
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 34
the inverse of the code
To send nothing, a mobile device transmits
zeros
Code Division Multiplexing (continued)
Receiver gets summed signal, multiplies it by
receiver code, adds up the resulting values
Interprets as a binary 1 if sum is near +64
Interprets as a binary 0 if sum is near -64
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 35
Interprets as a binary 0 if sum is near -64
Code Division Multiplexing (continued)
For simplicity, assume 8-bit code
Example
Three different mobile devices use the following
codes:
Mobile A: 11110000
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 36
Mobile A: 11110000
Mobile B: 10101010
Mobile C: 00110011
Assume Mobile A sends a 1, B sends a 0, and C
sends a 1
Signal code: 1-chip = +N volt; 0-chip = -N volt
Code Division Multiplexing (continued)
Example (continued)
Three signals transmitted:
Mobile A sends a 1, or 11110000, or ++++----
Mobile B sends a 0, or 01010101, or -+-+-+-+
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 37
Mobile C sends a 1, or 00110011, or --++--++
Summed signal received by base station: -1, +1,
+1, +3, -3, -1, -1, +1
Code Division Multiplexing (continued)
Example (continued)
Base station decode for Mobile A:
Signal received: -1, +1, +1, +3, -3, -1, -1, +1
Mobile As code: +1, +1, +1, +1, -1, -1, -1, -1
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 38
Product result: -1, +1, +1, +3, +3, +1, +1, -1
Sum of Products: +8
Decode rule: For result near +8, data is binary 1
Code Division Multiplexing (continued)
Example (continued)
Base station decode for Mobile B:
Signal received: -1, +1, +1, +3, -3, -1, -1, +1
Mobile Bs code: +1, -1, +1, -1, +1, -1, +1, -1
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 39
Product result: -1, -1, +1, -3, -3, +1, -1, -1
Sum of Products: -8
Decode rule: For result near -8, data is binary 0
Comparison of Multiplexing Techniques
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 40
CompressionLossless versus Lossy
Compression is another technique used to
squeeze more data over a communications line
If you can compress a data file down to one half
of its original size, file will obviously transfer in
less time
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 41
less time
Two basic groups of compression:
Lossless when data is uncompressed, original
data returns
Lossy when data is uncompressed, you do not
have the original data
CompressionLossless versus Lossy
(continued)
Compress a financial file?
You want lossless
Compress a video image, movie, or audio file?
Lossy is OK
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 42
Examples of lossless compression include:
Huffman codes, run-length compression, and
Lempel-Ziv compression
Examples of lossy compression include:
MPEG, JPEG, MP3
Lossless Compression
Run-length encoding
Replaces runs of 0s with a count of how many 0s.
0000000000000010000000001100000000000000000000111000000000001
^
(30 0s)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 43
(30 0s)
14 9 0 20 30 0 11
Lossless Compression (continued)
Run-length encoding (continued)
Now replace each decimal value with a 4-bit
binary value (nibble)
Note: If you need to code a value larger than 15,
you need to use two consecutive 4-bit nibbles
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 44
you need to use two consecutive 4-bit nibbles
The first is decimal 15, or binary 1111, and the
second nibble is the remainder
For example, if the decimal value is 20, you would
code 1111 0101 which is equivalent to 15 + 5
Lossless Compression (continued)
Run-length encoding (continued)
If you want to code the value 15, you still need
two nibbles: 1111 0000
The rule is that if you ever have a nibble of 1111,
you must follow it with another nibble
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 45
you must follow it with another nibble
Lossy Compression
Relative or differential encoding
Video does not compress well using run-length
encoding
In one color video frame, not much is alike
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 46
But what about from frame to frame?
Send a frame, store it in a buffer
Next frame is just difference from previous frame
Then store that frame in buffer, etc.
5 7 6 2 8 6 6 3 5 6
6 5 7 5 5 6 3 2 4 7
8 4 6 8 5 6 4 8 8 5
5 1 2 9 8 6 5 5 6 6
First Frame
5 7 6 2 8 6 6 3 5 6
6 5 7 6 5 6 3 2 3 7
8 4 6 8 5 6 4 8 8 5
5 1 3 9 8 6 5 5 7 6
Second Frame
Lossy Compression (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 47
First Frame Second Frame
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 -1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Difference
Lossy Compression (continued)
Image Compression
One image (JPEG) or continuous images
(MPEG)
A color picture can be defined by red/green/blue,
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 48
or luminance/chrominance/chrominance which
are based on RGB values
Either way, you have 3 values, each 8 bits, or 24
bits total (2
24
colors!)
Lossy Compression (continued)
Image Compression (continued)
A VGA screen is 640 x 480 pixels
24 bits x 640 x 480 = 7,372,800 bits Ouch!
And video comes at you 30 images per second
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 49
Double Ouch!
We need compression!
Lossy Compression (continued)
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
Compresses still images
Lossy
JPEG compression consists of 3 phases:
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 50
JPEG compression consists of 3 phases:
Discrete cosine transformations (DCT)
Quantization
Run-length encoding
Lossy Compression (continued)
JPEG Step 1 DCT
Divide image into a series of 8x8 pixel blocks
If the original image was 640x480 pixels, the new
picture would be 80 blocks x 60 blocks (next
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 51
slide)
If B&W, each pixel in 8x8 block is an 8-bit value
(0-255)
If color, each pixel is a 24-bit value (8 bits for red,
8 bits for blue, and 8 bits for green)
80 blocks
Lossy Compression (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 52
60 blocks
640 x 480 VGA Screen Image
Divided into 8 x 8 Pixel Blocks
Lossy Compression (continued)
JPEG Step 1 DCT (continued)
So what does DCT do?
Takes an 8x8 array (P) and produces a new 8x8
array (T) using cosines
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 53
T matrix contains a collection of values called
spatial frequencies
These spatial frequencies relate directly to how
much the pixel values change as a function of their
positions in the block
Lossy Compression (continued)
JPEG Step 1 DCT (continued)
An image with uniform color changes (little fine
detail) has a P array with closely similar values
and a corresponding T array with many zero
values
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 54
values
An image with large color changes over a small
area (lots of fine detail) has a P array with widely
changing values, and thus a T array with many
non-zero values
120 80 110 65 90 142 56 100
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 55
652 32 -40 54 -18 129 -33 84
111 -33 53 9 123 -43 65 100
-22 101 94 -32 23 104 76 101
88 33 211 2 -32 143 43 14
132 -32 43 0 122 -48 54 110
54 11 133 27 56 154 13 -94
-54 -69 10 109 65 0 17 -33
199 -18 99 98 22 -43 8 32
Lossy Compression (continued)
JPEG Step 2 -Quantization
The human eye cant see small differences in
color
So take T matrix and divide all values by 10
Will give us more zero entries
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 56
Will give us more zero entries
More 0s means more compression!
But this is too lossy
And dividing all values by 10 doesnt take into
account that upper left of matrix has more action
(the less subtle features of the image, or low spatial
frequencies)
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17
5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25
13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27
Lossy Compression (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 57
13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27
15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29
U matrix
Q[i][j] = Round(T[i][j] / U[i][j]), for i = 0, 1, 2, 7 and
j = 0, 1, 2, 7
Lossy Compression (continued)
JPEG Step 3 Run-length encoding
Now take the quantized matrix Q and perform
run-length encoding on it
But dont just go across the rows
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 58
Longer runs of zeros if you perform the run-length
encoding in a diagonal fashion
Lossy Compression (continued)
Figure 5-13
Run-length
encoding of a
JPEG image
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 59
Lossy Compression (continued)
How do you get the image back?
Undo run-length encoding
Multiply matrix Q by matrix U yielding matrix T
Apply similar cosine calculations to get original P
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 60
Apply similar cosine calculations to get original P
matrix back
Business Multiplexing In Action
Bills Market has 10 cash registers at the front of
their store
Bill wants to connect all cash registers together
to collect data transactions
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 61
to collect data transactions
List some efficient techniques to link the cash
registers
Business Multiplexing In Action (continued)
Possible solutions
Connect each cash register to a server using point-to-
point lines
Transmit the signal of each cash register to a server
using wireless transmissions
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 62
using wireless transmissions
Combine all the cash register outputs using
multiplexing, and send the multiplexed signal over a
conducted-medium line
Summary
For multiple signals to share a single medium, the
medium must be divided into multiple channels
Frequency division multiplexing involves assigning
nonoverlapping frequency ranges to different signals
Uses analog signals
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 63
Uses analog signals
Time division multiplexing of a medium involves
dividing the available transmission time on a
medium among the users
Uses digital signals
Summary (continued)
Synchronous time division multiplexing accepts input
from a fixed number of devices and transmits their data
in an unending repetitious pattern
Statistical time division multiplexing accepts input from a
set of devices that have data to transmit, creates a frame
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 64
set of devices that have data to transmit, creates a frame
with data and control information, and transmits that
frame
Wavelength division multiplexing involves fiber-optic
systems and the transfer of multiple streams of data over
a single fiber using multiple, colored laser transmitters
Discrete multitone is a technology used in DSL systems
Summary (continued)
Code division multiplexing allows multiple users to share
the same set of frequencies by assigning a unique digital
code to each user
Compression is a process that compacts data into a
smaller package
Two basic forms of compression exist: lossless and
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 65
Two basic forms of compression exist: lossless and
lossy
Two popular forms of lossless compression include run-
length encoding and the Lempel-Ziv compression
technique
Lossy compression is the basis of a number of
compression techniques
Chapter Six
Errors, Error Detection, and Error
Control
Data Communications and Computer
Networks: A Business Users Approach
Seventh Edition
After reading this chapter,
you should be able to:
Identify the different types of noise commonly
found in computer networks
Specify the different error-prevention
techniques, and be able to apply an error-
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 2
techniques, and be able to apply an error-
prevention technique to a type of noise
Compare the different error-detection techniques
in terms of efficiency and efficacy
Perform simple parity and longitudinal parity
calculations, and enumerate their strengths and
weaknesses
After reading this chapter,
you should be able to (continued):
Cite the advantages of arithmetic checksum
Cite the advantages of cyclic redundancy
checksum, and specify what types of errors
cyclic redundancy checksum will detect
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 3
cyclic redundancy checksum will detect
Differentiate between the basic forms of error
control, and describe the circumstances under
which each may be used
Follow an example of a Hamming self-correcting
code
Introduction
Noise is always present
If a communications line experiences too much
noise, the signal will be lost or corrupted
Communication systems should check for
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 4
Communication systems should check for
transmission errors
Once an error is detected, a system may
perform some action
Some systems perform no error control, but
simply let the data in error be discarded
White Noise
Also known as thermal or Gaussian noise
Relatively constant and can be reduced
If white noise gets too strong, it can completely
disrupt the signal
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 5
disrupt the signal
White Noise (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 6
Impulse Noise
One of the most disruptive forms of noise
Random spikes of power that can destroy one or
more bits of information
Difficult to remove from an analog signal
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 7
Difficult to remove from an analog signal
because it may be hard to distinguish from the
original signal
Impulse noise can damage more bits if the bits
are closer together (transmitted at a faster rate)
Impulse Noise (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 8
Impulse Noise (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 9
Crosstalk
Unwanted coupling between two different signal
paths
For example, hearing another conversation while
talking on the telephone
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 10
Relatively constant and can be reduced with
proper measures
Crosstalk (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 11
Echo
The reflective feedback of a transmitted signal
as the signal moves through a medium
Most often occurs on coaxial cable
If echo bad enough, it could interfere with
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 12
If echo bad enough, it could interfere with
original signal
Relatively constant, and can be significantly
reduced
Echo (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 13
Jitter
The result of small timing irregularities during the
transmission of digital signals
Occurs when a digital signal is repeated over
and over
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 14
and over
If serious enough, jitter forces systems to slow
down their transmission
Steps can be taken to reduce jitter
Jitter (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 15
Delay Distortion
Occurs because the velocity of propagation of a
signal through a medium varies with the
frequency of the signal
Can be reduced
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 16
Can be reduced
Attenuation
The continuous loss of a signals strength as it
travels through a medium
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 17
Error Prevention
To prevent errors from happening, several
techniques may be applied:
Proper shielding of cables to reduce interference
Telephone line conditioning or equalization
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 18
Telephone line conditioning or equalization
Replacing older media and equipment with new,
possibly digital components
Proper use of digital repeaters and analog
amplifiers
Observe the stated capacities of the media
Error Prevention (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 19
Error Detection
Despite the best prevention techniques, errors
may still happen
To detect an error, something extra has to be
added to the data/signal
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 20
added to the data/signal
This extra is an error detection code
Three basic techniques for detecting errors:
parity checking, arithmetic checksum, and cyclic
redundancy checksum
Parity Checks
Simple parity
If performing even parity, add a parity bit such
that an even number of 1s are maintained
If performing odd parity, add a parity bit such that
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 21
an odd number of 1s are maintained
For example, send 1001010 using even parity
For example, send 1001011 using even parity
Parity Checks (continued)
Simple parity (continued)
What happens if the character 10010101 is sent
and the first two 0s accidentally become two 1s?
Thus, the following character is received:
11110101
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 22
11110101
Will there be a parity error?
Problem: Simple parity only detects odd numbers of
bits in error
Parity Checks (continued)
Longitudinal parity
Adds a parity bit to each character then adds a
row of parity bits after a block of characters
The row of parity bits is actually a parity bit for
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 23
each column of characters
The row of parity bits plus the column parity bits
add a great amount of redundancy to a block of
characters
Parity Checks (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 24
Parity Checks (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 25
Parity Checks (continued)
Both simple parity and longitudinal parity do not
catch all errors
Simple parity only catches odd numbers of bit
errors
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 26
errors
Longitudinal parity is better at catching errors
but requires too many check bits added to a
block of data
We need a better error detection method
What about arithmetic checksum?
Arithmetic Checksum
Used in TCP and IP on the Internet
Characters to be transmitted are converted to
numeric form and summed
Sum is placed in some form at the end of the
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 27
Sum is placed in some form at the end of the
transmission
Arithmetic Checksum
Simplified example:
56
72
34
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 28
34
48
210
Then bring 2 down and add to right-most position
10
2
12
Arithmetic Checksum
Receiver performs same conversion and
summing and compares new sum with sent sum
TCP and IP processes a little more complex but
idea is the same
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 29
idea is the same
But even arithmetic checksum can let errors slip
through. Is there something more powerful yet?
Cyclic Redundancy Checksum
CRC error detection method treats the packet of
data to be transmitted as a large polynomial
Transmitter takes the message polynomial and
using polynomial arithmetic, divides it by a given
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 30
using polynomial arithmetic, divides it by a given
generating polynomial
Quotient is discarded but the remainder is
attached to the end of the message
Cyclic Redundancy Checksum (continued)
The message (with the remainder) is transmitted
to the receiver
The receiver divides the message and
remainder by the same generating polynomial
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 31
remainder by the same generating polynomial
If a remainder not equal to zero results, there
was an error during transmission
If a remainder of zero results, there was no error
during transmission
Cyclic Redundancy Checksum (continued)
Some standard generating polynomials:
CRC-12: x
12
+ x
11
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1
CRC-16: x
16
+ x
15
+ x
2
+ 1
CRC-CCITT: x
16
+ x
15
+ x
5
+ 1
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 32
CRC-CCITT: x
16
+ x
15
+ x
5
+ 1
CRC-32: x
32
+ x
26
+ x
23
+ x
22
+ x
16
+ x
12
+ x
11
+
x
10
+ x
8
+ x
7
+ x
5
+ x
4
+ x
2
+ x + 1
ATM CRC: x
8
+ x
2
+ x + 1
Cyclic Redundancy Checksum (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 33
Error Control
Once an error is detected, what is the receiver
going to do?
Do nothing (simply toss the frame or packet)
Return an error message to the transmitter
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 34
Return an error message to the transmitter
Fix the error with no further help from the
transmitter
Do Nothing (Toss the Frame/Packet)
Seems like a strange way to control errors but
some lower-layer protocols such as frame relay
perform this type of error control
For example, if frame relay detects an error, it
simply tosses the frame
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 35
simply tosses the frame
No message is returned
Frame relay assumes a higher protocol (such as
TCP/IP) will detect the tossed frame and ask for
retransmission
Return A Message
Once an error is detected, an error message is
returned to the transmitter
Two basic forms:
Stop-and-wait error control
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 36
Stop-and-wait error control
Sliding window error control
Stop-and-Wait Error Control
Stop-and-wait is the simplest of the error control
protocols
A transmitter sends a frame then stops and
waits for an acknowledgment
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 37
waits for an acknowledgment
If a positive acknowledgment (ACK) is received,
the next frame is sent
If a negative acknowledgment (NAK) is received,
the same frame is transmitted again
Stop-and-Wait Error Control (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 38
Sliding Window Error Control
These techniques assume that multiple frames
are in transmission at one time
A sliding window protocol allows the transmitter
to send a number of data packets at one time
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 39
to send a number of data packets at one time
before receiving any acknowledgments
Depends on window size
When a receiver does acknowledge receipt, the
returned ACK contains the number of the frame
expected next
Sliding Window Error Control (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 40
Sliding Window Error Control (continued)
Older sliding window protocols numbered each
frame or packet that was transmitted
More modern sliding window protocols number
each byte within a frame
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 41
each byte within a frame
An example in which the packets are numbered,
followed by an example in which the bytes are
numbered:
Sliding Window Error Control (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 42
Sliding Window Error Control (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 43
Sliding Window Error Control (continued)
Notice that an ACK is not always sent after each
frame is received
It is more efficient to wait for a few received
frames before returning an ACK
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 44
How long should you wait until you return an
ACK?
Sliding Window Error Control (continued)
Using TCP/IP, there are some basic rules concerning
ACKs:
Rule 1: If a receiver just received data and wants to send
its own data, piggyback an ACK along with that data
Rule 2: If a receiver has no data to return and has just
ACKed the last packet, receiver waits 500 ms for another
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 45
ACKed the last packet, receiver waits 500 ms for another
packet
If while waiting, another packet arrives, send the ACK
immediately
Rule 3: If a receiver has no data to return and has just
ACKed the last packet, receiver waits 500 ms
No packet, send ACK
Sliding Window Error Control (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 46
Sliding Window Error Control (continued)
What happens when a packet is lost?
As shown in the next slide, if a frame is lost, the
following frame will be out of sequence
The receiver will hold the out of sequence bytes in
a buffer and request the sender to retransmit the
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 47
a buffer and request the sender to retransmit the
missing frame
Sliding Window Error Control (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 48
Sliding Window Error Control (continued)
What happens when an ACK is lost?
As shown in the next slide, if an ACK is lost, the
sender will wait for the ACK to arrive and
eventually time out
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 49
When the time-out occurs, the sender will resend
the last frame
Sliding Window Error Control (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 50
Correct the Error
For a receiver to correct the error with no further
help from the transmitter requires a large
amount of redundant information to accompany
the original data
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 51
This redundant information allows the receiver to
determine the error and make corrections
This type of error control is often called forward
error correction and involves codes called
Hamming codes
Correct the Error (continued)
Hamming codes add additional check bits to a
character
These check bits perform parity checks on various
bits
Example: One could create a Hamming code in
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 52
Example: One could create a Hamming code in
which 4 check bits are added to an 8-bit character
We can number the check bits c8, c4, c2 and c1
We will number the data bits b12, b11, b10, b9, b7,
b6, b5, and b3
Place the bits in the following order: b12, b11, b10,
b9, c8, b7, b6, b5, c4, b3, c2, c1
Correct the Error (continued)
Example (continued):
c8 will perform a parity check on bits b12, b11, b10,
and b9
c4 will perform a parity check on bits b12, b7, b6 and
b5
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 53
b5
c2 will perform a parity check on bits b11, b10, b7, b6
and b3
c1 will perform a parity check on bits b11, b9, b7, b5,
and b3
The next slide shows the check bits and their values
Correct the Error (continued)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 54
Correct the Error (continued)
The sender will take the 8-bit character and
generate the 4 check bits as described
The 4 check bits are then added to the 8 data bits
in the sequence as shown and then transmitted
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 55
The receiver will perform the 4 parity checks
using the 4 check bits
If no bits flipped during transmission, then there
should be no parity errors
What happens if one of the bits flipped during
transmission?
Correct the Error (continued)
For example, what if bit b9 flips?
The c8 check bit checks bits b12, b11, b10, b9 and c8
(01000)
This would cause a parity error
The c4 check bit checks bits b12, b7, b6, b5 and c4
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 56
The c4 check bit checks bits b12, b7, b6, b5 and c4
(00101)
This would not cause a parity error (even number of 1s)
The c2 check bit checks bits b11, b10, b7, b6, b3 and
c2 (100111)
This would not cause a parity error
Correct the Error (continued)
For example, what if bit b9 flips? (continued)
The c1 check bit checks b11, b9, b7, b5, b3 and
c1 (100011)
This would cause a parity error
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 57
Writing the parity errors in sequence gives us
1001, which is binary for the value 9
Thus, the bit error occurred in the 9th position
Error Detection In Action
FEC is used in transmission of radio signals,
such as those used in transmission of digital
television (Reed-Solomon and Trellis encoding)
and 4D-PAM5 (Viterbi and Trellis encoding)
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 58
Some FEC is based on Hamming Codes
Summary
Noise is always present in computer networks, and if
the noise level is too high, errors will be introduced
during the transmission of data
Types of noise include white noise, impulse noise,
crosstalk, echo, jitter, and attenuation
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 59
crosstalk, echo, jitter, and attenuation
Among the techniques for reducing noise are proper
shielding of cables, telephone line conditioning or
equalization, using modern digital equipment, using
digital repeaters and analog amplifiers, and
observing the stated capacities of media
Summary (continued)
Three basic forms of error detection are parity,
arithmetic checksum, and cyclic redundancy
checksum
Cyclic redundancy checksum is a superior error-
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 60
Cyclic redundancy checksum is a superior error-
detection scheme with almost 100 percent
capability of recognizing corrupted data packets
Once an error has been detected, there are
three possible options: do nothing, return an
error message, and correct the error
Summary (continued)
Stop-and-wait protocol allows only one packet to
be sent at a time
Sliding window protocol allows multiple packets
to be sent at one time
Error correction is a possibility if the transmitted
Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Seventh Edition 61
Error correction is a possibility if the transmitted
data contains enough redundant information so
that the receiver can properly correct the error
without asking the transmitter for additional
information